National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for overcoming informational barriers

  1. Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents techniques on overcoming the barriers of multifamily energy efficiency projects, including how to market to property managers.

  2. Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas Presents techniques on overcoming the barriers of multifamily energy...

  3. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation This presentation discusses...

  4. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study This presentation summarizes the...

  5. Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades A photo of a residence. Energize Phoenix...

  6. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  7. Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships.

  8. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A. 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY...

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

  10. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, P. C.; Halverson, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  12. THREE VIRGINIA PROGRAMS OVERCOME BARRIERS TO UPGRADES | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    home energy improvements in different regions of the state. Three regional energy alliances operated individual pilot programs to address local needs and barriers: the Local...

  13. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  14. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  15. Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for 'green' consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

  16. Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

  17. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits theCommittee Charter OperatingSemprius Confidential 1 Overcoming the Barriers

  18. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Overcoming Technical and Market Barriers for Distributed Wind Applications: Reaching the Mainstream; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes how the distributed wind industry must overcome hurdles including system costs and interconnection and installation restrictions to reach its mainstream market potential.

  20. Ground?Source Heat Pumps: Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2011-11-21

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground?source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  1. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about overcoming...

  3. Opportunities and barriers for sustainable international bioenergy trade and strategies to overcome them -A report prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    them - A report prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 40 1 Opportunities and barriers for sustainable Ryckmans, Martijn Wagener, Arnaldo Walter, Jeremy Woods. For more information of IEA Bioenergy Task 40 recommends to the IEA, UNCTAD, WTO and national trade organisation to include (new) biomass types

  4. Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-18

    Through its Energy Smart Industrial program, BPA is informing and assisting utilities and industries to have a better understanding of the benefits that come from participating in energy-savings programs. Read about how BPA is encouraging energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

  5. The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, James L.

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

  6. Coastal Barrier Resources Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures Jump to: navigation, searchClover Hill HighPowerCoastal Barrier

  7. Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    in lowering of solar system costs in all sectors of the market. MICRO FLO solar domestic water heaters and MEGA collector systems offer the key to the future for all sizes of solar applications from residential water heaters to very large 10,000 m2... American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards and the research capability to the edge of commercially realisable solar water heating systems...

  8. Addressing Barriers to Wind Energy by Creating Consensus through Information Dissemination and Outreach: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Perchlik

    2003-02-28

    OAK B188 The sixteen month project to address barriers to the development of VT wind energy was successful. The project built consensus on wind energy siting issues through four stakeholder workshops and engaged Vermonters on wind energy issues with a wind energy information dissemination and outreach campaign. There is still a great need for more outreach and accurate wind energy information dissemination on the local level where informed discussion on the cost and benefits of wind energy projects needs to be held. The stakeholder workshop framework and outreach tools that were created by this project will be helpful tools as state agencies, wind developers, non-profit organizations and concerned citizens (in Vermont and around the country) continue to discuss wind energy projects and the role of wind energy in comprehensive energy plans. Given the success of this project it is recommended that other states replicate this project as a way to help overcome the barriers to win d energy development. This report provides: an overview of the project accomplishments, detailed quarter by quarter descriptions of the project activities, activities spawned by the project, conclusions, and copies of all the documents created during the project as attachments (No.1-8).

  9. The Wash Tidal Barrier Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute JumpWash Tidal Barrier

  10. Customer Information and Behavior Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Customer Information and Behavior Working Group

    2012-11-15

    Provides an overview of how state policymakers, utilities, and regulators can overcome barriers to deploying customer energy information and feedback strategies.

  11. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the genetic information associated with the various pathogens. In addition, it has been determined that a suitable information barrier could be applied to this technology when the verification regime has been defined. Finally, the report posits a path forward for additional development of information barriers in a biological weapons verification regime. This path forward has shown that a new analysis approach coined as Information Loss Analysis might need to be pursued so that a numerical understanding of how information can be lost in specific measurement systems can be achieved.

  12. Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-Gas Technologies, LLC Jump to:BioGasBiocastofTechnology Ltdin

  13. Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Geothermal Heat Pumps:...

  14. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  15. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  16. Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resources for a Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) team to assist research partners and industry in overcoming codes and standards barriers to high-performance innovations. The...

  17. Obstacles and Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers in Today's CHP Marketplace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

    2011-01-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP), which can offer tremendous efficiency benefits to industrial facilities around the country, continues to be viewed as a long-term efficiency opportunity. However, the high up-front cost of CHP equipment and fuel...

  18. Overcoming barriers to energy efficiency for rental housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Beth E. (Beth Ellen)

    2008-01-01

    Improving building energy efficiency is widely recognized as one of the best strategies for combating climate change and other energy problems. Energy efficiency implementation has been slow, however, due to a number of ...

  19. Overcoming organization barriers to adopting sustainable business practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chew, Mark P. (Mark Paul)

    2010-01-01

    Companies of all sizes are now looking for ways to reduce their energy use and carbon emissions, motivated by the desire to save money, improve public relations, and prepare for a possible carbon tax. From a technical ...

  20. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Reduced energy intensity * Reduced Carbon footprint. We are the GLUE for Energy Efficiency WE ARE NOT: Asset Owners Police Bank Manufacturing Process Experts Duplicative WE...

  1. Toward sustainable stormwater management : overcoming barriers to green infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammitt, Sarah A. (Sarah Ann)

    2010-01-01

    With their high concentrations of impervious surface, urban areas generate stormwater runoff that overwhelms existing infrastructure causing flooding, sewer overflows, water pollution, and habitat degradation. Under pressure ...

  2. Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits theCommittee CharterImplementationPatriciaPepco'sPeter W.Summary ofDepartment

  3. Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program | OpenWisconsin:NewOver Core Stress Jump to:

  4. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor Innovative Solar PowerTribes to Develophosted anDepartment|

  5. EnergyPlus Overcomes (Computer) Language Barrier | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergyNatural GasDepartment ofDepartment of Energyof Energy

  6. Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesyEducation Data Jam EnergyEfficiencyRICHMOND SITE

  7. THREE VIRGINIA PROGRAMS OVERCOME BARRIERS TO UPGRADES | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority SustainXSystemTraining (MERRTT)THETHREE

  8. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch88 SignPriceresponse |Water

  9. Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment Barriers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain

  10. Clean Diesel: Overcoming Noxious Fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Sperling, Daniel; Dwyer, Harry A.

    2001-01-01

    Clean Diesel: Overcoming NoxiousFumes Are diesel engines part of the problem or part of theS T H E T R U T H about diesel engines? Are they inherently

  11. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  12. Vehicle barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

  13. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information ...

  14. How Will Mind Overcome Matter | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.Food Drive HolidayHours UsedFireAmberMind Overcome

  15. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  16. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  17. Accelerating Climate Technologies: Innovative Market Strategies to Overcome

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgramInformationEnergyAGGeorgia:SLAbuBarriers to

  18. Adaptation to Ephemeral Habitat May Overcome Natural Barriers and Severe Habitat Fragmentation in a Fire-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Sabrina

    in a Fire- Dependent Species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) Blain Cerame1 , James A. Cox2 , Robb T. Brumfield3 , James W. Tucker4¤ , Sabrina S. Taylor1 * 1 School of Renewable Natural Resources diversity in highly fragmented habitat. Citation: Cerame B, Cox JA, Brumfield RT, Tucker JW, Taylor SS (2014

  19. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Trusting the Culture in our Food: Overcoming Barriers for Sustainable Indigenous Foodways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Lois Lorraine

    2014-12-31

    of Indigenous Peoples and how they can be used to assist preservation of these practices. As a living example, this thesis will explain how the influence of reclamation of their indigenous foods has helped my own tribe, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin...

  1. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT OF OPERATIONSEnergyOurDepartmentElectrodes

  2. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 - 67006++, +++_+

  3. Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOfficeBudget OurOutdoor

  4. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  5. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  6. Advances in targeted chemotherapy using MRI-guided focused ultrasound to disrupt the blood-brain barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treat, Lisa Hsu

    2009-01-01

    The clinical application of chemotherapy to brain malignancies has been severely limited because many potential therapeutic agents are typically unable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A novel approach to overcome ...

  7. The Artist's Resale Royalty Right: Overcoming the Information Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Stephanie B.

    2012-01-01

    integrity, and resale royalties, as well as protections against misattribution, excessive criticism, and attacks on the creator's personality."

  8. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  9. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  10. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The rate of adoption of new vehicle technologies and related reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions rely on how rapidly technology innovations enter the fleet through new vehicle purchases. New technologies often increase vehicle price, which creates a barrier to consumer purchase, but other barriers to adoption are not due to increased purchase prices. For example, plug-in vehicles, dedicated alternative fuel vehicles, and other new technologies face non-cost barriers such as consumer unfamiliarity or requirements for drivers to adjust behavior. This report reviews recent research to help classify these non-cost barriers and determine federal government programs and actions with the greatest potential to overcome them.

  11. Cutting energy costs in public housing: Technical issues, institutional barriers, and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritschard, R.; Goldman, C.; Vine, E.; Mills, E.; Greely, K.

    1986-11-01

    As part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) program on multifamily retrofit performance, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory initiated an effort to learn what is known about energy use and conservation in the public housing sector. This report provides a summary of that information including a profile of the existing data on energy use patterns and conservation potential in public housing drawn from two major reports, from a survey of 40 large public housing authorities, from a 1983 Conference, and from contacts with various HUD staff. It presents the physical characteristics of existing public housing buildings, their energy use patterns, and the potential for conservation. Also described are technical, informational, economic, behavioral, and institutional barriers that hinder the efforts of local housing authorities and HUD to promote energy conservation. We identify a set of research topics that can help overcome existing barriers. For each topic, a brief research agenda, for pursuit by DOE over the next few years, is developed. Studies have been initiated on four of the areas (reported elsewhere) including analyses of baseline energy use, retrofit performance, conservation investments, and the monitoring of solar hot water retrofits at one San Francisco housing project.

  12. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  13. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

  14. Overcoming the Exciton Diffusion Bottleneck in Organic Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overcoming the Exciton Diffusion Bottleneck in Organic Photovoltaic Cells May 20, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Russell J.Holmes Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science,...

  15. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  16. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  17. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  18. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  20. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  1. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  2. DroidBarrier: Know What is Executing on Your Android Hussain M. J. Almohri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    DroidBarrier: Know What is Executing on Your Android Hussain M. J. Almohri almohri Science Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061 ABSTRACT Many Android vulnerabilities share a root cause of a technique called pro- cess authentication for Android applications to overcome the shortcomings of current

  3. Testing Multivariate Linear Functions: Overcoming the Generator Bottleneck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Funda

    Testing Multivariate Linear Functions: Overcoming the Generator Bottleneck Funda Erg¨un \\Lambda present efficient methods for self­testing multivariate linear functions. We then apply these methods the problem of self­testing multivariate linear functions, i.e., given a multivariate linear function f

  4. The Path Less Travelled: Overcoming Tor's Bottlenecks with Traffic Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    The Path Less Travelled: Overcoming Tor's Bottlenecks with Traffic Splitting Mashael AlSabah, Kevin of Computer Science University of Waterloo Abstract. Tor is the most popular low-latency anonymity network, Tor has a variety of performance problems that result in poor quality of service, a strong

  5. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  6. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  7. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  8. Barrier breaching device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honodel, C.A.

    1983-06-01

    A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

  9. Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study explores how Bonneville Power Administration, a Northwest regional wholesale power provider, rethought how to encourage and promote energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

  10. Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

  11. Overcoming the barriers: school success of Mexican American graduates from Pan American University in South Texas from 1955 to 1975 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Juanita Celia

    2006-10-30

    t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ? h o m e s . C o n t r a r y t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ? homes were characterized by low levels of parental education, they were exposed to high levels of literacy. A... o t h e r ? s c o n s t a n t p r a y e r s a n d f a i t h h a v e k e p t t h e f a m i l y t o g e t h e r . M y f a t h e r ? s alegria instilled in us a love for life. I thank them for their encouragement and support...

  12. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

    2012-02-28

    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  13. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  14. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  15. ORNL Radiant Barrier - ETSD Division

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ETSD Division EES Directorate ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center Energy and Transportation Science Division Overview How do radiation barriers save energy?...

  16. Six Learning Barriers in End-User Programming Systems Andrew J. Ko, Brad A. Myers, and Htet Htet Aung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Brad A.

    of programming system design. 1. Introduction According to the U.S. Department of Labor, by 2012 30% of new jobs an attention-investment perspective [2], she will weigh the cost, risk, and reward of overcoming the barrier, and if the risk of failure outweighs the reward, she may abandon VB for other tools. Jill may also decide

  17. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  18. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating some loss of reductive capacity within the aquifer. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) was requested to perform the following activities: (1) evaluate the most probable condition(s) that has led to the presence of Cr(VI) in 12 different barrier wells (i.e. premature loss of reductive capacity), (2) recommend methods for determining the cause of the problem, (3) recommend methods for evaluating the magnitude of the problem, (4) recommend practicable method(s) for mending the barrier that involves a long-term solution, and (5) recommend methods for extending the barrier to the northeast (e.g., changing injection procedure, changing or augmenting the injected material). Since the March 2004 workshop, a decision has been made to place a hold on the barrier extension until more is known about the cause of the problem. However, the report complies with the original request for information on all of the above activities, but focuses on determining the cause of the problem and mending of the existing barrier.

  19. A hybrid model for fusion at deep sub-barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajit Kumar Mohanty

    2010-11-17

    A hybrid model where the tunneling probability is estimated based on both sudden and adiabatic approaches has been proposed to understand the heavy ion fusion phenomena at deep sub-barrier energies. It is shown that under certain approximations, it amounts to tunneling through two barriers: one while overcoming the normal Coulomb barrier (which is of sudden nature) along the radial direction until the repulsive core is reached and thereafter through an adiabatic barrier along the neck degree of freedom while making transition from a di-nuclear to a mono-nuclear regime through shape relaxation. A general feature of this hybrid model is a steep fall-off of the fusion cross section, sharp increase of logarithmic derivative L(E) with decreasing energy and the astrophysical S-factor showing a maxima at deep sub-barrier energies particularly for near symmetric systems. The model can explain the experimental fusion measurements for several systems ranging from near symmetric systems like $^{58}Ni+^{64}Ni, ^{58}Ni+^{58}Ni$ and $ ^{58}Ni+^{69}Y$ to asymmetric one like $^{16}O+^{208}Pb$ where the experimental findings are very surprising. Since the second tunneling is along the neck co-ordinate, it is further conjectured that deep sub-barrier fusion supression may not be observed for the fusion of highly asymmetric projectile target combinations where adiabatic transition occurs automatically without any hindrance. The recent deep sub-barrier fusion cross section measurements of $^{6}Li+^{198}Pt$ system supports this conjecture.

  20. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  1. Sandia Energy - Siting and Barrier Mitigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Siting and Barrier Mitigation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Siting and Barrier Mitigation Siting and Barrier MitigationTara Camacho-Lopez2015-08-12...

  2. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  3. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    reaction occurs with the barrier material that results in adsorption, mineral precipitation, or degradation to a harmless compound. Reactive barriers that do not incorporate...

  4. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A RIGID BARRIER FILTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan

    2001-11-06

    A mathematical model is formulated to describe the dynamics of a rigid barrier filter system. Complete with filtration, regeneration and particle re-deposition, this model provides sizing information for new filter systems and diagnostic information for operating filter systems. To turn this model into a practical and smart filter system predictive model, monitoring devices for variables such as real-time particle concentration and size distribution are currently under laboratory development. The program goal is to introduce a smart filter system to supervise its operation and to assure its system reliability. Primarily, a smart filter system will update operating information, sound up malfunction alarms, and provide self-activated measures such as adjusting the cleaning frequency, intensity and back-pulse duration.

  6. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  7. Relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Leo, Stefano; Leonardi, Vinicius [Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of Campinas, SP 13083-970, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    We propose an analytical study of relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers. We obtain a closed formula for the phase time. This formula is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations and corrects the standard formula obtained by the stationary phase method. An important result is found when the upper limit of the incoming energy distribution coincides with the upper limit of the tunneling zone. In this case, the phase time is proportional to the barrier width.

  8. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  9. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE`s EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only.

  10. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach.

  11. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    JD (2009) Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases.JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomassthe next-generation of biofuels— liquid fuels derived from

  12. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance Henrik Vibeenergy stored in plant biomass. The papers in this volumefeedstocks development and biomass deconstruction. Keywords

  13. Implied Migration Rates from Credit Barrier Models Claudio Albanese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    Implied Migration Rates from Credit Barrier Models Claudio Albanese , Oliver X. Chen Department The risk neutral credit migration process captures quantitative information which is relevant to the pricing theory and risk management of credit derivatives. In this article, we derive implied migration

  14. Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

    2013-03-01

    This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

  15. Sub-barrier fusion of 32S+90,96Zr: semi-classical coupled-channels approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Q. Zhang; C. J. Lin; F. Yang; H. M. Jia; X. X. Xu; F. Jia; Z. D. Wu; S. T. Zhang; Z. H. Liu; A. Richard; C. Beck

    2010-05-05

    The fusion excitation functions have been measured with rather good accuracy for 32S+90Zr and 32S+96Zr near and below the Coulomb barrier. The sub-barrier cross sections for 32S+96Zr are much larger compared with 32S+90Zr. Semi-classical coupled-channels calculations including two-phonon excitations are capable to describe sub-barrier enhancement only for 32S+90Zr. The remaining disagreement for 32S+96Zr comes from the positive Q-value intermediate neutron transfers in this system. The comparison with 40Ca+96Zr suggests that couplings to the positive Q-value neutron transfer channels may play a role in the sub-barrier fusion enhancement. A rather simple model calculation taking neutron transfers into account is proposed to overcome the discrepancies of 32S+96Zr.

  16. Enhanced tunneling through nonstationary barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomares-Baez, J. P.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J. L. [Advanced Materials Department, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78231 (Mexico); Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi 78000 (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Quantum tunneling through a nonstationary barrier is studied analytically and by a direct numerical solution of Schroedinger equation. Both methods are in agreement and say that the main features of the phenomenon can be described in terms of classical trajectories which are solutions of Newton's equation in complex time. The probability of tunneling is governed by analytical properties of a time-dependent perturbation and the classical trajectory in the plane of complex time. Some preliminary numerical calculations of Euclidean resonance (an easy penetration through a classical nonstationary barrier due to an underbarrier interference) are presented.

  17. Stuck in a Loop: Individual and System Barriers for Job Seekers with Disabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Jean P.; Parker, K.

    2010-03-01

    for job seekers with disabilities. This population frequently experiences employment barriers beyond those of able-bodied job seekers, including significantly lower self-esteem. Service providers need and want information about disability but do not know...

  18. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  19. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School ________________________________________________________________________ Abstract The dissertation begins by exploring the growth of 7YSZ coatings on vapor deposited NiCoCrAlY bond coats at different substrate rotation rates. The experiments show that as the rotation rate

  20. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  1. Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    TVA has conducted a study to determine the effects of radiant barriers (RBI (i.e., material with a low emissivity surface facing an air space), when used with fiberglass, on attic heat transfer during summer and winter. This study employed five...

  2. Discrete Element Modeling of Impact Damage on Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minor, Peter Michel

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating morphology produced by air plasmacompared to other potential thermal barrier coating2 Thermal Barrier Coatings 2.1 System of

  3. DOE Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Small and large business representatives discussed barriers to competition at a well-attended Waste Management Conference session.

  4. MONITORING SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory, Hanford, Fernald, and Rocky Flats. Barriers are also considered an important reme (PFTs) have been tested as a means of barrier veri- fication at the Hanford geotech,¢cal test facility through the barrier. This paper discusses the experimental design, test reSUlts, data analysis

  5. The Dark Side of the Salad: Salmonella typhimurium Overcomes the Innate Immune Response of Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirt, Heribert

    The Dark Side of the Salad: Salmonella typhimurium Overcomes the Innate Immune Response Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Vienna, Austria Abstract Salmonella suppresses host immune responses. Although Salmonella survives on plants, the underlying bacterial infection

  6. Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

    2000-03-01

    A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

  7. Double barrier system for an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, Billy John [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Cowan, Kenneth Michael [Sugar land, TX; Deeg, Wolfgang Friedrich Johann [Houston, TX; Wong, Sau-Wai [Rijswijk, NL

    2009-05-05

    A barrier system for a subsurface treatment area is described. The barrier system includes a first barrier formed around at least a portion of the subsurface treatment area. The first barrier is configured to inhibit fluid from exiting or entering the subsurface treatment area. A second barrier is formed around at least a portion of the first barrier. A separation space exists between the first barrier and the second barrier.

  8. barrier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifiesValidation ofUV-RSSSummary5 Kentuckybaikbarrier

  9. Immobilization technology down-selection radiation barrier approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, L.W.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-05-23

    Six immobilization technology projects variants, previously selected for evaluation during the PEIS/ROD process, have been evaluated with respect to the nine basic criteria for fissile materials disposition. Metrics for the criteria were developed to facilitate a comparative analysis of the technology variants. The six technology variants are grouped according to their radiation barrier approach. Information and data for the technology options were provided by limited experimental studies, definitions of process flowsheets, and preliminary evaluations of facility concepts and costs.

  10. Suppression of the centrifugal barrier effects in the off-energy-shell neutron+$^{17}$O interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gulino; C. Spitaleri; X. D. Tang; G. L. Guardo; L. Lamia; S. Cherubini; B. Bucher; V. Burjan; M. Couder; P. Davies; R. deBoer; X. Fang; V. Z. Goldberg; Z. Hons; V. Kroha; L. Lamm; M. La Cognata; C. Li; C. Ma; J. Mrazek; A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; M. Notani; S. OBrien; R. G. Pizzone; G. G. Rapisarda; D. Roberson; M. L. Sergi; W. Tan; I. . J. Thompson; M. Wiescher

    2012-12-11

    The reaction $^{17}$O($n,\\alpha$)$^{14}$C was studied at energies from $E_{cm}=0$ to $E_{cm}=350$ keV using the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction $^{17}$O$+d \\rightarrow \\alpha+ ^{14}$C$+p$, extending the Trojan Horse indirect method (THM) to neutron-induced reactions. It is found that the $^{18}$O excited state at $E^*=8.125 \\pm 0.002$ MeV observed in THM experiments is absent in the direct measurement because of its high centrifugal barrier. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the THM to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  11. The development of surface barriers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Engineered barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth`s surface at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Much of the waste that would be disposed of by in-place stabilization currently is located in relatively shallow subsurface structures such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via the following pathways: plant, animal, and human intrusion; water infiltration; erosion; and the exhalation of noxious gases. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed to protect wastes disposed of ``in place`` from the transport pathways identified previously (Figure 1). The protective barrier consists of a variety of different materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt, etc.) placed in layers to form an above-grade mound directly over the waste zone. Surface markers are being considered for placement around the periphery of the waste sites to inform future generations of the nature and hazards of the buried wastes. In addition, throughout the protective barrier, subsurface markers could be placed to warn any inadvertent human intruders of the dangers of the buried wastes (Figure 2).

  12. Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

  13. Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Morante

    2005-12-31

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and remedial time required by the electrician and end user. (3) Minimize ongoing perceived overhead costs and inconvenience to the end user, or in other words, systems should be simple to understand and use. In addition, we believe that no lighting controls solution is effective or acceptable unless it contributes to, or does not compromise, the following goals: (1) Productivity--Planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance, and use of controls should not decrease business productivity; (2) Energy savings--Lighting controls should save significant amounts of energy and money in relation to the expense involved in using them (acceptable payback period); and/or (3) Reduced power demand--Society as a whole should benefit from the lowered demand for expensive power and for more natural resources. Discussions of technology barriers and developments are insufficient by themselves to achieve higher penetration of lighting controls in the market place. Technology transfer efforts must play a key role in gaining market acceptance. The LRC developed a technology transfer model to better understand what actions are required and by whom to move any technology toward full market acceptance.

  14. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Experiment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    interaction to evaluate sealing and clay barrier performance; 2) EBS Experiment -thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behavior of the EBS under heating conditions and...

  15. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  16. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve cost 992011 10 Manufacturing Barriers BASF is interested in mass markets for fuel cells Market forces appear to favor distributed generation - combined heat and...

  17. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  18. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogenases and barriers for biotechnological hydrogen production technologies John W. Peters Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Department of Microbiology Montana State...

  19. Overcoming 'Other-ness' : a comparative analysis of transnational activist collective identity formation among World Social Forum activists and HIV/AIDS healthworkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohler, Kristopher Michael; Kohler, Kristopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    SAN DIEGO Overcoming ?Other-ness‘: A Comparative Analysis ofVII: Overcoming ?Other-ness‘: Tracing the Dynamics ofDISSERTATION Overcoming ?Other-ness‘: A Comparative Analysis

  20. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  1. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  2. Low-income housing in Kampala, Uganda : a strategy package to overcome barriers for delivering housing opportunities affordable to the urban poor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Richard Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The city of Kampala, Uganda, is struggling with a housing deficit that is compounding each year and creating market distortions that threaten to derail recent economic success and destabilize the social fabric of the ...

  3. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  4. Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-10-22

    This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosynthetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosynthetic monitoring system. 6 figs.

  5. Geomembrane barriers using integral fiber optics to monitor barrier integrity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staller, George E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wemple, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a geomembrane or geotextile with embedded optical sensors that are used to monitor the status of containment site barriers. Fiber optic strands are used to form the sensors that can detect and monitor conditions at the sites such as breaches, slope creep, subsidence, leachate levels, fires, and types of materials present or leaking from the site. The strands are integral to the membrane or textile materials. The geosythetic membrane is deployed at the site in a fashion similar to carpet laying. Edges of the membrane or textile are joined to form a liner and the ends of the membrane or textile become the connection zones for obtaining signals from the sensors. A connection interface with a control system to generate Optical Time Delay Response or other light signals for transmission to the optic fiber strands or sensors and also to receive reflected signals from the sensors is included in the system. Software to interpret the sensor signals can be used in the geosythetic monitoring system.

  6. Sub-barrier fusion of {sup 32}S+{sup 48}Ca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montagnoli, G.; Stefanini, A. M.; Jiang, C. L.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; and others

    2012-10-20

    The fusion excitation function of {sup 32}S+{sup 48}Ca has been measured in a wide energy range, from above the Coulomb barrier down to cross sections in the sub-{mu}b region. The excitation function has a smooth behavior below the barrier with a rather flat slope, and no maximum of astrophysical factor S vs. energy has been observed. However, other interesting features of the dynamics of this system can be noted. In particular, the fusion barrier distribution has an unusual shape with two peaks of similar height, lower and higher than the Akyuez-Winther barrier. Preliminary coupledchannels calculations and a comparison with nearby systems yield information on the possible influence of nucleon transfer channels with positive Q-value.

  7. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01

    9. S. Yaghmaei, In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inP.A. Frey, and J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inConsiderations Show That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not

  8. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2010-02-03

    This document presents a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of surface barriers for site-specific deep vadose zone remediation. The strategy provides a technically defensible approach to determine the depth to which a surface barrier can effectively isolate contaminants in the vadose at a specific site as a function of subsurface properties, contaminant distribution, barrier design, and infiltration control performance. The strategy also provides an assessment of additional data and information needs with respect to surface barrier performance for deep vadose zone applications. The strategy addresses the linkage between surface barriers and deep vadose zone in situ remediation activities, monitoring issues, and emerging science, technology, and regulatory objectives. In short, the report documents the existing knowledge base, identifies knowledge needs (based on data gaps), and suggests tasks whose outcomes will address those knowledge needs. More important, the report serves as a starting point to engage the regulator and stakeholder community on the viability of deploying surface barriers for deep vadose zone contamination. As that engagement unfolds, a systematic methodology can be formalized and instituted. The strategy is focused on deep vadose zone contamination and the methods needed to determine the impact to groundwater from those deep vadose zone contaminants. Processes that affect surface barrier performance, recharge in the areas surrounding the surface barrier, and the near-surface vadose zone beneath the barrier are acknowledged but are not addressed by this strategy. In addition, the collection of site-specific data on contaminant distribution and geologic structure and properties are programmatic responsibilities and are not provided by this strategy.

  9. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  10. Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007 Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007 The...

  11. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress, June 2015 Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015 This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient...

  12. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study (Appendix A), June 2015 Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015 This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient...

  13. Characterization of Single Barrier Microrefrigerators at Cryogenic Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    at Springerlink.com Characterization of Single Barriercooling) at 100 K. Characterization of Single BarrierThe experimental characterization of single barrier

  14. Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code - Building America Top Innovation Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

  15. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  16. Market and Policy Barriers for Energy Storage Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  17. On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) October 8...

  18. February 5, 2014 Webinar - The Cementitious Barriers Partnership...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Toolbox, Version 2.0 February 5, 2014 Webinar - Tools and Capabilities of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership Toolbox, Version 2.0 David...

  19. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies...

  20. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 This report...

  1. Pricing and hedging a barrier option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogossian, Alan

    2002-01-01

    . Monte-Carlo Simulations Many exotic derivatives, usually those that are path-dependent, cannot be computed using a closed form equation. As we have seen this, it is the case of barrier options with discontinuous barrier (daily or weekly barrier... would like to get the same price for the option each time we use the same parameter. This fact is really important in order to be able to measure the sensitivity of the option's price with respect to its determinants. A straightforward Monte Carlo...

  2. Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2013-11-30

    We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fermions always own a minimum conductance associated with a maximum Fano factor and change their behaviors in an oscillatory way (irregularly periodical tunneling peaks) when the potential of applied voltage is increased.

  3. Approximating European Options by Rebate Barrier Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Qingshuo

    2011-01-01

    When the underlying stock price is a strict local martingale process under an equivalent local martingale measure, Black-Scholes PDE associated with an European option may have multiple solutions. In this paper, we study an approximation for the smallest hedging price of such an European option. Our results show that a class of rebate barrier options can be used for this approximation, when its rebate and barrier are chosen appropriately. An asymptotic convergence rate is also achieved when the knocked-out barrier moves to infinity under suitable conditions.

  4. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  5. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: FY 1988 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Thiede, M.E.; Evans, R.D.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1990-05-01

    In FY 1988, evapotranspiration studies in support of the Protective Barrier Development Program focused on developing instruments to measure evapotranspiration and on conducting natural analog studies. This report describes a has exchange chamber being developed that will control internal temperature and relative humidity to simulate outdoor conditions. This device will measure evapotranspiration rates unambiguously from any surface and measure carbon dioxide exchange rates, which will provide information on plant growth processes. The report also describes ecophysiological experiments that were conducted to determine water and carbon dynamics of shrubs. 5 refs., 24 figs.

  6. Effects of nuclear deformation and neutron transfer in capture process, and origin of fusion hindrance at deep sub-barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

    2011-11-30

    The roles of nuclear deformation and neutron transfer in sub-barrier capture process are studied within the quantum diffusion approach. The change of the deformations of colliding nuclei with neutron exchange can crucially influence the sub-barrier fusion. The comparison of the calculated capture cross section and the measured fusion cross section in various reactions at extreme sub- barrier energies gives us information about the fusion and quasifission.

  7. Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2015-12-24

    Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer that includes a number of compute nodes organized into an operational group includes: for each of the nodes until each node has been selected as a delayed node: selecting one of the nodes as a delayed node; entering, by each node other than the delayed node, a collective barrier operation; entering, after a delay by the delayed node, the collective barrier operation; receiving an exit signal from a root of the collective barrier operation; and measuring, for the delayed node, a barrier completion time. The barrier operation skew is calculated by: identifying, from the compute nodes' barrier completion times, a maximum barrier completion time and a minimum barrier completion time and calculating the barrier operation skew as the difference of the maximum and the minimum barrier completion time.

  8. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

  9. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Underwater Sensor Barriers with Auction Stanley Barr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Benyuan

    underwater pathways of them. This approach may require deploying large-scale underwater sensor networks network to detect moving objects. In 2-dimensional (2D) terrestrial strip sensor networks, a barrier

  11. Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

  12. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  13. Photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic devices with quantum barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wernsman, Bernard R. (Jefferson Hills, PA)

    2007-04-10

    A photovoltaic or thermophotovoltaic device includes a diode formed by p-type material and n-type material joined at a p-n junction and including a depletion region adjacent to said p-n junction, and a quantum barrier disposed near or in the depletion region of the p-n junction so as to decrease device reverse saturation current density while maintaining device short circuit current density. In one embodiment, the quantum barrier is disposed on the n-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to electrons while in another, the barrier is disposed on the p-type material side of the p-n junction and decreases the reverse saturation current density due to holes. In another embodiment, both types of quantum barriers are used.

  14. Liquid junction schottky barrier solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard (Princeton, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A mixture of ceric ions (Ce.sup.+4) and cerous ions (Ce.sup.+3) in an aqueous electrolyte solution forms a Schottky barrier at the interface between an active region of silicon and the electrolyte solution. The barrier height obtained for hydrogenated amorphous silicon using the Ce.sup.+4 /Ce.sup.+3 redox couple is about 1.7 eV.

  15. Fact Sheet Radiant barriers and interior radiation control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Radiant Barrier Fact Sheet Overview Radiant barriers and interior radiation control coatings 2 in the map below), radiant barriers could reduce your utility bills by as much as $150 per year load. Contents: Overview · What is a radiant barrier? · What is an interior radiation control coating

  16. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaros, W.

    2005-08-30

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they pertain to this report; the current procedures are addressed in Section 2. This revision also addresses updates to the technical basis in supporting analysis and model reports and corroborative documentation, as presented in Sections 4 and 6 of this report. Finally, Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this report provide additional information pertaining to the relevant FEPs-related Acceptance Criteria presented in ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (YMRP) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274], Sections 2.2.1.2.1.3 and 2.2.1.3.3.3).

  17. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormont, John C. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier.

  18. Risk associated with the use of barriers in hydrogen refueling stations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Houf, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Separation distances are used in hydrogen refueling stations to protect people, structures, and equipment from the consequences of accidental hydrogen releases. Specifically, hydrogen jet flames resulting from ignition of unintended releases can be extensive in length and pose significant radiation and impingement hazards. Depending on the leak diameter and source pressure, the resulting separation distances can be unacceptably large. One possible mitigation strategy to reduce exposure to hydrogen flames is to incorporate barriers around hydrogen storage, process piping, and delivery equipment. The effectiveness of barrier walls to reduce hazards at hydrogen facilities has been previously evaluated using experimental and modeling information developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The effect of barriers on the risk from different types of hazards including direct flame contact, radiation heat fluxes, and overpressures associated with delayed hydrogen ignition has subsequently been evaluated and used to identify potential reductions in separation distances in hydrogen facilities. Both the frequency and consequences used in this risk assessment and the risk results are described. The results of the barrier risk analysis can also be used to help establish risk-informed barrier design requirements for use in hydrogen codes and standards.

  19. Information Exchange Among Collaborating Enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng

    Information Exchange Among Collaborating Enterprises David Levermore1 , Gilbert Babin2 , and Cheng enterprises. Otherwise, the exchange tends to be limited at the level of file transfers. To overcome a new information exchange model to extend previous global query results and cover independent databases

  20. Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    1997-01-01

    (MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controled switching and effecting a direction of rectification.

  1. Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-01-06

    Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  2. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  3. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

  4. Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-04-01

    Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

  5. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  6. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  7. Implantable hydrogel embedded dark-gold nanoswitch as a theranostic probe to sense and overcome cancer multidrug resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artzi, Natalie

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is a substantial limitation to the success of chemotherapy. Here, we describe facile means to overcome resistance by silencing the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), before ...

  8. FIRE IMPACTS ON AN ENGINEERED BARRIER’S PERFORMANCE: THE HANFORD BARRIER ONE YEAR AFTER A CONTROLLED BURN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Leary, Kevin D.; Berlin, Gregory T.

    2010-03-31

    A critical unknown for long-term engineered barrier performance is the effect of wild fire during a post-institutional control environment where routine maintenance may be limited or non-existent. In September 2008, a controlled burn was conducted on one half of a vegetated, multilayered capillary barrier emplaced over a Hanford waste site. The effects on barrier performance have been monitored and documented over the past year. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic properties; plant floristics and density; and animal-use were characterized before and after the fire with the unburned half of the barrier serving as a control. Temperatures during the controlled burn ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Significant decreases in hydraulic conductivity and surface-soil wettability were observed immediately after the fire due primarily to hydrophobic conditions created by the fire. Major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated post-fire. Up until June 2009, post-burn soil moisture content in the 0-1 m depth interval was significantly lower on the burned section than the unburned section and is attributed to differences in surface evaporation. Higher soil moisture contents in the 1-2 m interval on the burned section are attributed to insignificant water uptake owing to the absence of deep-rooted shrubs. Moisture profiles reversed after June to show lower water contents throughout the profile on the unburned section. Dense stands of sagebrush were destroyed from the fire allowing many more species to emerge thereby increasing species diversity. Seed sources contributing to this species diversification were from either the existing seedbank and/or wind-blown sources. Measurements are ongoing and the results are expected to help close a knowledge gap about barrier recovery after major disturbances.

  9. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  10. Automatic Object Colocation Based on Read Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    matches their access order in the program. We implemented this optimization for Sun Microsystems' Java HotSpotTM VM. The garbage collector, which moves objects during collection, assigns consecutive ad- dresses-called hot-field tables, which are then used by the garbage collector for colocation decisions. Read barriers

  11. RealReal heterojunctionsheterojunctions Schottky barrier current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    -EFFICIENCY CDTE AND CIGS THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: HIGHLIGHTS AND CHALLENGES. National Renewable Energy Laboratory1 RealReal heterojunctionsheterojunctions LECTURE 9 · Schottky barrier current · CdS/CIGS · Energy is the forward-bias current? #12;33 HeterostructureHeterostructure, thin film, cells: a lower, thin film, cells

  12. Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    . Extra null tests limit the number of radiant barrier tests that can be performed during short winter periods. However. nul1tesL~ were run during the months of June 1990 and April 1991 which confirmed that the houses still responded similarly...

  13. Ranking websites through prioritized web accessibility barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brajnik, Giorgio

    of these comments apply as well to the current WCAG 2.0 draft, to Section 508 and to the Italian official technical criteria in WCAG 2.0), or when they do it (like priority levels in WCAG 1.0) they do not depend on specificRanking websites through prioritized web accessibility barriers Giorgio Brajnik Dip. di Matematica

  14. Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-2294E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC and Environment's (CIEE) Demand Response Emerging Technologies Development (DRETD) Program, under Work for Others

  15. Fusion and Direct Reactions of Halo Nuclei at Energies around the Coulomb Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Keeley; R. Raabe; N. Alamanos; J. L. Sida

    2007-02-16

    The present understanding of reaction processes involving light unstable nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier is reviewed. The effect of coupling to direct reaction channels on elastic scattering and fusion is investigated, with the focus on halo nuclei. A list of definitions of processes is given, followed by a review of the experimental and theoretical tools and information presently available. The effect of couplings on elastic scattering and fusion is studied with a series of model calculations within the coupled-channels framework. The experimental data on fusion are compared to "bare" no-coupling one-dimensional barrier penetration model calculations. On the basis of these calculations and comparisons with experimental data, conclusions are drawn from the observation of recurring features. The total fusion cross sections for halo nuclei show a suppression with respect to the "bare" calculations at energies just above the barrier that is probably due to single neutron transfer reactions. The data for total fusion are also consistent with a possible sub-barrier enhancement; however, this observation is not conclusive and other couplings besides the single-neutron channels would be needed in order to explain any actual enhancement. We find that a characteristic feature of halo nuclei is the dominance of direct reactions over fusion at near and sub-barrier energies; the main part of the cross section is related to neutron transfers, while calculations indicate only a modest contribution from the breakup process.

  16. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  17. Using ultra narrow bandwidth to overcome traditional problems with distribution line carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.C.; Hunt, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    It has long been common knowledge among communication engineers that wide bandwidth signals require more energy to overcome noise than do narrow band signals. This is why, during adverse conditions Morse code radio communications can get through when voice can`t. To achieve similar range: A television transmitter (6000 kHz bandwidth) requires 200,000 watts; A music broadcast transmitter (60 kHz bandwidth) requires 2000 watts; A voice only transmitter (3 kHz bandwidth) requires 100 watts. Carry this principle to extremes: An Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) transmitter (.00001 kHz bandwidth) requires .003 watts. This paper explores the advantages of using Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) in power line carrier systems. Using an Automatic Meter Reading System as an example, the authors explore how UNB allows (or sometimes requires) a change in system architecture, which creates further advantages.

  18. Reaction, transformation and delamination of samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Reaction, transformation and delamination of samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei zirconates have attracted interest for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) because they have very low intrinsic. Here, columnar morphology SZO coatings have been deposited on bond coated superalloy substrates using

  19. Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their Adoption: A Scoping Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their...

  20. Energy Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai'i Energy Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai'i To address the complex permitting process for renewable...

  1. Simulation of localized barrier defects in resonant tunneling diodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoneberg, Jason Neal

    1995-01-01

    defect assisted tunneling as a possible current mechanism. This study attempts to ascertain the effects of defect potentials in the barriers on current in a simulation of a double barrier resonant tunneling diode. Results indicate that these defects could...

  2. TTI: 0-6071 Evaluation of Barriers for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for future research are discussed. 17. Key Words High-Speed Roadways, Bridge Rail, Longitudinal BarriersTTI: 0-6071 Evaluation of Barriers for Very High Speed Roadways Research/Test Report 0. Title and Subtitle Evaluation of Barriers for Very High Speed Roadways 5. Report Date January 2010

  3. Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b form 2 April 2014 Available online 12 April 2014 Keywords: Thermal barrier coatings Rare earth zirconate CMAS reaction The strain tolerance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas turbine engines

  4. Pricing European Barrier Options Peter W.Buchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    barrier options which incorporate a con- stant rebate. The method exploits the symmetries and properties of elemen- tary solutions of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation. The rebate and non-rebate. If rebates apply then the first exit time densities through the barrier are also required. Barrier option

  5. Theoretical Analysis of the Rotational Barrier of Ethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Theoretical Analysis of the Rotational Barrier of Ethane YIRONG MO*, AND JIALI GAO*, Department The understanding of the ethane rotation barrier is fundamental for structural theory and the conformational a computational approach to probe the rotation barriers of ethane and its congeners in terms of steric repulsion

  6. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  7. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Kim, Jin Yong (Richland, WA); Choi, Jung-Pyung (Richland, WA)

    2010-04-06

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  8. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  9. Train derailment and railroad barrier interaction simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Heping

    1990-01-01

    or eliminate the risk of the passenger track intrusion by derailing cars on adjacent track is of concern to the railroad authorities. The purpose of this study is through computer simulation to investigate the behavior of the train derailment and to determine... the feasibility of the use of a barrier wall to restrain derailing railroad cars. An analytical model has been developed for the simulation. In the theoretical analysis the equation of motion in the horizontal plane for each derailed car was derived...

  10. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  11. Fission barriers and half-lives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review the development of theoretical models for the calculation of fission barriers and half-lives. We focus on how results of actual calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach provide an interpretation of the mechanisms behind some of the large number of phenomena observed in fission. As instructive examples we choose studies of the rapidly varying fission properties of elements at the end of the periodic system. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  12. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FIRE SEPARATION AND BARRIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fire barriers, and physical separation are key components in managing the fire risk in Nuclear Facilities. The expected performance of these features have often been predicted using rules-of-thumb or expert judgment. These approaches often lack the convincing technical bases that exist when addressing other Nuclear Facility accident events. This paper presents science-based approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of fire separation methods.

  13. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  14. Embedded Optical Sensors for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Clarke

    2006-07-31

    The third year of this program on developing embedded optical sensors for thermal barrier coatings has been devoted to two principal topics: (i) continuing the assessment of the long-term, thermal cycle stability of the Eu{sup 3+} doped 8YSZ temperature sensor coatings, and (ii) improving the fiber-optic based luminescence detector system. Following the earlier, preliminary findings, it has been found that not only is the luminescence from the sensors not affected by prolonged thermal cycling, even after 195 hours at 1425 C, but the variation in luminescence lifetime with temperature remains unchanged. As the temperature of 1425 C is much higher than present engines attain or even planned in the foreseeable future, our findings indicate that the Eu{sup 3+} doped thermal barrier coating sensors are very robust and have the potential of being stable throughout the life of coatings. Investigation of Eu{sup 3+} doped coatings prepared by plasma-spraying exhibited the same luminescence characteristics as those prepared by electron-beam evaporation. This is of major significance since thermal barrier coatings can be prepared by both process technologies. A fiber-optic based luminescence system has been constructed in which the hottest section of fiber operates to at least 1250 C.

  15. Performing a global barrier operation in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Executing computing tasks on a parallel computer that includes compute nodes coupled for data communications, where each compute node executes tasks, with one task on each compute node designated as a master task, including: for each task on each compute node until all master tasks have joined a global barrier: determining whether the task is a master task; if the task is not a master task, joining a single local barrier; if the task is a master task, joining the global barrier and the single local barrier only after all other tasks on the compute node have joined the single local barrier.

  16. Backfill barrier as a component in a multiple barrier nuclear waste isolation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of the potential effectiveness of backfill barriers based on a linear sorption model are presented. Using getters such as clays (known sorbents), a backfill approximately 1-foot-thick can delay by 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ years the breakthrough of transuranics. A delay of 10/sup 3/ years is possible for major cationic fission products. These delays can be achieved provided that (1) the distribution coefficient (K/sub d/, a measure of affinity for sorbed species) for the barrier material is equal to or greater than 2000 ml/g for transuranics and 200 ml/g for fission products; (2) the interstitial groundwater velocity through the barrier is limited to 1 ft/year or less; (3) the effective porosity of the barrier is equal to or less than 0.1; and (4) the physical integrity of the barrier is maintained (no channels or cracks). Mixtures containing expanding clays such as smectites and other getters are expected to satisfy these criteria.

  17. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  18. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  19. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

  20. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  1. Modelling the microstructure of thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirolini, S.; Marchese, M.; Jacucci, G.; Harding, J.H.; Mulheran, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings produced by plasma spraying have a characteristic microstructure of lamellae, pores and cracks. The lamellae are produced by the splashing of particles onto the substrate. As the coating grows, the lamellae pile on top of each other, producing an interlocking structure. In most cases the growth is rapid and chaotic. The result is a microstructure characterized by pores and cracks. The authors present an improved model for the deposition process of thermal barrier coatings. The task of modeling the coating growth is split into two parts: first the authors consider a description of the particle on arrival at the film, based on the available theoretical, numerical and experimental findings. Second they define and discuss a set of physically-based rules for combining these events to obtain the film. The splats run along the surface and are permitted to curl up (producing pores) or interlock. The computer model uses a mesh to combine these processes and build the coating. They discuss the use of the proposed model in predicting microstructures and hence in correlating the properties of these coatings with the parameters of the process used to make them.

  2. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  3. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  4. Quantum calculation of Coulomb reorientation and near-barrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cédric Simenel; Michael Bender; Philippe Chomaz; Thomas Duguet; Gilles De France

    2006-05-08

    We investigate the role of deformation on the fusion probability around the barrier using the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory with a full Skyrme force. We obtain a distribution of fusion probabilities around the nominal barrier due to the different contributions of the various orientations of the deformed nucleus at the touching point. It is also shown that the long range Coulomb reorientation reduces the fusion probability around the barrier.

  5. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  6. 2D barrier in a superconducting niobium square

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joya, Miryam R. Barba-ortega, J.; Sardella, Edson

    2014-11-05

    The presence of barriers changes the vortex structure in superconducting Nb square in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field. The Cooper pair configurations in a mesoscopics superconducting square of Nb with a barrier are calculated within the nonlinear Ginzburg Landau equations. We predict the nucleation of multi-vortex states into the sample and a soft entry of the magnetic field inside and around into the barrier. A novel and non-conventional vortex configurations occurs at determined magnetic field.

  7. Information to iteration : using information and communication technologies [ICT] in design for remote regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Kenfield A. (Kenfield Allistair)

    2012-01-01

    Remote design comes with significant challenges. A major barrier to designing in remote regions is the lack of communication between designers and users. As a result, the lack of information flow leads to assumptions about ...

  8. Neurophenomenological Constraints and Pushing Back the Subjectivity Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Bruce

    Neurophenomenological Constraints and Pushing Back the Subjectivity Barrier Extended commentary inversions), without appealing to weak arguments based on basic color categories; that is, I suggest

  9. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  10. Hydrologic Behavior of Two Engineered Barriers Following Extreme Wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porro, I.

    2000-09-30

    Many engineered barriers are expected to function for hundreds of years or longer. Over the course of time, it is likely that some barriers will experience infiltration to the point of breakthrough. This study compares the recovery from breakthrough of two storage- evapotranspiration type engineered barriers. Replicates of test plots comprising thick soil and capillary/biobarrier covers were wetted to breakthrough in 1997. Test plots were kept cleared of vegetation to maximize hydrologic stress during recovery. Following cessation of drainage resulting from the wetting irrigations, water storage levels in all plots were at elevated levels compared to pre-irrigation levels. As a result, infiltration of melting snow during the subsequent spring overloaded the storage capacity and produced drainage in all plots. Relatively rapid melting of accumulated snowfall produced the most significant infiltration events each year during the study. Capillary barriers yielded less total drainage than thick soil barriers. By limiting drainage, capillary barriers increased water storage in the upper portions of the test plots, which led to increased evaporation from the capillary barrier plots compared to thick soil plots. Increased evaporation in the capillary barrier plots allowed more water to infiltrate in the second season following the wetting tests without triggering drainage. All thick soil plots again yielded drainage in the second season. Within two years of intentionally induced breakthrough, evaporation alone (without transpiration) restored the capability of the capillary barrier covers to function as intended, although water storage in these covers remained at elevated levels.

  11. Panel 4, Grid-Scale Storage Technologies: Regulatory Barriers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid-scale Storage Technologies Regulatory Barriers and Policy Instruments Hydrogen Energy Storage for Grid and Transportation Services May 15 th , 2014 Sacramento, CA Demand 599...

  12. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlgrimm, Jim; Hartman, Liz; Barker, Bret; Fry, Chris; Meissner, John; Forsyth, Trudy; Baring-Gould, Ian; Newcomb, Charles

    2010-10-28

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Technology Workshop, held October 28, 2010 in Denver, Colorado.

  13. Effects of barrier composition and electroplating chemistry on adhesion and voiding in copper/dielectric diffusion barrier films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birringer, Ryan P.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Durand Building, Stanford, California 94305-4034 (United States); Shaviv, Roey [Novellus Systems Inc., 4000 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Geiss, Roy H.; Read, David T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The effects of electroplating chemistry and dielectric diffusion barrier composition on copper voiding and barrier adhesion are reported. Adhesion was quantified using the four-point bend thin film adhesion technique, and voiding in the Cu films was quantified using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 12 different film stacks were investigated, including three different Cu electroplating chemistries and four different barrier materials (SiN, N-doped SiC, O-doped SiC, and dual-layer SiC). Both plating chemistry and barrier composition have a large effect on interface adhesion and voiding in the Cu film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the segregation of Cu electroplating impurities, such as S and Cl, to the Cu/barrier interface. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to quantify oxygen content at the Cu/barrier interface in a subset of samples. This interface oxygen content is correlated with measured adhesion values.

  14. REVIEW OF MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS METHODS FOR PREDICTING CEMENTITIOUS BARRIER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.

    2009-11-30

    Cementitious barriers for nuclear applications are one of the primary controls for preventing or limiting radionuclide release into the environment. At the present time, performance and risk assessments do not fully incorporate the effectiveness of engineered barriers because the processes that influence performance are coupled and complicated. Better understanding the behavior of cementitious barriers is necessary to evaluate and improve the design of materials and structures used for radioactive waste containment, life extension of current nuclear facilities, and design of future nuclear facilities, including those needed for nuclear fuel storage and processing, nuclear power production and waste management. The focus of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) literature review is to document the current level of knowledge with respect to: (1) mechanisms and processes that directly influence the performance of cementitious materials (2) methodologies for modeling the performance of these mechanisms and processes and (3) approaches to addressing and quantifying uncertainties associated with performance predictions. This will serve as an important reference document for the professional community responsible for the design and performance assessment of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This review also provides a multi-disciplinary foundation for identification, research, development and demonstration of improvements in conceptual understanding, measurements and performance modeling that would be lead to significant reductions in the uncertainties and improved confidence in the estimating the long-term performance of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This report identifies: (1) technology gaps that may be filled by the CBP project and also (2) information and computational methods that are in currently being applied in related fields but have not yet been incorporated into performance assessments of cementitious barriers. The various chapters contain both a description of the mechanism or and a discussion of the current approaches to modeling the phenomena.

  15. The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G. P.; Burns, H. H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F. G. III; Brown, K. G.; Kosson, D. S.; Garrabrants, A. C.; Sarkar, S.; van der Sloot, H.; Meeussen, J. C.L.; Samson, E.; Mallick, P.; Suttora, L.; Esh, D. W.; Fuhrmann, M. J.; Philip, J.

    2013-01-11

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time.

  16. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  17. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Charlene

    2013-01-09

    This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

  18. Quantum Walk Search through Potential Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-09-24

    A randomly walking quantum particle searches for a marked vertex on the complete graph of $N$ vertices in Grover's $\\Theta(\\sqrt{N})$ steps, which is quadratically faster than a classical random walk's $\\Theta(N)$ steps. The basis of this speedup and the success of other quantum walk algorithms is often attributed to the quantum walk's ballistic propagation, which is quadratically faster than a classical random walk's diffusion. We show that this faster propagation is not the whole story, however. If sufficiently strong potential barriers hinder the quantum walk, it can lose its quantum speedup despite retaining ballistic dispersion. Thus ballistic spreading alone does not yield fast quantum walk algorithms. Closer inspection reveals that quantum walks search quickly by applying just the right phases for amplitude amplification to succeed.

  19. EMBEDDED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Clarke

    2004-12-16

    In this first year of the program we have focused on the selection of rare-earth dopants for luminescent sensing in thermal barrier coating materials, the effect of dopant concentration on several of the luminescence characteristics and initial fabrication of one type of embedded sensor, the ''red-line'' sensor. We have initially focused on erbium as the lanthanide dopant for luminescence doping of yttria-stabilized zirconia and europium as the lanthanide for luminescence doping of gadolinium zirconate. The latter exhibits a temperature-dependent luminescence lifetime up to at least 1100 C. A buried layer, ''red-line'' sensor in an electron-beam deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia coating with erbium has been demonstrated and exhibits a temperature-dependent luminescence lifetime up to at least 400 C.

  20. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  1. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  2. First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H.; Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1998-08-24

    Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

  3. Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as an efficient drug carrier for overcoming multidrug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Jinping [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Meziani, Mohammed J.; Sun Yaping [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Cheng, Shuk Han, E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The acquisition of multidrug resistance poses a serious problem in chemotherapy, and new types of transporters have been actively sought to overcome it. In the present study, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated (PEGylated) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared and explored as drug carrier to overcome multidrug resistance. The prepared PEGylated MWCNTs penetrated into mammalian cells without damage plasma membrane, and its accumulation did not affect cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution. More importantly, PEGylated MWCNTs accumulated in the multidrug-resistant cancer cells as efficient as in the sensitive cancer cells. Intracellular translocation of PEGylated MWCNTs was visualized in both multidrug-resistant HepG2-DR cells and sensitive HepG2 cells, as judged by both fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. PEGylated MWCNTs targeted cancer cells efficiently and multidrug-resistant cells failed to remove the intracellular MWCNTs. However, if used in combination with drugs without conjugation, PEGylated MWCNTs prompted drug efflux in MDR cells by stimulating the ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein. This study suggests that PEGylated MWCNTs can be developed as an efficient drug carrier to conjugate drugs for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Overcoming the screening-induced performance limits of nanowire biosensors: a simulation study on the effect of electro-diffusion flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yang

    Overcoming the screening-induced performance limits of nanowire biosensors: a simulation study capabilities have been developed to self-consistently model the Si-nanowire (NW) biosensor systems. Our-induced performance limits on Si-NW biosensors can be overcome. Introduction Recently, ISFET-type devices [1,2] using

  5. Tunneling of Graphene Massive Dirac Fermions through a Double Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hocine Bahlouli; El Bouazzaoui Choubabi; Ahmed Jellal; Miloud Mekkaoui

    2011-10-04

    We study the tunneling of Dirac fermions in graphene through a double barrier potential allowing the carriers to have an effective mass inside the barrier as generated by a lattice miss-match with the boron nitride substrate. The consequences of this gap opening on the transmission are investigated. The realization of resonant tunneling conditions is also analyzed.

  6. Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    page 1 Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design Michelle Hankinson, Amanda Breytenbach michelleh@dut.ac.za or abreytenbach@uj.ac.za Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture University of sustainable design and barriers that influence their sustainable design practices. The paper reflects

  7. Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    of utility-scale solar PV plants. Sandra Burton Regional Director March 8 ­ 9, 2011 Brookhaven National Lab · Considered an R&D activity · Minor facilitation of customer-owned PV #12;Managing Customers Barriers to solar of scale · Shift to revenue generating technology Barrier: Commission's need education on solar benefits

  8. Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems have become an enabling materials technology for the gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power generation [1]. Through their abilityVapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b

  9. Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product...

  10. The Influence of Dust on the Absorptivity of Radiant Barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noboa, Homero L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to model and quantify the increase of the absorptivity of radiant barriers caused by the accumulation of dust on the surface of radiant barriers. This research was the continuation of a previous work by the author...

  11. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  12. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolovski, D

    2010-01-01

    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the...

  13. Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz, Rene´ Wuttke, Benjamin We propose a network-based method for determining basins and barriers of complex free energy surfaces for the iterative determination of individual basins by the minimum-cut-based free energy profile, a barrier

  14. GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Köbben, Barend

    GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications by Hao Ye1 , Michael that adoption of GIS technologies still remains relatively low in many sectors. We will explore both the bar

  15. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

  16. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  17. Model Studies of Pore Stability and Evolution in Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, A M

    2008-01-01

    durable thermal barrier coatings with novel microstructuresEB-PVD TBCs,” Surface & Coatings Technology, 151, 383-391 (in Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) A. M. Glaeser M. Kitayama

  18. Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

    1993-01-01

    barriers will have little effect. Sites in wet and semi-arid climates, with medium cracked clay soils show the greatest benefit from using vertical moisture barriers....

  19. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, {mu}, and {sigma}) are present in the weld metal in the as-welded condition. It may be possible to eliminate these phases through a solution anneal heat treatment, but that may not be possible for the closure weld because the spent nuclear fuel cladding cannot be heated to more than 350 C. The effects of any stress mitigation techniques (such as laser peening or solution heat treating) that may be used to reduce the tensile stresses on the closure welds must also be determined. Cold-work will cause an increase in dislocation density, and such an increase in dislocation density may cause an increase in diffusion rates that control precipitation kinetics (Porter et al. 1992 [DIRS 161265]; Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). Long-range order (LRO) occurs in nickel (Ni)-Cr-Mo alloys (such as Alloy 22) at temperatures less than approximately 600 C. This ordering has been linked to an increased susceptibility of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement (Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). These analyses provide information on the rate at which LRO may occur in Alloy 22 under repository conditions. Determination of the kinetics of transformations through experimental techniques requires that the transformations being investigated be accelerated due to the fact that the expected service life is at least 10,000 years. Phase transformations are typically accelerated through an increase in temperature. The rate of transformation is determined at the higher temperature and is extrapolated to the lower temperatures of interest.

  20. Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Muhammad Zamrun; K. Hagino; N. Takigawa

    2006-06-07

    We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of $^{16}$O with $^{154,}$$^{144}$Sm,$^{186}$W and $^{208}$Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two $^{64}$Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep fall-off phenomenon of fusion cross sections at deep sub-barrier energies.

  1. Negative Differential Resistance of Electrons in Graphene Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The graphene is a native two-dimensional crystal material consisting of a single sheet of carbon atoms. In this unique one-atom-thick material, the electron transport is ballistic and is described by a quantum relativistic-like Dirac equation rather than by the Schrodinger equation. As a result, a graphene barrier behaves very differently compared to a common semiconductor barrier. We show that a single graphene barrier acts as a switch with a very high on-off ratio and displays a significant differential negative resistance, which promotes graphene as a key material in nanoelectronics.

  2. Negative Differential Resistance of Electrons in Graphene Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela Dragoman; Mircea Dragoman

    2007-01-02

    The graphene is a native two-dimensional crystal material consisting of a single sheet of carbon atoms. In this unique one-atom-thick material, the electron transport is ballistic and is described by a quantum relativistic-like Dirac equation rather than by the Schrodinger equation. As a result, a graphene barrier behaves very differently compared to a common semiconductor barrier. We show that a single graphene barrier acts as a switch with a very high on-off ratio and displays a significant differential negative resistance, which promotes graphene as a key material in nanoelectronics.

  3. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the opportunity cost of capital and split incentives.

  4. Embedded Optical Sensors for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-11-09

    In the second year of this program on developing embedded optical sensors for thermal barrier coatings, our research has focused three topics: (1) Eu{sup 3+} doping for temperature sensing, (2) the effect of long-term, high-temperature aging on the characteristics of the luminescence from the Eu{sup 3+} ions of 8YSZ materials, (3) construction of a fiber-optic based luminescence detector system. It has been demonstrated that the variation in luminescence lifetime with temperature is identical for electron-beam evaporated Eu-doped YSZ coatings as for bulk ceramics of the same composition. Experiments indicate that the luminescence lifetime method of measuring temperatures is sensitive up to 1150 C for both Eu-doped YSZ coatings and Eu-doped Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Furthermore, the technique is sensitive up to 1250 C for the composition Eu{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The luminescence spectra Eu-doped YSZ are insensitive to long-term aging at high-temperatures, even to 195 hours at 1425 C, except for a small frequency shift that is probably too small in measure except with instruments of the highest spectral resolution. The temperature of 1425 C is much higher than present engines attain or even planned in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, experiments are on-going to explore longer term exposures. A fiber-optic based luminescence system has been constructed in which the hottest section of fiber operates to at least 1250 C.

  5. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Link, S.O. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    An above-grade surface barrier consisting of a vegetated soil-cover, surrounded by gravel and rock side slopes, is being tested for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of a treatability study at the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The surface barrier, constructed in 1994, covers 2.5 ha (6.9 acre) of land surface and is situated over an inactive liquid-waste disposal crib. A set of under drains, built into the barrier using curbed asphalt, allows precise measurement of drainage from the soil cover and the side slopes. The treatability test includes measurements of water balance, wind and water erosion, subsidence, plant growth, and plant and animal intrusion. The test compares the performance of the barrier under ambient and simulated climate change (elevated precipitation) conditions. This report documents findings from the third year of testing.

  6. Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

    1988-01-01

    During the past six years, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has conducted extensive experimental research on radiant barrier systems (RBS). This paper presents recent research on the development of mathematical attic models. Two levels...

  7. In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  8. Microsoft Word - Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid_Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our 21 st Century Economy V1.0 Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid A declining infusion of new thought is occurring. The technical experience base of utilities is graying....

  9. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators.

  10. Double Barriers and Magnetic Field in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilham Redouani; Ahmed Jellal; Hocine Bahlouli

    2015-05-21

    We study the transmission probability in an AB-stacked bilayer graphene of Dirac fermions scattered by a double barrier structure in the presence of a magnetic field. We take into account the full four bands of the energy spectrum and use the boundary conditions to determine the transmission probability. Our numerical results show that for energies higher than the interlayer coupling, four ways for transmission probabilities are possible while for energies less than the height of the barrier, Dirac fermions exhibits transmission resonances and only one transmission channel is available. We show that, for AB-stacked bilayer graphene, there is no Klein tunneling at normal incident. We find that the transmission displays sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around the Dirac point within the barrier regions while they are absent around the Dirac point in the well region. The effect of the magnetic field, interlayer electrostatic potential and various barrier geometry parameters on the transmission probabilities are also discussed.

  11. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on in market entry process ! #12;Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite batteries and diesel generators #12;PFM vs. PEM stack- Cost Analysis per kW at 10^3 unit volumes 6 PFM

  12. Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sargsyan; R. A. Kuzyakin; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

    2011-08-05

    With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

  13. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  14. Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems 1 of 3 3M has developed a primer-less self-adhered membrane that serves as an air, liquid water, and water vapor barrier. This technology installs in up to half the...

  15. Comparison Test for Infection Control Barriers for Construction in Healthcare 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassett, Aimee

    2013-05-06

    is determined from measured particle count on filter. The results show that an effective barrier manufactured from simple and readily available building supplies stops the transmission of 12-micron dust particles under a standard set of conditions. The test...

  16. Fusion dynamics of symmetric systems near barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin

    2009-09-06

    The enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections was explained as the lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model. The numbers of nucleon transfer in the neck region are appreciably dependent on the incident energies, but strongly on the reaction systems. A comparison of the neck dynamics is performed for the symmetric reactions $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni and $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. An increase of the ratios of neutron to proton in the neck region at initial collision stage is observed and obvious for neutron-rich systems, which can reduce the interaction potential of two colliding nuclei. The distribution of the dynamical fusion barriers and the fusion excitation functions are calculated and compared them with the available experimental data.

  17. Band Tunneling through Double Barrier in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan A. Alshehab; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

    2014-01-20

    By taking into account the full four band energy spectrum, we calculate the transmission probability and conductance of electrons across symmetric and asymmetric double potential barrier with a confined interlayer potential difference in bilayer graphene. For energies less than the interlayer coupling \\gamma_{1}, E \\gamma_{1}, we obtain four possible ways for transmission resulting from the two propagating modes. We compute the associated transmission probabilities as well as their contribution to the conductance, study the effect of the double barrier geometry.

  18. One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2005-02-14

    The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive.

  19. Structural and safety characteristics and warrants for highway traffic barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohutek, Terry Lee

    1975-01-01

    Ross Highway traffic barriers are highway appurtenances that provide vehicle occupants with a relative degree of protection from roadside hazards and from errant vehicles encroaching across a median. The six basic types of traffic barr1ers are roads... are decision criteria that 1dentify sites along highways that need traff1c barrier installations. Structural and safety character- istics of the barr1ers refer to the impact performance, the structural integrity, and the safety of the vehicle occupants upon...

  20. Tunneling through high energy barriers in simulated quantum annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Crosson; Mingkai Deng

    2014-10-30

    We analyze the performance of simulated quantum annealing (SQA) on an optimization problem for which simulated classical annealing (SA) is provably inefficient because of a high energy barrier. We present evidence that SQA can pass through this barrier to find the global minimum efficiently. This demonstrates the potential for SQA to inherit some of the advantages of quantum annealing (QA), since this problem has been previously shown to be efficiently solvable by quantum adiabatic optimization.

  1. Effects of Alloy Disorder on Schottky-Barrier Heights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MYLES, CW; REN, SF; Allen, Roland E.; REN, SY.

    1987-01-01

    on the Schottky barriers at semiconductor-alloy ?metal interfaces are investigated within the defect model of Schottky-barrier formation. The deep levels and the associ- ated wave functions for surface antisite defects, which are believed to be responsible... the effect of the random local environment of each defect on these deep levels. For the cation and anion antisite defects at the (110) surfaces of six different III-V semiconductor alloys, the inhomogeneous broadening of the associated deep levels is found...

  2. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  3. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, Paul

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in capital assets each year across the public and private sectors (Orszag 2008; United States Census Bureau 2013). Extreme weather events create and exacerbate risks to these financial investments by contributing to: • Direct physical impacts on the investments themselves • Degradation of critical supporting infrastructure • Changes in the availability of key natural resources • Changes to workforce availability or capacity • Changes in the customer base • Supply chain disruptions • Legal liability • Shifts in the regulatory environment • Reductions in credit ratings Even small changes in weather can impact operations in critical economic sectors. As a result, maximizing returns on financial investments depends on accurately understanding and effectively accounting for these risks. Climate variability and change can either exacerbate existing risks or cause new sources of risk to emerge. Managing these risks most effectively will depend on scientific advances and increases in the capacity of financial decision makers to use the scientific knowledge that results. Barriers to using climate information must also be overcome. This study proposes three predefined levels of certainty for communicating about weather and climate risks: 1) possible (i.e., unknown likelihood or less than 50% chance of occurrence), 2) probable (greater than 50% chance of occurrence), and 3) effectively certain (at least 95% chance of occurrence). For example, it is effectively certain that a change in climate will alter weather patterns. It is probable that climate warming will cause increases in the intensity of some extreme events. It is possible that climate change will cause major and widespread disruptions to key planetary life-support services. Key recommendations of this study: 1) Identify climate-related risks and opportunities for financial decision making. 2) Create a framework to translate scientific information in clear and actionable terms for financial decision makers. 3) Analyze existing climate assessments and translate projected impacts into possible, probable,

  4. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  7. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Mon

    2001-08-29

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified.

  8. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garbe, James C.; Vrba, Lukas; Sputova, Klara; Fuchs, Laura; Novak, Petr; Brothman, Arthur R.; Jackson, Mark; Chin, Koei; LaBarge, Mark A.; Watts, George; et al

    2014-10-29

    Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC. The stress-associated stasis barrier was bypassed using shRNA to p16INK4; replicative senescence due to critically shortened telomeres was bypassed in post-stasis HMEC by c-MYC transduction. Thus, 2 pathologically relevant oncogenic agentsmore »are sufficient to immortally transform normal HMEC. The resultant non-clonal immortalized lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Most human carcinomas contain genomically unstable cells, with widespread instability first observed in vivo in pre-malignant stages; in vitro, instability is seen as finite cells with critically shortened telomeres approach replicative senescence. Our results support our hypotheses that: (1) telomere-dysfunction induced genomic instability in pre-malignant finite cells may generate the errors required for telomerase reactivation and immortalization, as well as many additional “passenger” errors carried forward into resulting carcinomas; (2) genomic instability during cancer progression is needed to generate errors that overcome tumor suppressive barriers, but not required per se; bypassing the senescence barriers by direct targeting eliminated a need for genomic errors to generate immortalization. Achieving efficient HMEC immortalization, in the absence of “passenger” genomic errors, should facilitate examination of telomerase regulation during human carcinoma progression, and exploration of agents that could prevent immortalization.« less

  9. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbe, James C.; Vrba, Lukas; Sputova, Klara; Fuchs, Laura; Novak, Petr; Brothman, Arthur R.; Jackson, Mark; Chin, Koei; LaBarge, Mark A.; Watts, George; Futscher, Bernard W.; Stampfer, Martha R.

    2014-10-29

    Telomerase reactivation and immortalization are critical for human carcinoma progression. However, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this crucial step, due in part to the paucity of experimentally tractable model systems that can examine human epithelial cell immortalization as it might occur in vivo. We achieved efficient non-clonal immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by directly targeting the 2 main senescence barriers encountered by cultured HMEC. The stress-associated stasis barrier was bypassed using shRNA to p16INK4; replicative senescence due to critically shortened telomeres was bypassed in post-stasis HMEC by c-MYC transduction. Thus, 2 pathologically relevant oncogenic agents are sufficient to immortally transform normal HMEC. The resultant non-clonal immortalized lines exhibited normal karyotypes. Most human carcinomas contain genomically unstable cells, with widespread instability first observed in vivo in pre-malignant stages; in vitro, instability is seen as finite cells with critically shortened telomeres approach replicative senescence. Our results support our hypotheses that: (1) telomere-dysfunction induced genomic instability in pre-malignant finite cells may generate the errors required for telomerase reactivation and immortalization, as well as many additional “passenger” errors carried forward into resulting carcinomas; (2) genomic instability during cancer progression is needed to generate errors that overcome tumor suppressive barriers, but not required per se; bypassing the senescence barriers by direct targeting eliminated a need for genomic errors to generate immortalization. Achieving efficient HMEC immortalization, in the absence of “passenger” genomic errors, should facilitate examination of telomerase regulation during human carcinoma progression, and exploration of agents that could prevent immortalization.

  10. Exploration and Impacts of Utilizing Computerized Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exploration and Impacts of Utilizing Computerized Information Systems Field Study information systems according to degree of knowledge, and degree of usage. It also aims to find out barriers systems. The study also aims to find out the impacts of application computerized information systems

  11. On causality, apparent 'superluminality' and reshaping in barrier penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Sokolovski

    2010-03-20

    We consider tunnelling of a non-relativistic particle across a potential barrier. It is shown that the barrier acts as an effective beam splitter which builds up the transmitted pulse from the copies of the initial envelope shifted in the coordinate space backwards relative to the free propagation. Although along each pathway causality is explicitly obeyed, in special cases reshaping can result an overall reduction of the initial envelope, accompanied by an arbitrary coordinate shift. In the case of a high barrier the delay amplitude distribution (DAD) mimics a Dirac $\\delta$-function, the transmission amplitude is superoscillatory for finite momenta and tunnelling leads to an accurate advancement of the (reduced) initial envelope by the barrier width. In the case of a wide barrier, initial envelope is accurately translated into the complex coordinate plane. The complex shift, given by the first moment of the DAD, accounts for both the displacement of the maximum of the transmitted probability density and the increase in its velocity. It is argued that analysing apparent 'superluminality' in terms of spacial displacements helps avoid contradiction associated with time parameters such as the phase time.

  12. Systematic study of projectile structure effect on fusion barrier distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratap Roy; A. Saxena; B. K. Nayak; E. T. Mirgule; B. John; Y. K. Gupta; L. S. Danu; R. P. Vind; Ashok Kumar; R. K. Choudhury

    2011-07-29

    Quasielastic excitation function measurement has been carried out for the $^{4}$He + $^{232}$Th system at $\\theta_{lab}$=160$^\\circ$ with respect to the beam direction, to obtain a representation of the fusion barrier distribution. Using the present data along with previously measured barrier distribution results on $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, and $^{19}$F + $^{232}$Th systems a systematic analysis has been carried out to investigate the role of target and/or projectile structures on fusion barrier distribution. It is observed that for $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C, and $^{16}$O + $^{232}$Th, reactions the couplings due to target states only are required in coupled channel fusion calculations to explain the experimental data, whereas for the $^{19}$F+ $^{232}$Th system along with the coupling of target states, inelastic states of $^{19}$F are also required to explain the experimental results on fusion-barrier distribution. The width of the barrier distribution shows interesting transition behavior when plotted with respect to the target-projectile charge product for the above systems.

  13. Subsurface barrier validation with the SEAtrace{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn; William Lowry; Veraun Chipman

    1999-09-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Science and Engineering Associates has completed development and testing of a subsurface barrier verification and monitoring system. This system, called SEAtrace{trademark}, is able to locate and size leaks with a high degree of accuracy in subsurface barriers that are emplaced in an unsaturated medium. It uses gaseous tracer injection, in-field real-time monitoring, and real time data analysis to evaluate barrier integrity. The approach is: Conservative as it measures vapor leaks in a containment system whose greatest risk is posed by liquid leaks; Applicable to any impermeable type of barrier emplacement technology in the unsaturated zone; Inexpensive as it uses readily available, non-toxic, nonhazardous gaseous tracers, does not require an inordinately large number of sampling points, and injection and sampling points can be emplaced by direct push techniques; Capable of assessing not only a barrier's initial integrity, but can also provide long-term monitoring. To date, six demonstrations of the system have been completed. Results from two of the demonstrations are detailed in this report. They include the final developmental demonstration of the SEAtrace system and a comparison demonstration of two tracer based verification technologies. The final developmental demonstration of SEAtrace was completed at a naval facility in Brunswick, Maine. The demonstration was funded solely by the DOE and was performed in cooperation with the US Navy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection.

  14. Sub-barrier fusion with N/Z exotic beams of light nuclei Hence, sub-barrier fusion is sensitive to the density dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Sub-barrier fusion with N/Z exotic beams of light nuclei Hence, sub-barrier fusion is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy in the EOS at sub-saturation density. Sub-barrier fusion affects the composition of the Fermi tail Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one

  15. Directed transport of active particles over asymmetric energy barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Koumakis; C. Maggi; R. Di Leonardo

    2015-06-29

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the transport of active colloids to target regions, delimited by asymmetric energy barriers. We show that it is possible to introduce a generalized effective temperature that is related to the local variance of particle velocities. The stationary probability distributions can be derived from a simple diffusion equation in the presence of an inhomogeneous effective temperature resulting from the action of external force fields. In particular, transitions rates over asymmetric energy barriers can be unbalanced by having different effective temperatures over the two slopes of the barrier. By varying the type of active noise, we find that equal values of diffusivity and persistence time may produce strongly varied effective temperatures and thus stationary distributions.

  16. Transport Properties through Double Barrier Structure in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Jellal; El Bouazzaoui Choubabi; Hocine Bahlouli; Abdullah Aljaafari

    2012-02-12

    The mode-dependent transmission of relativistic ballistic massless Dirac fermion through a graphene based double barrier structure is being investigated for various barrier parameters. We compare our results with already published work and point out the relevance of these findings to a systematic study of the transport properties in double barrier structures. An interesting situation arises when we set the potential in the leads to zero, then our 2D problem reduces effectively to a 1D massive Dirac equation with an effective mass proportional to the quantized wave number along the transverse direction. Furthermore we have shown that the minimal conductivity and maximal Fano factor remain insensitive to the ratio between the two potentials V_2/V_1=\\alpha.

  17. In Situ Formation Of Reactive Barriers For Pollution Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Riley, Robert G. (West Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27

    A method of treating soil contamination by forming one or more zones of oxidized material in the path of percolating groundwater is disclosed. The zone or barrier region is formed by delivering an oxidizing agent into the ground for reaction with an existing soil component. The oxidizing agent modifies the existing soil component creating the oxidized zone. Subsequently when soil contaminates migrate into the zone, the oxidized material is available to react with the contaminates and degrade them into benign products. The existing soil component can be an oxidizable mineral such as manganese, and the oxidizing agent can be ozone gas or hydrogen peroxide. Soil contaminates can be volatile organic compounds. Oxidized barriers can be used single or in combination with other barriers.

  18. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Alberta, CA); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  19. Systematic Study of Fission Barriers of Excited Superheavy Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikh-Javid, A; Pei, J C

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of fission-barrier dependence on excitation energy has been performed using the self-consistent finite-temperature Hartree-Fock+BCS (FT-HF+BCS) formalism with the SkM* Skyrme energy density functional. The calculations have been carried out for even-even superheavy nuclei with Z ranging between 110 and 124. For an accurate description of fission pathways, the effects of triaxial and reflection-asymmetric degrees of freedom have been fully incorporated. Our survey demonstrates that the dependence of isentropic fission barriers on excitation energy changes rapidly with particle number, pointing to the importance of shell effects even at large excitation energies characteristic of compound nuclei. The fastest decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy is predicted for deformed nuclei around N=164 and spherical nuclei around N=184 that are strongly stabilized by ground-state shell effects. For nuclei 240Pu and 256Fm, which exhibit asymmetric spontaneous fission, our calculations predic...

  20. Development of a low-profile portable concrete barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidry, Todd Randall

    1991-01-01

    A low-profile portable concrete barrier (PCB) has been developed for use in low-speed (approximately 45 mph [73 km/h] or less) work zones. The purpose of the low-profile barrier is to shield the work zone and redirect errant vehicles while.... SEQUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CRASH TESTS APPENDIX D. ACCELEROMETER TRACES AND PLOTS OF ROLL, PITCH AND YAW RATES APPENDIX E. TEST VEHICLE PROPERTIES VITA Page 6 8 8 10 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 24 29 29 41 50 52 53 63 68 73 82 85 LIST...

  1. Viscosity-Induced Crossing of the Phantom Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brevik, Iver

    2015-01-01

    We show explicitly, by using astrophysical data plus reasonable assumptions for the bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid, how the magnitude of this viscosity may be high enough to drive the fluid from its position in the quintessence region at present time $t=0$ across the barrier $w=-1$ into the phantom region in the late universe. The phantom barrier is accordingly not a sharp mathematical divide, but rather a fuzzy concept. We also calculate the limiting forms of various thermodynamical quantities, including the rate of entropy production, for a dark energy fluid near the future Big Rip singularity.

  2. An investigation of minimum distance landing over a barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filburn, Ralph Bernard, III

    1968-01-01

    in barrier height over the standard height of fifty feet was only 1. 1 feet. However, by decrcasinq the tail length by a similar amount the barrier height over wh ich the airplane could land is reduced by 9. 6 feet. This indicated that there was a limit... engine , jet, supersonic f igh ter Minos: Ta1 1 Dimensions: Low wing monoplane, swept, wing area-385. 2 ft2 Nonoplane cantilever, fu]1 flying, area-67. 2 ft 2 Span-38. 5 f t, length-47. 4 ft, hei ght- 16. 22 ft2 Me1ghts and E, oadiings: landing...

  3. Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.; Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.

    1998-11-17

    A method is described for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysiloxanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature. 17 figs.

  4. New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

  5. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  6. Overcoming ambiguities in decentralisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    such challenges of local governance. Sustaining local governance in Kerala (India) In Kerala decentralisation

  7. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, In-taek (Yongin, KR); Kim, Jong-min (Seongnam, KR)

    2003-01-01

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  8. Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligett, Katrina

    Beyond the Nash Equilibrium Barrier Robert Kleinberg1 Katrina Ligett1 Georgios Piliouras2 ´Eva.piliouras@gmail.com Abstract: Nash equilibrium analysis has become the de facto standard for judging the solution quality is comparable to that of Nash equilibria. By assuming that equilibria are representative of the outcomes

  9. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  10. Vitamin D Enhances Corneal Epithelial Barrier Function Zhaohong Yin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Vitamin D Enhances Corneal Epithelial Barrier Function Zhaohong Yin,1 Victorina Pintea,1 Yanping contain mRNA for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1 -hydroxylase, the enzyme required to convert 25(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3, and measured vitamin D metabolite concentra- tions in aqueous and vitreous humor

  11. Delamination of multilayer thermal barrier coatings Sung Ryul Choi a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Delamination of multilayer thermal barrier coatings Sung Ryul Choi a , John W. Hutchinson b,*, A coatings (TBCs) on superalloy substrates are comprised of an intermetallic bond coat, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer, and a porous zirconia top coat that provides thermal protection. The TGO attains

  12. ISU Webinar: Reducing Barriers for Deployment of Offshore Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 ISU Webinar: Reducing Barriers for Deployment of Offshore Wind Energy Coastal Ohio Wind Project deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluated 18, 2015 #12;2 Coastal Ohio Wind Project The COWP intended to address problems that impeded

  13. Drivers and Barriers for Implementing Sustainable Development in Higher Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svenningsson, Josef

    #12;Drivers and Barriers for Implementing Sustainable Development in Higher Education Göteborg for Sustainable Development through Higher Education. The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation.unesco.org/education/desd Education for Sustainable Development in Action Technical Paper N° 3 - 2006 Cover design: Helmut Langer (ED

  14. Finessing the fracture energy barrier in ballistic seed dispersal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    is accomplished by a fast moving crack. However, cracks consume energy and should thus significantly degradeFinessing the fracture energy barrier in ballistic seed dispersal Robert D. Deegan1 Department December 1, 2011) Fracture is a highly dissipative process in which much of the stored elastic energy

  15. Fusion at near-barrier energies within quantum diffusion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

    2013-11-20

    The nuclear deformation and neutron-transfer process have been identified as playing a major role in the magnitude of the sub-barrier fusion (capture) cross sections. There are a several experimental evidences which confirm the importance of nuclear deformation on the fusion. The influence of nuclear deformation is straightforward. If the target nucleus is prolate in the ground state, the Coulomb field on its tips is lower than on its sides, that then increases the capture or fusion probability at energies below the barrier corresponding to the spherical nuclei. The role of neutron transfer reactions is less clear. The importance of neutron transfer with positive Q-values on nuclear fusion (capture) originates from the fact that neutrons are insensitive to the Coulomb barrier and therefore they can start being transferred at larger separations before the projectile is captured by target-nucleus. Therefore, it is generally thought that the sub-barrier fusion cross section will increase because of the neutron transfer. The fusion (capture) dynamics induced by loosely bound radioactive ion beams is currently being extensively studied. However, the long-standing question whether fusion (capture) is enhanced or suppressed with these beams has not yet been answered unambiguously. The study of the fusion reactions involving nuclei at the drip-lines has led to contradictory results.

  16. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  17. Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options Belal E. Baaquie RMI are financial derivatives that can be analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum finance. Forward-2963 Fax: (65) 6777-6126 Email: phybeb@nus.edu.sg #12;Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European

  18. Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hae-Jin

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

  19. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation Held on January 10, 2008. LBNL-41 1 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under

  20. Assessment of Critical Barriers and Opportunities to Accelerate Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Assessment of Critical Barriers and Opportunities to Accelerate Biofuels and Biomethane 93 (735 Mgge) Feedstock Amount Technically Available Biomethane Potential (billion cubic feet) CNG (gge) Williams et al., CBC, 2015.; (7.74 GGE/MMBTU) Fraction in use Table ES.2. Biogas Technical

  1. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 ; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 ; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ?mol{sup ?1} range.

  2. Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    of oxidation and hot corrosion of inter- nally cooled superalloy structures in gas turbine engines [1­ 4Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers Matthew R 93106, USA b Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA

  3. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces.

  4. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

    1996-01-30

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

  5. Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, You-Hao

    2012-10-19

    montmorillonite (MMT) or laponite (LAP) clays paired with PEI. Film growth and microstructure suggests that smaller aspect ratio LAP clay is more dip-time dependent than MMT and larger aspect ratio MMT has better oxygen barrier. A 30 BL PEI/MMT film made with 10...

  6. Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P., E-mail: vlabella@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71?eV) and p-type (0.47?eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80?K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1??m?×?1??m area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

  7. LOUISIANA COASTAL AREA (LCA) BARATARIA BASIN BARRIER SHORELINE RESTORATION (BBBS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Island would restore the natural hydrologic function of the systems. The barrier islands influence and on Shell Island in Plaquemines Parish. The plan increases the longevity of the geomorphologic form and function of the Caminada Headland and Shell Island by creating or restoring 1,197 acres of dune and beach

  8. Internal transport barriers in NSTX H. Y. Yuh,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Internal transport barriers in NSTX H. Y. Yuh,1 R. E. Bell,2 J. C. Hosea,2 S. M. Kaye,2 B. P. Le General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608, USA 4 University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA 5 POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea (Dated: December 5, 2008) In the National Spherical

  9. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. A. Pinson

    1998-07-01

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled "TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes", presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes.

  10. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-1335E Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California A.T. Mc of Global Energy Partners. This work described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Demand Response in California. PIER Industrial/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency Program. CEC

  11. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  12. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND RELEVANCE TO THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

    2010-11-15

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D&D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper summarizes the recent work provided by the CBP to support DOE operations and regulatory compliance and the accomplishments over the past 2 years. Impacts of this work include: (1) a forum for DOE-NRC technical exchange, (2) material characterization to support PA predictions, (3) reducing uncertainty in PA predictions, (4) establishing base case performance to improve PA predictions, and (5) improving understanding and quantification of moisture and contaminant transport used in PAs. Additional CBP accomplishments include: sponsorship of a national test bed workshop to obtain collaboration in establishing the path forward in obtaining actual data to support future predictions on cementitious barrier performance evaluations, and participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Project on the use of cementitious barriers for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal.

  13. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A utility monitoring project has evaluated radiant barrier systems (RBS) as a new potential demand site management (DSM) program. The study examined how the retrofit of attic radiant barriers can be expected to alter utility residential space...

  14. Photoinitiated decomposition of HNCO near the H NCO threshold: Centrifugal barriers and channel competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanov, Andrei

    Photoinitiated decomposition of HNCO near the H NCO threshold: Centrifugal barriers and channel. These constraints are associated with long range 4­7 Å centrifugal barriers, which are significant even near

  15. Process Improvements for Gas Barrier Thin Films Deposited Via Layer-By-Layer Assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagen, David Austin

    2015-05-04

    Thin layers of aluminum have provided good oxygen barrier for food packaging for many years, but aluminum coatings can easily crack, are completely opaque, and are not environmentally friendly. One gas barrier solution for food, to flexible...

  16. Quantifying overwash flux in barrier systems : an example from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carruthers, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Coastal barriers are particularly susceptible to the predicted effects of accelerated of sea-level rise and the potential for increased impacts of intense storms. Over centennial scales, barriers are maintained via overtopping ...

  17. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the Mammalian and Vegetative Communities of the Barrier Islands of Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggin, Annaliese K.

    2010-01-14

    The barrier islands of the gulf coast of the U.S. have been shaped and changed by hurricanes for centuries. These storms can alter the vegetation of the barrier islands by redistributing sediments, scouring off vegetation, physical damage...

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladale, R.

    2010-01-01

    Organizational Barriers to Cogeneration • • • OrganizationTechnologies Cogeneration. • MSW . Wind. ResidentialPage Industrial Cogeneration. • Residential Photovoltaics. •

  19. Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A draft white paper discussing the barriers to combine heat and power (CHP) with renewable portfolio standards

  20. PLANT ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    PLANT ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE LONG ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURE ON BARRIER ISLAND `PIMPLE' DUNES AT THE VIRGINIA COAST RESERVE LONG-TERM ECOLOGICAL', small, rounded dunes forming along main dune ridges of the barrier islands. There are distinct plant

  1. Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer of the barrier island are analyzed, along with the short-term post-storm recovery of secondary dunes. Results

  2. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2008-10-14

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  3. Weather-Resistive Barriers; Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute

    2000-11-07

    Weather-resistive barriers are a part of exterior wall systems that protect building materials from exterior water penetration. They perform like a protective shell for buildings, yet allow water vapor to escape. This fact sheet covers types and costs of weather-resistive barriers, when and how to use them, installation, details for windows and doors, and properties of weather-resistive barriers.

  4. Effect of neutron transfer in the fusion process near and below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachkov, V. A.; Adel, A.; Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2012-10-20

    Near-barrier and sub-barrier fusion of weakly bound neutron-rich isotopes of lithium is explored within the empirical channel coupling model. Several combinations of colliding nuclei are proposed, for which strong enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted owing to coupling with neutron transfer channels.

  5. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  6. Evaluation of the business case for using analytics for corporate sustainability and overcoming the challenges in its execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalmia, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    in an age where organizations across industries and sectors are placing increasing importance on sustainability, leaders are looking for more accurate information to guide their decisions on sustainability-related issues. ...

  7. Transmissions in Graphene through Double Barriers and Periodic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miloud Mekkaoui; El Bouâzzaoui Choubabi; Ahmed Jellal; Hocine Bahlouli

    2015-03-04

    Transmission of Dirac fermions through a chip of graphene under the effect of magnetic field and a time vibrating double barrier with frequency $w$ is investigated. Quantum interference within the oscillating barrier has an important effect on quasi-particles tunneling. A combination of both a time dependent potential and a magnetic field generate physical states whose energy is double quantified by the pair of integers $(n, l)$ with high degeneracy. The large number of modes that exist in the energy spectrum presents a colossal difficulty in numerical computations. Thus we were obliged to make a truncation and limit ourselves to the central $(n = 0)$ and two adjacent side band ($n=\\pm 1$).

  8. Ferroelectric modulation on resonant tunneling through perovskite double-barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Ruifang; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di

    2014-04-07

    The negative differential resistance (NDR) due to resonance tunneling is achieved at room temperature in perovskite double-barrier heterostructures composed of a 10 unit-cell-thick SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well sandwiched in two 10 unit-cell-thick LaAlO{sub 3} barriers. The NDR occurs at 1.2?V and does not change with voltage cycling. When the paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well is replaced by a ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}, the onset of the NDR can be modulated by polarization switching in the ultrathin BaTiO{sub 3}. A polarization pointing to the collector lowers the NDR voltage but a polarization pointing to the emitter increases it. The shift of the NDR voltage is ascribed to reversal of the extra electric field in the quantum well due to the polarization switching.

  9. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  10. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  11. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  12. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  14. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Willis E. (W. Richland, WA); Dwyer, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  15. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  16. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Te Solar-cell Performance The thin-film CdTe solar cell (generally n-CdS/p-CdTe) is one of the leading, where the best CdTe cells are about 250 mV below the best GaAs cells when an appropriate adjustmentDISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CdTe SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE

  17. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  18. In-situ chemical barrier and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1999-01-12

    A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete. 7 figs.

  19. In-situ chemical barrier and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richland, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete.

  20. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: FY 1990 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Thiede, M.E.; Lettau, D.J.; Twaddell, T.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Black, R.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are working together to develop for the US Department of Energy (DOE) protective barriers for the near-surface disposal of hazardous waste at the Hanford Site. The proposed barrier design consists of a layer of fine-textured soil overlying a series of layers grading from sand to basalt riprap. A multiyear research program is being conducted to assess the long-term performance of barrier configurations in restricting plants, animals, and water from contacting buried wastes. The purpose of this report is to review work done up to July 31 in FY 1990 on the evapotranspiration subtask of the water infiltration task. As stated in the test plan, specific objectives of PNL's evapotranspiration work were to (1) develop and test an environmentally controlled whole-plant gas exchange system, (2) collect evapotranspiration data at the whole-plant level on the small-tube lysimeters, (3) collect transpiration data on the shrubs at McGee Ranch, (4) collect data necessary to parameterize the plant component of the UNSAT-H code.

  1. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: FY 1990 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Thiede, M.E.; Lettau, D.J.; Twaddell, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Black, R.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) are working together to develop for the US Department of Energy (DOE) protective barriers for the near-surface disposal of hazardous waste at the Hanford Site. The proposed barrier design consists of a layer of fine-textured soil overlying a series of layers grading from sand to basalt riprap. A multiyear research program is being conducted to assess the long-term performance of barrier configurations in restricting plants, animals, and water from contacting buried wastes. The purpose of this report is to review work done up to July 31 in FY 1990 on the evapotranspiration subtask of the water infiltration task. As stated in the test plan, specific objectives of PNL`s evapotranspiration work were to (1) develop and test an environmentally controlled whole-plant gas exchange system, (2) collect evapotranspiration data at the whole-plant level on the small-tube lysimeters, (3) collect transpiration data on the shrubs at McGee Ranch, (4) collect data necessary to parameterize the plant component of the UNSAT-H code.

  2. Water-retaining barrier and method of construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, M.R.; Field, J.G.

    1996-02-20

    An agricultural barrier is disclosed which provides a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface. The barrier is disposed on native soil of the region. The barrier includes a first porous layer composed of pieces of basalt, and is in contact with the native soil. There is a less porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel. The second layer overlies the first layer. A third layer, less porous than the second layer, contains soil which favors plant growth. The third layer overlies the second layer and has an exposed upper surface. The porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer. 2 figs.

  3. Water-retaining barrier and method of construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Melvin R. (Richland, WA); Field, Jim G. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    An agricultural barrier providing a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface, the barrier being disposed on native soil of the region, the barrier including: a first layer composed of pieces of basalt, the first layer being porous and being in contact with the native soil; a porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel, the second layer being less porous than, and overlying, the first layer; and a porous third layer containing soil which favors plant growth, the third layer being less porous than, and overlying, the second layer and having an exposed upper surface, wherein the porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer.

  4. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  5. Systematic Study of Fission Barriers of Excited Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, J. A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Pei, J. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of fission-barrier dependence on excitation energy has been performed using the self-consistent finite-temperature Hartree-Fock+BCS (FT-HF+BCS) formalism with the SkM* Skyrme energy density functional. The calculations have been carried out for even-even superheavy nuclei with Z ranging between 110 and 124. For an accurate description of fission pathways, the effects of triaxial and reflection asymmetric degrees of freedom have been fully incorporated. Our survey demonstrates that the dependence of isentropic fission barriers on excitation energy changes rapidly with particle number, pointing to the importance of shell effects even at large excitation energies characteristic of compound nuclei. The fastest decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy is predicted for deformed nuclei around N = 164 and spherical nuclei around N = 184 that are strongly stabilized by ground-state shell effects. For nuclei ^{240}Pu and ^{256}Fm, which exhibit asymmetric spontaneous fission, our calculations predict a transition to symmetric fission at high excitation energies due to the thermal quenching of static reflection asymmetric deformations.

  6. Polymer dynamics in the depinned phase: metastability with logarithmic barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pietro Caputo; Hubert Lacoin; Fabio Martinelli; François Simenhaus; Fabio Lucio Toninelli

    2010-07-26

    We consider the stochastic evolution of a (1 + 1)-dimensional polymer in the depinned regime. At equilibrium the system exhibits a double well structure: the polymer lies(essentially) either above or below the repulsive line. As a consequence one expects a metastable behavior with rare jumps between the two phases combined with a fast thermalization inside each phase. However the energy barrier between these two phases is only logarithmic in the system size L and therefore the two relevant time scales are only polynomial in L with no clear-cut separation between them. The whole evolution is governed by a subtle competition between the diffusive behavior inside one phase and the jumps across the energy barriers. In particular the usual scenario in which the tunneling time coincides with the exponential of the energy barrier breaks down. Our main results are: (i) a proof that the mixing time of the system lies between L^{5/2} and L^{5/2+2}; (ii) the identification of two regions associated with the positive and negative phase of the polymer together with the proof of the asymptotic exponentiality of the tunneling time between them with rate equal to a half of the spectral gap.

  7. Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Yu. Vlasov

    2009-03-06

    In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned and they may be related with so-called fourth generation of nanotechnology products.

  8. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions spanning the fusion barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min Liu; Ning Wang; Zhuxia Li; Xizhen Wu; Enguang Zhao

    2006-01-25

    The Skyrme energy density functional has been applied to the study of heavy-ion fusion reactions. The barriers for fusion reactions are calculated by the Skyrme energy density functional with proton and neutron density distributions determined by using restricted density variational (RDV) method within the same energy density functional together with semi-classical approach known as the extended semi-classical Thomas-Fermi method. Based on the fusion barrier obtained, we propose a parametrization of the empirical barrier distribution to take into account the multi-dimensional character of real barrier and then apply it to calculate the fusion excitation functions in terms of barrier penetration concept. A large number of measured fusion excitation functions spanning the fusion barriers can be reproduced well. The competition between suppression and enhancement effects on sub-barrier fusion caused by neutron-shell-closure and excess neutron effects is studied.

  9. Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution, hence provides a good probe of the neutron and proton distributions. Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one can sensitively

  10. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H; Hsu, John S; Starke, Michael R

    2006-09-01

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  11. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  12. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2009-02-01

    DOE’s Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

  13. Permeation Barrier Coatings for the Helical Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    1999-05-26

    A permeation barrier coating was specified for the Helical Heat Exchanger (HHE) to minimize contamination through emissions and/or permeation into the nitrogen system for ALARA reasons. Due to the geometry of the HHE, a special coating practice was needed since the conventional method of high temperature pack aluminization was intractable. A survey of many coating companies was undertaken; their coating capabilities and technologies were assessed and compared to WSRC needs. The processes and limitations to coating the HHE are described. Slurry coating appears to be the most technically sound approach for coating the HHE.

  14. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  15. Fusion barrier distributions in systems with finite excitation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; N. Takigawa; A. B. Balantekin

    1997-06-24

    Eigen-channel approach to heavy-ion fusion reactions is exact only when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is zero. In order to take into account effects of finite excitation energy, we introduce an energy dependence to weight factors in the eigen-channel approximation. Using two channel problem, we show that the weight factors are slowly changing functions of incident energy. This suggests that the concept of the fusion barrier distribution still holds to a good approximation even when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is finite. A transition to the adiabatic tunneling, where the coupling leads to a static potential renormalization, is also discussed.

  16. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  17. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  18. Quantum Walk on the Line through Potential Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-12-07

    Quantum walks are well-known for their ballistic dispersion, traveling $\\Theta(t)$ away in $t$ steps, which is quadratically faster than a classical random walk's diffusive spreading. In physical implementations of the walk, however, the particle may need to tunnel through a potential barrier to hop, and a naive calculation suggests this could eliminate the ballistic transport. We show by explicit calculation, however, that such a loss does not occur. Rather, the $\\Theta(t)$ dispersion is retained, with only the coefficient changing, which additionally gives a way to detect and quantify the hopping errors in experiments.

  19. Stacking fault induced tunnel barrier in platelet graphite nanofiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Yann-Wen, E-mail: chiidong@phys.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ywlan@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Chang, Chia-Seng; Chen, Chii-Dong, E-mail: chiidong@phys.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: ywlan@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Hao [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China); Li, Yuan-Yao [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-08

    A correlation study using image inspection and electrical characterization of platelet graphite nanofiber devices is conducted. Close transmission electron microscopy and diffraction pattern inspection reveal layers with inflection angles appearing in otherwise perfectly stacked graphene platelets, separating nanofibers into two domains. Electrical measurement gives a stability diagram consisting of alternating small-large Coulomb blockade diamonds, suggesting that there are two charging islands coupled together through a tunnel junction. Based on these two findings, we propose that a stacking fault can behave as a tunnel barrier for conducting electrons and is responsible for the observed double-island single electron transistor characteristics.

  20. Centrifugal-Barrier Effects and Determination of the Interaction Radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2013-05-21

    The interaction radius of a resonance is an important physical quantity to describe the structure of a resonance. But, for a long time, physicists do not find a reliable way to measure the magnitude of the interaction radius of a resonance. In this paper, a method is proposed to measure the interaction radius in physics analysis. It is found that the centrifugal barrier effects have great influence to physical results obtained in the PWA fit, and the interaction radius of some resonances can be well measured in the fit.

  1. Fission fragment mass reconstruction from Si surface barrier detector measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Velkovska; R. L. McGrath

    1999-07-12

    A method for plasma delay and pulse-height defect corrections for Si surface barrier detectors (SBD) is presented. Based on known empirical formulae, simple approximations involving the measured time-of-flight (TOF) and energy of the ions were found and a mass reconstruction procedure was developed. The procedure was applied for obtaining the fission fragment mass and angular distributions from the $^{64}$ Ni+$^{197}$Au reaction at 418 MeV and 383 MeV incident energy using an array of eight SBDs.

  2. Cementitious Barrier Partnership (CBP) Toolsets | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel TravelChallenges |1-01 Audit| Department2455:Carbon CaptureCementitious Barrier

  3. Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergy Air Barriers for

  4. Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 15 figs.

  5. Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann M. (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  6. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry`s SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  7. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. ); McDermott, K.A. . Center for Regulatory Studies)

    1992-01-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry's SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  8. Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, Charles P. (South Huntingdon Twp., Westmoreland County, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

  9. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  10. Turbulence elasticity—A new mechanism for transport barrier dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Z. B.; Diamond, P. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Gürcan, Ö. D.

    2014-09-15

    We present a new, unified model of transport barrier formation in “elastic” drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. A new physical quantity—the delay time (i.e., the mixing time for the DW turbulence)—is demonstrated to parameterize each stage of the transport barrier formation. Quantitative predictions for the onset of limit-cycle-oscillation (LCO) among DW and ZF intensities (also denoted as I-mode) and I-mode to high-confinement mode (H-mode) transition are also given. The LCO occurs when the ZF shearing rate (|?v?{sub ZF}{sup ?}|) enters the regime ??{sub k}<|?V?{sub ZF}{sup ?}|?{sub cr}{sup ?1}, where the mean E?×?B shear flow driven by ion pressure “locks” the DW-ZF system to the H-mode by reducing the delay time below the threshold value.

  11. NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 NationalNO FEAR ActUsing a "funneling"

  12. Large-scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, Walter; Ram, Bonnie

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the benefits of and barriers to large-scale deployment of offshore wind energy systems in U.S. waters.

  13. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

  14. Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

  15. Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladale, R.

    2010-01-01

    photovoltaic systems grows, and their spread will be comparable to that of centralthe central barrier is system cost. If rooftop photovoltaic

  17. Adiabatic Heavy Ion Fusion Potentials for Fusion at Deep Sub-barrier Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. S. Sastry; S. Kailas; A. K. Mohanty; A. Saxena

    2003-11-12

    The fusion cross sections from well above barrier to extreme sub-barrier energies have been analysed using the energy (E) and angular momentum (L) dependent barrier penetration model ({\\small{ELDBPM}}). From this analysis, the adiabatic limits of fusion barriers have been determined for a wide range of heavy ion systems. The empirical prescription of Wilzynska and Wilzynski has been used with modified radius parameter and surface tension coefficient values consistent with the parameterization of the nuclear masses. The adiabatic fusion barriers calculated from this prescription are in good agreement with the adiabatic barriers deduced from {\\small{ELDBPM}} fits to fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness is larger at adiabatic limit, resulting in a lower $\\hbar\\omega$ leading to increase of "logarithmic slope" observed at energies well below the barrier. The effective fusion barrier radius and curvature values are anomalously smaller than the predictions of known empirical prescriptions. A detailed comparison of the systematics of fusion barrier with and without L-dependence has been presented.

  18. Development and Validation of the Barriers Questionnaire - Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Patient- and Parent-report Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Michele

    2013-08-31

    Medication adherence among patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) varies widely, suggesting some patients may not benefit fully from their medication regimens. Assessment of adherence barriers would assist ...

  19. Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report -- October 28, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Technology Workshop, held October 28, 2010 in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Effects of surface properties on barrier height and barrier inhomogeneities of platinum contacts to n-type 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Lingqin; Li Shijuan; Wang Dejun [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qin Fuwen [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigated the Schottky barrier of Pt/4H-SiC contact as a function of 4H-SiC surface properties which effectively controlled by electronic cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma pretreatment for different periods and annealing. It is found that the effective barrier height monotonically increases with decreasing the degree of Fermi level pinning. Electrically homogeneous contacts are observed when the Fermi level (FL) is 'pinned (Bardeen limit)' and 'free-pinned (Schottky limit).' However, a partial pinning of FL leads to Gaussian distribution of inhomogeneous barrier height. These results could be correlated with changes in the magnitude and spatial distribution of surface state density after different pretreatments.

  1. Project Information Form Project Title Assessment of Critical Barriers to Alternative and Renewable Fuel and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Fuel and Vehicle Deployment University UC Davis Principal Investigator Amy Jaffe Andrew Burke PI and clean fuels and ensure that associated infrastructure becomes available at a sufficient pace and scale to meet AB118/AB8 goals. Our research in this area will consider the synergies of incumbent fueling

  2. Inforum/ Information Services, Faculty of Information http://current.ischool.utoronto.ca/services/inforum-is February 2015 Albagli, S., & Maciel, M.L. (Eds.). (2010). Information, power and politics: Technological and institutional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    2010-01-01

    of indigenous ideas, signs and symbols. Drawing on a combination of theory and case studies, Brown shows how Maciel, this resource assesses the various ways in which information and communication technologies, or ICTs, both provide users with the tools to overcome social and economic inequalities, as well

  3. Information Cartography 1 Information Cartography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Old, L. John

    Information Cartography 1 Information Cartography · The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to visualize non- geographic data · Utilizes Geographic Information Science to develop models and organize information--not an art form · Used to build information maps. Information maps consist of a landscape (base

  4. Cementitious Barriers Partnership FY2013 End-Year Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G. P.; Langton, C. A.; Burns, H. H.; Smith, F. G.; Kosson, D. S.; Brown, K. G.; Samson, E.; Meeussen, J. C.L.; van der Sloot, H. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2013-11-01

    In FY2013, the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) demonstrated continued tangible progress toward fulfilling the objective of developing a set of software tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long?term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. In November 2012, the CBP released “Version 1.0” of the CBP Software Toolbox, a suite of software for simulating reactive transport in cementitious materials and important degradation phenomena. In addition, the CBP completed development of new software for the “Version 2.0” Toolbox to be released in early FY2014 and demonstrated use of the Version 1.0 Toolbox on DOE applications. The current primary software components in both Versions 1.0 and 2.0 are LeachXS/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM, and a GoldSim interface for probabilistic analysis of selected degradation scenarios. The CBP Software Toolbox Version 1.0 supports analysis of external sulfate attack (including damage mechanics), carbonation, and primary constituent leaching. Version 2.0 includes the additional analysis of chloride attack and dual regime flow and contaminant migration in fractured and non?fractured cementitious material. The LeachXS component embodies an extensive material property measurements database along with chemical speciation and reactive mass transport simulation cases with emphasis on leaching of major, trace and radionuclide constituents from cementitious materials used in DOE facilities, such as Saltstone (Savannah River) and Cast Stone (Hanford), tank closure grouts, and barrier concretes. STADIUM focuses on the physical and structural service life of materials and components based on chemical speciation and reactive mass transport of major cement constituents and aggressive species (e.g., chloride, sulfate, etc.). THAMES is a planned future CBP Toolbox component focused on simulation of the microstructure of cementitious materials and calculation of resultant hydraulic and constituent mass transfer parameters needed in modeling. Two CBP software demonstrations were conducted in FY2013, one to support the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at SRS and the other on a representative Hanford high?level waste tank. The CBP Toolbox demonstration on the SDF provided analysis on the most probable degradation mechanisms to the cementitious vault enclosure caused by sulfate and carbonation ingress. This analysis was documented and resulted in the issuance of a SDF Performance Assessment Special Analysis by Liquid Waste Operations this fiscal year. The two new software tools supporting chloride attack and dual?regime flow will provide additional degradation tools to better evaluate performance of DOE and commercial cementitious barriers. The CBP SRNL experimental program produced two patent applications and field data that will be used in the development and calibration of CBP software tools being developed in FY2014. The CBP software and simulation tools varies from other efforts in that all the tools are based upon specific and relevant experimental research of cementitious materials utilized in DOE applications. The CBP FY2013 program involved continuing research to improve and enhance the simulation tools as well as developing new tools that model other key degradation phenomena not addressed in Version 1.0. Also efforts to continue to verify the various simulation tools through laboratory experiments and analysis of field specimens are ongoing and will continue into FY2014 to quantify and reduce the uncertainty associated with performance assessments. This end?year report summarizes FY2013 software development efforts and the various experimental programs that are providing data for calibration and validation of the CBP developed software.

  5. Spin filtering in a ?-doped magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuai; Lu, Mao-Wang Jiang, Ya-Qing; Chen, Sai-Yan

    2014-09-15

    We report a theoretical study on spin-polarized transport in a ?-doped magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure, which can be realized in experiments by depositing two ferromagnetic stripes on top and bottom of a semiconductor heterostructure under an applied voltage and by using atomic layer doping technique. The spin-polarized behavior of the electron in this device is found to be quite sensitive to the ?-doping. One can conveniently tune the degree of the electron spin polarization by adjusting the weight and/or position of the ?-doping. Thus, the involved nansosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter, which may be helpful for exploiting new spin-polarized source for spintronics applications.

  6. Thermal barrier and support for nuclear reactor fuel core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Betts, Jr., William S. (Del Mar, CA); Pickering, J. Larry (Del Mar, CA); Black, William E. (San Diego, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A thermal barrier/core support for the fuel core of a nuclear reactor having a metallic cylinder secured to the reactor vessel liner and surrounded by fibrous insulation material. A top cap is secured to the upper end of the metallic cylinder that locates and orients a cover block and post seat. Under normal operating conditions, the metallic cylinder supports the entire load exerted by its associated fuel core post. Disposed within the metallic cylinder is a column of ceramic material, the height of which is less than that of the metallic cylinder, and thus is not normally load bearing. In the event of a temperature excursion beyond the design limits of the metallic cylinder and resulting in deformation of the cylinder, the ceramic column will abut the top cap to support the fuel core post.

  7. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen; Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30°. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  8. Elastic scattering of Beryllium isotopes near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Randisi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Santonocito, D.; Scalia, G.; Scuderi, V.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Papa, M. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-28

    In this contribution, results of experiments performed with the three Beryllium isotopes {sup 9,10,11}Be on a medium mass {sup 64}Zn target, at a center of mass energy of {approx_equal}1.4 the Coulomb barrier, will be discussed. Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured for the {sup 9,10}Be reactions. In the {sup 11}Be case the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. In the halo nucleus case, the angular distribution exhibit a non-Fresnel-type pattern with a strong damping of the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. Moreover, it is found that the total reaction cross-section for the halo nucleus induced collision is more than double the ones extracted in the collisions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the {sup 11}Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.

  9. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Kinsey, J. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  10. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  11. Harmonic Potential with Gaussian Barrier Model for Ammonia Inversion Frank Rioux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    Harmonic Potential with Gaussian Barrier Model for Ammonia Inversion Frank Rioux Department is modeled as a harmonic potential with an internal Gaussian barrier to inversion. The allowed vibrational at 3444, 3337, 1627, and 950 cm -1. The umbrella-like bending mode at 950 cm -1 is modeled by a harmonic

  12. Residual Stress and Microstructure of Electroplated Cu Film on Different Barrier Layers Alex A. Volinsky1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Residual Stress and Microstructure of Electroplated Cu Film on Different Barrier Layers Alex A.2 and 2 microns were electroplated on adhesion-promoting TiW and Ta barrier layers on single crystal from a leading semiconductor manufacturer such as Motorola that contains electroplated Cu interconnects

  13. Atomic layer deposition growth of a novel mixed-phase barrier for seedless copper electroplating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sumit; Greenslit, Daniel; Chakraborty, Tonmoy; Eisenbraun, Eric T. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, State University of New York, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A novel plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition-grown mixed-phase/nanolaminate Ru-TaN barrier has been investigated, and it was confirmed that the copper diffusion barrier and direct-plate characteristics of the mixed-phase barrier can be modulated by varying the metal ratio in the film. This liner was subsequently optimized to yield a composition that combines the robust barrier properties of TaN with direct-plate characteristics of Ru. It was found that the deposited multicomponent system consists of individual crystalline and amorphous phase regions distributed across the barrier. The resulting optimized mixed-phase barrier was found to exhibit excellent copper diffusion barrier characteristics in layers as thin as 2 nm. A high degree of (111) texture (>84%) was observed for the direct-plated copper on this Ru-TaN barrier, which was very similar to the electroplated Cu deposited on a physical vapor deposition copper-seed control sample. Additionally, the filling characteristics in sub-50-nm features were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally copper-seeded interconnect structures.

  14. Hydraulic barrier design and applicability for managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydraulic barrier design and applicability for managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline modifying the leak hydraulic properties (e.g. permeability) may be unfeasible. An appealing option.e. by creating a hydraulic barrier. The present article presents and discusses the operational and strategic

  15. Breach of the northern Rocky Mountain geoclimatic barrier: initiation of range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aukema, Brian

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Breach of the northern Rocky Mountain geoclimatic barrier: initiation of range expansion by the mountain pine beetle Honey-Marie C. de la Giroday1,2 , Allan L. Carroll3 and Brian H is to examine the historical breach of the geoclimatic barrier of the Rocky Mountains by the mountain pine

  16. The E ect of Barriers on The Tidal Range in Yong Ming Tang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interest in constructing tidal barrages, either to control the tide or to extract power. CorrespondinglyThe E ect of Barriers on The Tidal Range in Estuaries Yong Ming Tang Abstract Numerical simulations of the shallow water equations are used to study the e ect of topographic barriers on the tidal range

  17. Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Toughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Mechanisms leading to degradation of the adherence of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) used in aircraft of coatings have not emerged based on predictions of the degradation processes due to their complexity

  18. Mechanics-based scaling laws for the durability of thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Mechanics-based scaling laws for the durability of thermal barrier coatings A.G. Evans a, *, M.................................................................258 2.3. Role of TGO creep in redistributing stress in bond coat and TBC ..........260 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: anevans@princeton.edu (A.G. Evans). #12;1. Introduction Thermal barrier coatings

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3 The stresses in the aluminum oxide formed during high-temperature oxidation of a bond-coated superalloy are shown to be measurable through zirconia thermal barrier coatings. The basis for the measurements

  20. LONG TERM RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    LONG TERM RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM by Susan M EFFECTS OF A NUTRIENT ADDITION ON A BARRIER ISLAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM Susan M. Heyel Old Dominion University, 2000 Director: Dr. Frank P. Day In 1991, 150 m2 were fertilized with nitrogen on three dunes on Hog

  1. Interisland Variability of Dune Plant Community Structure on Virginia's Barrier Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Interisland Variability of Dune Plant Community Structure on Virginia's Barrier Islands by Justin VARIABILITY OF DUNE PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ON VIRGINIA'S BARRIER ISLANDS Justin K. Shafer Old Dominion provide an opportunity to study interisland variability of dune plant communities. My research focused

  2. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  3. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Fission: Fission Barrier Heights of Even-Even Actinides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. McDonnell; N. Schunck; W. Nazarewicz

    2013-01-31

    We evaluate the performance of modern nuclear energy density functionals for predicting inner and outer fission barrier heights and energies of fission isomers of even-even actinides. For isomer energies and outer barrier heights, we find that the self-consistent theory at the HFB level is capable of providing quantitative agreement with empirical data.

  4. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  5. MEASURING FUSION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR THE C SYSTEM AT NEAR BARRIER ENERGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    MEASURING FUSION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR THE 20 O + 12 C SYSTEM AT NEAR BARRIER ENERGIES Michael Rudolph Michael Rudolph MEASURING FUSION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR THE 20 O + 12 C SYSTEM AT NEAR BARRIER ENERGIES The fusion of neutron-rich 20 O on 12 C at energies in the range of 20 MeV Elab 41 MeV was measured

  6. Design Criteria and Construction of a Capillary Barrier Cover System: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Design Criteria and Construction of a Capillary Barrier Cover System: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal barrier was found to play a critical role. This paper discusses design studies, construction criteria Systems were recently designed and constructed over contaminated materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

  7. Josephson Junctions with Tunnel Barriers Grown Via In Situ Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Alan Jesson

    2014-12-31

    in the thermally oxidized tunnel barrier. In order to realize the full potential of JJ qubits, an alternative method to thermal oxidation must be found for tunnel barrier growth. This work explores using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the growth of ultrathin...

  8. Vacuum 59 (2000) 185}193 Development of composite thermal barrier coatings with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2000-01-01

    barrier composite coating was produced using a gas-tunnel-type plasma spraying torch. To enhance) in high-temperature turbine blade applications has led to the recognition that TBC-coated superalloys oVacuum 59 (2000) 185}193 Development of composite thermal barrier coatings with anisotropic

  9. Europium-doped Pyrochlores for Use as Thermographic Phosphors in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    for thermal barrier coatings must be developed to provide insulation for gas turbines operating above 1200° C and effects of heat fatigue · Insulation for components in gas turbines allows for higher operating thermal barrier coating material · YSZ can not be used reliably for temperatures > 1200° C · New materials

  10. The displacement of the thermally grown oxide in thermal barrier systems upon temperature cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    barrier coatings; Thermal cycling; Oxidation 1. Introduction Thermal barrier systems used in gas turbines, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA c Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA consistent with the observations whenever the bond coat and TGO both undergo plastic deformation. The TGO

  11. Simulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Thermal barrier systems used in gas turbines utilize various ternary oxides as the outermost insulatingSimulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA c Materials

  12. Vacuum 65 (2002) 415425 Plasma spraying of micro-composite thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2002-01-01

    blades and vanes of gas turbine engines, turbine shrouds and combus- tor cans. These coatings increase. Keywords: Plasma spraying; Gas tunnel-type; Thermal barrier-composite coatings; Aluminum oxide; ZirconiumVacuum 65 (2002) 415­425 Plasma spraying of micro-composite thermal barrier coatings S. Sharafata

  13. Decadal changes of ENSO persistence barrier in SST and ocean heat content indices: 19582001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jin-Yi

    ; published 4 July 2007. [1] Decadal changes of El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) persistence barriers variability. The variability is large for the eastern Pacific SST indices (NINO1+2 and NINO3) whose (NINO3.4 and NINO4) experienced little decadal barrier variability and have had their persistence

  14. SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION IN THE BOND-COAT EÐA plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating is observed to spall after oxidation at 11218C from a CoNiCrAlY bond-coated superalloy at the interface between the thermally grown oxide (TGO) and the zir- conia

  15. ~WOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION ALONG .A VIRGINIA BARRIER ISLAND DUNE CHRONOSEQUENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    ~WOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION ALONG .A VIRGINIA BARRIER ISLAND DUNE CHRONOSEQUENCE BIOMASS AND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION ALONG A VIRGINIA BARRIER ISLAND DUNE CHRONOSEQUENCE John Joseph DiLustro Old Dominion University, 1994 Director: Dr. Frank P. Day Jr. Aboveground biomass was examined along

  16. A Long Step Cutting Plane Algorithm That Uses the Volumetric Barrier 1 Srinivasan Ramaswamy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    A Long Step Cutting Plane Algorithm That Uses the Volumetric Barrier 1 Srinivasan Ramaswamy ramass­cutting plane long step methods based on the volumetric barrier, but it is however worse than Vaidya's original. This has a complexity of O(n 1.5 Lp log p) quasi Newton steps. Key words: Cutting plane, volumetric center

  17. Resonance poles in the complex-frequency domain for an oscillating barrier R. Lefebvre*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    Resonance poles in the complex-frequency domain for an oscillating barrier R. Lefebvre* Laboratoire picture applied to a periodic Hamiltonian. It is possible to interpret it as due to the poles use of the data obtained for the static barrier. The existence of these poles is not limited

  18. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Goldman, Charles

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  19. Potential energy, free energy, and entropy barriers in a minimal glassy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xin Du; Eric R. Weeks

    2015-11-30

    We study glassy dynamics using a model of three soft Brownian particles confined to a two-dimensional circular region. If the circular region is large, the disks freely rearrange, but rearrangements are rarer for smaller system sizes. We directly measure a one-dimensional free energy landscape characterizing the dynamics. This landscape has two local minima corresponding to the two distinct disk configurations, separated by a free energy barrier which governs the rearrangement rate. We study several different interaction potentials and demonstrate that the free energy barrier is composed of a potential energy barrier and an entropic barrier. The heights of both of these barriers depend on temperature and system size, demonstrating how non-Arrhenius behavior can arise close to the glass transition.

  20. Subterranean barriers, methods, and apparatuses for forming, inspecting, selectively heating, and repairing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walsh, Stephanie (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho, ID)

    2009-04-07

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  1. Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Péter; Maurand, Romain; Bräuninger, Matthias; Schönenberger, Christian

    2014-08-21

    We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ?260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials.

  2. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  3. Fusion of $^{6}$Li with $^{159}$Tb} at near barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Pradhan; A. Mukherjee; P. Basu; A. Goswami; R. Kshetri; R. Palit; V. V. Parkar; M. Ray; Subinit Roy; P. Roy Chowdhury; M. Saha Sarkar; S. Santra

    2011-06-10

    Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the $\\gamma$-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by $\\sim$34% compared to the coupled channels calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data of $^{11,10}$B+$^{159}$Tb and $^{7}$Li+$^{159}$Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the $\\alpha$-separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb, at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the $d$-transfer to unbound states of $^{159}$Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

  4. Testing and monitoring plan for the permanent isolation surface barrier prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Cadwell, L.L.; Freeman, H.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.; Romine, R.A.; Walters, W.H. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This document is a testing and monitoring plan for a prototype barrier to be constructed at the Hanford Site in 1993. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system, designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. These features include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, vegetated with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions.

  5. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  6. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  7. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  8. Technology Characterizations. Environmental Information Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Environmental Handbook Series is designed to overcome the deficiency of information utility and transfer. Each of the works in this series brings together information in an area and format that is useful to both public and private sector needs. It is meant to serve as a basic reference document that will stand for a period of time and help to enrich decisionmaking and research in the interface of energy and the environment. This particular handbook deals with environmental characterization data for the energy technologies and presents the data in a format for use by DOE policy analysts. This treatment includes not only the actual information base, but also a preface which explains the present concept, the historical growth of the program, and the new direction for improved utility. The information base, itself, is constantly being enhanced and is republished periodically as necessary. The specific energy systems for which environmental/technology characterization information is provided are grouped as follows: nuclear energy; coal; petroleum; gas; synthetic fuels; solar energy; geothermal energy; and hydroelectricity.

  9. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-01-01

    barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphateto identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 infacilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified

  10. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP FY13 MID-YEAR REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.; Flach, G.; Langton, C.; KOSSON, D.; BROWN, K.; SAMSON, E.; MEEUSSEN, J.; SLOOT, H.; GARBOCZI, E.

    2013-05-01

    In FY2013, the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is continuing in its effort to develop and enhance software tools demonstrating tangible progress toward fulfilling the objective of developing a set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long?term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. In FY2012, the CBP released the initial inhouse “Beta?version” of the CBP Software Toolbox, a suite of software for simulating reactive transport in cementitious materials and important degradation phenomena. The current primary software components are LeachXS/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM, and a GoldSim interface for probabilistic analysis of selected degradation scenarios. THAMES is a planned future CBP Toolbox component (FY13/14) focused on simulation of the microstructure of cementitious materials and calculation of resultant hydraulic and constituent mass transfer parameters needed in modeling. This past November, the CBP Software Toolbox Version 1.0 was released that supports analysis of external sulfate attack (including damage mechanics), carbonation, and primary constituent leaching. The LeachXS component embodies an extensive material property measurements database along with chemical speciation and reactive mass transport simulation cases with emphasis on leaching of major, trace and radionuclide constituents from cementitious materials used in DOE facilities, such as Saltstone (Savannah River) and Cast Stone (Hanford), tank closure grouts, and barrier concretes. STADIUM focuses on the physical and structural service life of materials and components based on chemical speciation and reactive mass transport of major cement constituents and aggressive species (e.g., chloride, sulfate, etc.). The CBP issued numerous reports and other documentation that accompanied the “Version 1.0” release including a CBP Software Toolbox User Guide and Installation Guide. These documents, as well as, the presentations from the CBP Software Toolbox Demonstration and User Workshop, which are briefly described below, can be accessed from the CBP webpage at http://cementbarriers.org/. The website was recently modified to describe the CBP Software Toolbox and includes an interest form for application to use the software. The CBP FY13 program is continuing research to improve and enhance the simulation tools as well as develop new tools that model other key degradation phenomena not addressed in Version 1.0. Also efforts to continue to verify the various simulation tools thru laboratory experiments and analysis of field specimens are ongoing to quantify and reduce the uncertainty associated with performance assessments are ongoing. This mid?year report also includes both a summary on the FY13 software accomplishments in addition to the release of Version 1.0 of the CBP Software Toolbox and the various experimental programs that are providing data for calibration and validation of the CBP developed software. The focus this year for experimental studies was to measure transport in cementitious material by utilization of a leaching method and reduction capacity of saltstone field samples. Results are being used to calibrate and validate the updated carbonation model.

  11. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 45 Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie,Jiang (Linda)

    for Tuition Purposes. Copies of the Manual are available for inspection in the Library and the Residency twelve (12) months immediately prior to classification as a resident for tuition purposes. In order meets their needs. Payment plan options and additional information can be found at http

  12. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  13. International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) Beyond Bias and Barriers Women and Men in the Globalizing University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) Beyond Bias and Barriers Women and Men International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) Beyond Bias and Barriers #12;International Alliance Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) Beyond Bias and Barriers U.S. Girls Enrollment in HS Physics AIP

  14. SMART GRID Request for Information And Public Comments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of its ongoing effort regarding the formation of smart grid policy, the Department of Energy issued a Request for Information in September of 2010 on the topic of “Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation.” The purpose was to solicit comments from interested stakeholders on policy and logistical challenges that confront smart grid implementation, and recommendations on how to best overcome those challenges.

  15. Renewable energy in Brazil: opportunities, barriers, and remedies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jhirad, D.J.; Rutter, W.

    1982-03-01

    An overview of the major conclusions is presented according to the goals of the study; and contents of the various chapters of the report are outlined. All major energy planning organizations in Brazil at the federal and state level perceive an urgent need for petroleum substitution by means of energy-efficient technology, coal, hydroelectricity, biomass, solar, and wind. Technologies and applications considered of high priority for US/Brazilian cooperative efforts are the following: Energy-efficient technology, used with indigenous hydroelectricity, especially heat pumps to provide (1) low temperature hot water for industrial applications, and (2) air conditioning and hot water for residential and commercial applications; solar thermal technology for low and intermediate temperature industrial process heat, and for crop drying; and small wind turbines and photovoltaic power systems for irrigation pumping and other rural applications. Certain technologies were excluded from the scope of the study by mutual agreement because a great deal of activity in such technologies was already taking place in Brazil, or because commercialization prospects seemed remote, or because of regulatory barriers. Energy conversion systems employing biomass, small- and large-scale hydropower, ocean thermal energy gradients, and cogeneration systems are not examined.

  16. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  17. Single and pair neutron transfers at sub-barrier energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Szilner, S.; Pollarolo, G.; Colo, G.; Mason, P.; Farnea, E.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Gadea, A.; Haas, F.; Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N.; Marginean, N.

    2011-09-15

    Multinucleon transfer cross sections in the {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca system have been measured, in inverse kinematics, at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to {approx}25% below. Targetlike recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental data for one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been compared with semiclassical microscopic calculations. For the two-neutron transfer channels the relevance of the transitions to the ground state and to the 0{sup +} excited states of {sup 42}Ca are discussed by employing, for the reaction mechanism, the successive approximation. It is found that the transition to the 0{sup +} state at {approx}6 MeV, whose wave function is dominated by the two neutrons in the 2p{sub 3/2} shell, is much larger than the ground state one. The comparison with the inclusive data reveals that transitions to states with high multipolarity and non-natural parity are important. This suggests that more complex two-particle correlations have to be incorporated in the treatment of the transfer process.

  18. Method And Apparatus For Determining Health Of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Clifton Park, NY)

    2005-09-13

    A method for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises providing a photoluminescent ("PL") material in the TBC, directing an exciting radiation at the TBC, measuring the intensity of a characteristic peak in the emission spectrum of the PL material, and correlating the intensity of the characteristic peak or another quantity derived therefrom to an amount of a new phase that has been formed as a result of the exposure of the component to extreme temperatures. An apparatus for carrying out the method comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of the emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of the new phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component.

  19. Energy dependence of potential barriers and its effect on fusion cross-sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; C. Simenel; V. E. Oberacker

    2014-01-28

    Couplings between relative motion and internal structures are known to affect fusion barriers by dynamically modifying the densities of the colliding nuclei. The effect is expected to be stronger at energies near the barrier top, where changes in density have longer time to develop than at higher energies. Quantitatively, modern TDHF calculations are able to predict realistic fusion thresholds. However, the evolution of the potential barrier with bombarding energy remains to be confronted with the experimental data. The aim is to find signatures of the energy dependence of the barrier by comparing fusion cross-sections calculated from potentials obtained at different bombarding energies with the experimental data. This comparison is made for the $^{40}$Ca+$^{40}$Ca and $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb systems. Fusion cross-sections are computed from potentials calculated with the density-constrained TDHF method. The couplings decrease the barrier at low-energy in both cases. A deviation from the Woods-Saxon nuclear potential is also observed at the lowest energies. In general, fusion cross-sections around a given energy are better reproduced by the potential calculated at this energy. The coordinate-dependent mass plays a crucial role for the reproduction of sub-barrier fusion cross-sections. Effects of the energy dependence of the potential can be found in experimental barrier distributions only if the variation of the barrier is significant in the energy-range spanned by the distribution. It appears to be the case for $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb but not for $^{40}$Ca+$^{40}$Ca. These results show that the energy dependence of the barrier predicted in TDHF calculations is realistic. This confirms that the TDHF approach can be used to study the couplings between relative motion and internal degrees of freedom in heavy-ion collisions.

  20. A random matrix approach to detect defects in a strongly scattering polycrystal: how the memory effect can help overcome multiple scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahjahan, Sharfine; Rupin, Fabienne; Chassignole, Bertrand; Derode, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    We report on ultrasonic imaging in a random heterogeneous medium. The goal is to detect flaws embedded deeply into a polycrystalline material. A 64-element array of piezoelectric transmitters/receivers at a central frequency of 5 MHz is used to capture the Green's matrix in a backscattering configuration. Because of multiple scattering, conventional imaging completely fails to detect the deepest flaws. We utilize a random matrix approach, taking advantage of the deterministic coherence of the backscattered wave-field which is characteristic of single scattering and related to the memory effect. This allows us to separate single and multiple scattering contributions. As a consequence, we show that flaws are detected beyond the conventional limit, as if multiple scattering had been overcome.

  1. Evidence for Centrifugal Barrier in X-ray Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Cui

    1997-12-13

    We present further observational evidence of the effects of a centrifugal barrier in GRO J1744-28, based on continued monitoring of the source with RXTE. For X-ray pulsars, the centrifugal barrier manifests itself in the cessation of pulsed emission when the source becomes faint. We show that such phenomenon occurred repeatedly for GRO J1744-28, following the decay of two X-ray outbursts. This has allowed a direct measurement of the dipole field strength for this pulsar. Here we argue that some of the other peculiar properties observed of this source may also be related to an active centrifugal barrier.

  2. Sub-barrier fusion excitation for the system $^7$Li+$^{28}$Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandira Sinha; H. Majumdar; P. Basu; Subinit Roy; R. Bhattacharya; M. Biswas; M. K. Pradhan; S. Kailas

    2008-08-06

    The sub-barrier fusion excitation functions are measured for the first time for the system $^7$Li +$^{28}$Si by the characteristic $\\gamma$-ray method in the energy range $E_{lab}$= 7-11.5 MeV. The results show an enhancement, below the barrier, by about a factor of two when compared with the one-dimensional barrier penetration (1D BPM) model. Introduction of coupling with the rotational 2$^{+}$ state (1.779MeV) of the target improves the fit somewhat, but still an enhancement of about 25-40% remains.

  3. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  4. 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

  5. Free Energy Barrier for Electric Field Driven Polymer Entry into Nanoscale Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

    2011-04-27

    Free energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

  6. information security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty listing for "information security" ... 1167; Phone: +1 765 49-46022; Email: wagstaff@purdue.edu; Research Interests: number theory, information security.

  7. Method of in situ retrieval of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-12-26

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  8. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  9. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  10. Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitin Padture

    2011-12-31

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.

  11. Control Barrier Function Based Quadratic Programs with Application to Bipedal Robotic Walking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Shao-Chen

    2014-12-12

    This thesis presents a methodology for the development of control barrier functions (CBFs) through a backstepping inspired approach. Given a set defined as the superlevel set of a function, h, the main result is a constructive means for generating...

  12. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  13. Mechanistic investigation of skin barrier perturbation induced by surfactants in the presence of humectants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2007-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) of the skin functions as a barrier between the body and the environment. Surfactants such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are used in skin cleansers and in skin-care formulations because of their ...

  14. The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

  15. DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PHOENIX – EM and the DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) are working to address barriers that hinder small businesses from competing for prime contracts for work in the Cold War cleanup program.

  16. An Examination of Health Providers' HPV Vaccination Behaviors, Perceived Barriers, and Supports: A Four State Analysis.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCave, Emily

    2009-12-08

    This study's main research asked which combination of predictors, including type of health provider, type of state policy initiative, overall barriers scores, and overall supports scores, is most predictive of HPV vaccination rates for providers...

  17. Development of guidelines for the aesthetic surface treatment of safety-shaped median barriers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ness, Jacob Raymond

    2004-11-15

    treatment of safety-shaped median barriers. Numerical simulation was utilized to develop these guidelines. This was done by first validating the vehicle model that was used in this research, which was the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC) 2000P...

  18. Fusion-Fission of 16O+197Au at Sub-Barrier Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Back; C. L. Jiang; R. V. F. Janssens; D. J. Henderson; B. R. Shumard; C. J. Lister; D. Peterson; K. E. Rehm; I. Tanihata; X. Tang; X. Wang; S. Zhu

    2006-06-06

    The recent discovery of heavy-ion fusion hindrance at far sub-barrier energies has focused much attention on both experimental and theoretical studies of this phenomenon. Most of the experimental evidence comes from medium-heavy systems such as Ni+Ni to Zr+Zr, for which the compound system decays primarily by charged-particle evaporation. In order to study heavier systems, it is, however, necessary to measure also the fraction of the decay that goes into fission fragments. In the present work we have, therefore, measured the fission cross section of 16O+197Au down to unprecedented far sub-barrier energies using a large position sensitive PPAC placed at backward angles. The preliminary cross sections will be discussed and compared to earlier studies at near-barrier energies. No conclusive evidence for sub-barrier hindrance was found, probably because the measurements were not extended to sufficiently low energies.

  19. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, III, Robert S. (Mesa, CO)

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  20. Finite-time barriers to front propagation in two-dimensional fluid flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahoney, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the role of certain invariant manifolds, termed burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), as one-way dynamical barriers to reaction fronts propagating within a flowing fluid. These barriers form one-dimensional curves in a two-dimensional fluid flow. In prior studies, the fluid velocity field was required to be either time-independent or time-periodic. In the present study, we develop an approach to identify prominent one-way barriers based only on fluid velocity data over a finite time interval, which may have arbitrary time-dependence. We call such a barrier a burning Lagrangian coherent structure (bLCS) in analogy to Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) commonly used in passive advection. Our approach is based on the variational formulation of LCSs using curves of stationary "Lagrangian shear", introduced by Farazmand, Blazevski, and Haller [Physica D 278-279, 44 (2014)] in the context of passive advection. We numerically validate our techniqu...

  1. Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004

  2. Edge transport barrier studies on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Jerry W. (Jerry Wayne), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Edge transport barriers (ETBs) in tokamak plasmas accompany transitions from low confinement (L-mode) to high confinement (H-mode) and exhibit large density and temperature gradients in a narrow pedestal region near the ...

  3. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  4. Layer-by-layer Assembly of Nanobrick Wall Ultrathin Transparent Gas Barrier Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priolo, Morgan Alexander

    2012-07-16

    to cracking when flexed, require special, non-ambient processing environments, and can involve complex fabrication when layered with polymers. The addition of clay into polymers can enhance barrier properties relative to the neat polymer; however...

  5. Co-Rolled U10Mo/Zirconium-Barrier-Layer Monolithic Fuel Foil Fabrication Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Moore; M. C. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Integral to the current UMo fuel foil processing scheme being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the incorporation of a zirconium barrier layer for the purpose of controlling UMo-Al interdiffusion at the fuel-meat/cladding interface. A hot “co-rolling” process is employed to establish a ~25-µm-thick zirconium barrier layer on each face of the ~0.3-mm-thick U10Mo fuel foil.

  6. A pocket formula for fusion barriers using proximity-type potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutt, Ishwar, E-mail: idsharma.pu@gmail.com [Panjab University, Department of Physics (India)

    2011-07-15

    By using three potentials parameterized within the proximity concept, namely, Bass 80, AW 95, and Denisov DP, a pocket formula for fusion barriers is presented. This formula was obtained by analyzing as many as 400 reactions with mass between 15 and 296 units. Further, this pocket formula can reproduce the exact barriers within an accuracy of {+-}2%. A comparison with experimental data yields close agreement.

  7. Project Work Plan: Hanford 100-D Area Treatability Demonstration - In Situ Biostimulation for Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-05-31

    This work plan supports a new, integrated approach to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This new approach will provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the ISRM barrier by directly treating chromium and other oxidizing species in groundwater (i.e., nitrate and dissolved oxygen), thereby increasing the longevity of the ISRM barrier and protecting the ecological receptors and human health at the river boundary.

  8. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformation What'sfunction (Journal(Technical Report) |

  9. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformation What'sfunction (Journal(Technical Report)

  10. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  11. Clean Diesel: Overcoming Noxious Fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Sperling, Daniel; Dwyer, Harry A.

    2001-01-01

    emissions and by low diesel-fuel prices, relatively gentleand the absence of diesel fuel price terize and measureattraction where diesel fuel prices are lower than gasoline

  12. Clean Diesel: Overcoming Noxious Fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Sperling, Daniel; Dwyer, Harry A.

    2001-01-01

    quiet as gasoline engines. And freight companies rely almoststandards as gasoline cars. A few companies have technology

  13. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated controls strategies that are 'hardened' and pre-programmed into facility's software and hardware; More affordable because automation can help reduce labor costs associated with manual DR strategies initiated by facility staff and can be used for long-term.

  14. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled ''Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  15. General Information

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Site Waste Profile Sheet - Revision 0 - February 27, 2012 (Log No. 2012-048) A. Generator Information 1. Company name: ...

  16. Supplementary Information Supplementary Figures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    water temperatures and two different substrate wettability values (i.e. contact angles). Black line)² as a function of t/r0 2 . Blue and filled circles: Diffusive evaporation; Blue line: Linear fitting line barrier versus temperature. Energy barriers for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation for different

  17. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Adam

    2013-08-30

    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the developments made under this program have increased 1366 confidence that Direct Wafers can be produced for ~$0.10/W, still nearly 50% lower than current industry best practice. Wafer quality also steadily improved throughout the program, both in electrical performance and geometry. The improvements to electrical performance were achieved through a combination of optimized heat transfer during growth, reduction of metallic impurities to below 10 ppbw total metals, and lowering oxygen content to below 2e17 atoms/cc. Wafer average thickness has been reduced below 200µm with standard deviation less than 20µm. Measurement of spatially varying thickness shortly after wafer growth is being used to continually improve uniformity by adjusting thermal conditions. At the conclusion of the program, 1366 has developed strong relationships with four leading Tier1 cell manufactures and several have demonstrated 17% cell efficiency on Direct Wafer. Sample volumes were limited, with the largest trial consisting of 300 Direct Wafers, and there remains strong pull for larger quantities necessary for qualification before sales contracts can be signed. This will be the focus of our pilot manufacturing scale up in 2014.

  18. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, Ben W; Hadley, Stanton W; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and the status of renewable resources, chapters devoted to each identified renewable resource, and a brief summary chapter. Chapter 2 on analysis methods and status summarizes the benefits of integrating renewable energy resources in the Southeast. The utilization of the existing fuels, both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources, is evaluated. The financial rewards of renewable resources are listed, which includes the amount of fuel imported from outside the Southeast to find the net benefit of local renewable generation, and both the typical and new green job opportunities that arise from renewable generation in the Southeast. With the load growth in the Southeast, the growth of transmission and fossil fuel generation may not meet the growing demands for energy. The load growth is estimated, and the benefits of renewable resources for solving local growing energy demands are evaluated. Chapters 3-7 discuss the key renewable energy resources in the Southeast. Six resources available in this region that are discussed are (1) wind, including both onshore and offshore; (2) solar, including passive, photovoltaic, and concentrating; (3) biomass energy, including switchgrass, biomass co-firing, wood, woody biomass, wood industry by-products (harvesting residues, mill waste, etc.), agricultural byproducts, landfill gas to energy and anaerobic digester gas; (4) hydro; and (5) geothermal. Because of limited development, ocean wave and tidal were not considered to be available in significant quantity before 2030 and are not presented in the final analysis. Estimates on the location of potential megawatt generation from these renewable resources in the Southeast are made. Each chapter will describe the existing base of the renewable electricity installations in the region now and, when available, the base of the existing manufacturing capacity in the region for renewable energy resources hardware and software. The possible barriers and considerations for renewable energy resources are presented.

  19. Use of element model to evaluate transmissibility reduction due to barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanes, T.; South, D.; Dronen, O.M.

    1997-08-01

    Water breakthrough has been observed a year earlier than expected in the productive Oseberg Formation in the Veslefrikk Field. Production data revealed extensive water override, whereas the opposite situation was expected based on a homogeneous and coarse flow simulation model. A new model was developed to include geological heterogeneities using a simple upscaling method. The Oseberg Fm. consists of an upper homogeneous unit (zone 2) and a lower unit containing thin barriers of shale and calcite cemented sandstone (zone 1). The barrier content varies laterally. When barriers are distributed in a complex 3D pattern, they reduce the upscaled horizontal transmissibility more than what is obtained by multiplying the sand permeability by the net-to-gross ratio (N/G). However, the transmissibility reduction strongly depends on the spatial distribution of barriers and their geometry. Therefore, a fine scale element model was used to derive the average transmissibility reduction as a function of N/G for alternative geological descriptions of the barriers. A geo-statistical method called General Marked Point Process was used to generate the fine scale descriptions. This work has resulted in a simple upscaling routine for horizontal transmissibility, which represents an effective bridge between geological evaluation of uncertainties and fluid flow simulation. The method combines geo-statistical and deterministic modelling in an elegant manner, recognising that most often these methods complement one another.

  20. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.