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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents techniques on overcoming the barriers of multifamily energy efficiency projects, including how to market to property managers.

2

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation This presentation discusses...

3

Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships.

4

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

5

Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Overcoming P ersistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in MulLfamily Housing through Partnerships January 30 th , 2014 Molly Lunn DOE's State a nd Local Technical Assistance Team 1 |...

6

IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

communities need outside intervention to address "legacy" and "remote" barriers. With still very little--even in highly developed nations--for the scientific community in terms of future research priorities significant in motivating or launching the adaptation process. The study also found that communities have

7

How to overcome the oxide barrier | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas inPortalAllBPA addressesHow Youto overcome the

8

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

9

Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

11

Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document introduces the Energy Department's new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for 'green' consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

Not Available

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document introduces the Energy Department’s new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for “green” consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

16

Overcoming Technical and Market Barriers for Distributed Wind Applications: Reaching the Mainstream; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes how the distributed wind industry must overcome hurdles including system costs and interconnection and installation restrictions to reach its mainstream market potential.

Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's Impact on OurSemprius Confidential 1 Overcoming the

18

Regulatory tools for overcoming barriers to the resale and redevelopment of contaminated properties: A Michigan model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential contamination in urban industrial areas has created a significant barrier to the resale and redevelopment of prime metropolitan sites. Development is forced from existing industrial areas to ``greenfield`` sites. The State of Michigan has developed an innovative program to facilitate the redevelopment of these contaminated ``brownfield`` sites. This comprehensive program includes flexible, land-use based cleanup standards; liability protection for local units of government, covenants not to sue for buyers and potentially responsible parties and State funded grants` and loans for site investigation and reclamation. Each of these regulatory tools and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Several examples of the implementation of Michigan`s site reclamation program are also provided.

Lynnes, K.D. [Berlin, Lynnes and Davidson, Inc., Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Identifying opportunities Overcoming barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and practical environmental management, particularly deer management. Project researchers; Helen Armstrong'Brien, Sharon Phillip, Louise Ross, Jim Smart, Renè van der Wal, Piran White, Rehema White, and Steve Yearley

20

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about overcoming...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coastal Barrier Resources Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanicPower Address:ClimaticCoalogix Inc Jump to:Barrier

22

The Functional Requirements and Design Basis for Information Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the Information Barrier Working Group workshop held at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM, February 2-4, 1999. This workshop was convened to establish the functional requirements associated with warhead radiation signature information barriers, to identify the major design elements of any such system or approach, and to identify a design basis for each of these major elements. Such information forms the general design basis to be used in designing, fabricating, and evaluating the complete integrated systems developed for specific purposes.

Fuller, James L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system costs and improving thermal outputs to the point that solar energy is cost effective. Petro-Sun International recognized, several years ago, the need for lowering costs and has subsequently dedicated its Research and Development program... the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards and the research capability to the edge of commercially realisable solar...

Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

24

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming...

25

Opportunities and barriers for sustainable international bioenergy trade and strategies to overcome them -A report prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 40  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sustainable energy production. Stimulated by the renewable energy policies in several countries, rising oil-side, · On the longer-term, market support policies in the various countries, etc. should be designed to promote them - A report prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 40 1 Opportunities and barriers for sustainable

26

Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementati...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities. 55318.pdf More Documents &...

27

Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementati...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities. The guide explores Portland's...

28

Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the genetic information associated with the various pathogens. In addition, it has been determined that a suitable information barrier could be applied to this technology when the verification regime has been defined. Finally, the report posits a path forward for additional development of information barriers in a biological weapons verification regime. This path forward has shown that a new analysis approach coined as Information Loss Analysis might need to be pursued so that a numerical understanding of how information can be lost in specific measurement systems can be achieved.

Luke, S J

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:form View source HistoryBarriers and Policy Options Jump

30

Selecting Financing Strategies to Overcome Corporate Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or longer than the list of presentations at this year's Industrial Energy Conservation Conference. This paper will focus on two of the many potential answers. First, the corporate decision making process in industrial firms presents many obstacles to a final...

Michaelson, M. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Project Information Form Project Title Do California Highways Act as Barriers to Gene Flow for Ground-Dwelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(by each agency or organization) Caltrans $78,395 Total Project Cost $78,395 Agency ID or ContractProject Information Form Project Title Do California Highways Act as Barriers to Gene Flow of Research Project Roads can act as significant barriers to wildlife dispersal, creating small fragmented

California at Davis, University of

32

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal...

33

Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

35

Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Transcript Presentation More Documents & Publications...

36

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Merit Review, June 18, 2014 Acknowledgements * Claus Daniel * Jianlin Li * Beth Armstrong * Brad Brown * Debasish Mohanty * Shrikant Nagpure * U.S. DOE Office of Energy...

37

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

methods - Tailored Aqueous Colloids for Lithium-Ion Electrodes (TACLE) B.L. Armstrong et al., U.S. Patent Application No. 13651,270. - Surface charge measurement,...

38

THREE VIRGINIA PROGRAMS OVERCOME BARRIERS TO UPGRADES | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

upgrades. RREA used a home energy makeover contest to educate homeowners and drive demand. RREA also engaged faith-based institutions and neighborhood associations in its...

39

Overcoming organization barriers to adopting sustainable business practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Companies of all sizes are now looking for ways to reduce their energy use and carbon emissions, motivated by the desire to save money, improve public relations, and prepare for a possible carbon tax. From a technical ...

Chew, Mark P. (Mark Paul)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

issues. Establish Targets Reporting Coordination of efficiency programs with Carbon Identify resources Key Responsibilities: Driving the rapid execution of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.govpublications. 71. "Buildings Energy Data Book." U. S. Department of Energy. Accessed June 22, 2014: http:...

42

Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

covering multifamily energy efficiency, state energy financing, and deployment of alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure. Prior to working at NASEO, Sandy gained...

43

Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production -...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

given by Semprius during the Photovoltaic Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California, on August 31, 2011. sempriusburroughspvvalidation2011aug.pdf More...

44

Overcoming barriers to energy efficiency for rental housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving building energy efficiency is widely recognized as one of the best strategies for combating climate change and other energy problems. Energy efficiency implementation has been slow, however, due to a number of ...

Williams, Beth E. (Beth Ellen)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

process including surface charge and rheology characterization, agglomerate size optimization, order of constituent addition, and tailoring of mixing protocol. - Coating...

46

Obstacles and Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers in Today's CHP Marketplace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined heat and power (CHP), which can offer tremendous efficiency benefits to industrial facilities around the country, continues to be viewed as a long-term efficiency opportunity. However, the high up-front cost of CHP equipment and fuel...

Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,Orleans County, Vermont:Ottawa County,Otter LakeOutagamieStressOpen

48

Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket | Department ofSecretaryMarch 26, 2015 DOE

49

Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment Barriers |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and Launches theResidential Buildings » ZeroWinsRate

50

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program -Department oftoThese Web sites offer educationalofAProgram|

51

EnergyPlus Overcomes (Computer) Language Barrier | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program -Department oftoTheseClick on the graphic to learnEnergyVersion 8.2.0

52

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOEDeployment |FinancingLoan

53

THREE VIRGINIA PROGRAMS OVERCOME BARRIERS TO UPGRADES | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from the GridwiseSiteDepartmentChallengeCompliance7/109THE WHITE HOUSE THE

54

Breaking the O(n 1/(2k-1) ) Barrier for InformationTheoretic Private Information Retrieval #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information Retrieval (PIR) protocols allow a user to retrieve a data item from a database while hiding the identity of the item being retrieved. Specifically, in information­theoretic k­server PIR protocols of information­theoretic k­server PIR is improved to n O( log log k k log k ) . The new PIR protocols can also

Beimel, Amos

55

Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inverting one-way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1.1 The Need for a New Barrier Yet for both for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural-protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( n log n) communication (essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck

Wigderson, Avi

57

Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty New realities, new challenges: new opportunities for tomorrow's generation #12;"The Rural Poverty Report 2011 is a valuable contribution to the effort that it supports investment, innovation and risk-taking. I have high hopes that the Rural Poverty Report will help

58

Copyright 2010 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. Esselman, P. C., and J. J. Opperman. 2010. Overcoming information limitations for the prescription of an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Honduras below a proposed hydroelectric dam. To develop flow recommendations, we applied a multistep Information Administration (EIA) 2010). Costa Rica alone built more than 30 new hydroelectric plants during the 1990s (Braga et al. 2000, Anderson et al. 2006). A recent assessment of future hydroelectric

59

Overcoming Scalability Challenges for Tool Daemon Launching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many tools that target parallel and distributed environments must co-locate a set of daemons with the distributed processes of the target application. However, efficient and portable deployment of these daemons on large scale systems is an unsolved problem. We overcome this gap with LaunchMON, a scalable, robust, portable, secure, and general purpose infrastructure for launching tool daemons. Its API allows tool builders to identify all processes of a target job, launch daemons on the relevant nodes and control daemon interaction. Our results show that Launch-MON scales to very large daemon counts and substantially enhances performance over existing ad hoc mechanisms.

Ahn, D H; Arnold, D C; de Supinski, B R; Lee, G L; Miller, B P; Schulz, M

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Overcoming efficiency constraints on blind quantum computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraints only hold in limited scenarios and show how to overcome it using a method based on iterated gate-teleportations. We present our results as a family of protocols, with varying degrees of computational-ability requirements on the client. Certain protocols in this family exponentially outperform previously known schemes in terms of total communication. The approach presented here can be adapted to other distributed computing protocols to reduce communication requirements.

Carlos A. Pérez-Delgado; Joseph F. Fitzsimons

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

62

Overcoming the Barrier to Achieving Large-Scale Production - A Case Study |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy SecondEfficiencyGuide,To ensureDepartmentMarketingMOX

63

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F SSales LLCDiesel Enginesthewith Rational Catalyst Design

64

Laboratory evaluation of performance and durability of polymer grouts for subsurface hydraulic/diffusion barriers. Informal report, October 1993--May 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier. Subsurface barriers increase the performance of waste disposal sites by providing a low permeability layer that can reduce percolation water migration into the waste site, minimize surface transport of contaminants, and reduce migration of volatile species. Also, a barrier can be constructed to envelop the site or plume completely, there by containing the contaminants and the potential leakage. Portland cement grout curtains have been used for barriers around waste sites. However, large castings of hydraulic cements result invariably in cracking due to shrinkage, thermal stresses induced by the hydration reactions, and wet-dry cycling prevalent at and sites. Therefore, improved, low permeability, high integrity materials are under investigation by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development, Integrated Demonstrations and Programs. The binders chosen for characterization include: an acrylic, a vinylester styrene, bitumen, a polyester styrene, furfuryl alcohol, and sulfur polymer cement. These materials cover broad ranges of chemical and physical durability, performance, viscosity, and cost. This report details the results of laboratory formulation, testing, and characterization of several innovative polymer grouts. An appendix containing a database of the barrier materials is at the end of this report.

Heiser, J.H.; Milian, L.W.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for some of the very same problems (like inverting one­way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1 for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P #= NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural an MA­protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( # n log n) communication (essentially matching

Wigderson, Avi

66

Algebrization: A New Barrier in Complexity Theory Scott Aaronson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

problems (like inverting one-way functions) that we wanted to prove were hard. 1.1 The Need for a New for Advanced Study Abstract Any proof of P = NP will have to overcome two barriers: relativization and natural-protocol for the Inner Product function with O ( n log n) communication (essentially matching a lower bound of Klauck

Wigderson, Avi

67

Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.

Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

68

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the wind potential in various parts of the state. This report describes four sub-categories of work done by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER) at Marshall University under this contract. The four sub-projects are: (1) research on the impacts of wind turbines on residential property values; (2) research on the integration of wind energy in regional transmission systems; (3) review of state-based wind legislation in consideration of model new policy options for West Virginia; and (4) promotion of wind facilities on former surface mine sites through development of a database of potential sites.

Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cognitive Control Involved in Overcoming Prepotent Response Tendencies and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive Control Involved in Overcoming Prepotent Response Tendencies and Switching Between Tasks, USA, 2 Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA and 3 University, parietal, task switching, conflict effect, preparation Introduction Cognitive control comprises several

Wainwright, Peter C.

72

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Recycler barrier RF buckets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program (managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE) is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Retractable barrier strip  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

77

Overcoming Dataset Bias: An Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overcoming Dataset Bias: An Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Approach Boqing Gong Dept. of Computer that recognition datasets are biased. Paying no heed to those biases, learning algorithms often result in classifiers with poor cross- dataset generalization. We are developing domain adaptation techniques to over

Grauman, Kristen

78

Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

page 1 Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design Michelle Hankinson, Amanda of sustainable design and barriers that influence their sustainable design practices. The paper reflects showed that education and experience informs a designer's understanding and values towards sustainable

79

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Micro heat barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Overcoming challenges: Going mobile with your own video models.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Web 2.0 a Ö 5 Overcoming Challenges Going Mobile With Your Own Video Models Christina R. Carnahan, James D. Basham, Jennifer Christman, and Aleksandra HoUingshead Ms. Heller is a middle school interveh- tion specialist who is planning weekly trtps... with disabilities. Video modeling is one such instructional techniciue. Essentially, video inodeling provides students with a video that illustrates the context and steps required to com- plete a desired behavior (Bellini, AkuUian, & Hopf, 2007). Traditional video...

Carnahan, Christina R.; Basham, James D.; Christman, Jennifer; Hollingshead, Aleksandra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High Efficiency Gas Turbines Overcome Cogeneration Project Feasibility Hurdles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH EFFICIENCY GAS TlJR1HNES OVERCOME COGENFRATION PROJECT FEASIBILITY HURDLES JIM KING Gas Turbine Perfonumce Engineer STEVART &: STEVENSON SERVICES. INC. Houston. TelUlS ABSTRACT Cogeneration project feasibility sometimes fails... during early planning stages due to an electrical cycle efficiency which could be improved through the use of aeroderivative gas turbine engines. The aeroderivative engine offers greater degrees of freedom in terms of power augmentation through...

King, J.

84

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermal barrier coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - allocation barrier concept Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Singapore Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 5 The Fuzzy Barrier: A Mechanism for High Speed Synchronization of Processors* Summary: the...

88

Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

Overcoming the blood-brain barrier to taxane delivery for brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vessels. After the perfusion, the rat was decapitated and the brain removed for sampling of various regions. The brain tissue was digested in Solvable for 24 hrs and the radioactivity quantified via liquid scintillation spectrometry. The capillary...

Rice, Antonie; Michaelis, Mary L.; Georg, Gunda I.; Liu, Yanbin; Turunen, Brandon; Audus, Kenneth L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Affirmatively furthering fair housing : overcoming barriers to implementation of the Westchester County, NY false claims case settlement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Westchester County, NY was sued by the Anti-Discrimination Center of Metro New York, Inc. (ADC) under the False Claims Act for allegedly failing to meet its Affirmatively Further Fair Housing obligation for Community ...

Stein, Julie Iris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Bonneville Power Administration and the Industrial Technologies Program Leverage Support to Overcome Energy Efficiency Barriers in the Northwest  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study explores how Bonneville Power Administration, a Northwest regional wholesale power provider, rethought how to encourage and promote energy efficiency projects through its utilities.

94

Overcoming the barriers: school success of Mexican American graduates from Pan American University in South Texas from 1955 to 1975  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American students who fail do so because of limited educability. This type of thinking impacted perceptions of M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s ? e d u c a b i l i t y a n d s c h o o l practices. These views served as the dominant... means by which to view Mexican American students as limited (San M i g u e l & V a l e n c i a , 1 9 9 8 ) . T h e 1 9 7 0 ? s b r o u g h t a b o u t c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e education problems...

Garcia, Juanita Celia

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Underground waste barrier structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, Charles A. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, C.A.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Influence of dust on the emissivity of radiant barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

beloved children Anita Maria and Felipe Homero, and my family in Ecuador. The support and love of my mother and father, and my family-in-law were vital to overcome the difficulties. I would like to mention my sister in law Luly for her special attention... To My Beloved Father To Anita Maria and Fehpe Homero TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DEDICATION V 1 1 LIST OF FIGURES Xl NOMENCLATURE . X111 1. INTRODUCTION 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 3. TOPICS ON RADIANT BARRIERS PERFORMANCE 3. 1...

Noboa, Homero Luis

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

P. Dixon

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Accelerating Climate Technologies: Innovative Market Strategies to Overcome  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWaterBrasil Jump to: navigation, search Name:Brophy brBarriers to

102

Performing a local barrier operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Performing a local barrier operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

105

MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations, indicating some loss of reductive capacity within the aquifer. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) was requested to perform the following activities: (1) evaluate the most probable condition(s) that has led to the presence of Cr(VI) in 12 different barrier wells (i.e. premature loss of reductive capacity), (2) recommend methods for determining the cause of the problem, (3) recommend methods for evaluating the magnitude of the problem, (4) recommend practicable method(s) for mending the barrier that involves a long-term solution, and (5) recommend methods for extending the barrier to the northeast (e.g., changing injection procedure, changing or augmenting the injected material). Since the March 2004 workshop, a decision has been made to place a hold on the barrier extension until more is known about the cause of the problem. However, the report complies with the original request for information on all of the above activities, but focuses on determining the cause of the problem and mending of the existing barrier.

PETERSEN, S.W.

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - aquaculture overcoming biological Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Ulugan Bay in the Philip- pines. We designed our approach to overcome... education, ecotourism, hydrology, tropical coastal biology, shrimp aquaculture, ecological...

107

The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JD (2009) Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases.JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomassthe next-generation of biofuels— liquid fuels derived from

Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

Fujita, K. Sydny

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

109

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

110

Global interrupt and barrier networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

Renewable Energy Permitting Barriers in Hawaii: Experience from the Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This white paper presents a summary of the solicited input from permitting agencies and renewable energy developers on the permitting process in Hawaii to provide stakeholders in Hawaii, particularly those involved in permitting, with information on current permitting barriers that renewable energy developers are experiencing.

Busche, S.; Donnelly, C.; Atkins, D.; Fields, R.; Black, C.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA); Jackaway, Adam D. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

113

Nanoparticle-based combination therapy toward overcoming drug resistance in cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Nanoparticle-based combination therapy toward overcoming drug resistance in cancer Che-Ming Jack Hu, Liangfang Zhang * Department of Nanoengineering and Moores Cancer Center, University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106 3. Combinatorial nanoparticles against multidrug resistance in cancer

Zhang, Liangfang

114

Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1984-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

116

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

Wadley, Haydn

117

Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements.

Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

Numerical Valuation of Discrete Barrier Options with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Valuation of Discrete Barrier Options with the Adaptive Mesh Model and Other Competing for discrete barrier options such that many methods have been suggested and declared to price discrete barrier options fast and accurately but no one can tell exactly that what method is the best. We also make

Chu, Hao-hua

119

Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

barrier  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste andAnniversary, partReview64,783 56,478Tidd Optical Depthbarrier

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

The development of surface barriers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineered barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth`s surface at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Much of the waste that would be disposed of by in-place stabilization currently is located in relatively shallow subsurface structures such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via the following pathways: plant, animal, and human intrusion; water infiltration; erosion; and the exhalation of noxious gases. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed to protect wastes disposed of ``in place`` from the transport pathways identified previously (Figure 1). The protective barrier consists of a variety of different materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt, etc.) placed in layers to form an above-grade mound directly over the waste zone. Surface markers are being considered for placement around the periphery of the waste sites to inform future generations of the nature and hazards of the buried wastes. In addition, throughout the protective barrier, subsurface markers could be placed to warn any inadvertent human intruders of the dangers of the buried wastes (Figure 2).

Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

Smith, M.J.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

University of Central Florida Overcoming extreme water conditions through computer modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can better predict the effects of extreme water events," he added. Hagen's team produced an accurateUniversity of Central Florida Overcoming extreme water conditions through computer modeling In recent years, we've witnessed the devastating effects of too much water. The great Indian Ocean tsunami

Central Florida, University of

125

Lyndon B. Johnson and the "We Shall Overcome" address: a case study in rhetorical transcendence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On March 15,1965, Lyndon B. Johnson delivered the "We Shall Overcome address in support of passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which made it illegal for states to keep African Americans from voting. In this speech, Johnson responded...

Lawrence, Windy Y

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Designing Automated Agents Capable of Efficiently Negotiating with People -Overcoming the Challenge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiently with people. Many challenges are facing agents design- ers who aim to design an automatedDesigning Automated Agents Capable of Efficiently Negotiating with People - Overcoming negotiator, even when people are not in the loop. In addition, the fact that people are scarce resources

Kraus, Sarit

127

The Future of Water Resources Adaptive Management: Challenges and Overcoming Them  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Future of Water Resources Adaptive Management: Challenges and Overcoming Them Donald F. Boesch, Patricia N. Manley and Theodore S. Melis Adaptive management is being increasingly embraced in water.g., in regulated water management). Models that are traditionally used to govern operations can be broadened

128

Reducing Barriers To The Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute completed the four-year research project, Reducing Barriers to the Use of High-Efficiency Lighting Systems. The initial objectives were: (1) identifying barriers to widespread penetration of lighting controls in commercial/industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and (2) making recommendations to overcome these barriers. The addition of a fourth year expanded the original project objectives to include an examination of the impact on fluorescent lamps from dimming utilizing different lamp electrode heating and dimming ratios. The scope of the project was narrowed to identify barriers to the penetration of lighting controls into commercial-industrial (C/I) applications that employ fluorescent lamp technologies, and to recommend means for overcoming these barriers. Working with lighting manufacturers, specifiers, and installers, the project identified technological and marketing barriers to the widespread use of lighting controls, specifically automatic-off controls, occupancy sensors, photosensors, dimming systems, communication protocols and load-shedding ballasts. The primary barriers identified include cost effectiveness of lighting controls to the building owner, lack of standard communication protocols to allow different part of the control system to communicate effectively, and installation and commissioning issues. Overcoming the identified barriers requires lighting control products on the market to achieve three main goals: (1) Achieve sufficient functionality to meet the key requirements of their main market. (2) Allow significant cost reduction compared to current market standard systems. Cost should consider: hardware capital cost including wiring, design time required by the specifier and the control system manufacturer, installation time required by the electrician, and commissioning time and remedial time required by the electrician and end user. (3) Minimize ongoing perceived overhead costs and inconvenience to the end user, or in other words, systems should be simple to understand and use. In addition, we believe that no lighting controls solution is effective or acceptable unless it contributes to, or does not compromise, the following goals: (1) Productivity--Planning, installation, commissioning, maintenance, and use of controls should not decrease business productivity; (2) Energy savings--Lighting controls should save significant amounts of energy and money in relation to the expense involved in using them (acceptable payback period); and/or (3) Reduced power demand--Society as a whole should benefit from the lowered demand for expensive power and for more natural resources. Discussions of technology barriers and developments are insufficient by themselves to achieve higher penetration of lighting controls in the market place. Technology transfer efforts must play a key role in gaining market acceptance. The LRC developed a technology transfer model to better understand what actions are required and by whom to move any technology toward full market acceptance.

Peter Morante

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Experiment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

interaction to evaluate sealing and clay barrier performance; 2) EBS Experiment -thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) behavior of the EBS under heating conditions and...

131

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

132

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011....

133

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institutional Barriers to Energy Conservation C. M. York, C.P.R. , 1973. "Energy Conservation in Buildings: ItsS. (eds. ), 1973. Energy Conservation: Implica­ tions for

York, C.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low-income housing in Kampala, Uganda : a strategy package to overcome barriers for delivering housing opportunities affordable to the urban poor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The city of Kampala, Uganda, is struggling with a housing deficit that is compounding each year and creating market distortions that threaten to derail recent economic success and destabilize the social fabric of the ...

Mayer, Richard Campbell

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

VEHICLE-BARRIER TRACKING OF ASCALED CRASH TEST FOR ROADSIDE BARRIER DESIGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reality of the vehicle-barrier impact. Scaled testing may thus be a cost effective method to evaluateVEHICLE-BARRIER TRACKING OF ASCALED CRASH TEST FOR ROADSIDE BARRIER DESIGN Giuseppina Amato1 Engineering, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG, UK 2 Trinity College Dublin, Dept

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Standards for Barrier-Free Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standards for Barrier-Free Campus Office for Students with Disabilities University Planning Office June 2004 F:\\PROJECTS\\Disabled\\ACCESS04.doc #12;INTRODUCTION The McGill standards for barrier-free and universal design (hereafter referred to as the McGill Standards) are the minimum requirements

Kambhampati, Patanjali

137

BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION JENNIFER GARMAN DR. JIM BOWYER DR. STEVE BRATKOVICH/18/2011 DOVETAIL PARTNERS, INC. www.dovetailinc.org Building Codes: Barriers to Green Innovation Introduction Many architects and contractors want to pursue green building design, technologies and construction. Green

138

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

Quantum sensors based on weak-value amplification cannot overcome decoherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors that harness exclusively quantum phenomena (such as entanglement) can achieve superior performance compared to those employing only classical principles. Recently, a technique based on postselected, weakly-performed measurements has emerged as a method of overcoming technical noise in the detection and estimation of small interaction parameters, particularly in optical systems. The question of which other types of noise may be combatted remains open. We here analyze whether the effect can overcome decoherence in a typical field sensing scenario. Benchmarking a weak, postselected measurement strategy against a strong, direct strategy we conclude that no advantage is achievable, and that even a small amount of decoherence proves catastrophic to the weak-value amplification technique.

George C. Knee; G. Andrew D. Briggs; Simon C. Benjamin; Erik M. Gauger

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

140

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Multi-layer waste containment barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nickelson, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Sub-barrier fusion of {sup 32}S+{sup 48}Ca  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fusion excitation function of {sup 32}S+{sup 48}Ca has been measured in a wide energy range, from above the Coulomb barrier down to cross sections in the sub-{mu}b region. The excitation function has a smooth behavior below the barrier with a rather flat slope, and no maximum of astrophysical factor S vs. energy has been observed. However, other interesting features of the dynamics of this system can be noted. In particular, the fusion barrier distribution has an unusual shape with two peaks of similar height, lower and higher than the Akyuez-Winther barrier. Preliminary coupledchannels calculations and a comparison with nearby systems yield information on the possible influence of nucleon transfer channels with positive Q-value.

Montagnoli, G.; Stefanini, A. M.; Jiang, C. L.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ. di Padova, and INFN, Sez. di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); and others

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

143

Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

barrier for goods requiring long shelf life. Current gas barrier technologies like plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD) often create high barrier metal oxide films, which are prone to cracking when flexed. Bulk composites composed of polymer...

Yang, You-Hao

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

144

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Effects of nuclear deformation and neutron transfer in capture process, and origin of fusion hindrance at deep sub-barrier energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The roles of nuclear deformation and neutron transfer in sub-barrier capture process are studied within the quantum diffusion approach. The change of the deformations of colliding nuclei with neutron exchange can crucially influence the sub-barrier fusion. The comparison of the calculated capture cross section and the measured fusion cross section in various reactions at extreme sub- barrier energies gives us information about the fusion and quasifission.

V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management Conference DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management...

147

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Drivers and Barriers in the Current...

148

Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010 This report...

149

February 20, 2014 Webinar - Performance of Engineered Barriers...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

20, 2014 Webinar - Performance of Engineered Barriers: Lessons Learned February 20, 2014 Webinar - Performance of Engineered Barriers: Lessons Learned February 20, 2014 Webinar -...

150

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Removing Barriers...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Review 2014: Removing Barriers, Implementing Policies and Advancing Alternative Fuels Markets in New England Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Removing Barriers,...

151

Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

152

Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code - Building America Top Innovation Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...

153

Method for forming a barrier layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

DeScioli, Derek

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Communicating across barriers at home and abroad  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper intends to catalyze the exchange of experience among technical communicators in meeting the challenge of communicating across a multitude of barriers: linguistic, disciplinary, cultural, political, intellectual, and emotional.

McDonald, J.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with...

157

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions ...

Schmalensee, Richard

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

158

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic ...

Schmalensee, Richard

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

Wilkes, K. E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Surface barriers: Problems, solutions, and future needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of designing a surface barrier for a remediation project can be an enormously challenging task. There is a widely held misconception that surface barrier technology is well developed and works as expected. In fact, the technology is largely unproved and experimental, particularly in terms of long-term performance. The most difficult problem with surface barriers is to provide a long-term barrier to infiltration of water. The materials that have traditionally been considered for the hydraulic barrier within surface barrier systems are low-permeability compacted soil, geomembranes, and the geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Data are presented to suggest that low-permeability compacted soil is often a poor choice of materials. Unless the compacted soil liner is buried under a very thick layer of protective soil or covered by a geomembrane, the low-permeability, clay-rich, compacted soil is likely to desiccate and lose its low hydraulic conductivity. Differential settlement of a compacted soil liner from uneven compression of underlying waste or other causes is almost certain to produce cracks within the soil liner. Geomembranes do not suffer as much from these problems, but their design life is, at best, a few centuries, The GCL, which contains a thin layer of bentonite, is much better able to resist damage from freezing/thawing, desiccation, and differential settlement than compacted soil liners. The technology of the GCL, which is particularly well suited for arid sites, is reviewed in some detail in this paper because of its technical attributes in surface-barrier applications. Published case histories of the performance of surface barriers are summarized.

Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Model assessment of protective barriers: Part 3. Status of FY 1990 work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste exists at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in a variety of locations, including subsurface grout and tank farms, solid waste burial grounds, and contaminated soil sites. Some of these waste sites may need to be isolated from percolating water to minimize the potential for transport of the waste to the ground water, which eventually discharges to the Columbia River. Multilayer protective barriers have been proposed as a means of limiting the flow of water through the waste sites (DOE 1987). A multiyear research program [managed jointly by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE] is aimed at assessing the performance of these barriers. One aspect of this program involves the use of computer models to predict barrier performance. Three modeling studies have already been conducted and a test plan was produced. The simulation work reported here was conducted by PNL and extends the previous modeling work. The purpose of this report are to understand phenomena that have been observed in the field and to provide information that can be used to improve hydrologic modeling of the protective barrier. An improved modeling capability results in better estimates of barrier performance. Better estimates can be used to improve the design of barriers and the assessment of their long-term performance.

Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Holford, D.J.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Modeling approaches for concrete barriers used in low-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three NUREGs and several papers addressing different aspects of modeling performance of concrete barriers for low-level radioactive waste disposal have been prepared previously for the Concrete Barriers Research Project. This document integrates the information from the previous documents into a general summary of models and approaches that can be used in performance assessments of concrete barriers. Models for concrete degradation, flow, and transport through cracked concrete barriers are discussed. The models for flow and transport assume that cracks have occurred and thus should only be used for later times in simulations after fully penetrating cracks are formed. Most of the models have been implemented in a computer code. CEMENT, that was developed concurrently with this document. User documentation for CEMENT is provided separate from this report. To avoid duplication, the reader is referred to the three previous NUREGs for detailed discussions of each of the mathematical models. Some additional information that was not presented in the previous documents is also included. Sections discussing lessons learned from applications to actual performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities are provided. Sensitive design parameters are emphasized to identify critical areas of performance for concrete barriers, and potential problems in performance assessments are also identified and discussed.

Seitz, R.R.; Walton, J.C. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM FEATURES, EVENTS AND PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of engineered barrier system (EBS) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to models and analyses used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for exclusion screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with those features, events, and processes relevant to the EBS focusing mainly on those components and conditions exterior to the waste package and within the rock mass surrounding emplacement drifts. The components of the EBS are the drip shield, waste package, waste form, cladding, emplacement pallet, emplacement drift excavated opening (also referred to as drift opening in this report), and invert. FEPs specific to the waste package, cladding, and drip shield are addressed in separate FEP reports: for example, ''Screening of Features, Events, and Processes in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174995]), ''Clad Degradation--FEPs Screening Arguments (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170019]), and Waste-Form Features, Events, and Processes'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170020]). For included FEPs, this report summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report also documents changes to the EBS FEPs list that have occurred since the previous versions of this report. These changes have resulted due to a reevaluation of the FEPs for TSPA-LA as identified in Section 1.2 of this report and described in more detail in Section 6.1.1. This revision addresses updates in Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) administrative procedures as they pertain to this report; the current procedures are addressed in Section 2. This revision also addresses updates to the technical basis in supporting analysis and model reports and corroborative documentation, as presented in Sections 4 and 6 of this report. Finally, Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this report provide additional information pertaining to the relevant FEPs-related Acceptance Criteria presented in ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (YMRP) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274], Sections 2.2.1.2.1.3 and 2.2.1.3.3.3).

Jaros, W.

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

170

Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

(MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controled switching and effecting a direction of rectification.

Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

172

Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R&D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo- transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined.

Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Beller, John Michael; Geesey, Gill Gregroy; Glenn, David Frankie; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Martian, Pete; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Porro, Indrek; Southworth, Finis Hio; Steffler, Eric Darwin; Stormberg, Angelica Isabel; Stormberg, Gregory John; Versteeg, Roelof Jan; White, Gregory J

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

175

Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

177

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

FIRE IMPACTS ON AN ENGINEERED BARRIER’S PERFORMANCE: THE HANFORD BARRIER ONE YEAR AFTER A CONTROLLED BURN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical unknown for long-term engineered barrier performance is the effect of wild fire during a post-institutional control environment where routine maintenance may be limited or non-existent. In September 2008, a controlled burn was conducted on one half of a vegetated, multilayered capillary barrier emplaced over a Hanford waste site. The effects on barrier performance have been monitored and documented over the past year. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic properties; plant floristics and density; and animal-use were characterized before and after the fire with the unburned half of the barrier serving as a control. Temperatures during the controlled burn ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Significant decreases in hydraulic conductivity and surface-soil wettability were observed immediately after the fire due primarily to hydrophobic conditions created by the fire. Major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated post-fire. Up until June 2009, post-burn soil moisture content in the 0-1 m depth interval was significantly lower on the burned section than the unburned section and is attributed to differences in surface evaporation. Higher soil moisture contents in the 1-2 m interval on the burned section are attributed to insignificant water uptake owing to the absence of deep-rooted shrubs. Moisture profiles reversed after June to show lower water contents throughout the profile on the unburned section. Dense stands of sagebrush were destroyed from the fire allowing many more species to emerge thereby increasing species diversity. Seed sources contributing to this species diversification were from either the existing seedbank and/or wind-blown sources. Measurements are ongoing and the results are expected to help close a knowledge gap about barrier recovery after major disturbances.

Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Leary, Kevin D.; Berlin, Gregory T.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceInformationOvercome

180

Fusion and Direct Reactions of Halo Nuclei at Energies around the Coulomb Barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present understanding of reaction processes involving light unstable nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier is reviewed. The effect of coupling to direct reaction channels on elastic scattering and fusion is investigated, with the focus on halo nuclei. A list of definitions of processes is given, followed by a review of the experimental and theoretical tools and information presently available. The effect of couplings on elastic scattering and fusion is studied with a series of model calculations within the coupled-channels framework. The experimental data on fusion are compared to "bare" no-coupling one-dimensional barrier penetration model calculations. On the basis of these calculations and comparisons with experimental data, conclusions are drawn from the observation of recurring features. The total fusion cross sections for halo nuclei show a suppression with respect to the "bare" calculations at energies just above the barrier that is probably due to single neutron transfer reactions. The data for total fusion are also consistent with a possible sub-barrier enhancement; however, this observation is not conclusive and other couplings besides the single-neutron channels would be needed in order to explain any actual enhancement. We find that a characteristic feature of halo nuclei is the dominance of direct reactions over fusion at near and sub-barrier energies; the main part of the cross section is related to neutron transfers, while calculations indicate only a modest contribution from the breakup process.

N. Keeley; R. Raabe; N. Alamanos; J. L. Sida

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electrical Transport in Schottky Barrier MOSFETs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barrier (SB) MOSFET is one such device. It consists of metallic silicide source and drain contacts' that result in a reduced local potential at the abrupt metal/semiconductor interface. At relatively high at the Metal/Semiconductor Interface 66 4.3. Current Transport Limits 69 4.4. Sub-threshold Regime 72 4

Reed, Mark

182

Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of copper into silicon, which is primarily through grain boundaries. This dissertation reports the processing of high quality stoichiometric thin films of TiN, TaN and HfN, and studies their Cu diffusion barrier properties. Epitaxial metastable cubic TaN (B1...

Araujo, Roy A.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-2294E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC and Environment's (CIEE) Demand Response Emerging Technologies Development (DRETD) Program, under Work for Others

184

Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Information to iteration : using information and communication technologies [ICT] in design for remote regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote design comes with significant challenges. A major barrier to designing in remote regions is the lack of communication between designers and users. As a result, the lack of information flow leads to assumptions about ...

Griffith, Kenfield A. (Kenfield Allistair)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron.Overcoming these challenges has permitted increasingly sophisticated imaging of animals with synchrotron X-rays, and we expect a bright future for these techniques.

Donnelley, Martin [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Parsons, David [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatircs Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Morgan, Kaye [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siu, Karen [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

187

Model Studies of Pore Stability and Evolution in Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Katz, “Advanced Ceramics: Thermal Barrier Coatings BeatConductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier CoatingsFatigue Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings,” NASA/

Glaeser, A M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Can a Workspace Help to Overcome the Query Formulation Problem in Image Retrieval?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Urban,J. Jose,J.M. Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Information Retrieval (ECIR'06) pp 385â??396 Springer Verlag

Urban, J.

189

Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier June 25, 2010 - 12:16pm Addthis EnerNex Corporation is developing documentation and...

190

Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD the barrier to linearity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD 3 above the barrier to linearity BY JENNIFER L. GOTTFRIED, transitions of HC 3 above the barrier to linearity have been observed. A highly sensitive near-infrared-adiabatic and radiative corrections is revealed. Keywords: HD 3 ; near-infrared spectroscopy; barrier to linearity 1

Oka, Takeshi

191

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

192

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Kim, Jin Yong (Richland, WA); Choi, Jung-Pyung (Richland, WA)

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

193

Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

Chintakunta, Satish R. [Engineering and Software Consultants, Inc., 14123 Robert Paris Ct., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Boone, Shane D. [Federal Highway Administration, Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

195

Fission barriers and half-lives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We briefly review the development of theoretical models for the calculation of fission barriers and half-lives. We focus on how results of actual calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach provide an interpretation of the mechanisms behind some of the large number of phenomena observed in fission. As instructive examples we choose studies of the rapidly varying fission properties of elements at the end of the periodic system. 31 refs., 10 figs.

Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

199

Performing a global barrier operation in a parallel computer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Executing computing tasks on a parallel computer that includes compute nodes coupled for data communications, where each compute node executes tasks, with one task on each compute node designated as a master task, including: for each task on each compute node until all master tasks have joined a global barrier: determining whether the task is a master task; if the task is not a master task, joining a single local barrier; if the task is a master task, joining the global barrier and the single local barrier only after all other tasks on the compute node have joined the single local barrier.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

200

Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier.

Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Soil Insulation For Barrier Layer Protection In Landfill Covers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landfill covers are designed to isolate waste from the environment by incorporating low-permeability barrier layers. The barrier layer minimizes and controls gas escaping from the waste and the amount of infiltrating moisture available for leachate generation. Barrier layers are typically designed and constructed of a thick layer of compacted fine-grain native soil material or a manufactured geosynthetic clay liner. The barrier layer must be protected from frost damage. Freezing of a compacted soil layer has been shown to cause quick and irreversible degradation. Large increases in permeability have been demonstrated in compacted clay barriers subjected to a minimum number of freezing and thawing cycles. Design methods to protect the barrier layer from frost damage have not been addressed in the research literature. A design procedure is addressed in this paper that determines the thickness of soil required to protect a barrier layer. The procedure is based on sitespecific temperature ...

Gregory Smith Roy

202

Alternative barrier layers for surface covers in dry climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface covers are one of the most widespread remediation and waste management options in all climates. Barrier layers to limit percolation through cover systems are principal features of engineered, multi-component cover designs. Conventional barrier layer components developed for humid climates have limitations in dry climates. One alternative barrier layer is a capillary barrier, which consists of a fine-over-coarse soil arrangement. The capacity of capillary barrier to laterally divert downward moving water is the key to their success. Another alternative is a dry barrier, in which atmospheric air is circulated through a coarse layer within the cover to remove water vapor. Incorporating a coarse layer which stores water for subsequent removal by air flow reduces the requirements for the air flow velocity and increases the applicability of the dry barrier.

Stormont, J.C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz, Rene´ Wuttke, Benjamin We propose a network-based method for determining basins and barriers of complex free energy surfaces for the iterative determination of individual basins by the minimum-cut-based free energy profile, a barrier

Caflisch, Amedeo

204

GAO cites barriers to Romanian ventures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Romania needs to modernize its energy sector and increase production to help implement free market reforms and invigorate its economy. In a report to Congress, GAO the despite the Romanian government's efforts to reform the energy sector and improve the country's business climate, impediments persist to U.S. Trade with and investment in Romania. The barriers include a lack of a comprehensive energy strategy; underdeveloped legal and business infrastructures, uncertain economic and political conditions, and the absence of a U.S. most favored nation trade status.

Not Available

1992-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas: Transmission, StorageIndustry andAir Barriers

207

Highway noise reduction by barrier walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's Variables 3. Noise Reduction and Noise Reduction Factor 4. Relationship Between Noise Attenuation and d 5. Rettinger's Variables 6. Relationship of Sound-Level Reduction and v 7. Basic Principles in Sound-Transmission Loss 8. The Mass Law Relationship... that the barrier wall is acoustically opaque (i. e. , impermeable to sound waves). Purcell (8) found that the noise transmission loss of a wall was a measure of the ratio of the acoustical energy transmitted through the wall to the acoustical energy incident...

Young, Murray F

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1987-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation that includes, for each compute node in the set: initializing a barrier counter with no counter underflow interrupt; configuring, upon entering the barrier operation, the barrier counter with a value in dependence upon a number of compute nodes in the set; broadcasting, by a DMA engine on the compute node to each of the other compute nodes upon entering the barrier operation, a barrier control packet; receiving, by the DMA engine from each of the other compute nodes, a barrier control packet; modifying, by the DMA engine, the value for the barrier counter in dependence upon each of the received barrier control packets; exiting the barrier operation if the value for the barrier counter matches the exit value.

Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Business Process driven solutions for innovative enterprise information systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Business Process driven solutions for innovative enterprise information systems F. Taglino, M. In particular, it will be argued about business process driven approach to information systems development and overcome current limits. Business process driven approach to IS development is here characterized by: (i

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

215

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

216

Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (20) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating (20) consists essentially of a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula consisting essentially of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof; where B is selected from the group of elements selected from Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof; n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Quantum calculation of Coulomb reorientation and near-barrier fusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the role of deformation on the fusion probability around the barrier using the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory with a full Skyrme force. We obtain a distribution of fusion probabilities around the nominal barrier due to the different contributions of the various orientations of the deformed nucleus at the touching point. It is also shown that the long range Coulomb reorientation reduces the fusion probability around the barrier.

Cédric Simenel; Michael Bender; Philippe Chomaz; Thomas Duguet; Gilles De France

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effects of Alloy Disorder on Schottky-Barrier Heights  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 35, NUMBER 18 15 JUNE 1987-II Effects of alloy disorder on Schottky-barrier heights Charles W. Myles Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 Shang-Fen Ren* and Roland E...~ The effects of alloy disorder on the Schottky barriers at semiconductor-alloy ?metal interfaces are investigated within the defect model of Schottky-barrier formation. The deep levels and the associ- ated wave functions for surface antisite defects, which...

MYLES, CW; REN, SF; Allen, Roland E.; REN, SY.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

1994-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

REVIEW OF MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS METHODS FOR PREDICTING CEMENTITIOUS BARRIER PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cementitious barriers for nuclear applications are one of the primary controls for preventing or limiting radionuclide release into the environment. At the present time, performance and risk assessments do not fully incorporate the effectiveness of engineered barriers because the processes that influence performance are coupled and complicated. Better understanding the behavior of cementitious barriers is necessary to evaluate and improve the design of materials and structures used for radioactive waste containment, life extension of current nuclear facilities, and design of future nuclear facilities, including those needed for nuclear fuel storage and processing, nuclear power production and waste management. The focus of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) literature review is to document the current level of knowledge with respect to: (1) mechanisms and processes that directly influence the performance of cementitious materials (2) methodologies for modeling the performance of these mechanisms and processes and (3) approaches to addressing and quantifying uncertainties associated with performance predictions. This will serve as an important reference document for the professional community responsible for the design and performance assessment of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This review also provides a multi-disciplinary foundation for identification, research, development and demonstration of improvements in conceptual understanding, measurements and performance modeling that would be lead to significant reductions in the uncertainties and improved confidence in the estimating the long-term performance of cementitious materials in nuclear applications. This report identifies: (1) technology gaps that may be filled by the CBP project and also (2) information and computational methods that are in currently being applied in related fields but have not yet been incorporated into performance assessments of cementitious barriers. The various chapters contain both a description of the mechanism or and a discussion of the current approaches to modeling the phenomena.

Langton, C.; Kosson, D.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

helped spur the growth of renewable energy projects, including solar, wind, and biomass power. This report aims to determine the barriers to CHP that exist within state RPS...

223

alveolar epithelial barrier: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lake 3Transmission through a Quantum Dynamical Delta Barrier T. Brandes1 ? and J. Robinson Department Levi, Anthony F. J. 199 Nitrate Removal in NITREXTM Permeable Reactive...

224

Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to Their Adoption: A Scoping Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Options for Energy Efficiency in India and Barriers to Their Adoption: A Scoping Study AgencyCompany...

225

New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: 3M - Minneapolis, MN DOE Funding:...

226

Recent Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Research to Address Technical Barriers to Increased Use of Biodiesel Wendy Clark & Bob McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado August 23, 2005 What is...

227

Panel 4, Grid-Scale Storage Technologies: Regulatory Barriers...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Grid-scale Storage Technologies Regulatory Barriers and Policy Instruments Hydrogen Energy Storage for Grid and Transportation Services May 15 th , 2014 Sacramento, CA Demand 599...

228

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

Moving North Texas Forward by Addressing Alternative Fuel Barriers...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

MOVING NORTH TEXAS FORWARD BY ADDRESSING ALTERANATIVE FUEL BARRIERS Presenter: Pamela Burns North Central Texas Council of Governments June 20, 2014 P.I. Mindy Mize Project ID...

230

Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

Shuntaro Takeda; Akira Furusawa

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

231

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time.

Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. III [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Garrabrants, A. C. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); van der Sloot, H. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy (The Netherlands); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (The Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc. , 1400, boul. du Parc - Technologique , Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D. W. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Fuhrmann, M. J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Philip, J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States)

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time. (authors)

Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands)] [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands)] [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada)] [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.W.; Fuhrmann, M.J.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

Schubert, Charlene

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

The Influence of Dust on the Absorptivity of Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this project was to model and quantify the increase of the absorptivity of radiant barriers caused by the accumulation of dust on the surface of radiant barriers. This research was the continuation of a previous work by the author...

Noboa, Homero L.

239

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And Other Funding Sources Prepared Summary The goal of this section of the Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan is to identify and evaluate financial incentives and barriers at points along the bioenergy industry value chain (feedstock production, feedstock

240

Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-tempera- ture exposure to oxygen, and an outer low thermal conduc- tivity ceramic coating, such as ytrriaDelamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers Matthew R layers upon thermal cycling delamination failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) driven by thickening

Wadley, Haydn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report.

Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F. [Ensearch Environmental, Inc. (United States); Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product...

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the findings obtained from crash tests performed on flat terrain. For barriers placed on roadside and median slopes, vehicle impact height varies depending on the trajectory of the vehicle along the ditch section and lateral offset of the barrier. Thus...

Ferdous, Md Rubiat

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

244

Performance characteristics of a self-sealing/self-healing barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environment Canada and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation are co-developers of a patented Self-Sealing/Self-Healing (SS/SH) Barrier system for containment of wastes which is licensed to Water Technology International Corporation. The SS/SH Barrier is intended for use as either a liner or cover for landfills, contaminated sites, secondary containment areas, etc., in the industrial, chemical, mining and municipal sectors, and also as a barrier to hydraulic flow for the transportation and construction industry. The SS/SH Barrier`s most significant feature is its capability for self-repair in the event of a breach. By contrast, conventional barrier systems, such as clay, geomembrane, or geosynthetic clay liners can not be repaired without laborious excavation and reconstruction. Laboratory investigations have shown that the SS/SH Barrier concept will function with a variety of reactive materials. Self-Sealing/Self-Healing Barriers are cost competitive and consistently exhibit hydraulic conductivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -13} m/s, which decrease with time. These measurements meet or exceed the recommended hydraulic conductivity required by EPA for clay liners (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) used in landfills and hazardous waste sites. Results of mineralogical examination of the seal, diffusion testing, hydraulic conductivity measurement, and durability testing, including wet/dry, freeze/thaw cycling and leachate compatibility are also presented.

McGregor, R.G. [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, Ontario (Canada); [Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Stegemann, J.A. [Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal barrier coatings The rare earth zirconates (M2Zr2O7, M=LaGd) have a low intrinsic thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability making them attractive candidates for thermal barrier coating conditions and the coating composition, structure, texture, pore morphology, and thermal conductivity

Wadley, Haydn

246

Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations of hydrogen energy technologies to non-traditional audiences. These activities were also designed to raise the visibility of the DOE Hydrogen Program to new audiences and to help the program continue to advance its mission and vision. We believe that the work conducted under this cooperative agreement was successful at meeting the objectives presented and funded over the period of performance. During Phase 1, SENTECHs activities resulted in the development and distribution of two glossy brochures that target the on-site distributed generation and public transit markets for hydrogen energy technologies; face-to-face industry outreach meetings with various firms with an interest in hydrogen energy, but who may not have made a commitment to be involved; and implementation of two educational forums on hydrogen for students - the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. The educational forums were conducted with in-kind cost-shared contributions from NHA and Dr. Robert Reeves, Professor Emeritus, Rensealler During Phase 2, SENTECH activities initially were focused on the development of additional brochures and the development of a series of training modules. This set of information dissemination activities built on the experience demonstrated in our phase one activities, and focused the effort within two critical issue areas facing the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier--effective communications and information dissemination on codes and standards. SENTECH joined with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to scope out the training modules and identified a series of 12 that could be used to train a variety of audiences. The NFPA is an international nonprofit corporation, which has developed a reputation as a worldwide leader in providing fire, electrical, and life safety to the public since 1896. Its membership totals more than 75,000 individuals from around the world and in more than 80 national trade and professional organizations.

George Kervitsky, Jr.

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, {mu}, and {sigma}) are present in the weld metal in the as-welded condition. It may be possible to eliminate these phases through a solution anneal heat treatment, but that may not be possible for the closure weld because the spent nuclear fuel cladding cannot be heated to more than 350 C. The effects of any stress mitigation techniques (such as laser peening or solution heat treating) that may be used to reduce the tensile stresses on the closure welds must also be determined. Cold-work will cause an increase in dislocation density, and such an increase in dislocation density may cause an increase in diffusion rates that control precipitation kinetics (Porter et al. 1992 [DIRS 161265]; Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). Long-range order (LRO) occurs in nickel (Ni)-Cr-Mo alloys (such as Alloy 22) at temperatures less than approximately 600 C. This ordering has been linked to an increased susceptibility of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys to stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement (Tawancy et al. 1983 [DIRS 104991]). These analyses provide information on the rate at which LRO may occur in Alloy 22 under repository conditions. Determination of the kinetics of transformations through experimental techniques requires that the transformations being investigated be accelerated due to the fact that the expected service life is at least 10,000 years. Phase transformations are typically accelerated through an increase in temperature. The rate of transformation is determined at the higher temperature and is extrapolated to the lower temperatures of interest.

F. Wong

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

248

Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

249

Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ``proven`` long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford.

Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The role of plants on isolation barrier systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Waugh, W.J. [UNC Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Coins, Quantum Measurements, and Turing's Barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is there any hope for quantum computing to challenge the Turing barrier, i.e. to solve an undecidable problem, to compute an uncomputable function? According to Feynman's '82 argument, the answer is {\\it negative}. This paper re-opens the case: we will discuss solutions to a few simple problems which suggest that {\\it quantum computing is {\\it theoretically} capable of computing uncomputable functions}. In this paper a mathematical quantum "device" (with sensitivity $\\epsilon$) is constructed to solve the Halting Problem. The "device" works on a randomly chosen test-vector for $T$ units of time. If the "device" produces a click, then the program halts. If it does not produce a click, then either the program does not halt or the test-vector has been chosen from an {\\it undistinguishable set of vectors} ${\\IF}_{\\epsilon, T}$. The last case is not dangerous as our main result proves: {\\it the Wiener measure of} ${\\IF}_{\\epsilon, T}$ {\\it constructively tends to zero when} $T$ {\\it tends to infinity}. The "device", working in time $T$, appropriately computed, will determine with a pre-established precision whether an arbitrary program halts or not. {\\it Building the "halting machine" is mathematically possible.}

Cristian S. Calude; Boris Pavlov

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy tunneling barrier Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

through an insulating barrier with magnetic impurities O. Vvra,1,2, Summary: Josephson junction with a tunneling barrier formed by a paramagnetic insulator. We demonstrate......

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - apply diffusion barrier Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radioactive waste confinement Summary: and solute diffusion in an engineered barrier for radioactive waste confinement. G. Montes-H et al. Applied... barrier (MX80 bentonite)...

254

Information Information for students  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disability & Dyslexia Information Guidance Support Information for students with disabilities the Disability and Dyslexia Service · Accessing your curriculum · Specialist examination arrangements · Dyslexia and Dyslexia Service for more information. Our contact details can be found on the back page. 03 #12

Wright, Francis

255

Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of $^{16}$O with $^{154,}$$^{144}$Sm,$^{186}$W and $^{208}$Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two $^{64}$Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep fall-off phenomenon of fusion cross sections at deep sub-barrier energies.

F. Muhammad Zamrun; K. Hagino; N. Takigawa

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

Sub-barrier Fusion Cross Sections with Energy Density Formalism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the applicability of the energy density formalism (EDF) for heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies. For this purpose, we calculate the fusion excitation function and the fusion barrier distribution for the reactions of 16O with 154,144Sm, 186W and 208Pb with the coupled-channels method. We also discuss the effect of saturation property on the fusion cross section for the reaction between two 64Ni nuclei, in connection to the so called steep fall-off phenomenon of fusion cross sections at deep sub-barrier energies.

Zamrun, Muhammad; Hagino, F. K.; Takigawa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, 980-8578 (Japan)

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Grid composite for backfill barriers and waste applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A grid composite for protecting men and longwall mining equipment during longwall shield recovery includes a regular polymer geogrid structure formed by biaxially drawing a continuous sheet of select polypropylene material which is heat bonded to a polyester fabric. The grid composite is secured over caving shields of longwall mining equipment during a longwall mining operation. The polymer grid composite is ideal for waste containment structures, backfill barriers, and silt barriers in construction and mining applications. In waste containment and backfill barriers, the grid composite is used to form a containment structure. It principle function is to contain waste material usually consisting of a liquid with some percentage of solids. 10 figs.

Travis, B.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the opportunity cost of capital and split incentives.

Bianchi, M. V. A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Observations on the JWKB treatment of the quadratic barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations on the JWKB treatment of the quadratic barrier Hujun Shen1 and Harris J. Silverstone2 June, 2006. Accepted 11 July, 2006. #12;238 Hujun Shen and Harris J. Silverstone where ±x0 = ± -2E

Silverstone, Harris J.

262

Design and analysis of a recycled plastic noise barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the early 1970s. There was steady advancement in barrier innovation as engineers, architects, and contractors relied on local building codes and "Standard Specihcations for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals...

Esche, Steven Todd

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

altered glomerular barrier: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Schoofs, Frank; Fix, Thomas; Vickers, Mary E; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Blamire, Mark G 2014-04-17 284 Neutron pair transfer in sub-barrier capture process Nuclear...

264

Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

V. V. Sargsyan; R. A. Kuzyakin; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

265

Application of a cubic barrier in exotic decay studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In exotic decay studies, the branching ratios for spontaneous emissions of fragments heavier than alpha particle have been found to be very sensitive to the shape of the potential barrier. In order to fix the top of barrier correctly, finite range effects are included in our calculations. Experimental Q values for different decay modes are chosen so as to incorporate the shell effects. The shape of the barrier in the overlapping region is approximated by a third-order polynomial suggested by Nix. The cubic barrier is found to be more suitable near the penetrating region. This model is applied to calculate the branching ratios for the spontaneous emission of heavier fragments. The results obtained compare well with those of other theoretical models and experimental values.

Shanmugam, G.; Kamalaharan, B.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

February 5, 2014 Webinar - The Cementitious Barriers Partnership...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership Toolbox, Version 2.0 David Kosson et al. (Vanderbilt UniversityCRESP) Agenda - 252014 P&RA CoP Webinar Presentation - Tools...

267

TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

HOLM MJ

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

268

Microsoft Word - Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid_Final...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

our 21 st Century Economy V1.0 Barriers to Achieving the Modern Grid A declining infusion of new thought is occurring. The technical experience base of utilities is graying....

269

One-way Ponderomotive Barrier in a Uniform Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of an asymmetric ponderomotive barrier in a nonuniform dc magnetic field by high-frequency radiation near the cyclotron resonance for selected plasma species was contemplated in Physics of Plasmas 11 (November 2004) 5046-5064. Here we show that a similar one-way barrier, which reflects particles incident from one side while transmitting those incident from the opposite side, can be produced also in a uniform magnetic field, entirely due to inhomogeneity of high-frequency drive.

I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

Band Tunneling through Double Barrier in Bilayer Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By taking into account the full four band energy spectrum, we calculate the transmission probability and conductance of electrons across symmetric and asymmetric double potential barrier with a confined interlayer potential difference in bilayer graphene. For energies less than the interlayer coupling \\gamma_{1}, E \\gamma_{1}, we obtain four possible ways for transmission resulting from the two propagating modes. We compute the associated transmission probabilities as well as their contribution to the conductance, study the effect of the double barrier geometry.

Hasan A. Alshehab; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

271

Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center, Cape Canaveral, FL, January 1988. 3. Vilkes, K.E. and D.V. Yarbrough, "Radiant Barrier Research Plan," Draft Report, ORNL/CON-256, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, April 1988. 4. ASHRAE Aandbook of Fundamentals, American... Measurements of Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers," Final Report, ORNL/CON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, July 1986. 8. Cummings, J. B., "Central Air Condi tioner Impact Upon Infiltration Rates in Florida...

Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Structural and safety characteristics and warrants for highway traffic barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ross Highway traffic barriers are highway appurtenances that provide vehicle occupants with a relative degree of protection from roadside hazards and from errant vehicles encroaching across a median. The six basic types of traffic barr1ers are roads... are decision criteria that 1dentify sites along highways that need traff1c barrier installations. Structural and safety character- istics of the barr1ers refer to the impact performance, the structural integrity, and the safety of the vehicle occupants upon...

Kohutek, Terry Lee

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Computational Use of Informal Logic Dialogue Games  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and agent communication, and the dialogue systems we have developed recently. Major barriers at the University of Dundee Introduction The field of informal logic (IL) can be seen as the attempt to develop tools that can analyse and evaluate the reasoning and arguments that occur in contexts such as political

Reed, Chris

274

Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Quantum Information Science and Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this note is touched upon an application of quantum information science (QIS) in nanotechnology area. The laws of quantum mechanics may be very important for nano-scale objects. A problem with simulating of quantum systems is well known and quantum computer was initially suggested by R. Feynman just as the way to overcome such difficulties. Mathematical methods developed in QIS also may be applied for description of nano-devices. Few illustrative examples are mentioned and they may be related with so-called fourth generation of nanotechnology products.

Alexander Yu. Vlasov

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Stephens, T.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Financial Constraints as a Barrier to Export Participation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be called for to help efficient but financially constrained firms to overcome the sunk entry costs constraint; Sunk costs JEL Classification: F14; G32; L25; D92 University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis the role of sunk entry costs into export markets (Baldwin, 1988; Roberts and Tybout, 1997; Melitz, 2003

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

LOUISIANASTATEUNIVERSITY OvercomingEnvironmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in harsh conditions for inventory management and maintenance of oil valve trees. The overall goal Group, this project is intended to fully design and implement a prototype RFID system to simplify oil valve tree inventory management for Cameron International. The paper below is a discussion

Koppelman, David M.

280

Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier`s integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier`s performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF{sub 6}) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF{sub 6} diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF{sub 6} through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days.

Ward, D.B. [SPECTRA Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corportation - KRMC, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corportation - KRMC, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Altered Cross-Linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27-Mediated Radioresistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: HSP27 or HSP25 negatively regulates apoptosis pathways after radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Abrogation of HSP27 function may be a candidate target for overcoming radio- and chemoresistance. Methods and Materials: Zerumbone (ZER), a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet smith. Clonogenic survival assay and flow cytometry after Annexin V staining were performed to determine in vitro sensitization effects of ZER with ionizing radiation. A nude mouse xenografting system was also applied to detect in vivo radiosensitizing effects of ZER. Results: ZER produced cross-linking of HSP27, which was dependent on inhibition of the monomeric form of HSP27. ZER was directly inserted between the disulfide bond in the HSP27 dimer and modified normal HSP27 dimerization. Pretreatment with ZER before radiation inhibited the binding affinity between HSP27 and apoptotic molecules, such as cytochrome c and PKC{delta}, and induced sensitization in vitro and in an in vivo xenografted nude mouse system. Structural analogs lacking only the carbonyl group in ZER, such as {alpha}-humulene (HUM) and 8-hydroxy-humulen (8-OH-HUM), did not affect normal cross-linking of HSP27 and did not induce radiosensitization. Conclusions: We suggest that altered cross-linking of HSP27 by ZER is a good strategy for abolishing HSP27-mediated resistance.

Choi, Seo-Hyun [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Woo Duck [Department of Functional Crop, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Miryang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae-June [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Yoo Jin [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life Science and Pharmaceuticals, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eun-Kyoung [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life Science and Pharmaceuticals, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil, E-mail: yslee0425@ewha.ac.k [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Division of Life Science and Pharmaceuticals, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

In Situ Formation Of Reactive Barriers For Pollution Control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating soil contamination by forming one or more zones of oxidized material in the path of percolating groundwater is disclosed. The zone or barrier region is formed by delivering an oxidizing agent into the ground for reaction with an existing soil component. The oxidizing agent modifies the existing soil component creating the oxidized zone. Subsequently when soil contaminates migrate into the zone, the oxidized material is available to react with the contaminates and degrade them into benign products. The existing soil component can be an oxidizable mineral such as manganese, and the oxidizing agent can be ozone gas or hydrogen peroxide. Soil contaminates can be volatile organic compounds. Oxidized barriers can be used single or in combination with other barriers.

Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Riley, Robert G. (West Richland, WA)

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development of a low-profile portable concrete barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low-profile portable concrete barrier (PCB) has been developed for use in low-speed (approximately 45 mph [73 km/h] or less) work zones. The purpose of the low-profile barrier is to shield the work zone and redirect errant vehicles while.... SEQUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CRASH TESTS APPENDIX D. ACCELEROMETER TRACES AND PLOTS OF ROLL, PITCH AND YAW RATES APPENDIX E. TEST VEHICLE PROPERTIES VITA Page 6 8 8 10 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 24 29 29 41 50 52 53 63 68 73 82 85 LIST...

Guidry, Todd Randall

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

287

Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

Han, In-taek (Yongin, KR); Kim, Jong-min (Seongnam, KR)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaluation of the business case for using analytics for corporate sustainability and overcoming the challenges in its execution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in an age where organizations across industries and sectors are placing increasing importance on sustainability, leaders are looking for more accurate information to guide their decisions on sustainability-related issues. ...

Dalmia, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nanoscale mapping of the W/Si(001) Schottky barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier was spatially mapped with nanoscale resolution using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) and ballistic hole emission microscopy (BHEM) using n-type and p-type silicon substrates. The formation of an interfacial tungsten silicide is observed utilizing transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The BEEM and BHEM spectra are fit utilizing a linearization method based on the power law BEEM model using the Prietsch Ludeke fitting exponent. The aggregate of the Schottky barrier heights from n-type (0.71?eV) and p-type (0.47?eV) silicon agrees with the silicon band gap at 80?K. Spatially resolved maps of the Schottky barrier are generated from grids of 7225 spectra taken over a 1??m?×?1??m area and provide insight into its homogeneity. Histograms of the barrier heights have a Gaussian component consistent with an interface dipole model and show deviations that are localized in the spatial maps and are attributed to compositional fluctuations, nanoscale defects, and foreign materials.

Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P., E-mail: vlabella@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

Perry H. Leo

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

292

Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European and Barrier Options Belal E. Baaquie RMI are financial derivatives that can be analyzed in the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum finance. Forward-2963 Fax: (65) 6777-6126 Email: phybeb@nus.edu.sg #12;Quantum Finance Hamiltonian for Coupon Bond European

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

293

Peierls-Nabarro Barrier and Protein Loop Propagation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a self-localized quasiparticle excitation propagates along a discrete one dimensional lattice, it becomes subject to a dissipation that converts the kinetic energy into lattice vibrations. Eventually the kinetic energy does no longer enable the excitation to cross over the minimum energy barrier between neighboring sites, and the excitation becomes localized within a lattice cell. In the case of a protein, the lattice structure consists of the C-alpha backbone. The self-localized quasiparticle excitation is the elemental building block of loops. It can be modeled by a kink which solves a variant of the discrete non-linear Schroedinger equation (DNLS). We study the propagation of such a kink in the case of protein G related albumin-binding domain, using the UNRES coarse-grained molecular dynamics force field. We estimate the height of the energy barriers the kink needs to cross over, in order to propagate along the backbone lattice. We analyse how these barriers gives rise to both stresses and reliefs which control the kink movement. For this, we deform a natively folded protein structure by parallel translating the kink along the backbone away from its native position. We release the transposed kink, and we follow how it propagates along the backbone towards the native location. We observe that the dissipative forces which are exerted on the kink by the various energy barriers, have a pivotal role in determining how a protein folds towards its native state.

Adam K. Sieradzan; Antti Niemi; Xubiao Peng

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

294

Integrating PV into Performance Contracts: Barriers and Trends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value chain includes the technology's value as a peak-shaving and load management tool, as a sourceIntegrating PV into Performance Contracts: Barriers and Trends Wilson Rickerson Center for Energy incorporated photovoltaic (PV) systems as part of an overall building energy service strategy. This paper

Delaware, University of

295

Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualifies for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH.sub.2).sub.11 --COOH Which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces.

King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers Key issues facing deployment of utility-scale solar PV plants. Sandra Burton Regional Director March 8 ­ 9, 2011 Brookhaven National Lab #12;About SEPA Developed by utilities to facilitate the integration of solar electric power. SEPA

Homes, Christopher C.

298

EasyVoice: Breaking barriers for people with voice disabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disabilities. With the advances in computing power, new applications have been developed for helping peopleEasyVoice: Breaking barriers for people with voice disabilities Paulo A. Condado and Fernando G,flobo}@ualg.pt Abstract. Text-to-speech technology has been broadly used to help people with voice disabilities

Condado, Paulo

299

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-1335E Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California A.T. Mc of Global Energy Partners. This work described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Demand Response in California. PIER Industrial/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency Program. CEC

300

Mobility barrier for disabled people DEJOUX, Virginie; ARMOOGUM, Jimmy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mobility barrier for disabled people DEJOUX, Virginie; ARMOOGUM, Jimmy 12 th WCTR, July 11-15, 2010 92 55 88 virginie.dejoux@inrets.fr ARMOOGUM Jimmy INRETS - DEST Site de Marne-la-Vallée. "Le Descartes 2" 2 rue de la Butte Verte 93166 Noisy le grand cedex Telephone: 33 1 45 92 55 79 jimmy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

105K West Isolation Barrier Acceptance Test results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to report and interpret the findings of the isolation barrier acceptance tests performed in 105KW/100K. The tests were performed in accordance with the test plan and acceptance test procedure. The test report contains the test data. This document compares the test data against the criteria. A discussion of the leak rate analytical characterization describes how the flow characteristics flow rate will be determined using the test data from the test report. Two modes of water loss were considered; basin and/or discharge chute leakage, and evaporation. An initial test established baseline leakage data and instrumentation performance. Test 2 evaluated the sealing performance of the isolation barrier by inducing an 11 in. (27.9 cm) level differential across the barrier. The leak rate at this 11 in. (27.9 cm) level is extrapolated to the 16 ft. (4.9 m) level differential postulated in the DBE post seismic event. If the leak rate, adjusted for evaporation and basin leakage (determined from Test 1), is less than the SAR limit of 1,500 gph (5,680 lph) at a 16 ft (4.9 m) level differential, the barriers pass the acceptance test.

McCracken, K.J. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Irwin, J.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

PET radiotracers: crossing the bloodbrain barrier and surviving  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PET radiotracers: crossing the blood­brain barrier and surviving metabolism Victor W. Pike in the living human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) are increasingly useful in clinical research or undesirable metabolism. These issues are reviewed. Emerging PET radiotracers for measuring efflux transporter

Shen, Jun

304

Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

Choi, Hae-Jin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b is enhanced by incorporation of through-thickness pores within the coating. However, molten calcium­magnesium­alumino­silicate in dissolution of the coat- ing in the silicate melt, precipitation of new phases, and the elimination

Wadley, Haydn

306

Quantum Information: Opportunities and Challenges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern society is shaped by the ability to transmit, manipulate, and store large amounts of information. Although we tend to think of information as abstract, information is physical, and computing is a physical process. How then should we understand information in a quantum world, in which physical systems may exist in multiple states at once and are altered by the very act of observation? This question has evolved into an exciting new field of research called Quantum Information (QI). QI challenges many accepted rules and practices in computer science. For example, a quantum computer would turn certain hard problems into soft problems, and would render common computationally-secure encryption methods (such as RSA) insecure. At the same time, quantum communication would provide an unprecedented kind of intrinsic information security at the level of the smallest physical objects used to store or transmit the information. This talk provides a general introduction to the subject of quantum information and its relevance to cyber security. In the first part, two of the stranger aspects of quantum physics namely, superposition and uncertainty are explained, along with their relation to the concept of information. These ideas are illustrated with a few examples: quantum ID cards, quantum key distribution, and Grover s quantum search algorithm. The state-of-the-art in quantum computing and communication hardware is then discussed, along with the daunting technological challenges that must be overcome. Relevant experimental and theoretical efforts at ORNL are highlighted. The talk concludes with speculations on the short- and long-term impact of quantum information on cyber security.

Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The effect of desiccation on UMTRA Project radon barrier materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapors exiting the disposal cell embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted, fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration into the disposal cell . The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce the resultant seepage from the base of the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Another function of this cover is to limit the emission of radon gas. The air permeability of the cover must be low in order to reduce radon emissions to comply with EPA standards. Fine-grained soils exposed to evaporation will dry. Continued exposure will cause shrinking that, if allowed to continue, will eventually result in the development of cracks. The results of the cracking could be an increase in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in the air permeability. This could then allow additional infiltration and increased radon emissions. Cracking of the radon barrier has been noted at one UMTRA Project location. The potential for cracking of the radon barrier during construction has been addressed by requiring moistening of previously compacted surfaces prior to placing additional lifts. The efficacy of these treatments has not been verified. The potential for cracking after construction of the cover is completed has also not been examined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for cracking of the radon barrier both during construction and after completion of the cover. The effect of shrinkage cracking on the performance of the radon barrier will also be examined.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered blood-brain barrier Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

blood-brain barrier Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: altered blood-brain barrier Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Applications are...

309

Beyond parallax barriers: applying formal optimization methods to multilayer automultiscopic displays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper focuses on resolving long-standing limitations of parallax barriers by applying formal optimization methods. We consider two generalizations of conventional parallax barriers. First, we consider general two-layer ...

Lanman, Douglas

310

From blood to the brain: can systemically transplanted mesenchymal stem cells cross the blood-brain barrier?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and function of the blood-brain barrier,” Neurobiology ofV. Zlokovic, “The blood-brain barrier in health and chroniccell biology of the blood- brain barrier,” Annual Review of

Liu, Linan; Eckert, Mark A; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Kang, Dong-Ku; Agalliu, Dritan; Zhao, Weian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Recent progress in the study of fission barriers in covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent progress in the study of fission barriers of actinides and superheavy nuclei within covariant density functional theory is overviewed.

A. V. Afanasjev; H. Abusara; P. Ring

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric dielectric barrier Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Force Measurement Techniques and Preliminary Results Summary: Results Using Aerogels and Ferroelectrics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuators Ryan Durscher......

313

ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organizational Barriers to Cogeneration • • • OrganizationTechnologies Cogeneration. • MSW . Wind. ResidentialPage Industrial Cogeneration. • Residential Photovoltaics. •

Schladale, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Technology Characterizations. Environmental Information Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Handbook Series is designed to overcome the deficiency of information utility and transfer. Each of the works in this series brings together information in an area and format that is useful to both public and private sector needs. It is meant to serve as a basic reference document that will stand for a period of time and help to enrich decisionmaking and research in the interface of energy and the environment. This particular handbook deals with environmental characterization data for the energy technologies and presents the data in a format for use by DOE policy analysts. This treatment includes not only the actual information base, but also a preface which explains the present concept, the historical growth of the program, and the new direction for improved utility. The information base, itself, is constantly being enhanced and is republished periodically as necessary. The specific energy systems for which environmental/technology characterization information is provided are grouped as follows: nuclear energy; coal; petroleum; gas; synthetic fuels; solar energy; geothermal energy; and hydroelectricity.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Effect of neutron transfer in the fusion process near and below the Coulomb barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-barrier and sub-barrier fusion of weakly bound neutron-rich isotopes of lithium is explored within the empirical channel coupling model. Several combinations of colliding nuclei are proposed, for which strong enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted owing to coupling with neutron transfer channels.

Rachkov, V. A.; Adel, A.; Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation) and International University 'Dubna', Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Multiple-humped fission and fusion barriers of the heaviest elements and ellipsoidal deformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leading possibly to superheavy elements, double-humped potential barriers appear for cold fusionMultiple-humped fission and fusion barriers of the heaviest elements and ellipsoidal deformations G barriers and the predicted half-lives of actinides follow the experimental results. In the fusion path

Boyer, Edmond

317

Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Morphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George Island, Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the barrier island are analyzed, along with the short-term post-storm recovery of secondary dunes. ResultsMorphological barrier island changes and recovery of dunes after Hurricane Dennis, St. George September 2009 Keywords: Dune recovery LiDAR Overwash Hurricane Dennis Barrier island During the summer

Fagherazzi, Sergio

319

Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter: physiological roles and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter-binding cassette) transporter family expressed in many tissue barriers (e.g. gut, lung, blood-brain barrier of many drugs to the brain and has been the subject of intensive research in the last 10 years

Applebaum, David

320

In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced bloodbrain barrier opening in mice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier opening in mice Yao-Sheng Tung1 cavitation response associated with blood­brain barrier (BBB) opening as induced by transcranial focused

Konofagou, Elisa E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Simulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar microstructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the deformation resistance of actual EB-PVD layers and its application to a range of thermal barrier materials [9Simulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are affected by their high temperature mechanical properties: especially

Hutchinson, John W.

322

Design of Roadside Barrier Systems Placed on Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Retaining Walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and LRFD ..............................................................25 2.3.3 Previous Crash Test of Barrier on Edge of MSE Wall......................................26 2.4 Survey of State DOTs... and Conclusion.............................................................................................76 5 5 FT HIGH MSE WALL AND BARRIER STUDY ......................................................84 5.1 5 Ft High MSE Wall and Barrier Study Description...

Kim, Kang

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system X dependence of the thermal stability factor, the width of the thermal energy barrier distribution- ropy energy distribution and the interaction and the thermal energy barrier distribution determined

Laughlin, David E.

324

Personalized Access to Information by Query Reformulation Based on the State of the Current Task and User Profile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Department of Computer Science University of Paris-Sud 11 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, France Ounas.Asfari@supelec.fr, Bich-Lien information from secondary information or even noise. Present search engines generally handle search queries, is another solution to overcome the previous problem. Studies on personalized search have focused

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

325

Ferroelectric modulation on resonant tunneling through perovskite double-barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The negative differential resistance (NDR) due to resonance tunneling is achieved at room temperature in perovskite double-barrier heterostructures composed of a 10 unit-cell-thick SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well sandwiched in two 10 unit-cell-thick LaAlO{sub 3} barriers. The NDR occurs at 1.2?V and does not change with voltage cycling. When the paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well is replaced by a ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}, the onset of the NDR can be modulated by polarization switching in the ultrathin BaTiO{sub 3}. A polarization pointing to the collector lowers the NDR voltage but a polarization pointing to the emitter increases it. The shift of the NDR voltage is ascribed to reversal of the extra electric field in the quantum well due to the polarization switching.

Du, Ruifang; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di, E-mail: diwu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Condensation of actin filaments pushing against a barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a model to describe the force generated by the polymerization of an array of parallel biofilaments. The filaments are assumed to be coupled only through mechanical contact with a movable barrier. We calculate the filament density distribution and the force-velocity relation with a mean-field approach combined with simulations. We identify two regimes: a non-condensed regime at low force in which filaments are spread out spatially, and a condensed regime at high force in which filaments accumulate near the barrier. We confirm a result previously known from other related studies, namely that the stall force is equal to N times the stall force of a single filament. In the model studied here, the approach to stalling is very slow, and the velocity is practically zero at forces significantly lower than the stall force.

K. Tsekouras; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick; J. -F. Joanny

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

327

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

105 K East isolation barrier acceptance analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this document is to report and interpret the findings of the isolation barrier acceptance tests performed in 105KE/100K. The tests were performed in accordance with the test plan (McCracken 1995c) and acceptance test procedure (McCracken 1995a). The test report (McCracken 1995b) contains the test data. This document compares the test data (McCracken 1995b) against the criteria (McCracken 1995a, c). A discussion of the leak rate analytical characterization (Irwin 1995) describes how the flow characteristics and the flow rate will be determined using the test data from the test report (McCracken 1995b). The barriers must adequately control the leakage from the main basin to the discharge chute to less than the 1,500 gph (5,680 lph) Safety Analysis Report (SAR 1994) limit.

McCracken, K.J. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Irwin, J.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Core Internal Transport Barriers in Alcator C-Mod  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Mod Group Supported by DoE grant DE-FC02-99ER54512 #12;Alcator C-Mod Introduction Core Internal TransportAlcator C-Mod Core Internal Transport Barriers in Alcator C-Mod Catherine Fiore MIT Plasma Science types of core ITBs in Alcator C-Mod. Off-Axis ICRF generated core ITBs Spontaneous ITBs at H- to L

Fiore, Catherine L.

332

Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

E.L. Hardin

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

Subramanian, Ramesh

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

334

Information California,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ge, Sridevi Parise, Padhraic Smyth Information and Computer Science University of California, Irvine

Smyth, Padhraic

335

INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of information and communication technologies in development that draws on Amartya Sen's capabilities approach

Jackson, Daniel

336

Water-retaining barrier and method of construction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An agricultural barrier providing a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface, the barrier being disposed on native soil of the region, the barrier including: a first layer composed of pieces of basalt, the first layer being porous and being in contact with the native soil; a porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel, the second layer being less porous than, and overlying, the first layer; and a porous third layer containing soil which favors plant growth, the third layer being less porous than, and overlying, the second layer and having an exposed upper surface, wherein the porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer.

Adams, Melvin R. (Richland, WA); Field, Jim G. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

338

In-situ chemical barrier and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete. 7 figs.

Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

In-situ chemical barrier and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete.

Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richland, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Water-retaining barrier and method of construction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An agricultural barrier is disclosed which provides a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface. The barrier is disposed on native soil of the region. The barrier includes a first porous layer composed of pieces of basalt, and is in contact with the native soil. There is a less porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel. The second layer overlies the first layer. A third layer, less porous than the second layer, contains soil which favors plant growth. The third layer overlies the second layer and has an exposed upper surface. The porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer. 2 figs.

Adams, M.R.; Field, J.G.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

342

Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity.

Nebuda, D.T.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Electrical characteristics and interface structure of magnetic tunnel junctions with hafnium oxyfluoride barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effects of fluorine inclusion on the electrical transport characteristics and interface structure of the hafnium oxide barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and resistance-area (RA) as a function of oxidation time show that the TMR ratio of the hafnium oxyfluoride barrier is higher (8.3%) than that of the hafnium oxide barrier (5.7%) at their optimum conditions, and the oxyfluoride barrier junctions maintain a high TMR ratio even when the RA product increases by three orders of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the fluorine atoms in the oxyfluoride barrier play an important role in the formation of a barrier with uniform composition. We believe that the initial fluoride layer is causing the subsequent oxygen diffusion to slow down, resulting in the formation of a defect-free hafnium oxide layer. These results are consistent with what we have found for aluminum oxyfluoride barriers.

Yu, Y.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Char, K. [Center for Strongly Correlated Materials Research and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions spanning the fusion barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Skyrme energy density functional has been applied to the study of heavy-ion fusion reactions. The barriers for fusion reactions are calculated by the Skyrme energy density functional with proton and neutron density distributions determined by using restricted density variational (RDV) method within the same energy density functional together with semi-classical approach known as the extended semi-classical Thomas-Fermi method. Based on the fusion barrier obtained, we propose a parametrization of the empirical barrier distribution to take into account the multi-dimensional character of real barrier and then apply it to calculate the fusion excitation functions in terms of barrier penetration concept. A large number of measured fusion excitation functions spanning the fusion barriers can be reproduced well. The competition between suppression and enhancement effects on sub-barrier fusion caused by neutron-shell-closure and excess neutron effects is studied.

Min Liu; Ning Wang; Zhuxia Li; Xizhen Wu; Enguang Zhao

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

345

Project Information Form Project Title Assessment of Critical Barriers to Alternative and Renewable Fuel and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel and Vehicle Deployment University UC Davis Principal Investigator Amy Jaffe Andrew Burke PI and clean fuels and ensure that associated infrastructure becomes available at a sufficient pace and scale to meet AB118/AB8 goals. Our research in this area will consider the synergies of incumbent fueling

California at Davis, University of

346

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution, hence provides a good probe of the neutron and proton distributions. Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one can sensitively

de Souza, Romualdo T.

349

Surface barrier height for different Al compositions and barrier layer thicknesses in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model for the calculation of surface barrier height for given values of barrier layer thicknesses and Al mole fractions. An explicit expression for the two dimensional electron gas density is also developed incorporating the change in polarization charges for different Al mole fractions.

Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: goyalnitin.iitr@gmail.com; Fjeldly, Tor A. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Iniguez, Benjamin [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

350

SMART GRID Request for Information And Public Comments  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of its ongoing effort regarding the formation of smart grid policy, the Department of Energy issued a Request for Information in September of 2010 on the topic of “Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation.” The purpose was to solicit comments from interested stakeholders on policy and logistical challenges that confront smart grid implementation, and recommendations on how to best overcome those challenges.

351

SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDENT LEADERSHIP SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION & APPLICATION #12;Sentry Insurance is pleased, creativity and dedication to lead all sectors of society. Sentry believes that by supporting the education for providing scholarship information to school counselors, for actively recruiting students who meet

352

Systematics of the deduced fission barriers for the doubly even transactinium nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systematics of the fission barrier shapes of a total of 47 doubly even actinide and transactinide nuclei have been studied using the double-humped fission barrier model. The fission barrier has been parametrized in terms of four smoothly joined parabolic segments. The penetrabilities through such double-humped fission barriers have been calculated in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, and the various fission half-lives have been determined using the formalism given earlier by Nix and Walker. The various parameters of such fission barriers have been deduced by requiring their simultaneous consistency with the various relevant fission observables, namely, the near-barrier fission cross sections, isomeric energies and isomeric half-lives, where available, and the ground-state spontaneous fission half-lives in the region 90{le}{ital Z}{le}98, and such model calculations with some further justifiable asssumptions have been extended to the region of the still heavier nuclei with {ital Z}{ge}100. The results of our systematic study of the heights of the inner and the outer barriers of the double-humped fission barriers corresponding to such doubly even nuclei suggest that while the height of the inner barrier remains approximately constant in the entire region of such nuclei, the deduced heights of the outer barrier decrease rather sharply and continuously with the increase in the value of the fissility parameter until one reaches the element Rf ({ital Z}=104).

Bhandari, B.S.; Bendardaf, Y.B. (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Garyounis, Benghazi (Libya))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration was installed at a benign site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington. The composite barrier was emplaced beneath a 7,500 liter tank. The tank was chosen to simulate a typical DOE Complex waste form. The stresses induced on the waste form were evaluated during barrier construction. The barrier was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a conical shaped barrier with the waste form inside the cone. Two overlapping rows of cylindrical cement columns were grouted in a honeycomb fashion to form the secondary backdrop barrier layer. The primary barrier, a high molecular weight polymer manufactured by 3M Company, was then installed providing a relatively thin inner liner for the secondary barrier. The primary barrier was emplaced by panel jet grouting with a dual wall drill stem, two phase jet grouting system.

Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy Use, Information, and Behavior in Small Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, useful information on energy use. We then devise experimental graphical feedback ofenergy consumption and evaluate it as a method ofrectifying the information barrier to energy efficiency. Previous research in the residential sector (Socolow 1978) has... be ignored. Research in the residential sector has shown that -13- a simple report summarizing past consumption can increase user interest in energy consumption (Layne et al. 1988). We expected that this feedback technique could easily be extended...

Haberl, J. S.; Kempton, W.; Komor, P.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

K.G. Mon

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fusion barrier distributions in systems with finite excitation energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eigen-channel approach to heavy-ion fusion reactions is exact only when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is zero. In order to take into account effects of finite excitation energy, we introduce an energy dependence to weight factors in the eigen-channel approximation. Using two channel problem, we show that the weight factors are slowly changing functions of incident energy. This suggests that the concept of the fusion barrier distribution still holds to a good approximation even when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is finite. A transition to the adiabatic tunneling, where the coupling leads to a static potential renormalization, is also discussed.

K. Hagino; N. Takigawa; A. B. Balantekin

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

357

Properties and stability of a Texas barrier beach inlet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, breakthroughs from the bay side on both wide and narrow islands have been attributed to the gradual buildup of water in the lagoon, followed by a sudden shift in wind to an offshore direction (gg). Thus, large quantities of water are piled up on the island... of central Texas coastal inlets (44), attributes these characteristics of stable inlets to four factors: 1) the position of bays north of the barrier island, 2) strong north winds which funnel water through the inlets, 3) the direction of longshore drift...

Mason, Curtis

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Nanopillar Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions with Manganite Barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promising FI tunnel barrier material for SFTJ. In this work, we investigate the spin filtering properties of Sm0.75Sr0.25MnO3 (SSMO) manganite ultrathin films in LNO/SSMO/LNO tunnel junctions. SSMO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto Sr... -plane rotation vis-à-vis the substrate, i.e. the alignment of [110] of orthorhombic SSMO with the [100] of the underlying cubic SrTiO3 (STO) substrate. Film thickness was calculated from both X-ray reflectivity (not shown) and diffraction fringes around the (004...

Prasad, Bhagwati; Egilmez, Mehmet; Schoofs, Frank; Fix, Thomas; Vickers, Mary E; Zhang, Wenrui; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan; Blamire, Mark G

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Dynamics of kicked particles in a double-barrier structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the classical and quantum dynamics of periodically kicked particles placed initially within an open double-barrier structure. This system does not obey the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem and displays chaotic dynamics. The phase space features induced by non-KAM nature of the system leads to dynamical features such as the non-equilibrium steady state, classically induced saturation of energy growth and momentum filtering. We also comment on the experimental feasibility of this system as well as its relevance in the context of current interest in classically induced localization and chaotic ratchets.

Harinder Pal; M. S. Santhanam

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

GBTL Opening Presentation_Tech Barriers | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety,ofOpening Presentation_Tech Barriers GBTL

362

Dynamical analysis on heavy-ion fusion reactions near Coulomb barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The shell correction is proposed in the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, which plays an important role in heavy-ion fusion reactions near Coulomb barrier. By using the ImIQMD model, the static and dynamical fusion barriers, dynamical barrier distribution in the fusion reactions are analyzed systematically. The fusion and capture excitation functions for a series of reaction systems are calculated and compared with experimental data. It is found that the fusion cross sections for neutron-rich systems increase obviously, and the strong shell effects of two colliding nuclei result in a decrease of the fusion cross sections at the sub-barrier energies. The lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers favors the enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections, which is related to the nucleon transfer and the neck formation in the fusion reactions.

Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin; Feng-Shou Zhang

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sub- and above barrier fusion of loosely bound $^6$Li with $^{28}$Si  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fusion excitation functions are measured for the system $^6$Li+$^{28}$Si using the characteristic $\\gamma$-ray method, encompassing both the sub-barrier and above barrier regions, viz., $E_{lab}$= 7-24 MeV. Two separate experiments were performed, one for the above barrier region ($E_{lab}$= 11-24 MeV) and another for the below barrier region ($E_{lab}$= 7-10 MeV). The results were compared with our previously measured fusion cross section for the $^7$Li+$^{28}$Si system. We observed enhancement of fusion cross section at sub-barrier regions for both $^6$Li and $^7$Li, but yield was substantially larger for $^6$Li. However, for well above barrier regions, similar type of suppression was identified for both the systems.

Mandira Sinha; H. Majumdar; P. Basu; Subinit Roy; R. Bhattacharya; M. Biswas; M. K. Pradhan; R. Palit; I. Mazumdar; S. Kailas

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification.

Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heiser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stewart, W. [Applied Geotechnical Engineering and Construction, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin film PV modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) deposited by PECVD on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have typically included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to actual barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface as well as enhancing adhesion of the SiOxNy barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp heat exposure. PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pre-treatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal new low molecular weight PET fragments are created which are volatile upon heating and water soluble. Failure analysis of the coupons determined that the moisture barrier is, in fact, transferred to the encapsulant side.

Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann M. (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Device and method for producing a containment barrier underneath and around in-situ buried waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably on which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 15 figs.

Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

368

Heat barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier for use in a nuclear reactor facility is disclosed herein. Generally, the thermal barrier comprises a flexible, heat-resistant web mounted over the annular space between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel in order to prevent convection currents generated in the nitrogen atmosphere in this space from entering the relatively cooler atmosphere of the reactor cavity which surrounds these vessels. Preferably, the flexible web includes a blanket of heat-insulating material formed from fibers of a refractory material, such as alumina and silica, sandwiched between a heat-resistant, metallic cloth made from stainless steel wire. In use, the web is mounted between the upper edges of the guard vessel and the flange of a sealing ring which surrounds the reactor vessel with a sufficient enough slack to avoid being pulled taut as a result of thermal differential expansion between the two vessels. The flexible web replaces the rigid and relatively complicated structures employed in the prior art for insulating the reactor cavity from the convection currents generated between the reactor vessel and the guard vessel.

Keegan, Charles P. (South Huntingdon Twp., Westmoreland County, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Temporal modulation of plasma species in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature and the moment of maximum species densities is almost consistent with peak discharge current density. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the temporal structure of plasma species in an atmospheric He-N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It is demonstrated that there exist microsecond delays of the moments of the maximum electron and ion densities from the peak of discharge current density. These time delays are caused by a competition between the electron impact and Penning ionizations, modulated by the N{sub 2} level in the plasma-forming gas. Besides, significant electron wall losses lead to the DBD being more positively charged and, with a distinct temporal separation in the peak electron and cation densities, the plasma is characterized with repetitive bursts of net positive charges. The temporal details of ionic and reactive plasma species may provide a new idea for some biological processes.

Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

The UFA technology for characterization of in situ barrier materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Site characterizations, choices of remedial strategies for site restoration, and performance assessments of chosen strategies all require knowledge of the transport properties for subsurface materials, such as hydraulic conductivities, diffusion coefficients, sorption properties, and in situ recharge rates. Unsaturated conditions in the vadose zone are especially difficult to investigate because of the extreme variability in the transport properties of geologic materials as a function of water content. A new technique, the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA), was developed to rapidly attain hydraulic steady-state in all porous/fractured media, including multicomponent/multiphase systems. The larger driving forces obtainable with centrifugation techniques are combined with precision fluid flow through a rotating seal. Hydraulic steady state is achieved in a period of hours to days, instead of months to years, depending on the target water content and intrinsic permeability of the material. Barrier materials such as bentonite slurries, chemical barriers, cements, and asphalt concretes can be rapidly run in the UFA prior to emplacement to fine-tune formulations and identify any site-specific or substrate-specific problems that could not be identified without actual field testing.

Wright, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Conca, J.L. [Washington State Univ. Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Hygrothermal performance of an engineered clay barrier during sustained heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bentonitic clay buffers, with a potential for swelling, form an integral part of the natural (geological formation)/engineered multi-barrier concepts being proposed for the disposal of heat-generating radioactive nuclear fuel wastes. The integrity of such barriers during thermal loadings is of primary interest to the assessment of their reliability. This paper discusses the results of a series of experiments performed to assess the performance of buffer material under sustained heating. These experiments were conducted in a large-scale granite block facility. The laboratory modeling approximately simulates the local environment that can be encountered in a disposal vault in a granitic rock mass. Experiments in which the power supply to an embedded heater was held constant are described. The temperature distributions within the buffer and the granite block together with the residual moisture content distributions are documented. Also discussed is the application of a computational model of coupled heat and moisture flows. Moisture and heat transfer in the buffer under coupled gradients is described by the Philip-de Vries-type model in which the hygrothermal parameters are determined separately.

Selvadurai, A.P.S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Onofrei, C. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Barriers to Planning for At-Risk students Implications for Teacher Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barriers to Planning for At-Risk Students Implications for Teacher Planning Authors: B. Keith Lenz, Brenda Kissam, Janet Roth, Janis Bulgren, & Jeff Melvin The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning No. 7'J. ©August, 1992... Barriers to Planning for At-Risk Students Implications for Teacher Planning B. Keith Lenz Brenda Kissam Janet Roth Janis Bulgren Jeff Melvin The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning ©August 1992 Running Head: Barriers to Planning...

Lenz, B. Keith; Kissam, Brenda; Roth, Janet; Bulgren, Janis; Melvin, Jeff

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydraulic properties of an artificial tidal inlet through a Texas barrier beach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These littoral barriers are depositional structures continually changed by waves, tidal currents, and winds. Often the only connections between the open ocean and the bays are small restricted channels through the barrier beaches. These chan- nels, or tidal... too large on wide barrier beaches to permit sufficient scour. Breakthroughs also have been found to be caused by gradual buildups of water in the bays, followed by wind shifts to an off. ? shore direction (27). This tends to be supported by Price...

Prather, Stanley Harold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Barrier layer for a MCrAlY basecoat superalloy combination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine component contains a substrate (22) such as a superalloy, a basecoat (24) of the type MCrAlY, and a continuous barrier layer (28) between the substrate and basecoat, where the barrier layer (28) is made of an alloy of (Re, Ta, Ru, Os)X, where X can be Ni, Co or their mixture, where the barrier layer is at least 2 micrometers thick and substantially prevents materials from both the basecoat and substrate from migrating through it.

Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Adiabatic Heavy Ion Fusion Potentials for Fusion at Deep Sub-barrier Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fusion cross sections from well above barrier to extreme sub-barrier energies have been analysed using the energy (E) and angular momentum (L) dependent barrier penetration model ({\\small{ELDBPM}}). From this analysis, the adiabatic limits of fusion barriers have been determined for a wide range of heavy ion systems. The empirical prescription of Wilzynska and Wilzynski has been used with modified radius parameter and surface tension coefficient values consistent with the parameterization of the nuclear masses. The adiabatic fusion barriers calculated from this prescription are in good agreement with the adiabatic barriers deduced from {\\small{ELDBPM}} fits to fusion data. The nuclear potential diffuseness is larger at adiabatic limit, resulting in a lower $\\hbar\\omega$ leading to increase of "logarithmic slope" observed at energies well below the barrier. The effective fusion barrier radius and curvature values are anomalously smaller than the predictions of known empirical prescriptions. A detailed comparison of the systematics of fusion barrier with and without L-dependence has been presented.

S. V. S. Sastry; S. Kailas; A. K. Mohanty; A. Saxena

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

379

Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report -- October 28, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Technology Workshop, held October 28, 2010 in Denver, Colorado.

Not Available

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

IPR Barriers in Collaboration between University and Engineering Industry in Sweden.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis examines the barriers, especially intellectual property rights concerned that inhibit industry academia collaboration. By analyzing Swedish firms in the engineering industry, I… (more)

Huang, Wenting

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial root-end barriers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, the latter usually made of plastic or synthetic fabric. Artificial barriers are held in place by an array... Station Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Effects...

382

Electrodeposited Ni/Ge and germanide schottky barriers for nanoelectronics applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In recent years metal/semiconductor Schottky barriers have found numerous applications in nanoelectronics. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the improvement of a few… (more)

Husain, Muhammad Khaled

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - algae mesh barrier Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

M Furnas... * and A Mitchell Soft-bottom benthic communities and processes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon D Alongi (Paper Source: Marsh, Helene - School of Earth and...

384

Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Facilitators of and Barriers to Adherence to Hypertension Treatment Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ogedegbe G. Management of hypertension among patients withof un- controlled hypertension and antihypertensiveKim MT, et al. Barriers to hypertension care and control in

Fongwa, MN; Nandy, K; Yang, Q; Hays, RD

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - actively regulated barrier Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-01-07 Abstract: This paper examines the major barriers to the deployment of geothermal, small hydro ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

387

Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Thermal Barrier Coatings Chemically and Mechanically Resistant to High Temperature Attack by Molten Ashes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are ceramic coatings used on component in the hottest sections of gas turbine engines, used for power generation and aviation.… (more)

Gledhill, Andrew Dean

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Information Technology: American National Standard for Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format-271 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards

392

Information Technology: American National Standard for Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format 500-275 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Coleman, and Patrice Yuh, Editors Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology

393

Geothermal Literature Review (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceInformationOvercomeMajer,

394

The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface.

Tung, Raymond T., E-mail: rtung@brooklyn.cuny.edu [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, CUNY, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11210, USA and Physics Ph.D. Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York 10016 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Pressure test data reveal reservoir barriers/faults  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of transient pressure test data from an oil reservoir in Libya indicated not only the suspected fault barriers, but also the non-sealing portions of the faults. Extensive seismic data indicated much faulting, and directional trends had been interpreted to be generally northwest-southeast. The reservoir is a heterogeneous dolomite with average permeability of 40 to 50 md and contains neither natural fractures not stratification. Vertical displacement (throw) of each fault block is indicated to be within the range of the dolomite thickness, i.e., 40 to 180 ft. Therefore, when the fault throw is greater than reservoir thickness there is sealing, and when the throw is less than reservoir thickness the faults are non-sealing.

Hurd, J.D.

1984-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Silicon carbide tritium permeation barrier for steel structural components.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) has superior resistance to tritium permeation even after irradiation. Prior work has shown Ultrametfoam to be forgiving when bonded to substrates with large CTE differences. The technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate foams of vanadium, niobium and molybdenum metals and SiC for CTE mitigation between a dense SiC barrier and steel structure; (2) Thermostructural modeling of SiC TPB/Ultramet foam/ferritic steel architecture; (3) Evaluate deuterium permeation of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC; (4) D testing involved construction of a new higher temperature (> 1000 C) permeation testing system and development of improved sealing techniques; (5) Fabricate prototype tube similar to that shown with dimensions of 7cm {theta} and 35cm long; and (6) Tritium and hermeticity testing of prototype tube.

Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Garde, Joseph Maurico; Buchenauer, Dean A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Calderoni, Pattrick (Idaho National Laboratory); Holschuh, Thomas, Jr.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Wright, Matt; Kolasinski, Robert D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cementitious Barriers Partnership FY2013 End-Year Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY2013, the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) demonstrated continued tangible progress toward fulfilling the objective of developing a set of software tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long?term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. In November 2012, the CBP released “Version 1.0” of the CBP Software Toolbox, a suite of software for simulating reactive transport in cementitious materials and important degradation phenomena. In addition, the CBP completed development of new software for the “Version 2.0” Toolbox to be released in early FY2014 and demonstrated use of the Version 1.0 Toolbox on DOE applications. The current primary software components in both Versions 1.0 and 2.0 are LeachXS/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM, and a GoldSim interface for probabilistic analysis of selected degradation scenarios. The CBP Software Toolbox Version 1.0 supports analysis of external sulfate attack (including damage mechanics), carbonation, and primary constituent leaching. Version 2.0 includes the additional analysis of chloride attack and dual regime flow and contaminant migration in fractured and non?fractured cementitious material. The LeachXS component embodies an extensive material property measurements database along with chemical speciation and reactive mass transport simulation cases with emphasis on leaching of major, trace and radionuclide constituents from cementitious materials used in DOE facilities, such as Saltstone (Savannah River) and Cast Stone (Hanford), tank closure grouts, and barrier concretes. STADIUM focuses on the physical and structural service life of materials and components based on chemical speciation and reactive mass transport of major cement constituents and aggressive species (e.g., chloride, sulfate, etc.). THAMES is a planned future CBP Toolbox component focused on simulation of the microstructure of cementitious materials and calculation of resultant hydraulic and constituent mass transfer parameters needed in modeling. Two CBP software demonstrations were conducted in FY2013, one to support the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at SRS and the other on a representative Hanford high?level waste tank. The CBP Toolbox demonstration on the SDF provided analysis on the most probable degradation mechanisms to the cementitious vault enclosure caused by sulfate and carbonation ingress. This analysis was documented and resulted in the issuance of a SDF Performance Assessment Special Analysis by Liquid Waste Operations this fiscal year. The two new software tools supporting chloride attack and dual?regime flow will provide additional degradation tools to better evaluate performance of DOE and commercial cementitious barriers. The CBP SRNL experimental program produced two patent applications and field data that will be used in the development and calibration of CBP software tools being developed in FY2014. The CBP software and simulation tools varies from other efforts in that all the tools are based upon specific and relevant experimental research of cementitious materials utilized in DOE applications. The CBP FY2013 program involved continuing research to improve and enhance the simulation tools as well as developing new tools that model other key degradation phenomena not addressed in Version 1.0. Also efforts to continue to verify the various simulation tools through laboratory experiments and analysis of field specimens are ongoing and will continue into FY2014 to quantify and reduce the uncertainty associated with performance assessments. This end?year report summarizes FY2013 software development efforts and the various experimental programs that are providing data for calibration and validation of the CBP developed software.

Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (The Netherlands); van der Sloot, H. A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Langedijk (The Netherlands); Garboczi, E. J. [Materials & Construction Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Nondestructive evaluation of environmental barrier coatings in CFCC combustor liners.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced combustor liners fabricated of SiC/SiC continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) and covered with environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been successfully tested in Solar Turbines Inc. field engines. The primary goal for the CFCC/EBC liners is to reach a 30,000-h lifetime. Because the EBCs, when applied on the hot surfaces of liners, protect the underlying CFCC from oxidation damage, their performance is critical in achieving the lifetime goal. To determine CFCC/EBC liner condition and assess operating damage, the liners were subjected to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during various processing stages, as well as before and after the engine test. The NDE techniques included pulsed infrared thermal imaging, air-coupled ultrasonic scanning, and X-ray computerized tomography. It was found that EBC damage and spallation depend on the condition of the CFCC material. The NDE results and correlations with destructive examination are discussed.

Sun, J. G.; Benz, J.; Ellingson, W. A.; Kimmel, J. B.; Price, J. R.; Energy Technology; Solar Turbines, Inc

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydraulic barrier design and applicability for managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydraulic barrier design and applicability for managing the risk of CO2 leakage from deep saline modifying the leak hydraulic properties (e.g. permeability) may be unfeasible. An appealing option.e. by creating a hydraulic barrier. The present article presents and discusses the operational and strategic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Electron transport measurements of Schottky barrier inhomogeneities L. E. Calvet,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of metal silicide contacts instead of p­n junctions. SBMOSFETs have been proposed as an alternative metal­oxide­semiconductor field-effect transistors. Direct tunneling through the Schottky barrier metal/semiconductor contact area. The inhomogeneities result in different average Schottky barrier

Reed, Mark

403

Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

Sub-barrier capture reactions with $^{16,18}$O and $^{40,48}$Ca beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various sub-barrier capture reactions with beams $^{16,18}$O and $^{40,48}$Ca are treated within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in these capture reactions is discussed. The quasielastic and capture barrier distributions are analyzed and compared with the recent experimental data.

V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

405

Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Toughness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the thermally grown oxide (TGO), and a porous ceramic topcoat which serves as the thermal insulation. DetailsLifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Mechanisms leading to degradation of the adherence of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) used in aircraft

Hutchinson, John W.

406

Grain-Boundary Grooving of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grain-Boundary Grooving of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 The focus of this study was to determine the mechanisms re- sponsible for the microstructural changes of plasma-sprayed 7 wt% Y2O3­ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings

Trice, Rodney W.

407

TLSync: Support for Multiple Fast Barriers Using On-Chip Transmission Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TLSync: Support for Multiple Fast Barriers Using On-Chip Transmission Lines Jungju Oh jungju in a transmission-line broadcast network, thus leaving the transmission line network free for non-modulated (base--Interconnection architectures General Terms Design, Performance Keywords Multi-core, Synchronization, Barrier, Transmission Line

Prvulovic, Milos

408

NHMFL Breaks the 100 Tesla Barrier Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NHMFL Breaks the 100 Tesla Barrier Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. 109no. 31 12404-12407 On March 22nd 2012, the NHMFL ­ Pulsed Field Facility broke the 100T tesla barrier, setting a world record of 100.75 tesla for a non-destructive magnet. By using advanced

Weston, Ken

409

Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thickness to the barrier scheme as well as an additional processing step. Binary transition metal compounds 13 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition Metallization Tungsten nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide

Anderson, Timothy J.

411

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

412

ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL-CERAMIC INTERFRACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines. These TBC's are comprised of ceramics, with favorably low thermal conductivity, deposited years ago.2 Hence, engineers looked to ceramic materials as a means of providing a thermal barrierChapter 1 ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS : CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL

Carter, Emily A.

413

Institutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resources in sustainable urban design and sustainable building design. In Britain, a broader agenda has beenInstitutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom). Institutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development.

Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W. [eds.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Removal of Barriers to the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Chile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Latin America, a series of interviews with different agents involved in the rural electrificationRemoval of Barriers to the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Chile Forcano 2 Removal of Barriers to the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Chile

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

416

Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

418

High-order accurate implicit methods for the pricing of barrier options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with a high-order accurate implicit finite-difference approach to the pricing of barrier options. In this way various types of barrier options are priced, including barrier options paying rebates, and options on dividend-paying-stocks. Moreover, the barriers may be monitored either continuously or discretely. In addition to the high-order accuracy of the scheme, and the stretching effect of the coordinate transformation, the main feature of this approach lies on a probability-based optimal determination of boundary conditions. This leads to much faster and accurate results when compared with similar pricing approaches. The strength of the present scheme is particularly demonstrated in the valuation of discretely monitored barrier options where it yields values closest to those obtained from the only semi-analytical valuation method available.

Ndogmo, J C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Subterranean barriers, methods, and apparatuses for forming, inspecting, selectively heating, and repairing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walsh, Stephanie (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho, ID)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fusion of $^{6}$Li with $^{159}$Tb} at near barrier energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the $\\gamma$-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by $\\sim$34% compared to the coupled channels calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data of $^{11,10}$B+$^{159}$Tb and $^{7}$Li+$^{159}$Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the $\\alpha$-separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb, at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the $d$-transfer to unbound states of $^{159}$Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

M. K. Pradhan; A. Mukherjee; P. Basu; A. Goswami; R. Kshetri; R. Palit; V. V. Parkar; M. Ray; Subinit Roy; P. Roy Chowdhury; M. Saha Sarkar; S. Santra

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fusion of {sup 6}Li with {sup 159}Tb at near-barrier energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the {gamma}-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by {approx}34% compared to coupled-channel calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data for {sup 11,10}B + {sup 159}Tb and {sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the {alpha} separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the d transfer to unbound states of {sup 159}Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Sarkar, M. Saha; Palit, R.; Parkar, V. V.; Santra, S.; Ray, M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India); Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Department of Physics, Behala College, Parnasree, Kolkata-700060 (India)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ?260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials.

Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Péter; Maurand, Romain; Bräuninger, Matthias; Schönenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Industry sector analysis, China: Petrochemical industry in east China. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The market survey covers the petrochemical equipment and technology market in East China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.; Kirby, Brendan [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Information Security  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The protection and control of classified information is critical to our nation’s security. This Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to protect and control classified information as required by statutes, regulation, Executive Orders, government-wide policy directives and guidelines, and DOE policy and directives. Cancels DOE M 470.4-4A Chg except for Section D.

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP FY13 MID-YEAR REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In FY2013, the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is continuing in its effort to develop and enhance software tools demonstrating tangible progress toward fulfilling the objective of developing a set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long?term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. In FY2012, the CBP released the initial inhouse “Beta?version” of the CBP Software Toolbox, a suite of software for simulating reactive transport in cementitious materials and important degradation phenomena. The current primary software components are LeachXS/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM, and a GoldSim interface for probabilistic analysis of selected degradation scenarios. THAMES is a planned future CBP Toolbox component (FY13/14) focused on simulation of the microstructure of cementitious materials and calculation of resultant hydraulic and constituent mass transfer parameters needed in modeling. This past November, the CBP Software Toolbox Version 1.0 was released that supports analysis of external sulfate attack (including damage mechanics), carbonation, and primary constituent leaching. The LeachXS component embodies an extensive material property measurements database along with chemical speciation and reactive mass transport simulation cases with emphasis on leaching of major, trace and radionuclide constituents from cementitious materials used in DOE facilities, such as Saltstone (Savannah River) and Cast Stone (Hanford), tank closure grouts, and barrier concretes. STADIUM focuses on the physical and structural service life of materials and components based on chemical speciation and reactive mass transport of major cement constituents and aggressive species (e.g., chloride, sulfate, etc.). The CBP issued numerous reports and other documentation that accompanied the “Version 1.0” release including a CBP Software Toolbox User Guide and Installation Guide. These documents, as well as, the presentations from the CBP Software Toolbox Demonstration and User Workshop, which are briefly described below, can be accessed from the CBP webpage at http://cementbarriers.org/. The website was recently modified to describe the CBP Software Toolbox and includes an interest form for application to use the software. The CBP FY13 program is continuing research to improve and enhance the simulation tools as well as develop new tools that model other key degradation phenomena not addressed in Version 1.0. Also efforts to continue to verify the various simulation tools thru laboratory experiments and analysis of field specimens are ongoing to quantify and reduce the uncertainty associated with performance assessments are ongoing. This mid?year report also includes both a summary on the FY13 software accomplishments in addition to the release of Version 1.0 of the CBP Software Toolbox and the various experimental programs that are providing data for calibration and validation of the CBP developed software. The focus this year for experimental studies was to measure transport in cementitious material by utilization of a leaching method and reduction capacity of saltstone field samples. Results are being used to calibrate and validate the updated carbonation model.

Burns, H.; Flach, G.; Langton, C.; KOSSON, D.; BROWN, K.; SAMSON, E.; MEEUSSEN, J.; SLOOT, H.; GARBOCZI, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

428

Biofuel Authority Rajasthan | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:form View source HistoryBarriers andInformation

429

Research: A typical thermal barrier coating consists of two layers over the substrate: 1) a ceramic top coat to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research: A typical thermal barrier coating consists of two layers over the substrate: 1) a ceramic-level understanding of the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic interfaces present in thermal barrier coatings. We have interfaces weaken as the ceramic thickens. This provides atomic-level insight as to why thermal barrier

Carter, Emily A.

430

Clean Diesel: Overcoming Noxious Fumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel cells and other devices as auxiliary power units in long-haul truckshaul heavy-duty trucks. Over time, provides the potential for much greater energy efficiency and hybrid electric and fuel-

Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Sperling, Daniel; Dwyer, Harry A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Clean Diesel: Overcoming Noxious Fumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evidence, the Health Effects Institute, premature death. aSummary of a Health Effects Institute (HEI) Special Report.

Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Sperling, Daniel; Dwyer, Harry A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with barriers in the vadose zone surrounding buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. The barrier material should be compatible with soil and waste conditions specific to the site and have as low an effective diffusivity as is reasonably achievable to minimize or inhibit transport of moisture and contaminants. This report addresses the regulatory issues associated with the use of non-traditional organic polymer barriers as well as the use of soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers, considering barriers constructed from these latter materials to be a regulatory baseline. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of such barriers to the EPA as a method for achieving site or performanceimprovement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used.

Siskind, B.; Heiser, J.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposed to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.

Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Engineered Barrier System performance requirements systems study report. Revision 02  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates the current design concept for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), in concert with the current understanding of the geologic setting to assess whether enhancements to the required performance of the EBS are necessary. The performance assessment calculations are performed by coupling the EBS with the geologic setting based on the models (some of which were updated for this study) and assumptions used for the 1995 Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The need for enhancements is determined by comparing the performance assessment results against the EBS related performance requirements. Subsystem quantitative performance requirements related to the EBS include the requirement to allow no more than 1% of the waste packages (WPs) to fail before 1,000 years after permanent closure of the repository, as well as a requirement to control the release rate of radionuclides from the EBS. The EBS performance enhancements considered included additional engineered components as well as evaluating additional performance available from existing design features but for which no performance credit is currently being taken.

Balady, M.A.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

435

Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

W.E. Lowry

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

436

Method And Apparatus For Determining Health Of Thermal Barrier Coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises providing a photoluminescent ("PL") material in the TBC, directing an exciting radiation at the TBC, measuring the intensity of a characteristic peak in the emission spectrum of the PL material, and correlating the intensity of the characteristic peak or another quantity derived therefrom to an amount of a new phase that has been formed as a result of the exposure of the component to extreme temperatures. An apparatus for carrying out the method comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of the emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of the new phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component.

Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Clifton Park, NY)

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

Renewable energy in Brazil: opportunities, barriers, and remedies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of the major conclusions is presented according to the goals of the study; and contents of the various chapters of the report are outlined. All major energy planning organizations in Brazil at the federal and state level perceive an urgent need for petroleum substitution by means of energy-efficient technology, coal, hydroelectricity, biomass, solar, and wind. Technologies and applications considered of high priority for US/Brazilian cooperative efforts are the following: Energy-efficient technology, used with indigenous hydroelectricity, especially heat pumps to provide (1) low temperature hot water for industrial applications, and (2) air conditioning and hot water for residential and commercial applications; solar thermal technology for low and intermediate temperature industrial process heat, and for crop drying; and small wind turbines and photovoltaic power systems for irrigation pumping and other rural applications. Certain technologies were excluded from the scope of the study by mutual agreement because a great deal of activity in such technologies was already taking place in Brazil, or because commercialization prospects seemed remote, or because of regulatory barriers. Energy conversion systems employing biomass, small- and large-scale hydropower, ocean thermal energy gradients, and cogeneration systems are not examined.

Jhirad, D.J.; Rutter, W.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Single and pair neutron transfers at sub-barrier energies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multinucleon transfer cross sections in the {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca system have been measured, in inverse kinematics, at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to {approx}25% below. Targetlike recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental data for one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been compared with semiclassical microscopic calculations. For the two-neutron transfer channels the relevance of the transitions to the ground state and to the 0{sup +} excited states of {sup 42}Ca are discussed by employing, for the reaction mechanism, the successive approximation. It is found that the transition to the 0{sup +} state at {approx}6 MeV, whose wave function is dominated by the two neutrons in the 2p{sub 3/2} shell, is much larger than the ground state one. The comparison with the inclusive data reveals that transitions to states with high multipolarity and non-natural parity are important. This suggests that more complex two-particle correlations have to be incorporated in the treatment of the transfer process.

Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Stefanini, A. M.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Szilner, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Ruder Boskovic Institute, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Colo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Mason, P.; Farnea, E.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gadea, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Haas, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Jelavic-Malenica, D.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia); Marginean, N. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evaportranspiration studies for protective barriers: FY 1989 status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of technological developments and experiments at the Small Tube Lysimeter Facility. The objective of this research is to develop the capability to predict evapotranspiration in support of studies of water infiltration control for the Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. This process must be predictable to adequately model soil water dynamics. We develop a miniature greenhouse (gas exchange chamber), where internal temperature and relative humidity can be controlled. With this device we measured evapotranspiration, transpiration, and carbon dioxide exchange rates from lysimeters with various surface and plant characteristics. We tested the effect on gas exchange rates and sand, gravel, admix, and soil surfaces in lysimeters where, cheat-grass, Bromus tectorum, had been seeded. Results showed that evapotranspiration was unaffected by the surface treatments. Estimated transpiration rates were higher for plants growing in sand compared with rates for plants growing in the admix and soil treatments. Soil evaporation rates were higher in the gravel treatment than in the sand treatment. Future research will entail parameterization of relationships between evapotranspiration, transpiration, soil evaporation, carbon dioxide exchange, and the abiotic and biotic factors that drive these processes for model development.

Link, S.O.; Thiede, M.E.; Downs, J.L.; Lettau, D.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Waugh, W.J. (Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

V.K. Mathur

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Information Security  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The protection and control of classified information is critical to our nation’s security. This Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to protect and control classified information as required by statutes, regulation, Executive Orders, government-wide policy directives and guidelines, and DOE policy and directives. Cancels DOE M 470.4-4A Chg except for Section D. Admin Chg 1, dated 11-23-2012, cancels DOE O 471.6.

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

442

Information Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluenceInformation3 Information Sciences

443

Contact Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearchCASLNanoporousTestimony |IdahoVisionContact In

444

Free Energy Barrier for Electric Field Driven Polymer Entry into Nanoscale Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

445

Sub-barrier fusion excitation for the system $^7$Li+$^{28}$Si  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sub-barrier fusion excitation functions are measured for the first time for the system $^7$Li +$^{28}$Si by the characteristic $\\gamma$-ray method in the energy range $E_{lab}$= 7-11.5 MeV. The results show an enhancement, below the barrier, by about a factor of two when compared with the one-dimensional barrier penetration (1D BPM) model. Introduction of coupling with the rotational 2$^{+}$ state (1.779MeV) of the target improves the fit somewhat, but still an enhancement of about 25-40% remains.

Mandira Sinha; H. Majumdar; P. Basu; Subinit Roy; R. Bhattacharya; M. Biswas; M. K. Pradhan; S. Kailas

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

446

Theoretical study of particle transport in electron internal transport barriers in TCV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous results from the analysis of fully non inductively sustained electron internal transport barriers (eITBs) in TCV show that a strong coupling exists between electron temperature and density profiles inside the barrier. A phenomenology that is completely different from the standard L-mode is observed . New experimental results assess transient phases to calculate particle convection and diffusion coefficients, allowing also to discuss the role of neoclassical transport. Gyrokinetic and gyrofluid analysis of steady-state eITBs provide tools to understand the mechanism that drive the observed density peaking in advanced scenarios with internal transport barriers and dominant electron heating.

Fable, E.; Sauter, O.; Marinoni, A.; Zucca, C. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM -- Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

Natural analog study of engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate surficial sedimentary deposits formed in the Pasco Basin over the geologic past as analogs for engineered protective barriers. Evidence for likely changes to be expected in an engineered barrier are preserved in geologically recent deposits. Although the design life of the engineered bonier is only 1,000 years, soils and sediments of this age are uncommon in the Pasco Basin. The evidence of and probability for the following natural processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of an engineered protective barrier reviewed in this report are deflation by wind, soil compaction, soil eluviation/illuviation, bioturbation, and cryoturbation.

Bjornstad, B.N.; Teel, S.S.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Enhancement of tunnel magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junction by a superlattice barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tunnel magnetoresistance of magnetic tunnel junction improved by a superlattice barrier composed of alternate layers of a nonmagnetic metal and an insulator is proposed. The forbidden band of the superlattice is used to predict the low transmission range in the superlattice barrier. By forbidding electron transport in the anti-parallel configuration, the tunnel magnetoresistance is enhanced in the superlattice junction. The results show that the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio for a superlattice magnetic tunnel junction is greater than that for traditional single or double barrier junctions.

Chen, C. H.; Hsueh, W. J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw [Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Engineering Science and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10660, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

449

Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent migration of the waste due to infiltration of surface water. The design lifespan for such barriers ranges from 30 to 1000 years, depending on hazard and regulations. In light of historical performance, society needs a better basis for predicting barrier performance over long time periods and tools for optimizing maintenance of barriers while in service. We believe that, as in other industries, better understanding of the dynamics of barrier system degradation will enable improved barriers (cheaper, longer-lived, simpler, easier to maintain) and improved maintenance. We are focusing our research on earthen caps, especially those with evapo-transpiration and capillary breaks. Typical cap assessments treat the barrier’s structure as static prior to some defined lifetime. Environmental boundary conditions such as precipitation and temperature are treated as time dependent. However, other key elements of the barrier system are regarded as constant, including engineered inputs (e.g., fire management strategy, irrigation, vegetation control), surface ecology (critical to assessment of plant transpiration), capillary break interface, material properties, surface erosion rate, etc. Further, to be conservative, only harmful processes are typically considered. A more holistic examination of both harmful and beneficial processes will provide more realistic pre-service prediction and in-service assessment of performance as well as provide designers a tool to encourage beneficial processes while discouraging harmful processes. Thus, the INEEL started a new project on long-term barrier integrity in April 2002 that aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late, prior to system-level failure). This paper describes our computer simulation approach for better understanding the relationships and dynamics between the various components and management decisions in a cap. The simulation is designed to clarify the complex relationships between the various components within the cap system and the various management practices that affect the barrier performance. We have also conceptualized a time-dependent 3-D simulation with rigorous solution to unsaturated flow physics with complex surface boundary conditions.

Piet, Steven James; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Soto, Rafael; Martian, Pete; Martineau, Richard Charles

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

Elimination of two level fluctuators in superconducting quantum bits by an epitaxial tunnel barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum computing based on Josephson junction technology is considered promising due to its scalable architecture. However, decoherence is a major obstacle. Here, we report evidence for improved Josephson quantum bits (qubits) using a single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier. We have found an {approx}80% reduction in the density of the spectral splittings that indicate the existence of two-level fluctators (TLFs) in amorphous tunnel barriers. The residual {approx}20% TLFs can be attributed to interfacial effects that may be further reduced by different electrode materials. These results show that decoherence sources in the tunnel barrier of Josephson qubits can be identified and eliminated.

Oh, Seongshik [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Cicak, Katarina; Kline, Jeffrey S.; Sillanpaeae, Mika A.; Osborn, Kevin D.; Whittaker, Jed D.; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Pappas, David P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Information International  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Orientation 17 Section 4 ­ Miscellaneous information 18 A. Dates of future academic sessions 18 B. Contact Checklist Back Cover Contents EUROPEAN NATIONALS/RESIDENTS NEED TO READ THE WHOLE OF ALL SECTIONS MARKED NON-EUROPEAN NATIONALS/RESIDENTS NEED TO READ THE WHOLE OF ALL SECTIONS MARKED SECTIONS MARKED SHOULD BE READ BY ALL

Petriu, Emil M.

454

CORPORATETECHNOLOGY Information &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s CORPORATETECHNOLOGY Information & Communications Neural Computation SIEMENS Structural Equation Modelling of fMRI-Data Norbert Galm CT IC 4 11.11.2003 #12;SIEMENS © Siemens AG, CT IC 4 - all rights in fMRI experiments the BOLD signal (blood oxygen level dependent) is measured: #12;SIEMENS © Siemens

Popeea, Corneliu - Chair for Foundations of Software Reliability and Theoretical Computer Science

455

postgraduate information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, biomedical engineering and technology, clean energy, water and the environment, complex systems and materialspostgraduate guide 2014 information technology and management #12;"The knowledge and skills Technology has been an excellent investment in my own development and will be crucial to realising my future

Scholz, Bernhard

456

Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Six years of monitoring the effectiveness of a barrier net at the Ludington Pumped Storage Plant on Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Annually, since 1989, Consumers Power Company and Detroit Edison Company have installed and maintained a seasonal barrier net in Lake Michigan at their jointly owned Ludington Pumped Storage Plant. Each year, Barnes-Williams Environmental Consultants, Inc. has evaluated the effectiveness of the barrier net as a deterrent to fish passage by sampling the fish populations inside and outside of the installed net barrier using variable mesh gill nets. Barrier net effectiveness indices, for fish species and sizes susceptible to capture by the sampling gear, have been developed based upon the difference in relative abundance between comparable outside and inside gill net catches. Knowledge gained each year on barrier net design, installation, and maintenance has been used to modify subsequent barrier net designs and operation procedures to maximize barrier net effectiveness. Initially, barrier net effectiveness, described as the percentage of fish prohibited from entering the barrier net enclosure, was estimated at 34.0% and 37.6% in 1989 and 1990 respectively. The barrier net was substantially redesigned and effectiveness increased to 84.2%, 77.5%, 77.6%, and 89.4% in 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994 respectively. The seasonal barrier net at the Ludington Plant has been shown to be effective as a deterrent to fish passage.

Guilfoos, E.R.; Williams, R.W.; Rouke, T.E. [Barnes-Williams Environmental Consultants, Inc., Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fusion-Fission of 16O+197Au at Sub-Barrier Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent discovery of heavy-ion fusion hindrance at far sub-barrier energies has focused much attention on both experimental and theoretical studies of this phenomenon. Most of the experimental evidence comes from medium-heavy systems such as Ni+Ni to Zr+Zr, for which the compound system decays primarily by charged-particle evaporation. In order to study heavier systems, it is, however, necessary to measure also the fraction of the decay that goes into fission fragments. In the present work we have, therefore, measured the fission cross section of 16O+197Au down to unprecedented far sub-barrier energies using a large position sensitive PPAC placed at backward angles. The preliminary cross sections will be discussed and compared to earlier studies at near-barrier energies. No conclusive evidence for sub-barrier hindrance was found, probably because the measurements were not extended to sufficiently low energies.

B. B. Back; C. L. Jiang; R. V. F. Janssens; D. J. Henderson; B. R. Shumard; C. J. Lister; D. Peterson; K. E. Rehm; I. Tanihata; X. Tang; X. Wang; S. Zhu

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

459

Scattering of Dirac Fermions in Barrier Geometries on the Surface of Topological Insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scattering of Dirac Fermions in Barrier Geometries on the Surface of Topological Insulators Lindsay Fleischer 1 Introduction Predicted theoretically and discovered experimentally, the topological insulators topological in- sulators and the trivial insulating vacuum have wavefunctions which are not smoothly

Torquato, Salvatore

460

The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Dynamics of pulse phenomena in helium dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modification,7 biosterilization,8 and the gen- eration of ozone.9 Synthesis of materials such as carbon stealth have also been proposed.11,12 The main technological barrier to generation of APG dis- charges

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

462

PRINCIPALS' PERCEPTIONS OF BARRIERS TO DISMISSAL OF POOR-PERFORMING TEACHERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine which factors influence items that school principals consider "barriers" to dismissal of "incompetent" or "poor performing" teachers. This study determines if specific ...

Dandoy, Jason Robert

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: An update on Barrier Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report updates a previous report covering the performance of a permeable reactive barrier installed at 100N. In this report we re-evaluate the results after having an additional year of performance monitoring data to incorporate.

Fritz, Brad G.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Comparison of various parametrizations of the double-humped fission barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The double-humped potential barriers in actinide nuclei in the fission direction have been parametrized using three different procedures, namely, the smoothly joined parabolic segments, third-degree polynomials passing through and with zero slopes at the successive extremum points, and straight-line segments connecting the successive extremum points. The fission penetrabilities through the barriers and the ground-state spontaneous fission half-lives for a wide variety of 25 actinide nuclides have been calculated for these different parametrizations. Our results clearly indicate that while the third-degree polynomial and the straight-line parametrizations of the double-humped fission barrier lead to approximately similar results on the fission penetrability and fission half-lives, the corresponding results using the smoothly joined parabolic segment parametrization differ significantly by almost two to five orders of magnitude depending on the specific type of the fissioning nucleus and on the parameters of its corresponding double-humped fission barrier.

Bhandari, B.S.; Khaliquzzaman, M. (Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Garyounis, Benghazi, Libya (LY))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Measuring Low Dimensional Schottky Barriers of Rare Earth Silicide-Silicon Interfaces.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus of this study is the measurement of low dimensional Schottky barrier heights of metal silicide-silicon interfaces and the challenges of current-voltage (I/V) curve… (more)

Vick, Andrew J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced thermal barrier Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: either kinetic or thermal effects, viz., from pumping of electrons from the wells to the barriers... . Tischler, B. A. Weinstein1 ), and B. D. McCombe Department of...

467

Manipulation of cold atoms using an optical one-way barrier .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation describes the development of an apparatus that can accommodate many atom-optics experiments, as well as an experimental demonstration of an optical one-way barrier… (more)

Li, Tao

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management Conference  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PHOENIX – EM and the DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) are working to address barriers that hinder small businesses from competing for prime contracts for work in the Cold War cleanup program.

469

Barriers to implementation of new programs and pedagogies in K-12 STEM Education : a systems perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The continued usage of poor pedagogies in K-12 classrooms, despite large pressures for teachers to change their practice, points towards systematic barriers to change. In the last few decades, there has been a national ...

Hird, Mackenzie Douglas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effect of Radiant Barrier Technology on Summer Attic Heat Load in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of the study was to experimentally evaluate the performance of radiant barriers in single-family occupied housing units in South Texas. Ceiling heat fluxes, attic air temperatures, indoor air temperatures, ambient air temperatures...

Ashley, R.; Garcia, O.; Medina, M. A.; Turner, W. D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Effects of Carbon Nanotubes in Barrier Epithelial Cells via Effects on Lipid Bilayers Shanta Lewis1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Carbon Nanotubes in Barrier Epithelial Cells via Effects on Lipid Bilayers Shanta Lewis1 Physiology, IU School of Medicine Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of many nanoparticles (NP) which are being

Zhou, Yaoqi

472

Resonant escape over an oscillating barrier in underdamped Josephson tunnel junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The escape from a metastable state over an oscillating barrier of an underdamped Josephson tunnel junction has been experimentally investigated with oscillation frequency well separated from the plasma frequency of the ...

Han, Siyuan; Yu, Yang

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Mechanistic investigation of skin barrier perturbation induced by surfactants in the presence of humectants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The stratum corneum (SC) of the skin functions as a barrier between the body and the environment. Surfactants such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are used in skin cleansers and in skin-care formulations because of their ...

Ghosh, Saswata

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Sub-barrier capture reactions with $^{16,18}$O beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various sub-barrier capture reactions with beams $^{16,18}$O are treated within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in these capture reactions is discussed.

V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

475

Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

Olsen, L. C.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Development of guidelines for the aesthetic surface treatment of safety-shaped median barriers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety-shaped median barriers have long been employed to keep misguided vehicles on the roadway. In recent years there has been a growing national desire for more aesthetically pleasing roadside safety systems. Adding surface texture is one...

Ness, Jacob Raymond

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - activityrelated neighborhood barriers Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

highly interde- Summary: as usual. For uorescence, the light source was a 100-W mercury arc lamp, with excitation and barrier lters... activity-related cou- pling in cortical...

478

An Examination of Health Providers' HPV Vaccination Behaviors, Perceived Barriers, and Supports: A Four State Analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study's main research asked which combination of predictors, including type of health provider, type of state policy initiative, overall barriers scores, and overall supports scores, is most predictive of HPV vaccination ...

McCave, Emily

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

479

Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

480

Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

Burton, III, Robert S. (Mesa, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "overcoming informational barriers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

HumanWildlife Conflicts 2(2):206211, Fall 2008 Evaluation of physical barriers to prevent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-footed ferret programs (M. Brennan, biologist, Boulder County, personal communication). However, resource ludovicianus) colonies on public and private lands can result in damage to property. Physical barriers, wildlife damage management Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) pose many challenges

482

New barrier fluids for subsurface containment of contaminants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In some situations, containment of contaminants in the subsurface may be preferable to removal or treatment in situ. In these cases, it maybe possible to form barriers by injecting fluids (grouts) that set in place and reduce the formation permeability. This paper reports laboratory work to develop two types of fluids for this application: colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX). Falling-head permeameter tests of grouted Hanford sand, lasting 50 days, showed hydraulic conductivities of order 10{sup -7} cm/sec for these two materials. Low initial viscosity of the grout is necessary to permit injection without causing fracturing or surface uplift. Experiments with crosslinked polysiloxanes showed that they could be diluted to achieve adequately low viscosity without losing their ability to cure. Control of the gel time is important for grout emplacement. Gel time of CS grouts increased with increasing pH (above 6.5) and with decreasing ionic strength. Salt solutions were added to the colloid-to increase the ionic strength and control gel time. When injected into Hanford sand, the CS grout gelled much more quickly than the same formula without sand. This effect results from salinity that is present in pore water and from multi-valent ions that are desorbed from clays and ion-exchanged for mono-valent ions in the grout. Ion-exchange experiments showed that most of the multi-valent ions could be removed-by flushing the sand with 15 PV of 4% NaCl and sand treated in this manner did not accelerate the gelling of the grout. When grout is injected into unsaturated soil it slumps, leaving the soil only partially saturated and achieving less permeability reduction upon gelling. Multiple injections of CS grout in 1-D sand columns demonstrated that by accumulating the residual gelled grout saturations from several injections, low permeability can be achieved.

Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Holman, H.Y.; Muller, S.J.; Pruess, K.; Radke, C.J.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.

Nitin Padture

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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Long-term climate change assessment study plan for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The goal of the Barrier Development Program is to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 yr; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the