National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ovens microwave ovens

  1. Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M206 Mechanical Convection Oven The M206 oven is dedicated to CAMD staff use only. M326 Mechanical Convection Oven Located next to the spinners, the M326 oven is availabe to External Users. VT5042EKP500 Vacuum Oven The vacuum oven is controlled by a Eurotherm 2604 PID controller. The controller is optionally PC interfaced for recipe storage and remote control. The two independent shelves with ramp control make it valuable for SU-8 processing. Additionally, nitrogen is optional for a

  2. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  3. Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Mills, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

  4. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bills | Department of Energy for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31, 2013 - 3:26pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30

  5. ISSUANCE 2016-02-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

  6. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  7. EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon | Department of Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon August 21, 2013 - 9:18am Addthis A typical microwave is used to heat food for about 70 hours each year, but continues to use electricity for the remaining 8,690 hours of the year to power

  8. Making a Solar Oven

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students make solar ovens. Student background information is provided. The expected outcome is that students will learn about solar energy transfer.

  9. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  10. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  11. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  12. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other...

  13. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE's new microwave standards will reduce carbon pollution and save consumers money on their energy bills.

  14. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to ... Now open the flap and turn the box so the foil is facing the sun. The shadow of the flap ...

  15. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  16. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  17. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #11 PDF icon Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency (October 2007) More Documents & Publications Check Burner

  18. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  19. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  20. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei

    1997-12-31

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ovens Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial ovens, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance and

  2. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8, 9-12 Subject Solar Summary Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language Arts Plan Time One class period Materials One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store, tape, scissors, black construction paper, clear plastic wrap, aluminum foil,

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension

  4. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  5. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  6. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  7. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  8. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  9. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  10. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  11. Supercomputers Take a Cue From Microwave Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for one or a few dedicated functions. "Because the ultimate goal of the embedded market is to maximize battery life, these technologies have always been driven by...

  12. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  13. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  14. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  15. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  16. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  17. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  19. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  20. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  1. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  2. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  3. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  4. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  5. Coke oven air and water pollution. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coke oven pollution. Monitoring, sampling, analyzing, transport properties, and control of emissions and effluents are cited in this compilation from worldwide journals. Pollutants described are sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phenols, benzopyrene, particulates, and other trace elements and compounds. Process and equipment modifications, such as pipeline charging, wet and dry quenching, retrofitting, and oven leakage preventives are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. System to acquire and monitor operating machinery positions for horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, D.; Teschner, W.

    1980-02-26

    In a horizontal coke oven battery with at least one coke receiving device movable along one longitudinal side of the battery and at least one coke driving device movable along an opposite longitudinal side of the battery, an apparatus is disclosed for determining the relative position of the coke receiving device with respect to the coke driving device and for activating the coke driving device when its position corresponds with that of the coke receiving device. A first wheel is mounted on the coke receiving device for rotation with the movement of the coke receiving device, a first angle encoder is connected to the first wheel for producing a first signal corresponding to the location of the first wheel and the position of the coke receiving device along the coke oven, and an input storage in the form of a magnetic disc is connected to the first angle encoder for recording and storing the signal. A second wheel is mounted on the coke driving device for rotation with the movement of the coke driving device and a second angle encoder is connected thereto for producing a second signal which corresponds to the rotation of the second wheel and the position of the coke driving device along the coke oven. A comparator is connected to the second signal encoder for receiving the second signal and a data link is provided between the comparator and the input storage of the coke receiving device so that the first signal from the coke receiving device can be impressed on the comparator. An activator is connected to the comparator for activating the coke driving device when the first signal corresponds to the second signal indicating a corresponding positional relationship between the coke receiving device and the coke driving device.

  7. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  8. Demonstration of a fuel-saving system for paint-curing ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, W P

    1980-12-01

    Two curing ovens at Roll Coater, Inc. (the Greenfield, Indiana plant) were retrofitted to save fuel and cost. Included in the fuel conserving retrofit was the design, fabrication, and installation of an afterburner for each of the two ovens, piping their combustion products to each of two commonly housed waste heat boilers before discharge from those units to the atmosphere at about 450 F. Depending on the product being run and the coating applied, natural gas requirements have been reduced by 45 to 65% with operation of the zone incinerators only and by as much as 65 to 85% including the effects of both the zone incineration and heat recovery by means of the afterburners and waste heat boilers. A demonstration program on conversion work at the No. 3 line at Greenfield and results are described in Section 2. Section 3 describes the retrofit design and the system construction. System performance (tests and measurements, qualitative performance, maintenance factors, and economic performance) is described in Section 4. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  9. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  10. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Positive Impact Significant savings to consumer energy bills and reductions in carbon pollution. Locations Nationwide Partners Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Navigant EERE ...

  11. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Appliance efficiency standards represent a huge opportunity to help families save money by saving energy, while still delivering high quality appliances for consumers," said ...

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  13. Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MA.01.142.02.03 Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units. ... the top (class set) Masking tape Scissors Black construction paper Clear plastic wrap or ...

  14. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  15. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  16. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  17. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppbC, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power ...

  18. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. ... OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates ...

  19. Cooking Up Some Energy Saving Tips | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Copper bottomed pans heat up faster than regular pans, and in the oven glass or ceramic ... your oven, think about alternatives, like a toaster oven, microwave oven, or slow cooker. ...

  20. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  1. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  2. INEXPENSIVE, OFF THE SHELF HYBRID MICROWAVE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, T; Paul Burket, P; John Scogin, J

    2007-06-21

    A hybrid-heating microwave oven provides the energy to heat small 10-gram samples of spent metal tritide storage bed material to release tenaciously held decay product {sup 3}He. Complete mass balance procedures require direct measurement of added or produced gases on a tritide bed, and over 1100 C is necessary to release deep trapped {sup 3}He. The decomposition of non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3} and the quantitative measurement of CO{sub 2} within 3% of stoichiometry demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus to capture generated (released) gases.

  3. Covered Product Category: Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    product is available to meet the functional requirements, or that no such product is life cycle cost-effective for a specific application. Additional information on Federal...

  4. Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Industry Scorches Records Solar Industry Scorches Records March 6, 2014 - 5:24pm Addthis Workers install a solar energy system on the rooftop of a home in Golden, Colorado. More than 4,751 megawatts of solar power was installed in the United States last year, an increase of 41%. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Workers install a solar energy system on the rooftop of a home in Golden, Colorado. More than 4,751 megawatts of solar power was installed in the United

  5. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  6. EA-1662: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: EnergyConservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)

  7. Momentum-Savings-Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential Room Air Conditioning Residential Ceiling Fan Light Kits Electric Clothes Dryers Electric Cooktops Electric Ovens Residential Furnace Fans Microwave Ovens...

  8. EA-1662: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) and for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment (Commercial Clothes Washers)

  9. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 21 2.2.7 Microwave Ovens ... Losses of Data Center Uninterruptible Power Supplies ..... 149 5.12.9 Design ... in generation, transmission and distribution. ...

  11. December | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... to the world of consumer electronics like microwave ovens, cameras and cell phones, where everything from chips to batteries to software is optimized to the device's application. ...

  12. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franois, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.; Danet, J. M.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192?GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192?GHz output signal are measured to be ?42, ?100, ?117 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz and ?129 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 10{sup ?14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  13. Energy Education Photo Gallery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The LAYC Career Academy builds a solar oven from a pizza oven. 9 of 14 The LAYC Career Academy builds a solar oven from a pizza oven. The LAYC Career Academy Public Charter School ...

  14. CX-006399: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microbiological Sample Preparation and Analysis For Use With Hybrid Microwave OvenCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 05/19/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  15. Microwave detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  16. Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

  17. Microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  19. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Young, Albert C.

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  20. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  1. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  2. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Ferber, Mattison K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 121 - 130 of 189 results. Download Making a Solar Oven Students make solar ovens. Student background information is...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Production...

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final ...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloads...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Fuels...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download...

  9. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, ...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Geothermal Energy:...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy in Today's Global Society Energy is an abstract concept that is very familiar to...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Green Fuel This activity allows students the opportunity to explore different methods for...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Science & Innovation Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 31 - 40 of 36 results. Download Making a Solar Oven Students make solar ovens....

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Protect Your Climate Curriculum and Training Request projects here....

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun (10 activities) Hands-on explorations to teach intermediate students...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0...

  18. Green | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green Green 08-03-2015 - Verification of Protective Properties is Critical before Using any PPE Read more about 08-03-2015 - Verification of Protective Properties is Critical before Using any PPE 12-28-1999 - Catastrphic Failure of a Questron Q3000 Very High Pressure (VHP) Microwave Oven Vessel Read more about 12-28-1999 - Catastrphic Failure of a Questron Q3000 Very High Pressure (VHP) Microwave Oven Vessel 12-16-1997 - Digital Cameras Reduce Personnel Exposures Read more about 12-16-1997 -

  19. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  20. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  1. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Ovens, Final Rule | Department of Energy 18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule This document is the Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule. PDF icon conventional_ovens_tp_finalrule.pdf More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

  3. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 2008 Microwave Oven Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Company Market Share (%) LG Electronics (Goldstar) 33% Sharp 15% Samsung 15% Daewoo 7% Matsushita 10% Whirlpool 3% Sanyo 9% Others 8% Total 100% Source(s): Total Units Shipped: 11,340,000

  4. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  5. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half

  7. From: J B Hoyt [mailto:J_B_Hoyt@whirlpool.com]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    J B Hoyt [mailto:J_B_Hoyt@whirlpool.com] Sent: Wednesday, December 14, 2011 2:43 PM To: Armstrong, Ashley; Anderson, Wes Subject: Ex-Parte Meeting Summary To Whom It May Concern: On December 12, 2011 a meeting was held amongst Wes Anderson (DOE), Ashley Armstrong (DOE), and J.B. Hoyt (Whirlpool Corporation). The purpose was to discuss the definition of a built-in cooking product which includes one conventional radiant oven cavity and one microwave oven cavity, with both controlled by a single

  8. 1997 RECS data on consumer usage of appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latta, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration contained questions on how households use various appliances. This includes the following appliance usage (1) personnel computers, (2) cooking appliances, (3) conventional ovens, (4) microwave ovens, (5) clothes washers, and (6) clothes dryer. Many of these items were first collected in the 1997 RECS. In this paper, appliance usage by household demographic characteristics (household income, age of householder, and number of household members) are examined with an emphasis on results for data items that were first collected in the 1997 RECS.

  9. Microwave coupler and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  10. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  11. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  12. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  13. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  14. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  15. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  16. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  17. Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop (held in Long Beach, CA, on July 25, 2012), academic and industry experts discussed the existing and emerging electrotechnologies such as microwave ...

  18. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minich, Roger W. (Patterson, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  19. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  20. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  1. Innovative Microwave Technology - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Return to Search Innovative Microwave Technology Hybrid microwave technology capable of performing functions that traditional microwave systems could not achieve. Savannah River National Laboratory New Hybrid Microwave Technology New Hybrid Microwave Technology Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date Hadron Technologies, Inc. Offices in Tennessee and Colorado License October 22, 2013 Summary Hadron Technologies, Inc. has signed

  2. Microwave solidification project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun...

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Coal coke oven gas production is dependant on the use of coal as an energy source, particularly in manufacturing iron and steel. Coke oven gas from petroleum production is more ...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Wonders of the Sun...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Green Fuel This...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download An Exploration of...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy in Today's...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download What Makes A Home...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Plants in Your Gas...

  12. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is the notice of proposed rule for Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens. PDF icon

  14. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension. conventionalovenscommentextension.pdf More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy...

  16. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  17. Microwave hematoma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    The Microwave Hematoma Detector is a non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots near the outer surface of the body. While being geared towards finding sub-dural and epi-dural hematomas, the device can be used to detect blood pooling anywhere near the surface of the body. Modified versions of the device can also detect pneumothorax, organ hemorrhage, atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries, evaluate perfusion (blood flow) at or near the body surface, body tissue damage at or near the surface (especially for burn assessment) and be used in a number of NDE applications. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with a specialized antenna, signal processing/recognition algorithms and a disposable cap worn by the patient which will facilitate accurate mapping of the brain and proper function of the instrument. The invention may be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of sub-dural or epi-dural hematoma in human or animal patients, detection of hemorrhage within approximately 5 cm of the outer surface anywhere on a patient's body.

  18. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  19. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Peter M.

    1993-01-01

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot therethrough for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  20. Gigatron microwave amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, P.M.

    1993-07-13

    An electron tube for achieving high power at high frequency with high efficiency is described, including an input coupler, a ribbon-shaped electron beam and a traveling wave output coupler. The input coupler is a lumped constant resonant circuit that modulates a field emitter array cathode at microwave frequency. A bunched ribbon electron beam is emitted from the cathode in periodic bursts at the desired frequency. The beam has a ribbon configuration to eliminate limitations inherent in round beam devices. The traveling wave coupler efficiently extracts energy from the electron beam, and includes a waveguide with a slot there through for receiving the electron beam. The ribbon beam is tilted at an angle with respect to the traveling wave coupler so that the electron beam couples in-phase with the traveling wave in the waveguide. The traveling wave coupler thus extracts energy from the electron beam over the entire width of the beam.

  1. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration ...

  2. Inquiring Minds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory at Fermilab Roughly half of our understanding of the physical world comes from direct experiment, while the other half comes from the systematic, logical fomulation of the laws of nature known as theoretical physics. Our modern machines, from the radio and microwave oven to supercomputers and the Tevatron, rely upon the established theories of nature--the laws of electrodynamics, quantum physics and relativity--and their profound and arcane mathematics. Lattice Computer Farm Fermilab's

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Mode Stirred Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mode Stirred Chamber The Mode Stirred chamber is essentially a large microwave oven. It consists of a metal room that serves as a high-Q chamber and a metal paddle wheel to "stir" the chamber modes. Mixing the modes in this manner allows test objects, in a single orientation to be exposed to EM energy in many different angles of incidence and polarization. Electronic susceptibility tests can be performed, or test object electromagnetic transfer functions can be determined through

  4. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Bills | Department of Energy NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30 years, it will dramatically reduce harmful carbon pollution, equivalent to taking over 12 million new cars off the road for one year. "Appliance efficiency standards

  5. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  6. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  7. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis M.; Darling, Timothy W.; Migliori, Albert; Rees, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  8. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  9. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Folz, Diane C.

    2002-07-16

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  10. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  11. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  12. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  13. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  14. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  15. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.; Seals, Roland D.; Morrell, Jonathan S.

    2009-10-20

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Annual Cost Active Idle Off Active Idle Off ($) (2) Kitchen Coffee Maker 1,000 70 0 38 229 8,493 58 5.6 Dishwasher (3) 365 (4) 120 11.6 Microwave Oven 1,500 3 70 8,690 131 12.6 Toaster Oven 1,051 37 54 5.2 Refrigerator-Freezer 660 63.1 Freezer 470 45.0 Lighting 18-W Compact Fluorescent 18 1,189 20 2.1 60-W Incandescent Lamp 60 672 40 3.9 100-W Incandescent Lamp 100 672 70 6.4 Torchiere Lamp-Halogen 300 1,460 440 42.0 Bedroom and Bathroom Hair Dryer 710 50 40 3.4 Waterbed Heater 350 3,051 1,070

  17. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A process for disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Effecting intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400.degree. C. in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient to break the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds and provide detoxification values in excess of 80 and further detoxifying the bed followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes.

  18. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  19. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  20. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  1. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Microwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometer - ETL MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler MMWR : Millimeter Wave Radiometer MIR : Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer NOAA-P3 : NOAA P-3 Aircraft PARSL : PNNL's...

  3. Hybrid Microwave Energy - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undesirable environmental consequences.Description The hybrid microwave system provides a simple processing method for the reduction of waste volume, immobilization of hazardous...

  4. Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microwaves (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Microwaves (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts...

  5. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Authors: Maria ...

  6. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Authors: Maria Cadeddu ...

  7. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron ...

  8. Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies for Advanced ...

  9. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron...

  10. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  11. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  12. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1984-01-01

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  13. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  14. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Dykes, N.L.

    1994-06-14

    Disclosed is a method of sintering ceramic materials. A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article. No Drawings

  15. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1994-01-01

    A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

  16. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  17. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  18. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  19. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-07-17

    Disclosed is a method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  20. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  1. Microwave meta-atom enhanced spintronic rectification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, Peng; Xi, Fuchun; Qian, Qinbai; Xu, Jie; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.; An, Zhenghua

    2015-04-06

    An artificial meta-atom (MA), or alternatively, a plasmonic antenna, has been demonstrated to significantly enhance the microwave spin rectifying photovoltage by more than two orders in magnitude (∼280) in the ferromagnetic resonance regime. The large enhancement is attributed to the unique structure of the MA which magnifies both microwave electric (∼5) and magnetic (∼56) fields in the same near-field spatial region. Our work develops the interdisciplinary direction with artificial and natural magnetism and may find promising applications in high-frequency or opto-spintronic devices and wireless microwave energy harvesting.

  2. Planar slot coupled microwave hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petter, Jeffrey K.

    1991-01-01

    A symmetrical 180.degree. microwave hybrid is constructed by opening a slot line in a ground plane below a conducting strip disposed on a dielectric substrate, creating a slot coupled conductor. Difference signals propagating on the slot coupled conductor are isolated on the slot line leaving sum signals to propagate on the microstrip. The difference signal is coupled from the slot line onto a second microstrip line for transmission to a desired location. The microstrip branches in a symmetrical fashion to provide the input/output ports of the 180.degree. hybrid. The symmetry of the device provides for balance and isolation between sum and difference signals, and provides an advantageous balance between the power handling capabilities and the bandwidth of the device.

  3. Microwave Excitation In ECRIS plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.; Tumino, L.

    2007-09-28

    A number of phenomena related to the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) has been better understood recently by means of the improvement of comprehension of the coupling mechanism between microwave generators and ECR plasma. In particular, the two frequency heating and the frequency tuning effect, that permit a remarkable increase of the current for the highest charge states ions, can be explained in terms of modes excitation in the cylindrical cavity of the plasma chamber. Calculations based on this theoretical approach have been performed, and the major results will be presented. It will be shown that the electric field pattern completely changes for a few MHz frequency variations and the changes in ECRIS performances can be correlated to the efficiency of the power transfer between electromagnetic field and plasma.

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  7. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 20.3 14.9 5.4 1....................................................................... 103.3 18.7 13.6 5.2 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.6 1.4 0.2 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.2 Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 9.7 6.2 3.6

  8. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 25.3 17.6 7.7 1....................................................................... 103.3 24.0 16.8 7.3 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.3 0.8 0.5 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.3 Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 14.7 9.5 5.2

  9. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 23.7 7.5 16.2 1....................................................................... 103.3 22.4 6.8 15.6 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.3 0.6 0.6 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.5 Q 0.4 Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 13.4 4.5

  10. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 20.3 25.3 40.2 23.7 1........................................................................... 103.3 18.7 24.0 38.2 22.4 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 1.6 1.3 2.1 1.3 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  11. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 40.2 21.5 6.8 11.9 1........................................................................... 103.3 38.2 20.5 6.4 11.3 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 2.1 1.0 0.4 0.7 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 0.5 Q Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel

  12. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 46.2 18.8 22.5 22.1 1........................................................................... 103.3 44.1 17.8 21.2 20.2 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 2.1 1.0 1.3 1.9 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 1.0 Q 0.2 Q Most-Used Oven Fuel

  13. Total U.S...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.............................................................. 109.6 7.1 6.9 7.8 11.7 1............................................................................. 103.3 6.5 6.6 7.4 11.2 2 or More................................................................ 6.2 0.6 Q 0.4 0.5 Do Not Use an Oven.................................................. 1.5 Q Q Q 0.4 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities) Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel...

  15. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chicken quesadilla - Dijon roasted pork loin with black bean salsa - Oven-roasted turkey and dressing - Italian antipasto panino - Italian pasta bar - White chicken chili -...

  16. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and eggs - Grilled chicken quesadilla - Chicken vincenza with pasta - Oven-roasted turkey and dressing - Italian antipasto panino - Italian pasta bar - White chicken chili -...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 59 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

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    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Survival Still Students design and build a solar still to capture drinking water from the capillary water in the...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

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    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun (10 activities) Hands-on explorations to teach intermediate students the scientific...

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  5. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. Deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. Denominators represent the value of...

  6. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 11 PDF icon Use Lower Flammable ...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Protect Your Climate Curriculum and Training Request projects here. Upon request you will be sent a 16-unit...

  8. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) guidelines require the removal of significant ... For a continuous strip coating process requiring 46 gallons of xylol with a maximum oven ...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tankless water heaters, boiler equipment, furnaces, griddles, fryers, combination ovens, air curtains and custom rebates. Up to 50% of the purchase price may be covered for...

  10. Thermal Product Solutions aka Kayex | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product Solutions aka Kayex Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Product Solutions (aka Kayex) Place: Rochester, New York Zip: 14624 Product: Makes industrial ovens and...

  11. EA-0819: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conservation Standards for Eight Types of Consumer Products: Room Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Ranges and Ovens, Pool ...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    downloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Energy Sources- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Find activities focused on renewable energy sources...

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  14. brwtp-icoke | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Appliance Equipment Standards Northwest Impact Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  19. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time. 4. Denominators represent the value of production for the...

  20. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    evaluationmgmtguidefinal2006.pdf More Documents & Publications Wind is Energy (17 activities) SolarHarvest.pdf Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  2. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Expos Students work in groups to create hands-on exhibits about the energy sources that power the nation,...

  4. Commercial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers rebates for ENERGY STAR certified fryers, griddles, convection ovens, and steam cookers. Custom rebates for other types of commercial cooking equipment may be available...

  5. EA-0404: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program - Coke Oven Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland

  6. Sales Tax Holiday for Energy-Efficient Appliances | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    each year for the following appliances*: Clothes washers Clothes dryers* Water heaters Trash compactors* Dishwashers Conventional ovens, ranges, and stoves* Air conditioners...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tornado in 2007. http:energy.goveerevideosre-building-greensburg Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  10. Ditec Automation Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ditec Automation Group Place: Mexico City, Mexico Product: Mexico City-based manufacturing and installation company. Focused on material handling, industrial ovens,...

  11. JCESR Presents to the Illinois General Assembly | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago View presentation Mil Oven, Chief Marketing Officer, Navitas Systems View presentation Samir Mayekar, Chief Executive...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Laboratory Facilities and Collaborative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Equipment for synthesizing samples, including a vacuum oven, ability to use the hot-press technique for synthesizing bonded interfaces (such as solders, sintered silver and ...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy to help engage students in energy. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its Energy (11 activities) Hands-on investigations and explorations to introduce...

  15. Microwave Melting | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 2:90 min. Ed Ripley and Kenneth Evans explain some of the benefits of microwave heating technology, including how its uses...

  16. Container evaluation for microwave solidification project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.

    1994-08-01

    This document discusses the development and testing of a suitable waste container and packaging arrangement to be used with the Microwave Solidification System (MSS) and Bagless Posting System (BPS). The project involves the Rocky Flats Plant.

  17. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA....

  19. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  20. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  1. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  2. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Bacon, Larry D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  3. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  4. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  5. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for...

  6. Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshops » Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop July 25, 2012 At the Microwave and Radio Frequency Workshop (held in Long Beach, CA, on July 25, 2012), academic and industry experts discussed the existing and emerging electrotechnologies - such as microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) energy - and their potential to impact advanced manufacturing. Exploiting the material interactions of MW and RF energy is a route to developing energy-saving process

  7. Development of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometry (MPMI) Method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Development of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometry (MPMI) Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometry (MPMI) Method A multi-point microwave interferometer (MPMI) concept was developed for non-invasively tracking a shock, reaction, or detonation front in energetic media. Initially, a single-point, heterodyne microwave interferometry capability was established. The design,

  8. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  9. Microwave accelerator E-beam pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Stein, William E.; Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    A device and method for pumping gaseous lasers by means of a microwave accelerator. The microwave accelerator produces a relativistic electron beam which is applied along the longitudinal axis of the laser through an electron beam window. The incident points of the electron beam on the electron beam window are varied by deflection coils to enhance the cooling characteristics of the foil. A thyratron is used to reliably modulate the microwave accelerator to produce electron beam pulses which excite the laser medium to produce laser pulse repetition frequencies not previously obtainable. An aerodynamic window is also disclosed which eliminates foil heating problems, as well as a magnetic bottle for reducing laser cavity length and pressures while maintaining efficient energy deposition.

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Major Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Typical Service Average 2005 Average Lifetime Range Lifetime Stock Age Units to be Replaced Appliance Type (years) (years) (years) During 2011 (thousands) Refrigerators (1) 10 - 16 12 7.8 9,217 Freezers 8 - 16 11 11.3 2,215 Microwave Ovens 7 - 10 9 N.A. Ranges (2) Electric 12 - 19 16 N.A. 4,281 Gas 14 - 22 17 N.A. 2,854 Clothes Washers 7 - 14 11 N.A. 7,362 Clothes Dryers Electric 8 - 15 12 N.A. 5,095 Gas

  11. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  12. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  13. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Blake, Rodger D.

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  14. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  15. Clamshell microwave cavities having a superconductive coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Arendt, Paul N.; Piel, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    A microwave cavity including a pair of opposing clamshell halves, such halves comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, or a silver-based alloy, wherein the cavity is further characterized as exhibiting a dominant TE.sub.011 mode is provided together with an embodiment wherein the interior concave surfaces of the clamshell halves are coated with a superconductive material. In the case of copper clamshell halves, the microwave cavity has a Q-value of about 1.2.times.10.sup.5 as measured at a temperature of 10K and a frequency of 10 GHz.

  16. Piezoelectric-tuned microwave cavity for absorption spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leskovar, Branko; Buscher, Harold T.; Kolbe, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Gas samples are analyzed for pollutants in a microwave cavity that is provided with two highly polished walls. One wall of the cavity is mechanically driven with a piezoelectric transducer at a low frequency to tune the cavity over a band of microwave frequencies in synchronism with frequency modulated microwave energy applied to the cavity. Absorption of microwave energy over the tuned frequencies is detected, and energy absorption at a particular microwave frequency is an indication of a particular pollutant in the gas sample.

  17. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  18. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  19. Planar controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.; Seals, Roland D.; Morrell, Jonathan S.

    2011-10-04

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  20. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S...........................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven...... 109.6 14.4 7.2 12.4 12.4 18.6 ...

  2. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Arvid C.; Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Markunas, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus (10) is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity (34) depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece (36) is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  3. Apparatus and method for microwave processing of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.C.; Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Markunas, R.J.

    1996-05-28

    Disclosed is a variable frequency microwave heating apparatus designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency heating apparatus is used in the method of the present invention to monitor the resonant processing frequency within the furnace cavity depending upon the material, including the state thereof, from which the workpiece is fabricated. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus includes a microwave signal generator and a high-power microwave amplifier or a microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A power supply is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator or microwave amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 10 figs.

  4. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  5. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  6. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, Ronald J.

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  7. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (TIP mode) (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM: Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatures (TIP mode) Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatures (TIP mode) Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatures (TIP mode) Authors: Maria Cadeddu Publication Date: 2013-09-25 OSTI Identifier: 1182058 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org:

  9. Method and apparatus for thickness measurement using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul [Bedford, MA; Lamar, David A. [West Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The method for measuring the thickness of a material which transmits a detectable amount of microwave radiation includes irradiating the material with coherent microwave radiation tuned over a frequency range. Reflected microwave radiation is detected, the reflected radiation having maxima and minima over the frequency range as a result of coherent interference of microwaves reflected from reflecting surfaces of the material. The thickness of the material is determined from the period of the maxima and minima along with knowledge of the index of refraction of the material.

  10. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds The ...

  11. Microwave (MW) and Radio Frequency (RF) as Enabling Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Advancements have been made in applications electrotechnologies across a number of areas; some examples include: * Microwave Processing of Ceramics Joining & Welding Binder Burnout ...

  12. Microwave and Millimeter Wave Forward Modeling Results from the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    9 to April 9, 2004. The goals of the experiment were: to study the microwave and ... ColoradoNOAA-Environmental Technology Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado (US); Universiti di ...

  13. ARM: Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel: airmasses, brightness temperatur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Microwave narrowband brightness temperature Dataset File size ...

  14. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  15. Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis The invention apparatus can also be used to monitor for the presence of halogens, sulfur and silicon. Available for Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microwave...

  16. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft ... Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how ...

  17. Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications of the Shell Thickness in Hydrogenation Catalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave ...

  18. Ground-based Microwave Cloud Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Cloud Tomography Experiment, SGP, May 15-June 15, 2009 Lead Scientist Dong Huang, BNL Co-Investigators Al Gasiewski, UC Boulder Maria Cadeddu, ANL Warren Wiscombe, BNL Radiation Processes Working Group March 30, 2009 multiple radiometers All good cloud radiation modelers should close their airplane window shades so as not to be corrupted by the spectacle of real 3D clouds. - Roger Davies In case you forget to do this, you see 3/30/2009 ARM RPWG 2 Effects of cloud structure on radiation

  19. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-07-29

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and sway from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch.

  20. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  1. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  2. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  3. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Schaich, Charles R. (Lenoir City, TN); Foster, Jr., Don (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  4. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  5. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  6. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  7. Development of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometry (MPMI) Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Paul Elliott; Cooper, Marcia A.; Jilek, Brook Anton

    2015-09-01

    A multi-point microwave interferometer (MPMI) concept was developed for non-invasively tracking a shock, reaction, or detonation front in energetic media. Initially, a single-point, heterodyne microwave interferometry capability was established. The design, construction, and verification of the single-point interferometer provided a knowledge base for the creation of the MPMI concept. The MPMI concept uses an electro-optic (EO) crystal to impart a time-varying phase lag onto a laser at the microwave frequency. Polarization optics converts this phase lag into an amplitude modulation, which is analyzed in a heterodyne interfer- ometer to detect Doppler shifts in the microwave frequency. A version of the MPMI was constructed to experimentally measure the frequency of a microwave source through the EO modulation of a laser. The successful extraction of the microwave frequency proved the underlying physical concept of the MPMI design, and highlighted the challenges associated with the longer microwave wavelength. The frequency measurements made with the current equipment contained too much uncertainty for an accurate velocity measurement. Potential alterations to the current construction are presented to improve the quality of the measured signal and enable multiple accurate velocity measurements.

  8. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Crutcher, Richard I.; Sohns, Carl W.; Maddox, Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member.

  9. Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sohns, C.W.; Maddox, S.R.

    1995-01-24

    A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member. 6 figures.

  10. Cokemaking sees environmental improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalherm, D.; Piduch, H.G.; Schuepphaus, K.; Worberg, R.

    1996-07-01

    The image of a coke plant created worldwide by many negative presentations in the media--above all in the US and in Europe--is the image of an industrial plant alleged to cause substantial burdens on the environment. This allegation is often substantiated by showing obsolete coke plants where little had been done regarding maintenance, upkeep and modernization. But this picture ignores the fact that over the past decades, emissions from coke plants have been successfully reduced to a fraction of previous levels by implementing state-of-the-art technologies. When reference is made to emissions from coke plants, the first emissions considered ar those occurring during coal charging, coke pushing and coke quenching. This is the reason why the prevention of gas or dust emissions during oven operation processes is an important focus in the design of coke oven service machines. If it is impossible to prevent emissions from escaping coke ovens, such emissions have to be captured and cleaned by specially developed facilities. The most important factor in achieving efficient environmental protection is to regard the oven machines as an integrated part of the coking process itself. Only a perfectly harmonized and optimized coke oven and oven machine technology will result in an emission-free charging of the oven chamber.

  11. Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey We explore extensions to the ΛCDM cosmology using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the recent SPT-SZ survey, along

  12. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  13. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  14. Method and apparatus for component separation using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Schechter, Donald E. (Ten Mile, TN); Calhoun, Jr., Clyde L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-04-03

    A method for separating and recovering components includes the steps of providing at least a first component bonded to a second component by a microwave absorbent adhesive bonding material at a bonding area to form an assembly, the bonding material disposed between the components. Microwave energy is directly and selectively applied to the assembly so that substantially only the bonding material absorbs the microwave energy until the bonding material is at a debonding state. A separation force is applied while the bonding material is at the debonding state to permit disengaging and recovering the components. In addition, an apparatus for practicing the method includes holders for the components.

  15. TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method Numerical studies of microwave propagation properties in a conical horn and an adjustable

  16. 140 GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1987-10-27

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer, including means for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means for generating a low frequency modulating signal is disclosed. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch to the modulator. When the pulse switch is on, the modulator will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device is controlled by the pulse switch. 5 figs.

  17. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  18. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  19. 140 GHz pulsed fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolbe, William F.; Leskovar, Branko

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency energy pulsing system suitable for use in a pulsed microwave spectrometer (10), including means (11, 19) for generating a high frequency carrier signal, and means (12) for generating a low frequency modulating signal. The carrier signal is continuously fed to a modulator (20) and the modulating signal is fed through a pulse switch (23) to the modulator. When the pulse switch (23) is on, the modulator (20) will produce sideband signals above and below the carrier signal frequency. A frequency-responsive device (31) is tuned to one of the sideband signals and away from the carrier frequency so that the high frequency energization of the frequency-responsive device (31) is controlled by the pulse switch (23).

  20. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of ...

  1. Method for curing polymers using variable-frequency microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Paulauskas, Felix L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for curing polymers (11) incorporating a variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34). By varying the frequency of the microwave signal, non-uniformities within the cavity (34) are minimized, thereby achieving a more uniform cure throughout the workpiece (36). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. The furnace cavity (34) may be adapted to be used to cure materials defining a continuous sheet or which require compressive forces during curing.

  2. Method for curing polymers using variable-frequency microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1998-02-24

    A method for curing polymers incorporating a variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity is disclosed. By varying the frequency of the microwave signal, non-uniformities within the cavity are minimized, thereby achieving a more uniform cure throughout the workpiece. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. The furnace cavity may be adapted to be used to cure materials defining a continuous sheet or which require compressive forces during curing. 15 figs.

  3. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic...

  4. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  5. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  6. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  7. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot, ... has been awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for physics. He shares the award with John C. Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The citation reads "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award. 'Smoot has

  8. Linear theory of microwave instability in electron storage rings (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Linear theory of microwave instability in electron storage rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linear theory of microwave instability in electron storage rings Authors: Cai, Yunhai Publication Date: 2011-06-14 OSTI Identifier: 1099585 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-4402 Publisher: American Physical

  9. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vapor and Clouds (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska

  10. Microwave mode shifting antenna system for regenerating particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2011-04-26

    A regeneration system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter including a microwave energy absorbing surface, and an antenna system comprising N antennas and an antenna driver module that sequentially drives the antenna system in a plurality of transverse modes of the antenna system to heat selected portions of the microwave absorbing surface to regenerate the PM filter, where N is an integer greater than one. The transverse modes may include transverse electric (TE) and/or transverse magnetic (TM) modes.

  11. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicles | Department of Energy Microwave regeneration of the DPF can be done without diesel fuel or a catalyst in less than 5 minutes with the engine off. PDF icon deer08_nixdorf.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control

  12. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  13. Stable microwave coaxial cavity plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Hong, J. M.; Lee, K. H. [Plasma Systems and Materials (PSM) Inc., Sungnam-Si, Gyonggi-Do 190-1 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 447-1 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We present a systematic study of the development of a novel atmospheric microwave plasma system for material processing in the pressure range up to 760 torr and the microwave input power up to 6 kW. Atmospheric microwave plasma was reliably produced and sustained by using a cylindrical resonator with the TM{sub 011} cavity mode. The applicator and the microwave cavity, which is a cylindrical resonator, are carefully designed and optimized with the time dependent finite element Maxwell equation solver. The azimuthal apertures are placed at the maximum magnetic field positions between the cavity and the applicator to maximize the coupling efficiency into the microwave plasma at a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. The system consists of a magnetron power supply, a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a dummy load, a coaxial cavity, and a central cavity. Design and construction of the resonant structures and diagnostics of atmospheric plasma using optical experiments are discussed in various ranges of pressure and microwave input power for different types of gases.

  14. Uniform bulk material processing using multimode microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi; Vaughn, Worth E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for generating uniform heating in material contained in a cylindrical vessel is described. TE.sub.10 -mode microwave radiation is coupled into a cylindrical microwave transition such that microwave radiation having TE.sub.11 -, TE.sub.01 - and TM.sub.01 -cylindrical modes is excited therein. By adjusting the intensities of these modes, substantially uniform heating of materials contained in a cylindrical drum which is coupled to the microwave transition through a rotatable choke can be achieved. The use of a poor microwave absorbing insulating cylindrical insert, such as aluminum oxide, for separating the material in the container from the container walls and for providing a volume through which air is circulated is expected to maintain the container walls at room temperature. The use of layer of highly microwave absorbing material, such as SiC, inside of the insulating insert and facing the material to be heated is calculated to improve the heating pattern of the present apparatus.

  15. Table HC2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S............................................................ 111.1 72.1 7.6 7.8 16.7 6.9 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................... 109.6 71.3 7.4 7.7 16.4 6.8 1.............................................................. 103.3 66.2 7.2 7.4 15.9 6.7 2 or More................................................. 6.2 5.1 Q 0.3 0.5 Q Do Not Use an Oven................................... 1.5 0.7 Q Q 0.4 Q

  16. Operational experience using the novel FixCup collecting main valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Spitz, J.

    1996-12-31

    On the occasion of the 1995 AIME conference the new PROven (Pressure Regulated Oven) process to control the pressure in coke ovens individually was introduced. This process was made feasible with a new collecting main valve, termed FixCup, with the aid of this valve a variable flow resistance to the raw gas discharge can be realized using a water immersion system. However, just the application of the FixCup system alone--without any pressure regulation--is very advantageous and cost saving. Thyssen has equipped 30 ovens with the new valve. The special constructive features as well as the operational experience using the FixCup valve are treated.

  17. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this

  18. Temperature distribution in a flowing fluid heated in a microwave resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, J.R. Jr. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Nelson, E.M.; Kares, R.J.; Stringfield, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents results of an analytical study of microwave heating of a fluid flowing through a tube situated along the axis of a cylindrical microwave applicator. The interaction of the microwave field pattern and the fluid velocity profiles is illustrated for both laminar and turbulent flow. Resulting temperature profiles are compared with those generated by conventional heating through a surface heat flux. It is found that microwave heating offers several advantages over conventional heating.

  19. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this

  20. Physics Analysis of Microwave Imaging Data from DIII-D & KSTAR. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munsat, Tobin

    2015-12-31

    Final Technical Report of the award entitled Physics Analysis of Microwave Imaging Data from DIII-D & KSTAR

  1. A prototype silicon double quantum dot with dispersive microwave readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A. R. Henry, E.; Namaan, O.; Siddiqi, I.; Lo, C. C.; Wang, Y.-T.; Bokor, J.; Yablonovitch, E.; Li, H.; Greenman, L.; Whaley, K. B.; Schenkel, T.

    2014-07-28

    We present a unique design and fabrication process for a lateral, gate-confined double quantum dot in an accumulation mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure coupled to an integrated microwave resonator. All electrostatic gates for the double quantum dot are contained in a single metal layer, and use of the MOS structure allows for control of the location of the two-dimensional electron gas via the location of the accumulation gates. Numerical simulations of the electrostatic confinement potential are performed along with an estimate of the coupling of the double quantum dot to the microwave resonator. Prototype devices are fabricated and characterized by transport measurements of electron confinement and reflectometry measurements of the microwave resonator.

  2. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian; Ury, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  3. Microwave guiding in air along single femtosecond laser filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren Yu; Alshershby, Mostafa; Qin Jiang; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-03-07

    Microwave guiding along single plasma filament generated through the propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in air has been demonstrated over a distance of about 6.5 cm, corresponding to a microwave signal intensity enhancement of more than 3-fold over free space propagation. The current propagation distance along the fs laser filament is in agreement with the calculations and limited by the relatively high resistance of the single plasma filament. Using a single fs laser filament to channel microwave radiation considerably alleviate requirements to the power of fs laser pulses compared to the case of the circular filaments waveguide. In addition, it can be used as a simple and non-intrusive method to obtain the basic parameters of laser-generated plasma filament.

  4. Apparatus with moderating material for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  5. Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srogi, K.

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

  6. Diatomic molecules in optical and microwave dipole traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lysebo, Marius; Veseth, Leif

    2011-03-15

    The dipole forces on rotating diatomic molecules are worked out in detail for optical as well as microwave radiation fields. The objective is in particular to investigate how the dipole forces and potentials depend on the subtle internal structure of the molecule, with special emphasis on hyperfine and Zeeman states. Dipole potentials are obtained from computations of the real part of the complex molecular polarizability, whereas the imaginary part yields the scattering force. Numerical examples are presented for {sup 23}Na{sub 2} and OH for optical (laser) fields related to strong electronic transitions and for microwave fields for the {Lambda} doubling in the OH ground state.

  7. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  8. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  9. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Authors: Hou, Z. ; et al. Publication Date: 2012-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1156457 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-PUB-13-072-A arXiv eprint

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLong-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.30 Lead Scientist : Richard Cederwall For data sets, see below. Summary Make the spare MWR operational. Ingest data from the spare MWR. Input the output data of the spare MWR and ingest to VAP. Provide data to IOP participants.

  11. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  12. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  13. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  14. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  15. FINGERPRINTS OF GALACTIC LOOP I ON THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the ''radio loops'' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarization signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for...

  19. Total U.S......................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.......................................... 109.6 26.1 28.5 20.2 12.9 21.8 16.3 37.8 1......................................................... 103.3 25.1 27.1 19.2 12.3 19.6 15.8 36.3 2 or More............................................ 6.2 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.6 2.2 0.5 1.5 Do Not Use an Oven.............................. 1.5 0.7 0.3 0.3 Q Q 0.4 0.8 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewables Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  2. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    make a solar oven, there's absolutely no reason why I, as a fully functioning, 26-year-old adult, can't successfully make one, too June 13, 2011 Fighting with South-Facing...

  3. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Figure 2. Thermal Modeling for Camera using CO 2 Cooling Figure 4. Conical Mirror Optics Figure 5. Example of a deconvoluted conical-mirror image High-temp ovens are used to...

  4. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Blast Furnaces and Coke Ovens The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further signifcant ...

  5. What Does the Sun Give Us: Science Projects in Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The second column lists the science content standard, as well as any other strong areas. ... Project Key Standards Grades Pizza Box Oven E-Design 6-8 (3-5 if given Web site first) ...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 35 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 35 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  8. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S.........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................. 109.6 32.3 7.9 3.3 5.9 14.1 1.1 1............................................................ 103.3 31.4 7.6 3.3 5.7 13.7 1.1 2 or More............................................... 6.2 0.9 0.3 Q Q 0.4 Q Do Not Use an Oven................................. 1.5 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.................................................. 67.9 19.4 4.5

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 6 of 6 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 3 of 3 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 11 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 9 of 9 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 20 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 9 of 9 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 27 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 6 of 6 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    downloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Making Energy Personal Students will work with an interactive website in oder to determine their own CO2 output per year....

  10. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beyer, Norman S.; Lewis, Robert N.; Perry, Ronald B.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 28 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 31 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 33 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 59 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 27 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 15 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 11 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  10. Laclede Gas Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Steamer: 475 Food Service Gas Fryer: 350 Food Service Griddle: 400 Food Service Convection Oven: 200 Kitchen Low-Flow Spray Nozzle: 100 Program Info Sector Name Utility...

  11. Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to 300 Low-Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valve: 25 Commercial Fryer: 500 Steam Cooker: 1,000 ConvectionGas Combination Oven: 500 - 1,000 Griddle: 300 Windows: 0.28-0.37sq. ft....

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    izza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Scale Models and Wind Turbines As wind turbines and wind farms become larger to take advantage of the economies of scale and increased wind speeds at...

  13. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  14. Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... If there is insufficient sample, the result should be flagged and the lack of precision noted. 14.6 Sample storage: If applicable, oven dried samples should be stored in a ...

  15. Position Paper for High Moisture Content Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The oven-drying test should be performed at a relatively low temperature (i.e., 50 C) over ... either in storage or during transport will require treatment to control moisture. ...

  16. DOE Cites UChicago Argonne, LLC for Worker Safety and Health...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed civil penalty is 280,000. The first incident occurred when two small glass tubes containing chemicals were being heated in a laboratory oven. During the heating ...

  17. EA-0819: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proposed Energy Conservation Standards for Eight Types of Consumer Products: Room Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Ranges and Ovens, Pool Heaters, Fluorescent Ballasts, and Television Sets

  18. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  19. Nonrecovery cokemaking/cogeneration complex at Inland Steel scheduled to start up in mid-1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samways, N.L.

    1997-12-01

    A 1.33 million ton/year cokemaking/cogeneration power complex is under construction at the Indiana Harbor Works. The cokemaking plant consists of four batteries of nonrecovery type coke ovens representing a total of 268 ovens. The cogeneration energy facilities include: 16 heat recovery boilers; a steam turbine generator, and a flue gas desulfurization system. Start-up is scheduled for mid-1998. Both facilities are described.

  20. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  2. Ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Sloan, L.R.; Shul, R.J.; Muyshondt, G.P.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development. Power consumption of microwave circuits has been reduced by factors of 50--1,000 over commercially available circuits. Positive threshold field effect transistors (nJFETs and PHEMTs) have been used to design and fabricate microwave circuits with power levels of 1 milliwatt or less. 0.7 {micro}m gate nJFETs are suitable for both digital CHFET integrated circuits as well as low power microwave circuits. Both hybrid amplifiers and MMICs were demonstrated at the 1 mW level at 2.4 GHz. Advanced devices were also developed and characterized for even lower power levels. Amplifiers with 0.3 {micro}m JFETs were simulated with 8--10 dB gain down to power levels of 250 microwatts ({mu}W). However 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs proved superior to the JFETs with amplifier gain of 8 dB at 217 MHz and 50 {mu}W power levels but they are not integrable with the digital CHFET technology.

  3. Microwave heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-04-12

    Apparatus for heating a sample includes a microchip; a microchannel flow channel in the microchip, the microchannel flow channel containing the sample; a microwave source that directs microwaves onto the sample for heating the sample; a wall section of the microchannel flow channel that receives the microwaves and enables the microwaves to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel, the wall section the microchannel flow channel being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; a carrier fluid within the microchannel flow channel for moving the sample in the microchannel flow channel, the carrier fluid being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; wherein the microwaves pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel and heat the sample.

  4. Microwave heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2015-03-03

    Apparatus for heating a sample includes a microchip; a microchannel flow channel in the microchip, the microchannel flow channel containing the sample; a microwave source that directs microwaves onto the sample for heating the sample; a wall section of the microchannel flow channel that receives the microwaves and enables the microwaves to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel, the wall section the microchannel flow channel being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; a carrier fluid within the microchannel flow channel for moving the sample in the microchannel flow channel, the carrier fluid being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; wherein the microwaves pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel and heat the sample.

  5. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  6. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  7. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  8. Development and characterisations of WC–12Co microwave clad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zafar, Sunny Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2014-10-15

    In the present work, WC–12Co based cermet clad was developed on AISI 304 stainless steel using microwave hybrid heating technique. The experimental trials were carried out in a 1.4 kW industrial multimode microwave applicator. The paper explains the major events occurring during microwave irradiation and formation of clad. The developed clads were subsequently characterised through field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, assessment of porosity and microhardness. The WC–12Co clads developed with an approximate thickness of 1 mm, illustrated excellent metallurgical bonding with substrate. The microstructure of the WC–12Co clad mainly consists of skeleton structured carbides embedded in tough metallic phase. The phase analysis of the developed clads indicate the presence of various stable and complex carbides like Co{sub 6}W{sub 6}C, Co{sub 3}W{sub 3}C and Fe{sub 6}W{sub 6}C. The uniform distribution of such carbides with skeleton-like morphology in the microstructure is indicative of high hardness of the clad. The developed clads were free from visible interfacial cracking and the clad porosity was found in the order of approximately 0.98%. The average microhardness of the WC–12Co microwave clads was observed to be 1135 ± 88 HV. - Highlights: • Microwave cladding of WC–12Co on AISI 304 stainless steel is carried out. • Skeleton-like structures of W–Co based carbides are embedded in metallic matrix. • Clad–substrate interface is free from un-melted and un-dissolved carbide particles. • Hardness of clad (1135 ± 88 HV) is 3.5 times that of the substrate (325 ± 49 HV)

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Other Major Appliance Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 1990 2000 2009 2009 Value of Shipments (4) Appliance Type (thousands) (thousands) (thousands) ($million) Room Air Conditioners 3,799 6,496 6,418 129 Ranges (total) 5,873 8,202 5,941 3,158 Electric Ranges 3,350 5,026 3,509 2,041 Gas Ranges 2,354 3,176 2,433 1,117 Microwave Ovens/Ranges 7,693 9,333 N.A. Clothes Washers 5,591 7,495 7,999 4,820 Clothes Dryers (total) 4,160 6,575 6,547 N.A. (5) Electric Dryers 3,190 5,095 5,261 N.A. Gas

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Major Appliance Ownership (Millions of Households and Percent of U.S. Households) Appliance Type Room Air Conditioners 30.2 32% 30.4 31% 26.9 26% 27.4 25% 32.7 29% Refrigerators 91.2 98% 96.8 98% 100.0 96% 104.7 96% 111.6 99% Freezers 42.4 45% 41.9 42% 42.8 41% 36.1 33% 48.5 43% Electric Ranges/Cooktops 58.4 63% 65.3 66% 69.2 66% 71.0 65% 68.8 61% Gas Ranges/Cooktops 36.1 39% 38.3 39% 39.4 38% 42.2 39% 45.1 40% Microwave Ovens 77.2 83% 89.5 91% 94.6 91% 97.2 89% 102.6 91% Clothes Washers 86.4

  11. Critical operating parameters for microwave solidification of hydroxide sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprenger, G.S.; Eschen, V.G.

    1993-08-01

    Engineers at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed an innovative technology for the treatment of homogeneous wet or dry solids which are contaminated with hazardous and/or radioactive materials. The process uses microwave energy to heat and melt the waste into a vitreous final form that is suitable for land disposal. The advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form; volume and toxicity reduction; favorable economics; in-container treatment; favorable public acceptance; isolated equipment; and instantaneous energy control. Regulatory certification of the final form is accomplished by meeting the limitation specified in EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). This paper presents the results from a series of TCLP tests performed on a surrogate hydroxide coprecipitation sludge spiked with heavy metals at elevated concentrations. The results are very encouraging and support RFP`s commitment to the use of microwave technology for treatment of various mixed waste streams.

  12. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  13. Microwave measurement of the mass of frozen hydrogen pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talanker, Vera; Greenwald, Martin

    1990-01-01

    A nondestructive apparatus and method for measuring the mass of a moving object, based on the perturbation of the dielectric character of a resonant microwave cavity caused by the object passing through the cavity. An oscillator circuit is formed with a resonant cavity in a positive feedback loop of a microwave power amplifier. The moving object perturbs the resonant characteristics of the cavity causing a shift in the operating frequency of the oscillator proportional to the ratio of the pellet volume to the volume of the cavity. Signals from the cavity oscillation are mixed with a local oscillator. Then the IF frequency from the mixer is measured thereby providing a direct measurement of pellet mass based upon known physical properties and relationships. This apparatus and method is particularly adapted for the measurement of frozen hydrogen pellets.

  14. Kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction under microwave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.L.; Katz, J.D.; Rees, D.; Paffett, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Datye, A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with out significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations. The authors chose the CO oxidation reaction over a supported metal catalyst because the reaction kinetics are well known, and because of the diverse dielectric properties of the various elements in the system: CO is a polar molecule, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are non-polar, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a dielectric, and Pt and Pd are conductors.

  15. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram E-mail: ramyb@bgu.ac.il

    2010-09-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection.

  16. A tunable microwave slot antenna based on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Aldrigo, Martino; Vasilache, D.; Dinescu, A.; Neculoiu, Dan; Bunea, Alina-Cristina; Deligeorgis, George; Konstantinidis, George; Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Modreanu, M.

    2015-04-13

    The paper presents the experimental and modeling results of a microwave slot antenna in a coplanar configuration based on graphene. The antennas are fabricated on a 4 in. high-resistivity Si wafer, with a ∼300 nm SiO{sub 2} layer grown through thermal oxidation. A CVD grown graphene layer is transferred on the SiO{sub 2}. The paper shows that the reflection parameter of the antenna can be tuned by a DC voltage. 2D radiation patterns at various frequencies in the X band (8–12 GHz) are then presented using as antenna backside a microwave absorbent and a metalized surface. Although the radiation efficiency is lower than a metallic antenna, the graphene antenna is a wideband antenna while the metal antennas with the same geometry and working at the same frequencies are narrowband.

  17. Controlled synthesis of novel octapod platinum nanocrystals under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Lei; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Liu, Hanfan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Under microwave irradiation, novel octapod Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by reducing H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} in TEG with PVP as a stabilizer. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center. The use of KI was crucial to the formation of novel Pt octapods. Novel Octapod Platinum Nanocrystals. - Highlights: • A novel octapod Pt nanocrystals different from the common octapod were obtained. • The use of KI was crucial to the formation of the novel Pt octapods. • Microwave was readily employed in controlled synthesis of the novel Pt octapods. - Abstract: Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. Novel octapod Pt nanocrystals enclosed with (1 1 1) facets were readily synthesized with H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer in the presence of an appropriate amount of KI under microwave irradiation for 140 s. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than commercial Pt black in the electro-oxidations of methanol and formic acid. The results demonstrated that the use of KI was crucial to the formation of Pt octapods. KI determined the formation of the novel octapod Pt nanocrystals by tuning up the reduction kinetics and adsorbing on the surfaces of growing Pt nanoparticles. The optimum molar ratio of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}/KI/PVP was 1/30/45.

  18. New Microwave Synthesis Technique Produces More - Affordable Hydrogen |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) » New Microwave Synthesis Technique Produces More - Affordable Hydrogen Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More

  19. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki, Robert

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  1. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  2. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-15

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  3. High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conducting boundary systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type conducting boundary systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type conducting boundary systems Studies of the production of microwave and millimeter wave radiation at high harmonics of the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency by the interaction of a rotating E-layer with a

  4. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the

  5. Entangling optical and microwave cavity modes by means of a nanomechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.; Milburn, G. J.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a scheme that is able to generate stationary continuous-variable entanglement between an optical and a microwave cavity mode by means of their common interaction with a nanomechanical resonator. We show that when both cavities are intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair of the tripartite system, and that, due to entanglement sharing, optical-microwave entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of microwave-mechanical and optomechanical entanglement.

  6. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? | Department of Energy Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in #EnergyFaceoff Round 4? November 24, 2014 - 9:38am Q&A Which appliance do you think is more efficient? Tell Us Addthis Microwave or electric kettle, which appliance should win the honor of heating your water? | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Microwave or

  7. High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    analyzing the resonant interaction of a doppler shifted electron beam mode with the modes ... MICROWAVE RADIATION; BEAM INJECTION; DOPPLER EFFECT; ELECTRON BEAMS; GHZ RANGE 01-100; ...

  8. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  9. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  10. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  11. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  12. Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy of VO2 and CVD Graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy of VO2 and CVD Graphene Authors: Tselev, Alexander 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Kolmakov, Andrei 2 ; Kalinin, Sergei V 1 + ...

  13. Electric Kettle Takes Down Microwave in Final Round of #EnergyFaceoff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final round of #EnergyFaceoff goes to the electric kettle! See how much it can save compared to a microwave when heating water.

  14. Combination biological and microwave treatments of used rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.; Wicks, George G.

    2002-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.

  15. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  16. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  17. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G.; Turner, Brian; Wooten, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  18. Enhanced window breakdown dynamics in a nanosecond microwave tail pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chao; Zhu, Meng; Li, Shuang; Xie, Jialing; Yan, Kai; Luo, Tongding; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Verboncoeur, John

    2014-06-23

    The mechanisms of nanosecond microwave-driven discharges near a dielectric/vacuum interface were studied by measuring the time- and space-dependent optical emissions and pulse waveforms. The experimental observations indicate multipactor and plasma developing in a thin layer of several millimeters above interface. The emission brightness increases significantly after main pulse, but emission region widens little. The mechanisms are studied by analysis and simulation, revealing intense ionization concentrated in a desorbed high-pressure layer, leading to a bright light layer above surface; the lower-voltage tail after main pulse contributes to heat electron energy tails closer to excitation cross section peaks, resulting in brighter emission.

  19. Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Sickafus, Kurt E.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO.sub.2 as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

  20. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  1. Microwave diagnostics of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papeer, J.; Ehrlich, Y.; Zigler, A.; Mitchell, C.; Penano, J.; Sprangle, P.

    2011-10-03

    We present a simple non-intrusive experimental method allowing a complete single shot temporal measurement of laser produced plasma filament conductivity. The method is based on filament interaction with low intensity microwave radiation in a rectangular waveguide. The suggested diagnostics allow a complete single shot temporal analysis of filament plasma decay with resolution better than 0.3 ns and high spatial resolution along the filament. The experimental results are compared to numerical simulations, and an initial electron density of 7 x 10{sup 16 }cm{sup -3} and decay time of 3 ns are obtained.

  2. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong Qin, Fen; Xu, Sha; Yu, Aimin; Wu, Yong

    2015-02-15

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE{sub 11} mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE{sub 11} mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup.

  3. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryer, Michael O.; Hills, Andrea J.; Morrison, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  5. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  6. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. )

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Optic-microwave mixing velocimeter for superhigh velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng Jidong; Wang Xiang; Tao Tianjiong; Liu Cangli; Tan Hua

    2011-12-15

    The phenomenon that a light beam reflected off a moving object experiences a Doppler shift in its frequency underlies practical interferometric techniques for remote velocity measurements, such as velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR), displacement interferometer system for any reflector (DISAR), and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). While VISAR velocimeters are often bewildered by the fringe loss upon high-acceleration dynamic process diagnosis, the optic-fiber velocimeters such as DISAR and PDV, on the other hand, are puzzled by high velocity measurement over 10 km/s, due to the demand for the high bandwidth digitizer. Here, we describe a new optic-microwave mixing velocimeter (OMV) for super-high velocity measurements. By using currently available commercial microwave products, we have constructed a simple, compact, and reliable OMV device, and have successfully obtained, with a digitizer of bandwidth 6 GH only, the precise velocity history of an aluminum flyer plate being accelerated up to 11.2 km/s in a three stage gas-gun experiment.

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis of palladium nanocubes and nanobars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yanchun; Zhao, Yanxi; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan; Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080

    2010-02-15

    Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles. Palladium nanocubes and nanobars with a mean size of about 23.8 nm were readily synthesized with H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent in the presence of PVP and CTAB in 80 s under microwave irradiation. The structures of the as-prepared palladium nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The formation of PdBr{sub 4}{sup 2-}due to the coordination replacement of the ligand Cl{sup -} ions in PdCl{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by Br{sup -} ions in the presence of bromide was responsible for the synthesis of Pd nanocubes and nanobars. In addition, a milder reducing power, a higher viscosity and a stronger affinity of TEG were beneficial to the larger sizes of Pd nanocubes and nanobars.

  9. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  10. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  11. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  12. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum using data from the recently completed South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich

  13. [A variable frequency microwave furnace]. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL91-0055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-12-08

    The goals of this CRADA were to: (1) development and demonstrate a highly frequency-agile microwave furnace; (2) explore applications of the furnace for materials processing; and (3) develop control systems and packaging that are robust, user-friendly, and suitable for sale as a turnkey system. Microwave Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) designed, built, and successfully brought to market a benchtop Variable Frequency Microwave Furnace (VFMF). The concept has demonstrated advantages in polymer curing, waste remediation, and diamond (CVD). Through experimentation and modeling, the VFMF approach has gained credibility within the technical community.

  14. Diagnosis of femtosecond plasma filament by channeling microwaves along the filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Ren, Yu; Qin, Jiang; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2013-05-20

    We introduce a simple, fast, and non-intrusive experimental method to obtain the basic parameters of femtosecond laser-generated plasma filament. The method is based on the channeling of microwaves along both a plasma filament and a well-defined conducting wire. By comparing the detected microwaves that propagate along the plasma filament and a copper wire with known conductivity and spatial dimension, the basic parameters of the plasma filament can be easily obtained. As a result of the possibility of channeling microwave radiation along the plasma filament, we were then able to obtain the plasma density distribution along the filament length.

  15. Decontamination of biological warfare agents by a microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Wilson; Lai, Henry; Kuo, Spencer P.; Tarasenko, Olga; Levon, Kalle

    2005-02-01

    A portable arc-seeded microwave plasma torch running stably with airflow is described and applied for the decontamination of biological warfare agents. Emission spectroscopy of the plasma torch indicated that this torch produced an abundance of reactive atomic oxygen that could effectively oxidize biological agents. Bacillus cereus was chosen as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis spores for biological agent in the decontamination experiments. Decontamination was performed with the airflow rate of 0.393 l/s, corresponding to a maximum concentration of atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The experimental results showed that all spores were killed in less than 8 s at 3 cm distance, 12 s at 4 cm distance, and 16 s at 5 cm distance away from the nozzle of the torch.

  16. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1993-04-13

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  17. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  18. Multichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boxer, Alexander C.; Garnier, Darren T.; Mauel, Michael E.

    2009-04-15

    A four-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure plasma density profiles in the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). The LDX interferometer has a unique design owing to the unique geometry of LDX. The main design features of the interferometer are: (1) the transmitted beam traverses the plasma entirely in O-mode; (2) the interferometer is a heterodyne system employing two free-running oscillators; (3) four signals of data are received from just on transmitted beam; (4) phase shifts are detected in quadrature. Calibration tests demonstrate that the interferometer measures phase shifts with an uncertainty of approximately 5 deg. Plasma densities in LDX corresponding to phase shifts of up to 5{pi} are routinely and successfully measured.

  19. Microwave impregnation of porous materials with thermal energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.

    1992-12-31

    A method for impregnating a porous, non-metallic construction material with a solid phase-change material is described. The phase-change material in finely divided form is spread onto the surface of the porous material, after which the porous material is exposed to microwave energy for a time sufficient to melt the phase-change material. The melted material is spontaneously absorbed into the pores of the porous material. A sealing chemical may also be included with the phase-change material (or applied subsequent to the phase-change material) to seal the surface of the porous material. Fire retardant chemicals may also be included with the phase-change materials. The treated construction materials are better able to absorb thermal energy and exhibit increased heat storage capacity.

  20. Modification of environmental control of cokemaking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, H.; Yasuno, M.; Gotch, T.; Yoshida, F.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, global environmental protection has been a great concern in the world. In the United States of America, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has been revised to control emissions strictly. Especially in the field of cokemaking, the restriction of fume emission from a coke oven is so severe that old coke ovens will stop operation with the application of CAA. In Japan, it is expected that more severe protection measures are going to be requested for keeping environmental quality. In this situation, it is indispensable to strengthen environmental protection measures for cokemaking plants to continue coke production in the 21st century. In Chiba Works, Kawasaki Steep Corp., the Ironmaking Department has been struggling for the improvement of environmental measures for. These activities for coke ovens are described in this report. The paper describes fume emission control from the coke oven door and dust emission control measures, including the dust monitoring system, prevention of secondary dust scattering from coke ovens, replacement of dedusters, and fume and dust control of stack emission.

  1. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  2. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1996-07-16

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  3. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1993-09-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  4. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1995-11-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  5. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  6. Microwave assisted growth of copper germanide thin films at very low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L.

    2013-08-26

    Herein the synthesis of Cu{sub 3}Ge films by exposing Cu-Ge alloy films to microwave radiation is reported. It is shown that microwave radiation led to the formation of copper germanide at temperatures ca. 80 °C. The electrical properties of the Cu{sub 3}Ge films are presented and compared for various annealing times. X-ray diffraction shows that the Cu{sub 3}Ge films formed after microwave annealing is crystalline in the orthorhombic phase. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of copper oxide encapsulation layer. Despite the slight oxidation of Cu during the microwave anneal the lowest resistivity of Cu{sub 3}Ge films obtained is 14 μΩ-cm.

  7. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  8. Microwave determination of location and speed of an object inside a pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2010-12-14

    Apparatus and method are described for measuring the location and speed of an object, such as instrumentation on a movable platform, disposed within a pipe, using continuous-wave, amplitude-modulated microwave radiation.

  9. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating, a process which is meant to eliminate traditional, intermediate steelmaking steps.

  10. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Haselton, Halsey H.

    1994-01-01

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

  11. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-08

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

  12. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  13. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  14. Phonon-deficit effect in superconductors in a strong microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulyan, A.M.; Zharkov, G.F.

    1981-08-20

    The phonon flux from a thin superconducting film irradiated by a microwave field is derived. It is shown that in intense microwave fields, as in the case of weak fields, studied previously )A. M. Gulian (Gulyan) and G. F. Zharkov, Phys. Lett. 80A, 79 (1980); Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 303 (1981) (Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 154 (1981))), phonons are not emitted in a narrow spectral interval of phonon frequencies and are instead absorbed from the heat reservoir by the film.

  15. A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Linear Theory of Microwave Instability in Electron Storage Rings The well-known Haissinski distribution provides a stable equilibrium of longitudinal beam distribution in electron storage rings below a threshold current. Yet, how to accurately determine this threshold, above which the Haissinski distribution becomes unstable, is not

  16. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  17. PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES The epoch of first star formation and the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at that time are not directly observable with current telescopes. The

  18. Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-08-17

    The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. A Comparison of Direct Heating During Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation in Ex Vivo Liver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreano, Anita; Brace, Christopher L.

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of temperature elevations when using 480 kHz RF and 2.45 GHz microwave energy in ex vivo liver models. A total of 60 heating cycles (20 s at 90 W) were performed in normal, RF-ablated, and microwave-ablated liver tissues (n = 10 RF and n = 10 microwave in each tissue type). Heating cycles were performed using a 480-kHz generator and 3-cm cooled-tip electrode (RF) or a 2.45-GHz generator and 14-gauge monopole (microwave) and were designed to isolate direct heating from each energy type. Tissue temperatures were measured by using fiberoptic thermosensors 5, 10, and 15 mm radially from the ablation applicator at the depth of maximal heating. Power delivered, sensor location, heating rates, and maximal temperatures were compared using mixed effects regression models. No significant differences were noted in mean power delivered or thermosensor locations between RF and microwave heating groups (P > 0.05). Microwaves produced significantly more rapid heating than RF at 5, 10, and 15 mm in normal tissue (3.0 vs. 0.73, 0.85 vs. 0.21, and 0.17 vs. 0.09 Degree-Sign C/s; P < 0.05); and at 5 and 10 mm in ablated tissues (2.3 {+-} 1.4 vs. 0.7 {+-} 0.3, 0.5 {+-} 0.3 vs. 0.2 {+-} 0 Degree-Sign C/s, P < 0.05). The radial depth of heating was {approx}5 mm greater for microwaves than RF. Direct heating obtained with 2.45-GHz microwave energy using a single needle-like applicator is faster and covers a larger volume of tissue than 480-kHz RF energy.

  20. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Title: Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Two datasets, one a compilation of laboratory data and one a compilation from three field sites, are provided here. These datasets provide measurements of the real and imaginary refractive indices and absorption as a function of cloud temperature. These datasets were used in the

  1. Two-gigawatt burst-mode operation of the intense microwave prototype (IMP) free-electron laser (FEL) for the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, B.; Allen, S.; Bell, H.

    1993-10-06

    The MTX explored the plasma heating effects of 140 GHz microwaves from both Gyrotrons and from the IMP FEL wiggler. The Gyrotron was long pulse length (0.5 seconds maximum) and the FEL produced short-pulse length, high-peak power, single and burst modes of 140 GHZ microwaves. Full-power operations of the IMP FEL wiggler were commenced in April of 1992 and continued into October of 1992. The Experimental Test Accelerator H (ETA-II) provided a 50-nanosecond, 6-MeV, 2--3 kAmp electron beam that was introduced co-linear into the IMP FEL with a 140 GHz Gyrotron master oscillator (MO). The FEL was able to amplify the MO signal from approximately 7 kW to peaks consistently in the range of 1--2 GW. This microwave pulse was transmitted into the MTX and allowed the exploration of the linear and non-linear effects of short pulse, intense power in the MTX plasma. Single pulses were used to explore and gain operating experience in the parameter space of the IMP FEL, and finally evaluate transmission and absorption in the MTX. Single-pulse operations were repeatable. After the MTX was shut down burst-mode operations were successful at 2 kHz. This paper will describe the IMP FEL, Microwave Transmission System to MTX, the diagnostics used for calorimetric measurements, and the operations of the entire Microwave system. A discussion of correlated and uncorrelated errors that affect FEL performance will be made Linear and non-linear absorption data of the microwaves in the MTX plasma will be presented.

  2. Microwave pulse compression from a storage cavity with laser-induced switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    A laser-induced switch and a multiple cavity configuration are disclosed for producing high power microwave pulses. The microwave pulses are well controlled in wavelength and timing, with a quick rise time and a variable shape and power of the pulse. In addition, a method of reducing pre-pulse leakage to a low level is disclosed. Microwave energy is directed coherently to one or more cavities that stores the energy in a single mode, represented as a standing wave pattern. In order to switch the stored microwave energy out of the main cavity and into the branch waveguide, a laser-actuated switch is provided for the cavity. The switch includes a laser, associated optics for delivering the beam into the main cavity, and a switching gas positioned at an antinode in the main cavity. When actuated, the switching gas ionizes, creating a plasma, which becomes reflective to the microwave energy, changing the resonance of the cavity, and as a result the stored microwave energy is abruptly switched out of the cavity. The laser may directly pre-ionize the switching gas, or it may pump an impurity in the switching gas to an energy level which switches when a pre-selected cavity field is attained. Timing of switching the cavities is controlled by varying the pathlength of the actuating laser beam. For example, the pathlengths may be adjusted to output a single pulse of high power, or a series of quick lower power pulses.

  3. A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Allen, S.L.; Petersen, D.E.; Sewall, N.R.

    1990-09-01

    Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable.

  4. Method and apparatus for stabilizing pulsed microwave amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Donald B. (Sacramento, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Phase and amplitude variations at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier arising from instabilities of the driving electron beam are suppressed with a feed-forward system that can stabilize pulses which are too brief for regulation by conventional feedback techniques. Such variations tend to be similar during successive pulses. The variations are detected during each pulse by comparing the amplifier output with the low power input signal to obtain phase and amplitude error signals. This enables storage of phase and amplitude correction signals which are used to make compensating changes in the low power input signal during the following amplifier output pulse which suppress the variations. In the preferred form of the invention, successive increments of the correction signals for each pulse are stored in separate channels of a multi-channel storage. Sequential readout of the increments during the next pulse provides variable control voltages to a voltage controlled phase shifter and voltage controlled amplitude modulator in the amplifier input signal path.

  5. Method and apparatus for stabilizing pulsed microwave amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.B.

    1993-01-26

    Phase and amplitude variations at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier arising from instabilities of the driving electron beam are suppressed with a feed-forward system that can stabilize pulses which are too brief for regulation by conventional feedback techniques. Such variations tend to be similar during successive pulses. The variations are detected during each pulse by comparing the amplifier output with the low power input signal to obtain phase and amplitude error signals. This enables storage of phase and amplitude correction signals which are used to make compensating changes in the low power input signal during the following amplifier output pulse which suppress the variations. In the preferred form of the invention, successive increments of the correction signals for each pulse are stored in separate channels of a multi-channel storage. Sequential readout of the increments during the next pulse provides variable control voltages to a voltage controlled phase shifter and voltage controlled amplitude modulator in the amplifier input signal path.

  6. Power combination of two phase-locked high power microwave beams from a new coaxial microwave source based on dual beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jiande; Dang, Fangchao; Yan, Xiaolu

    2014-10-15

    The new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams has demonstrated two phase-locked output microwave beams generated by its two sub-sources. In order to achieve a single higher output power, we present a three-port waveguide-based power combiner to combine the two microwave beams. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that when the diode voltage is 675?kV and the guiding magnetic field is 0.8?T, a combined microwave with an average power of about 4.0?GW and a frequency of 9.74 GHz is generated; the corresponding power conversion efficiency is 29%. The combination effect of the combiner is further validated in the diode voltage range from 675?kV to 755?kV as well as in the pulse regime. The simulations indicate that the maximum surface axial electric field strength of the electrodynamic structure is 720?kV/cm, which is relatively low corresponding to an output power of 4.0?GW. The stable combined output suggests the probability of long-pulse operation for the combined source.

  7. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  8. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  9. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Processing aersols and filaments in a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.; Unruh, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the development of generic microwave processes for spray-drying of homogeneous complex metal oxide powders and for inorganic fiber processing, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz microwaves in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols and fibers. Aqueous and ethanol aerosols of ferric nitrate solutions have been successfully dried at 1.8 kW of cavity power for a loaded Q greater than 6000 in flowing nitrogen gas. Similarly, we have observed extremely rapid heating rates in the TM{sub 010} cavity for small-diameter confined cylinders of water and lossy inorganic fibers. These observations suggest using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying, calcining, and sintering extruded ceramic filaments. Droplet modeling indicates that the large dielectric shielding for spherical droplets can significantly limit the coupling of 2.45 GHz microwave with spherical aerosols, but not with fibers. Experimental observations on the microwave interactions with ferric nitrate aerosols and with ceramic filaments in the TM{sub 010} cavity are described.

  11. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2010-10-11

    We present recent work on the development of a microwave ion source that will be used in a high-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable of producing high neutron yields, 5x1011 n/s for D-T and ~;;1x1010 n/s for D-D reactions, while remaining transportable. We constructed a microwave ion source (2.45 GHz) with permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT necessary for satisfying the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. Microwave ion sources can produce high extracted beam currents at the low gas pressures required for sealed tube operation and at lower power levels than previously used RF-driven ion sources. A 100 mA deuterium/tritium beam will be extracted through a large slit (60x6 mm2) to spread the beam power over a larger target area. This paper describes the design of the permanent-magnet microwave ion source and discusses the impact of the magnetic field design on the source performance. The required equivalent proton beam current density of 40 mA/cm2 was extracted at a moderate microwave power of 400 W with an optimized magnetic field.

  12. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  13. Stepped-frequency continuous-wave microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan, Hao Arbabian, Amin

    2014-06-02

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) imaging combines the dielectric contrast of microwave imaging with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. Prior studies have only focused on time-domain techniques with short but powerful microwave pulses that require a peak output power in excess of several kilowatts to achieve sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This poses safety concerns as well as to render the imager expensive and bulky with requiring a large vacuum radio frequency source. Here, we propose and demonstrate a coherent stepped-frequency continuous-wave (SFCW) technique for TA imaging which enables substantial improvements in SNR and consequently a reduction in peak power requirements for the imager. Constructive and destructive interferences between TA signals are observed and explained. Full coherency across microwave and acoustic domains, in the thermo-elastic response, is experimentally verified and this enables demonstration of coherent SFCW microwave-induced TA imaging. Compared to the pulsed technique, an improvement of 17?dB in SNR is demonstrated.

  14. Analysis of Femtosecond Timing Noise and Stability in Microwave Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, Michael R.; /Stevens Tech. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To probe chemical dynamics, X-ray pump-probe experiments trigger a change in a sample with an optical laser pulse, followed by an X-ray probe. At the Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, timing differences between the optical pulse and x-ray probe have been observed with an accuracy as low as 50 femtoseconds. This sets a lower bound on the number of frames one can arrange over a time scale to recreate a 'movie' of the chemical reaction. The timing system is based on phase measurements from signals corresponding to the two laser pulses; these measurements are done by using a double-balanced mixer for detection. To increase the accuracy of the system, this paper studies parameters affecting phase detection systems based on mixers, such as signal input power, noise levels, temperature drift, and the effect these parameters have on components such as the mixers, splitters, amplifiers, and phase shifters. Noise data taken with a spectrum analyzer show that splitters based on ferrite cores perform with less noise than strip-line splitters. The data also shows that noise in specific mixers does not correspond with the changes in sensitivity per input power level. Temperature drift is seen to exist on a scale between 1 and 27 fs/{sup o}C for all of the components tested. Results show that any components using more metallic conductor tend to exhibit more noise as well as more temperature drift. The scale of these effects is large enough that specific care should be given when choosing components and designing the housing of high precision microwave mixing systems for use in detection systems such as the LCLS. With these improvements, the timing accuracy can be improved to lower than currently possible.

  15. Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

    1996-07-16

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

  16. Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

    1995-09-12

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

  17. Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1996-01-01

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

  18. Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1995-01-01

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

  19. Microwave vitrification of Rocky Flats hydroxide precipitation sludge, Building 774. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eschen, V.G.; Sprenger, G.S.; Fenner, G.S.; Corbin, I.E.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the first set of experiments performed on transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge produced in Building 774, to determine the operating parameters for the microwave vitrification process. Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) results of the raw sludge showed concentrations of lead, silver and cadmium which were in excess of land disposal restrictions (LDR). Crushed, borosilicate glass was used as a frit source to produce a highly desirable, vitrified, product that required less energy to produce. TCLP testing, of microwaved samples, showed favorable results for 40 and 50% waste loading. The results of this study are encouraging and support the development of microwave vitrification technology for the treatment of various mixed waste streams at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. However, additional experiments are required to fully define the operating parameters for a production-scale system.

  20. Relativistic effects on the Weibel instability of circularly polarized microwave produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, B.; Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Analyzing the production of a weakly relativistic plasma produced by microwave fields with circular polarization in the adiabatic approximation, the electron distribution function is obtained, which is nonequilibrium and anisotropic. Furthermore, it is shown that the produced plasma is accelerated in the direction of propagating microwave electric fields. The electron velocity in this direction strongly depends on electron origination phase, electric field phase, and amplitude of the microwave electric field. Making use of the dielectric tensor obtained for this plasma, it is shown that the Weibel instability develops due to the anisotropic property of the distribution function. It is shown that the growth rate in the relativistic case is higher than that obtained for the nonrelativistic case by a factor depending on the electric field strength and plasma frequency.