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1

Method for processing coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

Goldin, I.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors for production of coal products -- patent fuel, cokeoven coke,coke oven gas, blast furnace gas and briquettes (BKB) --

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process  

SciTech Connect

The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

Plenderleith, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process  

SciTech Connect

The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

Knight, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

11

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

12

Organic Sulphur Transfers in Coke Oven Gas via Noncatalytic Partial Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic sulfur transformation was studied during coke oven gas to produce syngas via noncatalytic partial oxidation. The concentration of CS2 and thiophene was examined in syngas by sulfide detector. For comparison, the sulfur transfer was also studied ... Keywords: Organic sulfur transfer, Coke oven gas, CS2, thiophene

Guojie Zhang; Yongfa Zhang; Xianglan Li; Hongcheng Cao

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH  

SciTech Connect

Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process of sintering billets which are made from a broad range of materials such as PTFE and other fluoropolymers, elastomers, themosets, themoplastics and composites. The purpose of this study was to compare the process parameters under similar conditions for industrial applications where electric ovens have predominant use. Tests were performed to obtain the process efficiency and examine cost savings potential in converting electric ovens to natural gas. Preliminary results show that, for the plat studied, cost savings of about $10,000 per oven can be achieved, with a simple payback period of less than two years. The results also show that additional energy savings will be realized if the oven size and exhaust flow are carefully selected. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calculate process efficiency. Design features and environmental issues are discussed.

Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

Not Available

1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Performance Report: Gas Combination Oven Under Wall-Mounted Canopy Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents testing of ventilation requirements for a gas combination oven under an exhaust-only canopy hood. This appliance and hood combination is one of a series undertaken to provide electric utilities and the foodservice industry with data to optimize the design of commercial kitchen ventilation systems and integrate exhaust requirements with space conditioning design.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology  

SciTech Connect

Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

Lynch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

22

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Volume 3, Appendix sections 8--14: Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains no text. It consists entirely of numerical data: Coke oven wastewater treatment performance; Ammonia still effluents to equalization tank; Stack gas analysis of coke oven batteries; CoaL consumption; Coke production; Supplemental OSHA employee exposure monitoring(hydrocarbons,ammonia, hydrogen sulfide); operating data; chemical products and coke oven gas production.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

24

Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Coupled rock motion and gas flow modeling in blasting  

SciTech Connect

The spherical element computer code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) used to model rock motion resulting from blasting has been enhanced to allow routine computer simulations of bench blasting. The enhancements required for bench blast simulation include: (1) modifying the gas flow portion of DMC, (2) adding a new explosive gas equation of state capability, (3) modifying the porosity calculation, and (4) accounting for blastwell spacing parallel to the face. A parametric study performed with DMC shows logical variation of the face velocity as burden, spacing, blastwell diameter and explosive type are varied. These additions represent a significant advance in the capability of DMC which will not only aid in understanding the physics involved in blasting but will also become a blast design tool. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Preece, D.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Knudsen, S.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

Zemblevskii, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Problem of sludge formation in benzol division solar oil and ''carbonization'' in coke oven gas compressor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discussion is presented on the problem and possible causes of sludge formation in the return solar oil in benzene recovery units and on the problem of deposits in the pipe systems after coke oven gas compressors. The possible entrainment of fine particles of coal charge in the solar oil was also discussed. Sedimentation of the sludge was recommended with daily removal of the settled sludge. A chemical analysis of the deposits in the piping system of the coke oven gas and the coal charge revealed that the deposits were not caused by entrained coal particles. (JMT)

Rezunenko, Y.I.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

Golder, J.C.

1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

Stuart, L.M.

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

Solar oven  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar oven. It comprises: an oven chamber having an open end and defining an interior cooking chamber; means providing a flat-back interior surface on the cooking chamber for absorbing sunlight and converting the absorbed sunlight into heat; an oven door hingedly mounted over the open end and movable between open and closed positions relative to the open end; means for pivotably supporting the oven chamber about a first substantially horizontal pivot axis; user-actuable latch means for selectively retaining the oven chamber in selected positions around the first horizontal axis, the user-actuable latch means including a user releasable ratchet mechanism including a plurality of ratchet teeth formed on the oven chamber and ratchet pawl pivoted to the support means in a position to engage selective ones of the ratchet teeth to retain the over chamber in selected orientations around the horizontal axis, the latch means further including means for pivoting the pawl into and out of the path of movement of the ratchet teeth to thereby achieve the selective positioning; a tray disposed within the interior cooking chamber for supporting foodstuffs during coking; pivot means for pivotally mounting the tray within the interior cooking chamber for movement around a second substantially horizontal pivot axis such that the tray can be positioned so as to maintain the foodstuffs in a substantially level position independently of the position of the oven chamber around the first pivot axis.

Burns, T.J.; Burns, C.L.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

Computer modeling of gas flow and gas loading of rock in a bench blasting environment  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling can contribute greatly to an understanding of the physics involved in the blasting process. This paper will describe the latest enhancements to the blast modeling code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) (Taylor and Preece, 1989) and will demonstrate the ability of DMC to model gas flow and rock motion in a bench blasting environment. DMC has been used previously to model rock motion associated with blasting in a cratering environment (Preece and Taylor, 1990) and in confined volume blasting associated with in-situ oil shale retorting (Preece, 1990 a b). These applications of DMC treated the explosive loading as force versus time functions on specific spheres which were adjusted to obtain correct face velocities. It was recognized that a great need in explosives modeling was the coupling of an ability to simulate gas flow with the rock motion simulation capability of DMC. This was accomplished by executing a finite difference code that computes gas flow through a porous media (Baer and Gross, 1989) in conjunction with DMC. The marriage of these two capabilities has been documented by Preece and Knudsen, 1991. The capabilities that have been added recently to DMC and which will be documented in this paper include: (1) addition of a new equation of state for the explosive gases; (2) modeling of gas flow and sphere loading in a bench environment. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Preece, D.S.; Baer, M.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Knudsen, S.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

39

A two-mesh coupled gas flow-solid interaction model for 2D blast analysis in fractured media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 2D coupled two-mesh interaction model for blast gas flow through fractured and fragmented solid media is presented. It is mainly designed to solve blast problems where a complicated set of wide difficult phenomena are involved: shock waves, progressive ... Keywords: Blast, Combined finite/discrete element method, Cracking, Explosion, Fragmentation, Gas-solid interaction

S. Mohammadi; A. Pooladi

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Expansion of high pressure gas into air - A more realistic blast wave model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider a more realistic model of a spherical blast wave of moderate strength. An arbitrary number of terms for the series solution in each of the regions behind the main shock-the expansion region, the nearly uniform region outside ... Keywords: Blast wave, Compressible flow, Explosion, Gas dynamics, Shock wave

Ejanul Haque; Philip Broadbridge; P. L. Sachdev

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oven Oven Addthis Description Saving energy saves you money. Buy energy-saving light bulbs. (Ad Council PSA) Duration 0:33 Topic Energy Efficiency Heating & Cooling Home...

42

Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

Seaman, John

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a solar oven. It includes in combination: a rectangular cooking pan with a bottom and four side walls, open at the upper end, an exterior casing having a bottom and four side walls and having an outer coating to lower the heat absorption, a body of insulation in between the cooking pan and the exterior casing, the top edge of the insulation, casing, and cooking pan all being coplanar to provide a rectangular shelf, a glass-supporting frame enclosing and protecting a sheet of low-iron, heat-conductive glass, the glass having an iron content of only about 0.04% and a transmittance of heat about 83%, a mirror-supporting frame having a solid top portion and top sheet for supporting a mirror combination below the sheet, hinges connecting the mirror supporting frame to the casing, a support arm pivoted to the side of the glass frame and having a series of openings therethrough, and a mirror-support projection secured to the mirror-supporting frame for engaging one of the openings through the support arm for enabling the mirror to be supported at any of a plurality of positions at various angles relative to the shelf and the glass sheet. The glass and its glass-supporting frame being unattached to the cooking pan, casing, and body for free manipulation by hand.

Ghatak, R.N.

1989-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Final Environmental Assessment for the Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture Project at the ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. Indiana Harbor Steel Mill, East Chicago, Indiana

45

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

Not Available

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

46

Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens Colorado Academic Standards: Standard 3: Earth Systems Science Kindergarten: Concepts and skills students master: 1. The Sun provides heat and light to...

47

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Flat plate solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

Parikh, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Demountable solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A demountable solar oven includes a principal base upon which is mounted a secondary supporting base collar which contains the essential operating parts and which supports two removable arms at their base whose upper end form diametrically opposed pivots for receiving the appropriately disposed pivots of the cooking chamber. The food basket provided with similarly diametrically opposed pivots is disposed interiorly of the cooking chamber and by virtue of a weight disposed at the bottom thereof the wire basket always maintains a horizontal position irrespective of the angle of the oven itself. A transparent hemispherical cover including a shadow box indicator is disposed over the oven in the direction of the sun and a series of individual plate reflectors are hinged together by means of pins, a certain number of which pins are utilized to attach the reflectors to the oven rim. Adjustable feet are disposed at the bottom of the supporting base for adjusting the vertical position of the oven and a level indicator as well as rotationally directional indicators are provided for determining the position of the oven as desired. The disassembled parts occupy a minimum space and various of the parts can be disposed together for the disassembled unit to occupy a very small space.

Erwin, S.F.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

50

Spiral track oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

Drobilisch, Sandor

1998-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

51

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant  

SciTech Connect

ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

Trevino, O. (Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking  

SciTech Connect

The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

Gregerson, J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Bake Oven Design and Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production: Bake Oven Design and ... from shaft calciners is recovered for heating coal tar pitch and power ...

55

Oven wall panel construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

Ellison, Kenneth (20 Avondale Cres., Markham, CA); Whike, Alan S. (R.R. #1, Caledon East, both of Ontario, CA)

1980-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

56

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 22, 2011 - 11:45am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of: Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of: Moon Choe...

57

Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas  

SciTech Connect

The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%  

SciTech Connect

Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately$54,000. With a total project cost of$136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

Not Available

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

One temperature model for effective ovens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the thermodynamic analysis of ovens are focused on efficiency, but they need to behaves under real-life conditions, then the effectiveness of the ovens plays a crucial role in their design. In this paper we present a thermodynamical model able to describe the temperature evolution in ovens, furnaces or kilns to harden, burn or dry different products and which provides a methodology to design these heating devices. We use the required temperature evolution for each product and process as main ingredient in the methodology and procedure to design ovens and we place in the right role the efficiency criteria. We use global energy balance equation for the oven under transient situation as the thermodynamic starting point for developing the model. Our approach is able to consider different configurations for these heating devices, or recirculating or open situations, etc.

Tapia, Saul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31,...

62

EETD Assists in Analysis of Microwave Oven Energy Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EETD Assists in Analysis of Microwave Oven Energy Efficiency Standard June 2013 The Department of Energy recently announced new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens....

63

Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking  

SciTech Connect

Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Theoretical Modeling Approach for a Common Residential Electrically Heated Oven and Proposed Oven Design Modification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current research has developed a fully predictive model of an electrically heated common residential oven. This system was modeled using a fully explicit approach and,… (more)

Breen, Mark Allan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Abstract--The paper reviews solutions being explored to face the supply problems faced in the Chilean electricity market oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas demand in Chile and Argentina, determining the expected behavior of natural gas producers in the Chilean electricity market oven recent years, given unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Investment in generation came to a stall, given uncertainties in natural gas supply and the risk

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

66

Research on the Role of Control Hole in Deep-hole Pre-splitting Blasting in Outburst Coal Seams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanical analysis model of blasting and controlling holes was set up combined with a gas outburst mine deep hole pre split blasting test, and the necessity of setting control hole in deep hole pre splitting blasting was analyzed. The theoretical calculation ... Keywords: outburst coal seams, deep-hole pre-splitting blasting, control hole, hole spacing

Gong Min; Liu You-ping

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Open Ended Microwave Oven for Packaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel open waveguide cavity resonator is presented for the combined variable frequency microwave curing of bumps, underfills and encapsulants, as well as the alignment of devices for fast flip-chip assembly, direct chip attach (DCA) or wafer-scale level packaging (WSLP). This technology achieves radio frequency (RF) curing of adhesives used in microelectronics, optoelectronics and medical devices with potential simultaneous micron-scale alignment accuracy and bonding of devices. In principle, the open oven cavity can be fitted directly onto a flip-chip or wafer scale bonder and, as such, will allow for the bonding of devices through localised heating thus reducing the risk to thermally sensitive devices. Variable frequency microwave (VFM) heating and curing of an idealised polymer load is numerically simulated using a multi-physics approach. Electro-magnetic fields within a novel open ended microwave oven developed for use in micro-electronics manufacturing applications are solved using a de icated Yee sche...

Sinclair, K I; Desmulliez, M Y P; Goussetis, G; Bailey, C; Parrott, K; Sangster, A J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

A modified concentrating type solar oven for outdoor cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar cookers offer a partial solution to many problems for the poor developing areas of the world. In these regions energy used for cooking sometimes comprises four fifths of the total energy demand. Solar cookers are generally four catagories: direct focusing, oven, ovenfocusing and indirect types. The direct focusing types failed to boil water under windy conditions due to excessive convection losses from the bare cooking pot placed at the concentrator focus. The oven type cookers, such as Telkes oven, observe the rules of energy conservation and thus are more efficient and less affected by windy weather. However, this oven suffers from two major problems. First, tilting the oven could cause food spillage unless a hinged support is used for the pot. This adds complication to the design of Telkes oven. Second, the solar radiation is added to the pot from the top for high solar altitude angles. This leads to poor heat transfer to the food inside the pot. The advantages of concentrating and oven cookers can be obtained by widding of a point focus concentrator to a new oven type receiver. In this paper the concept and design details of such an oven are introduced. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the developed cooker are given.

Khalifa, A.M.A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial High-Efficiency Equipment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

who purchase energy efficient natural gas equipment. Eligible equipment includes natural gas storage and tankless water heaters, boiler equipment, griddles, fryers, conveyor ovens,...

71

Blasting agent for blasting in hot boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A blasting agent is described which is resistant to decomposition when exposed to elevated temperatures (e.g., 325 to 350 F) for 24 hr. It is composed of an inorganic oxidizing salt such as ammonium nitrate; a high-boiling liquid oxygen-containing organic fuel, e.g., dibutyl phthalate; a densifying agent such as ferrophosphorus and a coating agent such as calcium stearate. A primer assembly contains the thermally stable blasting agent in a cartridge can. The assembly has a well at one end containing a high-explosive booster attached to high-energy detonating cord, which is in initiating relationship with a blasting cap. The metal-cartridged blasting agent and primer assembly are useful for blasting in hot boreholes, which can be either wet or dry. 9 claims.

Schaefer, W.E.

1974-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

72

ThermonucleotideBLAST  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. October 10, 2013 software Given two samples of sequences, for which the user provides an input file with corresponding genetic distances (pairwise), the program performs a t-test to see whether the two mean genetic distances are significantly different. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email ThermonucleotideBLAST ThermonucleotideBLAST is a software program for searching a target database of nucleic acid sequences using an assay specific query. Licensing Status: Available for Express Licensing (?). This software is open source. To download, please visit ThermonucleotideBLAST website. For more

73

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 15, 2011 - 11:56am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Moon Choe EERE Summer Intern The first time I ever saw solar cookers was on the news in the summer of 2009 (though that would make it their winter, as I was living in Chile at the time), as part of a development project in the north, which is mostly desert. I had no idea solar cookers were so markedly simple in all various facets, such as appearance, use, and construction, and ever since then, it always remained on my to-do list to make one of my own. Another added benefit that I was unaware of is that a solar cooker works at any time of year, so long as it's receiving direct sunlight (i.e. not

74

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 15, 2011 - 11:56am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Moon Choe EERE Summer Intern The first time I ever saw solar cookers was on the news in the summer of 2009 (though that would make it their winter, as I was living in Chile at the time), as part of a development project in the north, which is mostly desert. I had no idea solar cookers were so markedly simple in all various facets, such as appearance, use, and construction, and ever since then, it always remained on my to-do list to make one of my own. Another added benefit that I was unaware of is that a solar cooker works at any time of year, so long as it's receiving direct sunlight (i.e. not

75

ELECTRIC BLASTING INITIATOR  

SciTech Connect

An electric blasting initiator comprises a shell, a high explosive material within the shell, and an exploding bridge wire in contact with said explosive material. (AEC)

Johnston, L.H.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

Abrasive Blast Cleaning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...tightly adhering scale during annealing. Sand blasting is fast and economical, but must be followed by an acid pickling treatment for removal of embedded scale particles....

77

Blast Effects Suppression System  

The HydroSuppressor system was developed to protect critical facilities from the devastating effects of blast from a vehicle bomb.  HydroSuppressor ...

78

The design, selection, and application of oil-free screw compressors for fuel gas service  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas compressors installed in cogeneration systems must be highly reliable and efficient machines. The screw compressor can usually be designed to meet most of the gas flow rates and pressure conditions generally required for such installations. To an ever-increasing degree, alternative sources are being found for the fuel gas supply, such as coke-oven gas, blast-furnace gas, flare gas, landfill gas, and synthesis gas from coal gasification or from pyrolysis. A feature of the oil-free screw compressor when such gases are being considered is the isolation of the gas compression space from the bearing and gear lubrication system by using positive shaft seals. This ensures that the process gas cannot be contaminated by the lubricating oil, and that there is not risk of loss of lubricant viscosity by gas solution in the oil. This feature enables the compressed gas to contain relatively high levels of particulate contamination without danger of ``sludge`` formation, and also permits the injection of water or liquid solvents into the compression space, to reduce the temperature rise due to the heat of compression, or to ``wash`` any particulate manner through the compressor.

Lelgemann, K.D. [MAN Gutehoffnungshuette AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Stable blasting slurry  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to stable blasting slurry systems useful particularly with the latest blasting slurry trucks, involving the preparation of particular new fuel liquids mixed with particular oxidizer liquids and including in most emodiments solid oxidizers and solid fuels. (44 claims)

Cook, M.A.

1978-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Lightweight blast shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Manhattan Project: Blast  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Blast (Animation) Blast (Animation) Yucca Flat, Nevada (March 17, 1953) Resources > Photo Gallery Blast Animation The eight images above are a sequence of photographs of a house constructed 3,500 feet from "ground zero" at the Nevada Test Site being destroyed by the Annie test shot. The only source of light was the blast itself, detonated on March 17, 1953. The final image is two-and-one-third seconds after detonation. In the second image the house is actually on fire, but in the third image the fire has already been blown out by the blast. Annie, part of the "Upshot-Knothole" test series, had a yield of 16 kilotons, roughly the same size as the Trinity, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki explosions. Two photographs of the Annie mushroom cloud are at the bottom of this page.

82

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Process for foaming aqueous protein-containing blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for foaming blasting agents which cosists of (1) passing a thickened protein-containing water-bearing blasting agent through a number of orifices at a pressure of about 40 to 160, preferably 125 to 140 psi into a suction chamber in order to form a number of streams of thickened explosive and create a vacuum in the area where the blasting agent exists; (2) simultaneously incorporating gas into the thickened explosive in the suction chamber so as to cause an intimate admixture of the gas with the thickened explosive; and (3) thereafter reducing the velocity of the thickened explosive by subsequently passing it through an enlarged opening, and recovering the resulting foamed, thickened blasting agent. (6 claims)

Adams, P.E.; Fearnow, P.W.

1972-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

86

Experiments on multiple short-delay blasting of coal  

SciTech Connect

Investigation was made to determine conditions under which short-delay multiple blasting could be used in coal mines without causing ignition of gas, coal dust, or mixtures of gas and dust. Additional aims were to determine effects of blasting on mine roof; to find quantity and breakage of coal produced by multiple blasting; to measure amount of float dust formed during shooting; and to study relative time requirement in different blasting procedures. Various recommendations that should help greatly to reduce incidence of misfires are presented. Paper presented at Seventh International Conference of Directors of Safety in Mines Research at the Safety in Mines Research Establishment, Ministry of Fuel and Power, Buxton, England, July 7-12, 1952.

Nagy, J.; Hartmann, I.; Christofel, F.P.; Seiler, E.C.

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Microsoft Word - Blast Energy.112706.DOC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology partnership successfully tests new, less expensive drilling technology Casper, Wyo. - Nov. 28, 2006 - The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and its partner Blast Energy Services Inc. have successfully tested an innovative new oil and gas drilling technology that when commercialized should facilitate lower production costs and increased access to reserves. "It's our mission to partner with industry to help bring new ideas to the marketplace that can ensure clean, reliable and affordable supplies of oil and natural gas for American consumers," said Clarke Turner, RMOTC director. The new technology is expected to provide oil and gas producers with an alternative to existing well stimulation services at a lower cost, while having the ability to access previously uneconomical reserves. Blast's

88

Vibrations from underground blasting  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has investigated vibration levels produced by blasting at four underground sites to establish how such factors as type of explosive, delay blasting, charge weight, and geology affect amplitudes of ground motion. A summary of the work is presented and the results of further analysis of the data are discussed. Square root scaling was found applicable to two of the underground sites and could be applied with minor error to all the sites. Comparison of empirical propagation equations in the different rock types indicates that although the site effect is apparent, the combined data may be used as a basis for engineering estimates of vibration amplitudes from subsurface blasting in many different rock types. Recommendations for predicting and minimizing vibration amplitudes from underground blasts are given.

Snodgrass, J.J.; Siskind, D.E.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Blasting charge and method  

SciTech Connect

This is a process for setting off a blasting charge employing nitrate explosions in a thick aqueous slurry. There is formed in the bore a blasting charge consisting, in part, of a thick aqueous slurry of dispersed ammonium nitrate particles as the predominant explosive material with or without a lesser amount of sodium, calcium, or other nitrate in like dispersion. In addition, one or more localized or undispersed solid bodies of booster explosive are included in the body of the slurry. Conventional means are used for detonating the booster, such as a blasting cap, an electric blasting cap, or a detonating fuse. The slurry may be formed in the bore or may be preformed and packaged for shipment, the latter being preferable.

Towle, L.W.

1966-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

90

A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kimrey, Jr., Harold D. (Knoxville, TN); Mills, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Computer cast blast modelling  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the India Iron and Steel ISF Coke- Making a. b. c. d.and Stamp Charging). Maximum Recovery of Coke OvenGas Using Coke Oven Gas for achieving higher blast

Sathaye, Jayant

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Polymer Surface Modification Using Microwave-Oven-Generated Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, diameter 160 mm) are from Fisher Scientific. Compressed oxygen and ethanol (100%) are from Air Products a Barnstead EASYpure UV unit. Plasma is generated with a 1100-W countertop microwave oven (Amana, ACM2160AB.Afterrinsing,thesamples are dried with compressed air and placed on a glass microscope slide. The slide is then positioned

Steinbock, Oliver

97

Empirical and scientific application of explosives and blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

A new system for comparing modern blasting agents and evaluating their performance in large-scale, massive rock blasting, such as the taconites of the Mesabi Range of Minnesota, has been devised. This paper briefly describes various explosives and blasting agents and makes some rather interesting comparisons based on their physical chemistry. The actual performance in rock is evaluated, based on the theory that rock fragmentation is more dependent on the physical characteristics of the rock mass and shot geometry than on explosive type. The energy absorption capacity of a rock, its physical properties, determines the relative effect of the applied explosive or blasting agent. And the method of force relief based primarily on shot geometry (multiple rows and holes) and elastic and physical properties of the rock determines how the rock mass will fragment. The relative affect of the applied explosive is dependent on its total energy, gas-volume and type, temperature, and reaction time.

Klima, F.J.

1966-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Spatial variation of coke quality in the non-recovery beehive coke ovens.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??More than 50% of hot metal production worldwide takes place in blast furnaces. Coke is the most expensive raw material in the blast furnace. It… (more)

Segers, Magrieta

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Emulsified blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

This article describes an improved blasting agent which is being tailor-blended with bulk ANFO to provide more explosive energy and better water resistance when the blasting conditions call for it. The proportions of the emulsion/ANFO mix are easily changed at the blasthole site because both materials can be selectively mixed in modified bulk-explosive trucks before loading the blasting agents into the holes. Such blends are helping speed stripping at a number of surface mines and are leading to cost savings in production, ranging from 10% to 30%, depending upon application, even though the actual cost of a blend will be higher than if bulk ANFO is used alone.

Chironis, N.P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

BIOLOGICAL BLAST EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

The scope and nature of several blast hazards are delineated. Tentative criteria are set forth for threshold damage to humans. These criteria are related 10 nuclear weapons in terms of ground ranges and areas involved for one MT and ten MT surface detonations. To allow appreciation of the relative importance of blast with other effects, appropriate values are noted for ionizing and thermal radiation. Four categories of blast hazards are defined, and the character of each is described. The occurrence of combined injuries from pressure, missiles, and displacement is discussed. Experiences in the Texas City disaster of 1947 are reviewed. Selected data relate environmental conditions to gross biologic damage from overpressures, missiles, and impact loading. 86 references. (C.H.)

White, C.S.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Blasting Vibration Forecast Base on Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of blasting vibration to surroundings around the blasting area can not be ignored, in order to guarantee the safety of surroundings around blasting area, blasting vibration forecasting model based on neural network is established by improved ... Keywords: Blasting vibration, Neural network, Forecast

Haiwang Ye; Fang Liu; Jian Chang; Lin Feng; Yang Wang; Peng Yao; Kai Wu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Blasting Linux code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer programs can only run reliably if the underlying operating system is free of errors. In this paper we evaluate, from a practitioner's point of view, the utility of the popular software model checker Blast for revealing errors in Linux kernel ...

Jan Tobias Mühlberg; Gerald Lüttgen

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee's Sun Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160 o C (320 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C, (175 o F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sun Oven from Burns-Milwaukee at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide variety and types of solar...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Back yard blasting on the quiet  

SciTech Connect

Four different sequential blasting patterns for surface mining which produce successful fragmentation at significantly reduced noise levels are discussed. The advantages of electric blasting caps are considered.

Chironis, N.P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Partially Reduced Feedstocks and Blast Furnace Ironmaking Carbon Intensity ... simple Rist-style blast furnace mass and energy balance, assuming furnace ...

107

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Big Picture Melon Blast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shows a picture of a melon blasting by high school students at the University of Missouri school of mining and nuclear engineering.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

Moss, T.A.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Reducing Energy Consumption on Process Ovens & Oxidation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the uncertain cost of energy, optimizing the use of air in process dryers, ovens and air pollution control systems is critical to your bottom line. The revived emphasis on air management through the entire process, from plant make-up air heating systems to pollution control system exhaust, provides many opportunities to save energy and cut operating costs. This presentation includes an overview of good air management practices used to optimize energy use in your process and plant. One of the most important benefits of the more stringent air pollution control regulations throughout the world is the focus on better use and conservation of our natural resources. Through the efforts of many of the world's finest engineers and scientists the world is now realizing the benefits of an environmentally friendly approach to manufacturing. These benefits, which include more efficient process operation, less waste generation and reduced emissions, have produced the unforeseen benefit of reduced production costs and higher quality products. Process dryers and ovens are used in the manufacture of a wide variety of products produced by the companies represented at the Industrial Energy Technology Conference. This equipment is installed and operating in facilities that produce printed materials, packaging materials, adhesive tapes, pharmaceutical diagnostic materials, coated papers & films, foil laminations, electronic media, and photographic & x-ray films. They are also used extensively in the food industry. The products manufactured include baked goods, cereals, pet food, tobacco, and many other products. Ovens are used to bake and cure surface coated materials. Such as building siding, window frames, window blinds, automotive parts, wood products, and miscellaneous metal parts. More stringent environmental regulations are also impacting the design and operation of coating and food processes. Today air pollution control devices are used on many of the above applications to control the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and odors. As emission limits have decreased, the use of permanent total enclosures PTE's are becoming a standard part of the process line design. These enclosures are used to obtain 100% capture of the solvents used in the process. In addition, concerns over solvent concentrations in ovens along with concerns over exposure limits to employees have combined to drive process exhaust flows ever higher. Increasing process exhaust flows has been the common approach to addressing process and environmental issues. This increase in exhaust flows has resulted in significant increases in energy use and operating costs.

Worachek, C.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Vibration and noise from blasting  

SciTech Connect

Adverse environmental effects from blasting continue to be a major problem for the mining industry, the public living near mining operations, and the governmental agencies responsible for setting environmental standards. The Bureau of Mines has established a comprehensive blasting research program dealing with the many technical aspects of generation and propagation of ground vibrations and airblast, structure response and damage, and proper instrumentation.

Siskind, D.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Blasting vibrations and their effects on structures  

SciTech Connect

Results of the Bureau of Mines 10-year program to study the problem of air blast and ground vibrations generated by blasting are presented. The program included an extensive field study of ground vibrations; a consideration of air blast effects; an evaluation of instrumentation to measure vibrations; establishment of damage criteria for residential structures; determination of blasting parameters which grossly affected vibrations; empirical safe blasting limits; and the problem of human response. While values of 2.0 in/sec particle velocity and 0.5 psi air blast overpressure are recommended as safe blasting limits not to be exceeded to preclude damage to residential structures, lower limits are suggested to minimize complaints. Millisecond-delay blasting is shown to reduce vibration levels as compared to instantaneous blasting, and electric cap delay blasts offer a slight reduction in vibration levels as compared to Primacord delay blasts. Vibration levels of different blasts may be compared at common scaled distances, where scaled distance is the distance divided by the square root of the maximum charge weight per delay. Geology, rock type, and direction affect vibration level within limits. Empirically, a safe blasting limit based on a scaled distance of 50 ft/lb/sup/sup 1///sub 2// may be used without instrumentation. However, a knowledge of the particle velocity propagation characteristics of a blasting site determined from instrumented blasts at that site are recommended to insure that the safe blasting limit of 2.0 in/sec is not exceeded.

Nicholls, H.R.; Johnson, C.F.; Duvall, W.I.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources in the Upper Ovens River Valley.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Regression analysis produced equations for relating Ovens River levels to groundwater levels with a high correlation. These equations can relate stream flow objectives to corresponding… (more)

Lovell, Daniel Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Surface mining and the natural environment: Blasting  

SciTech Connect

Blasting is the process commonly used to fracture the rock strata overlying a mineral seam. It is an important component of many surface mining operations. The technical guide will discuss several aspects of blasting, including a description of the methods used, the side effects associated with blasting, current laws and regulations controlling blasting operations, and the available technology for controlling the effects of blasting. The chapter is divided into two parts. Part I will provide a general overview of the topic, a discussion of potential hazardous effects and a description of blasting materials. Part II will address the development of a blasting plan and review some important inspection/monitoring considerations.

Clar, M.L.; Ward, J.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Experiments on multiple short-delay blasting of coal (in two parts)  

SciTech Connect

In 1949 a study was undertaken in Bureau of Mines Experimental coal mine near Pittsburgh, Pa., to investigate conditions under which simultaneous multiple and short-delay multiple blasting of coal may be used without danger of igniting gas or coal dust in coal mines and to study the vibrations of the mine roof during such blasting. Results of blasting and roof-vibration tests are given. Paper presented at Sixth International Conference of Directors of Safety in Mines Research at the laboratories of the Charbonnages de France, Verneuil (Oise) France, July 24-29, 1950.

Hartmann, I.; Nagy, J.; Howarth, H.C.

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Optimizing Model of Blasting Parameters Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complexity and polytropism of rock and the complexity of blasting proceeding, it is very difficult to obtain better blasting parameters with a certain way. In order to gain perfect blasting effects expected by designers, blasting engineers ...

Haiwang Ye; Yang Wang; Jian Chang; Fang Liu; Peng Yao

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Model reference adaptive temperature control of the electromagnetic oven process in manufacturing process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nowadays, the electromagnetic ovens are used for heating the component assembly of electronic manufacturing. The control systems of the electromagnetic ovens are feedback control system and PID controller are used to control their temperature. This process ... Keywords: control theory, response optimization and model reference adaptive system

Jiraphon Srisertpol; Supot Phungphimai

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

Nee, Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

Marco Schioppo; Nicola Poli; Marco Prevedelli; Stephan Falke; Christian Lisdat; Uwe Sterr; Guglielmo Maria Tino

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

Schioppo, Marco; Prevedelli, Marco; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Tino, Guglielmo Maria

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

126

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

128

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

129

Portable convertible blast effects shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Abrasives for Dry Blast Cleaning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...The materials used in dry abrasive blast cleaning can be categorized as metallic grit, metallic shot, sand, glass, and miscellaneous. Hardness, density, size, and shape are important considerations in choosing an abrasive for a specific

131

Developing indicators for the assessment and proper management of the different levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s generally associated with coke-oven workers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coke ovens may occur in the aluminium, steel, graphite, electrical, and construction industries. In the work area coke-oven workers may be exposed to various chemical… (more)

Wang, Tianyuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Blast Resistance Standards For Trash Receptacles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 10, Standard Specification for Trash Receptacles Subjected to Blast Resistance Testing". Available at Standards/E2639.htm>.

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

Testing of the Sunstove Organization's Sunstove Solar Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Sunstove Organization's Sunstove was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115 o C (240 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C (175 o F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sunstove from the Sunstove Organization, at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide vari...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A modular phase change heat exchanger for a solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular energy storing heat exchanger designed to use pentaerythritol for thermal storage (solid-solid phase change at 182 C) is tested in an oven by circulating heat transfer oil which is electrically heated in a manner to simulate a concentrating solar collector. Three efficiencies for heating the system under controlled and measured power input are determined - the heat exchanger efficiency, the efficiency of the heater with distribution lines, and the total system efficiency. Thermal energy retention times and cooking extraction times are determined, and along with the efficiencies, are compared with the results previously reported for a nonmodular heat exchanger. The modular configuration provides a highly improved extraction rate for cooking due to its wrap-around character and its increased surface-to-volume ratio. A full scale glass model of the copper tubing of the system is described and flow observations reported demonstrating how uniformly the parallel pumping branches perform and how trapped air pockets affect pumping power. A technique for measuring pumping power is described and its application to the system is quantified to show that less than 1 watt is required to circulate the heat transfer oil even when the system includes the solar collector and its longer connecting tubes.

Bushnell, D.L.; Sohi, M. (Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant comprising a gas cleaning unit for dust removal and a turbine for converting the recoverable thermal energy into mechanical and electrical energy. The adjustable annular gap scrubber for separating fine dust also serves as an element for regulating the gas pressure at the blast furnace top so that pressure control by the turbine and its control gear is no longer necessary. Moreover, in the event of a turbine outage the annular gap scrubber can be used as a low noise, pressure-throttling element. The economic use of a turbine for recovering energy from top gas depends on many parameters, such as top pressure, top gas rate, clean gas temperature, local cost of electric power, etc. A profitability analysis for a specific installation shows a remarkably short payback period. The process incorporates a new concept in blast air compression. Mechanical energy from the turbine is transferred directly to the axial flow compressor so that the prior conversion of energy via the power generating cycle is dispensed with. Coupled to the turbine is the compressor motor which, while rated to cover the full power requirement, uses about 40% less electrical power from the power supply system. Finally, as an example of the future potential of this process, a new continuous steelmaking process is presented which employs a closed top converter. The gas, held under pressure during refining, is subsequently cleaned and expanded as the blast furnace process described above. This gas is cleaned without any entrainment of air to furnish a gaseous fuel of high calorific value. Since the steelmaking process is continuous, the gas is constantly available and can be fed into the distribution system without any intermediate storage.

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Law Vendor Coupon Co2 Blasting Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objectives identified in the test specification for the vendor CO2 blasting tests are to determine the ability of CO2 blasting to remove a measurable amount of surface material from Type 304L stainless steel and to identify the approximate blasting parameters for future testing on radioactively contaminated coupons.

May, C.G.

2003-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

137

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31, 2013 - 3:26pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30 years, it will dramatically reduce harmful carbon pollution, equivalent to taking over 12 million new cars off the road for one year. "Appliance efficiency standards represent a huge opportunity to help families save money by saving energy, while still delivering high quality

139

Electromagnetic and Heat Transfer Modeling of Microwave Heating in Domestic Ovens.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microwave (MW) ovens are used extensively for heating a variety of not-ready-to-eat food products. It is vital to achieve target temperature uniformly throughout the food… (more)

Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Modeling Infrared and Combination Infrared-Microwave Heating of Foods in an Oven .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A quantitative, model-based understanding of heat exchange in infrared and combined infrared-microwave heating of food inside an oven is developed. The research is divided into… (more)

Frangipani Almeida, Marialuci

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.

Not Available

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Created March 2009 Microwave ovens are located throughout Swinburne University campuses in both staff & students  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as when sealed containers are heated they may explode and damage the oven rendering it unsafe. · Use glass containers designed for microwaves to cook high-fat foods, as additives from plastic are more likely

Liley, David

143

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

144

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level. 2 figs.

White, T.L.

1990-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Methods for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, two analytical methods are presented which describe the large rubble motion during blasting. These methods provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences.

Schamaun, J.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

Knudsen, S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Blast rips Texas LPG storage site  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

1992-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the heavy fractions and coke to produce synthesis gas canMarano, 2003). Based on the 1999 coke production total powerlevels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method of making water gas  

SciTech Connect

The process of manufacturing water gas by alternate air and steam blasting is discussed. The process consists in providing two separate fuel beds of bituminous fuel in two intercommunicating water-gas generators; hot air blasting from the top part of the fuel bed in one generator to the top portion of the other fuel bed in the second generator; and blasting from the bottom part of the fuel bed in the first generator to the bottom part of the fuel bed in the second generator. By evolving volatile matter in the fuel bed in the first generator, and introducing secondary air between the fuel beds to burn the volatile matter and thereby facilitate the carbonization of raw fuel and to store heat in the fuel bed in the second generator, generation of water gas by steam blasting the heated fuel beds will result.

Evans, O.B.

1931-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

152

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above the pressure chambers with the first pressure chamber stacked above the second pressure chamber; first and second media valve means for providing communication between the storage means and the first pressure chamber and between the pressure chambers, respectively; air valve means for controlling the air pressurizing and exhausting of the first and second pressure chambers, the improvement comprising: means for opening and closing the first and second media valve means and the air valve means, the first, second and air valve means being offset from each other in both vertical and horizontal dimensions; push rods extending vertically upward from the valve means and spaced one from the other for actuating the valve means to open and close the same; an overhead cam shaft means mounted above the push rods and having a plurality of spaced cams, each of the cams being aligned and operatively associated with one of the push rods for actuating the push rods and thereby the valve means to control the opening and closing of the first and second media valve means and the air valve means; and actuating means for actuating the cam shaft means.

Van Kuiken, L.L. Jr.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

153

Process of producing combustible gas and for carbonizing coal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of producing combustible gas by supporting a column of fuel in a shaft furnace, intermittently blasting a combustion-supporting gas transversely through a mid portion of said column to produce a mid zone of sufficiently high temperature to decompose steam. The steam then circulated upwardly through said column between said blasting operations.

Doherty, H.L.

1922-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Blast resistant vehicle seat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

Ripley, Edward B

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Dust explosion hazards due to blasting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The conditions favoring secondary explosions of dust or gas accompanying the blasting of oil shale are the subject of continuing investigation by the Bureau of Mines. In the present study, oil shale dust was dispersed in a gallery and ignited by various blasting agents blown out of a cannon according to a standard testing procedure. Parallel tests were conducted in the Bureau's Experimental Mine to test propagation as well as ignition of oil shale dust. In both gallery and mine, the minimum explosion limits were determined as a function of dust loading, weight and type of blasting agent, and amount of added methane. The results of these experiments are compared with previous measurements using methane-air explosions as an initiation source. In view of recent mine dust sampling data, the main explosion hazard in nongassy oil shale mines is likely to be limited to the region of the face. But in gassy mines, dust-gas explosions could be expected to propagate considerable distances.

Richmond, J.K.; Beitel, F.P.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

CO2 Blast Cleaning Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) (dry ice) cleaning is a process in which dry ice particles, accelerated by compressed air or nitrogen, are propelled at high velocities to impact and clean a surface. Because CO2 technology produces no secondary waste, the CO2 blast cleaning process has many applications for the cleaning of electrical equipment.

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

System for generating power with top pressure of blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A system for generating power with the top pressure of a plurality of blast furnaces by leading a gas from the top of the furnaces into turbines, corresponding in number to the furnaces, to convert the pressure of the gas into rotational energy and generate power by a generator coupled to the turbines. The turbines connected to the furnaces by main gas channels individually are aligned with their rotor shafts connected together into a single shaft which is connected to the generator. Preferably each pair of the adjacent turbines are arranged with their intake ends positioned in the center of the arrangement so that the gas flows toward the exhaust ends at both sides, or with their intake ends positioned at both sides to cause the gas to flow toward the exhaust ends in the center. The single shaft connecting the pair of turbines together has no intermediate bearing between these turbines.

Kihara, H.; Mizota, T.; Ohmachi, M.; Takao, K.; Toki, K.; Tomita, Y.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

158

Blasting arrangement for oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

A blasting technique for use in excavation of an oil-shale deposit during the subterranean mining of it is described. Primary blasting holes are provided in a working zone, such as a heading or bench within the mine. In addition, a row of explosive-loaded secondary blasting holes is provided along a line between the working zone and a support zone adjacent to the working zone. Thus, in a benching round, secondary holes extend downward through the bench from the top thereof and in a heating round the secondary holes extend into the heading from the heading face. The secondary and primary blasting holes are detonated in a desired sequence. Preferably, the secondary blasting holes are detonated first although this sequence of operation may be reversed. The secondary blasting holes carry a lower explosive charge than the primary holes, and also are spaced closer together than the primary holes. (14 claims)

Haworth, G.R.; Zambas, P.G.

1969-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

160

Explo 2007 Blasting: Techniques & Technology Proceedings - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 22, 2008 ... This is an explosive review. Or to be more precise this review is about the Blasting: Techniques & Technology Explo 2007 Conference.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880,...

162

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Hydrogen Sulfide, Oil and Gas, and People's Lana Skrtic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at sewage treatment plants, manure-handling plants, tanneries, and coke oven plants.5 2 EPA, "Report standard cubic feet)."9 Sour gas is routinely `sweetened' at processing facilities called desulfurization Process for Desulfurizing Ultra-deep Natural Gas Near the Wellhead," presented at Natural Gas Technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

164

A Cross-Platform for Tunnel Blast Design and Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital Mine has become the inevitable development trend of the future mines. Blasting is a essential process during the exploration and development of practical mining engineering. The blasting always plays a direct influence on the efficiency of each ... Keywords: Digital Mine, Blasting parameters, Parameters design, Tunnel blast design, Cross-platform

Tingting Zhu; Chao Wang; Mingmin Zhang; Zhigeng Pan

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Blast furnaces make way for new steel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent environmental regulations, aging production units, and a competitive market are forcing iron and steelmakers to improve the environmental performance and cost efficiencies of their processes. The traditional integrated steel unit isn`t obsolete -- yet. Blast furnaces will be around for at least another 15 years. However, traditional technology is in for some changes, and stepped up rivalry from electric arc furnace minimills and ironmaking processes that use gas or coal. The paper discusses direct iron making processes, the DRI-minimill connection, the iron carbide process, and reclaiming iron from waste.

Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.; Moore, S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

1992-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

167

Modeling of Microwave Ovens with Perforated Metal Walls Erin M. Kiley and Vadim V. Yakovlev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engineers developing new microwaveable products. This can be explained by the particularly complex nature, modeling. I. INTRODUCTION While historically, technological progress in microwave power engineering has microwave ovens - the most widespread microwave heating devices - have not yet been notably adopted by food

Yakovlev, Vadim

168

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Performance Report: Electric Combination Oven Under Wall-Mounted Canopy Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents testing of ventilation requirements for an electric combination oven under an exhaust-only canopy hood. This appliance and hood combination is one of a series undertaken to provide electric utilities and the foodservice industry with data to optimize the design of commercial kitchen ventilation systems and integrate exhaust requirements with space conditioning design.

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

WELL BEING WEDNESDAY Oven Baked Chicken Tandoori with Side Salad, Fresh Lime &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WELL BEING WEDNESDAY Low Fat Oven Baked Chicken Tandoori with Side Salad, Fresh Lime & Homemade with a reduced Fat Tomato Sauce HM V £3.80 Jacket Potato Fillings Low Fat Cottage Cheese Deli Style Coleslaw with Low Fat Mayonnaise Lean Mince Chilli Con Carne Grated Welsh Cheddar Tuna Mayonnaise ­ (responsibly

Davies, Christopher

170

Back yard blasting on the quiet  

SciTech Connect

When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

Chironis, N.P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon dioxide blasting as a nondestructive method for nuclear material decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Many traditional methods of decontamination use chemicals that are inherently harmful and can be direct environmental hazards. These methods may generate large volumes of mixed waste and high disposal costs. Sandblasting grit disposal costs have dramatically increased. Also, the additional volume of contaminated waste generated by sandblasting affects facilities disposal quotas. Water blasting now requires expensive processing procedures. State and federal governments are developing regulations that restrict the use of these methods; therefore, alternative technologies are becoming increasingly important. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) blasting is an important break-through for nuclear decontamination because of its superior environmental characteristics. The CO{sub 2} blasting method is waterless, waste free, noncorrosive, and nonreactive. Commercial CO{sub 2} is primarily produced as a salvaged waste gas from the production of other industrial gases. In the blasting operation, the frozen CO{sub 2} pellet is transformed into its gaseous state, which is a normal component of the earth's atmosphere. The CO{sub 2} blasting system can solve many of the environmental and cost problems now facing managers responsible for nuclear contamination.

Norton, C.J. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., West Chesterfield, NH (United States)); Campbell, R.A. (Hot Cell Services Corp., Kent, WA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

2002-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

173

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: combined finite/discrete element method, explosion, gas flow, gas solid interaction, rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas flow, Gas solid interaction, Rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

Archibald, K.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Texas Gas Service - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Texas Gas Service - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Texas Gas Service - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Texas Gas Service - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Front-loading Clothes Washers: up to $100 Commercial Water Heating System: up to 20% of cost Hydronic Heater: $125 per unit Infra-red Fryers: $400 Convection Ovens: $400 Conveyor Ovens: $400 Infra-red Griddles $200 Booster Heater: $500/unit Texas Gas Service (TGS) offers a range of financial incentives to commercal customers who purchase and install energy efficient commercial equipment. Eligible equipment includes commercial clothes washers, water heaters, hydronic heating systems, ovens, fryers, griddles and booster heaters.

178

Electrical blasting practice at some coal mines in State of Washington  

SciTech Connect

The explosives used, blasting practice, lighting shots in gassy mines, and advantages of electrical blasting are described.

Ash, S.H.

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Weatherization Maximum Rebate 70% of project cost Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Commercial Dishwashers: $400 - $1500 Commercial Refrigerator: $60 - $100 Ice Machines: $100 - $400 Insulated Holding Cabinets: $250 - $600 Electric Steam Cookers: $400 Electric Convection Ovens: $200 Electric Griddles: $200 Electric Combination Ovens: $2,000

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Build an oven, cook a meal: How solar energy empowered women in Costa Rica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pilot solar cooking project in the hot, northern province of Guanacaste promises to serve as a model for community groups wanting to build their own solar ovens. An $8,000 (US) grant has been awarded by the Canadian Embassy in Costa Rica to take the Guanacaste project into a second stage in 1990-91. Two construction workshops, with twelve participants in each, are planned in communities near Oriente. Three women from the Oriente group will have paid jobs as organizational facilitators and workshop supervisors. In popular education this is called the multiplier effect - the users of solar cookers construct the ovens themselves, and then instruct others to do the same. 3 refs.

Blankenship, J. (Canadian Univ. Service Organization, San Jose (Costa Rica))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries  

SciTech Connect

A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti [Technical University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Confined volume blasting experiments: Description and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A series of bench-scale blasting experiments was conducted to produce rubble beds for use in retorting experiments. The experiments consisted of blasting oil shale with explosives within a confined volume containing 25% void. A variety of blasting geometries was used to control the fragment size distribution and void distribution in the rubble. The series of well controlled tests provided excellent data for use in validating rock fragmentation models. Analyses of the experiments with PRONTO, a dynamic finite element computer code, and a newly developed fracturing model provided good agreement between code predictions and experimental measurements of fracture extent and fragment size. CAROM, a dynamic distinct element code developed to model rock motion during blasting, was used to model the fully fragmented tests. Calculations of the void distribution agreed well with experimentally measured values. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Gorham-Bergeron, E.; Kuszmaul, J.S.; Bickel, T.C.; Shirey, D.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Surface decontamination utilizing mechanical vacuum blasting methods  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) surface decontamination effort, vacuum blasting techniques were utilized to remove fixed radioactive contamination entrained in steel and concrete painted surfaces to meet on-site and off-site release limits. Removal of contaminated paint by vacuum blasting was restricted to selected areas of the project. Specifically, this technique was applied only when it was determined to be cost-effective compared to other methods of paint removal or direct disposal of the bulk material as contaminated waste. As the lower portions of the reactor plant container painted steel surface was eligible for this surface decontamination technique. A performance summary of the results obtained using vacuum blasting is included. Based on these results, it is concluded that application of vacuum blasting techniques was effective in terms of removal rate, person-hours expended, and waste generated.

McKernan, M.L.; Schulmeister, A.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

SciTech Connect

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

187

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Economical solutions to blast mitigation on bridges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mitigating the energy created from a blast has been a topic of utmost importance in the terrorism-feared world of today. Main targets of concern are passageways that are significant to a specific area, such as bridges. ...

DeRogatis, Austin (Austin Patrick)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effects of mine blasting on residential structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is common in the coal industry to remove rock overburden so that the exposed coal can be mechanically excavated. The ground vibrations and air blast produced by blasting are often felt by residents surrounding the mines. There has been a trend for regulatory authorities, especially those concerned with the environment, to impose low limits on blast vibration levels in response to community pressure, based on human perception and response to vibration. This paper reports the findings of an extensive study on a house which was located adjacent to a coal mine. The house was monitored for over 1 year and was subjected to ground peak particle velocity (PPV) ranging from 1.5 to 222 mm/s. The house was instrumented with accelerometers to measure its dynamic response due to blasting and it was also monitored for cracks before and after each blast. Based on this study, ground motion amplifications along the height of the structure have been established. A simplified methodology presented in this paper has been used to estimate the ground PPV at which cracking is likely.

Gad, E.F.; Wilson, J.L.; Moore, A.J.; Richards, A.B. [Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Science

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Methods for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. Two analytical methods are presented which describe the large rubble motion during blasting. These methods are intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In both these methods, the rock medium is represented by a series of discrete, discontinuous regions (bodies, masses). The use of discontinuous techniques rather than the classical continuum methods, results in better approximations to the rubble motion. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of these regions is then calculated numerically using interaction laws between regions in contact. The basis for these models or methods is presented along with the background for selecting explosive pressure loads and rock mass material behavior. Typical examples, including both cratering and bench blasting geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of these models to predict rubble motion. Such engineering representations appear to provide a practical method for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries.

Schamaun, J.T.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System  

SciTech Connect

The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

Hart, M M

2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the blast furnace means less coke is needed, so maintenancecontrol Foamy slag practices Coke making Oxy-fuel burners/Variable speed drive on coke oven gas compressors Coke dry

Worrell, Ernst

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom: 50% of project cost Program Info Start Date 06/09/2011 State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: $75 - $300 Furnaces: $250 - $400 Boilers: $150 - $400 Setback Thermostat: $25 - $50 Convection Oven: $100 High Efficiency Range/Oven: $500 Conveyor Oven: $500 Fryer: $500 Broiler: $100 Steam Cooker: $500 Vent Dampers for Boilers: $125 Custom: Two year buy down or 50% of project cost, whichever is less

196

Damage to residential structures from surface mine blasting  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has studied the problem of cracking in residential structure walls from vibrations produced by blasting in surface mines. Direct observations were made of blasting damage consisting primarily of cosmetic cracking.

Siskind, D.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Use of probabilistic methods in evaluating blast performance of structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The social and political climate of the modern world has lead to increased concern over the ability of engineered structures to resist blast events which may be incurred during terrorist attacks. While blast resistance ...

Gillis, Andrew Nicholas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Blasting practices and explosives accidents in Utah coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Practices in use in Utah are commended and accidents incident to blasting are reviewed with suggestions as to future avoidance.

Parker, D.J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive  

SciTech Connect

Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Proceedings of the twelfth conference on explosives and blasting techniques  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the use of explosive fracturing to construct underground energy facilities. Topics considered at the conference included the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's underground research laboratory, drilling and blasting techniques for canals, pipeline trenches, blasting costs, underground coal mining, presplitting of granite, energy consumption, and overburden blasting vibrations.

Konya, C.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Densification of pond ash by blasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Method of blasting a subterranean deposit  

SciTech Connect

A blasting method is described for mining of a subterranean oil-shale deposit. A raise is driven upward into a designated block of a subterranean oil-shale deposit from the roof of an undercutting cavity. A number of blasting holes are driven horizontally into the block from the raise in a fan-shaped pattern at each of a number of vertically spaced levels and are at least partially loaded with explosives. The charges are detonated sequentially in an upward progression to effect fragmentation and expansion of the overlaying block into the undercutting cavity. (11 claims)

Janssen, A.T.

1975-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

205

Factors in selecting and applying commercial explosives and blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

In this report, commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients and more significant properties of each explosive are tabulated and briefly discussed. Properties discussed are weight strength, cartridge strength, detonation velocity, density, detonation pressure, water resistance, and fume class. The weakness of the strength rating system and the importance of detonation pressure, density, and detonation velocity in rating explosives are discussed. The terms blasting agent and slurry, which are often misused, are defined. Trends indicate that blasting agents (that is, blasting mixtures with none of the ingredients singly classified as an explosive), particularly high-density slurry blasting agents, will dominate the explosives field in the future. (22 refs.)

Dick, R.A.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Using coal-dust fuel in Ukrainian and Russian blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Ukrainian and Russian blast-furnace production falls short of the best global practices. It is no secret that, having switched to oxygen and natural gas in the 1960s, the blast-furnace industries have improved the batch and technological conditions and have attained a productivity of 2.5 and even 3 t/(m{sup 3} day), but have not been able to reduce coke consumption below 400 kg/t, which was the industry standard 40 years ago. The situation is particularly bad in Ukraine: in 2007, furnace productivity was 1.5-2 t/m{sup 3}, with a coke consumption of 432-530 kg/t. Theoretical considerations and industrial experience over the last 20 years show that the large-scale introduction of pulverized fuel, with simultaneous improvement in coke quality and in batch and technological conditions, is the only immediately available means of reducing coke consumption considerably (by 20-40%). By this means, natural-gas consumption is reduced or eliminated, and the efficiency of blast-furnace production and ferrous metallurgy as a whole is increased.

A.A. Minaev; A.N. Ryzhenkov; Y.G. Banninkov; S.L. Yaroshevskii; Y.V. Konovalov; A.V. Kuzin [Donetsk National Technical University, Donetsk (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Distributed BLAST in a grid computing context  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is one of the best known sequence comparison programs available in bioinformatics. It is used to compare query sequences to a set of target sequences, with the intention of finding similar sequences in the ...

Micha M. Bayer; Richard Sinnott

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Single pass streaming BLAST on FPGAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximate string matching is fundamental to bioinformatics and has been the subject of numerous FPGA acceleration studies. We address issues with respect to FPGA implementations of both BLAST- and dynamic-programming- (DP) based methods. Our primary ... Keywords: Bioinformatics, Computational accelerators, Configurable computing, High performance computing

Martin C. Herbordt; Josh Model; Bharat Sukhwani; Yongfeng Gu; Tom VanCourt

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Damping Ditch Effect Analysis of Blasting Vibration Based on Wavelet Transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper researched the propagation laws of blasting seismic wave under the action of damping ditch, with the help of blasting vibration test and wavelet transform method. Blasting seismic wave is short-time non-stationary random signal. According ...

Zhiyang Chen; Xiang Fang; Weiping Zhang; Mingshou Zhong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Dosage-response relationships for community annoyance with blasting  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a study of community response to blasting at two coal mines and a quarry. Over 1000 people were interviewed to determine the prevalence (that is, both intensity and extensity) of annoyance associated with long term exposure to ground vibration and airblast at distances from about 500 to 4000 meters from blasting sites. The sites were chosen, among other reasons, for their lack of unusual geologic conditions, and for the historical continuity and range of blasting activity (frequencies of blasting of two or three shots per week or less, and maximum charge weights per delay ranging from about 100 to 10,000 pounds). A major goal of this study was to attempt to infer dosage-response relationships between long term exposure to blasting and the proportion of the community highly annoyed by the blasting.

Fidell, S.; Horonjeff, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control, handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Precision blasting in shadow of on-line plant  

SciTech Connect

Despite significant restrictions imposed on the how, where, when, and the blast forces involved, a precisely controlled blasting project has permitted the successful excavation of over 77,000 cu yd of rock for the total job, including an excavation hole about 160-170 ft in diameter and 40-50 ft deep. The excavation was required for the preparation of foundations for a nuclear unit currently being built in the shadow of two existing operating nuclear plants. Blasting procedures are described.

Barlow, G.R. Jr.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hazards of black blasting powder in underground coal mining  

SciTech Connect

To help reduce explosion hazards in coal mines using dangerous black blasting powder, this circular outlines precautions designed to increase the safety factor in using this explosive.

Harrington, D.; Warncke, R.G.

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Application of directional blasting in mining and civil engineering, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The author describes the mechanism of breaking mineral rocks through blasting and offers recommendations on the application of directional blasting in mining and civil engineering. He also introduces criteria for cost-effectiveness of transporting rock mass from stope to pile by means of energy of explosion. And, the book presents ballistic tables to be used in constructing the trajectory of movement of a rock fragment during blasting operations while taking into account the topography of the land. In this edition, the author presents a more detailed theoretical treatment on the mechanism of fragmentation of a monolithic or fissured rock mass through blasting.

Chernigovskii, A.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Characterizing Blast and Impact of Long Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of the study was to investigate the blast and impact resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete. The impact resistance was assessed through… (more)

Musselman, Eric

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Maximum Rate of Pulverized Coal Injection into Blast Furnace with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulverized coal consumption efficiency is determined by means of microscopic and chemical analysis. The carbon structure of coke fines in the blast furnace ...

220

Surface decontamination utilizing mechanical vacuum blasting methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Shippingport Decommissioning Project surface decontamination effort vacuum blasting techniques were utilized to remove fixed radioactive contamination entrained in steel and concrete painted surfaces to meet on-site and off-site release limits. Removal of contaminated paint by vacuum blasting was restricted to select areas of the project. Specifically, this technique was applied only when it was determined to be cost effective compared to other methods of paint removal or direct disposal of the bulk material as contaminated waste. As a result of pre-decontamination surveys it was determined that the lower portions of the Reactor Plant Container painted steel surface was eligible for this surface decontamination technique. 3 refs., 1 tab.

McKernan, M.L.; Schulmeister, A.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Techno-socio-economic study of bio-gas plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study covers technological, social and economic aspects of the biogas program in Chitawan, Nepal. Many interesting facts are revealed which may be useful for future planning of Nepalese biogas programs. Concerning the social aspects, only big farmers (having more than 4 bighas of land and more than 10 domestic animals) were found to have biogas plants. No farmer who had a biogas plant was illiterate. As for the technical aspects of the total gas ovens used in the area, 66% were of BTI design. Most of the ovens were of 0.45-m/sup 3/ capacity. The life of BTI ovens was found to be shorter than the life of ovens of other companies. BTI ovens are not useful when farmers have to use a big pot for cooking. All farmers of the area were found to be convinced of the utility of the biogas plant. With regard to the economic aspects of using biogas plants, farmers were able to save 53% of the total expenditure which they had been spending for fuel. Wood consumption was reduced to 50% by using biogas. The internal rate of return of a 2.8-m/sup 3/ biogas plant was found to be 14% assuming that the plant would last for 20 years. Most of the farmers in the area did not have biogas plants. The main reason given was that there were not enough capital and cattle to begin such an operation.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Correcting the burden formula for heave blasting  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental error in the derivation of a heave blasting burden formula was found and then corrected. The original derivation used the impulse-momentum principle, with a 0.3m thick radius of rock mass being acted on by an explosive impulse. However, the rock weight was not converted to mass by dividing the gravitational constant. This mistake can be verified by checking the units in the formula, which resolve into m 1/2-sec instead of meters.

Thompson, S.D.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Seismic Monitoring Of Blasting Activity In Russia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two significant mining regions in Russia lie near Novosibirsk and at the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. A small percentage of events from these areas trigger the International Monitoring System (IMS). We have studied IMS recordings of events from these areas with the main goal of better understanding how these blasts are detonated and how these events will be most effectively monitored using IMS data. We have collected ground-truth information on the mining blasts and crustal structure in the area to facilitate modeling of the events. We have focused on sifting out from further consideration routine mining events and identifying detonation anomalies. We define master traces to represent tight clusters of mining events and to be used to identify anomalous events. We have examined recordings of events from eight significant event clusters in the 500-km-long Kuzbass/Abakan mining trend near Novosibirsk. The recordings were made by the IMS station ZAL. We see significant variations in the P onset and early coda between different events in clusters. We have found strong evidence of a detonation anomaly in just one of the events (out of 178 examined). Differences in the onset wave trains are attributed largely to differences in the firing patterns. Time independent spectral modulations have been observed in seismic signals produced by delay-fired mining events in mining regions throughout the world. The Novosibirsk trend is no exception to this rule. Delay-fired events in many mining regions, such as Kuzbass/Abakan, are also commonly associated with enhanced long-period (2- to 8-s) surface waves. The mine blasts in Russian mining regions appear, seismically, to resemble large blasts recorded in other regions (such as Wyoming). Techniques found to be effective in Wyoming, reviewed by...

Michael Hedlin University; Michael A. H. Hedlin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Blast Energy Efficiency of GRBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using data mostly assembled by previous authors, we consider the linear correlation between the apparent radiative efficiency $\\epsilon_{\\gamma}$ (defined as the ratio of isotropic equivalent radiative output to inferred isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the blast) and $E_{peak}^{\\alpha}$ where $1.4efficiency is $\\sim 7$. We also find preliminary evidence (with a small sample) for a separate class of weak GRB afterglows.

David Eichler Daniel Jontof-Hutter

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

228

Thermal reclamation of spent blasting abrasive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abrasive blasting media is used to remove anticorrosive and antifoulant coatings from the hulls and tanks of US Navy ships. The total production of paint-contaminated spent abrasives from the eight US. Navy shipyards ranges from 75,000 to 100,000 tons per year. Most of this spent abrasive is disposed in landfills. Organic paint binders and heavy metals are present in the spent abrasives in concentrations sufficient to classify them as hazardous wastes in some states. In an effort to avoid the rising costs an long-term environmental liability associated with landfilling this waste, the US Navy has investigated various methods of reclaiming spent abrasives for reuse in hull- and tank-blasting operations. This paper discusses the results of a research and development project conducted under the Navy's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program to test a fluidized-bed sloped-grid (FBSG) reclaimer to determine if it could be used to recycle spent abrasive. Thirty tons of abrasive were processed and a product meeting military specifications for new abrasives was reclaimed. Blasting performance was also comparable to new abrasives. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bryan, B.G. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Thomas, W.; Adema, C. (David Taylor Research Center, Annapolis, MD (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fluid dynamics of partially radiative blast waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a self similar solution for the propagation of an extreme relativistic (or Newtonian) radiative spherical blast wave into a surrounding cold medium. The solution is obtained under the assumption that the radiation process is fast, it takes place only in the vicinity of the shock and that it radiates away a fixed fraction of the energy generated by the shock. In the Newtonian regime these solutions generalize the Sedov-Taylor adiabatic solution and the pressure-driven fully radiative solution. In the extreme relativistic case these solutions generalize the Blandford-McKee adiabatic solution. They provide a new fully radiative extreme relativistic solution which is different from the Blandford-McKee fully radiative relativistic solution. This new solution develops a hot interior which causes it to cool faster than previous estimates. We find that the energy of the blast wave behaves as a power law of the location of the shock. The power law index depends on the fraction of the energy emitted by the shock. We obtain an analytic solution for the interior of the blast wave. These new solutions might be applicable to the study of GRB afterglow or SNRs.

Ehud Cohen; Tsvi Piran; Re'em Sari

1998-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Blasting Vibration Signals Based on Hilbert Transformation of the Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD )of Hilbert-Huang transform (Hilbert-Huang Transformation, HHT) method shall be applied to the blasting vibration signal, first introduced the Hilbert-Huang transform theory and algorithms, then ... Keywords: Blast, Hilbert-Huang transform, seismic wave, frequency spectrogram

Xueping Ren; Dongsheng Hao

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Blast-induced ground vibration prediction using support vector machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground vibrations induced by blasting are one of the fundamental problems in the mining industry and may cause severe damage to structures and plants nearby. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental ... Keywords: Blast vibration, Coefficient of determination, Conventional vibration predictor equations, Mean absolute error, Support vector machine

Manoj Khandelwal

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Blast response comparison of multiple steel frame connections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a structural steel frame is subjected to blast, the beam-to-column connections, which are responsible for load transfer between different members within the frame, play a major role in structural response. This paper presents results of a comparative ... Keywords: Blast loads, Connections, Displacement, Explosions, Finite element method, Stress

Girum S. Urgessa; Tomasz Arciszewski

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

17-storey building fold blasting demolition and safety technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the successful experience of the directional blasting demolition of 17- storey frame shear wall structure building, and it analyzes and elucidates the blasting program determination, the pre-demolition and treatment, the burst altitude ... Keywords: Floors,Delay,Vibrations,Safety,Concrete,Damping

Xu Shunxiang, Chen Dezhi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Size Effect of Element in Structural Blasting Demolition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performed the size effect of the unit in numerical simulation of blasting demoLition. Considered three elemental sizes, which were 10, 20 and 40 cm. Adopt 40 cm element, the structure was damaged more seriously. This resulted in the bigger error in predicting ... Keywords: blasting demoLition, finite element, numerical simulation, size effect

Guo-liang Yang; Lin-lin Jiang; Yu-long Che

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

National Fuel (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program National Fuel (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom Rebates: $25,000 Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Rebates: $15/Mcf x the gas savings Unit Heater: $1000 Hot Air Furnace: $500 Low Intensity Infrared Heating: $500 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Hot Water Boiler: $600-$3500 Steam Boiler: $600-$2000 + $2/kBtuh Tankless Water Heaters: $350 Storage Tank Water Heater: $150 Fryer: $750 Convection Oven: $500 Combination Oven: $750 Broiler: $500 Steamer: $750 Griddle: $500 Provider New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

236

Proceedings of the twenty-second annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain 30 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to productivity blasting in surface mining, dragline effectiveness, evaluation of production blasts, environmental effects of blast induced immissions, accidental explosions in blasting operations, explosive safety, tunnel excavation, and the use of video technology for shot analysis. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 28 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to drilling for explosive fracturing, pre-blast surveys, blasting regulations, underground and surface mining, tunneling, efficiency and optimization of explosive fracturing, blasting accidents, blast damage control, environmental control, and the use of explosive fracturing in remedial action. Many papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of seismic waves generated by surface blasting at Indiana coal mines A project pursuant is to investigate the characteristics of mine blast seismic waves in southern Indiana. Coal mines are prevalent blasting) and coal mines (surface blasting) to gain new understanding of seismic wave propagation, ground

Polly, David

240

Using Geographic Information System for Simulation and Decision Making in Blasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Building demolition is an important subject for urban construction and development. Blasting simulation is very helpful for safe scientific blasting. It will provide a novel method to decision making for blasting combined with Geographic information ... Keywords: GIS, Three-dimensional modeling, blasting simulation, decision making

Jiejun Huang; Weiping Xu; Xu Zhao; Jie Chen; Fawang Ye

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Strategic evaluation of investments in coal-dust fuel for blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the evaluation of venture investment projects in pulverized coal injection into blast furnaces.

S.V. Bogdanov; S.M. Kornilaev [State University of Management, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Surface mine blasting - make it work for you  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanics of blasting and its relationship to the mining operation as a whole underlie the most successful blasting programs. The apparent burden and spacing measured from the drill pattern may not necessarily be the effective burden and spacing during the blast. The detonation sequence of the holes can cause these measurements to change. The true spacing-to-burden relationship, shot timing, and explosive used will all affect overburden movement and breakage. Opinions vary regarding the proper selection of these variables for specific purposes. Cast blasting has received a renewed interest in the past few years, especially in surface coal mines. Improved fragmentation is often an extra benefit of casting. The principles of cast blasting may be used to open a key along the new highwall, improve productivity of truck operati, ons, and help directional spoil movement in special applications. 6 references4 figures

Massey, B.A.

1985-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic parameters, encompassing all the rock types that will be encountered for the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain. This paper suggests that, based on predicted and verified vibration levels from blasting a distance equal to four standard deviations is unlikely to affect properties that govern water flow in the host rock. The authors propose this predicted distance and verification of vibration levels may be applied to the excavation of repository subsurface openings that may be most efficiently excavated by drill and blast methods with a reasonable assurance of safety.

R. Keller; N. Francis; J. Houseworth; N. Kramer

2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Protecting blasting operations from possible lawsuits  

SciTech Connect

Any blasting violations, whether detected by an inspector, or undetected and therefore unwritten, will likely come back to haunt you if there is a lawsuit stemming from an alleged personal injury or property damage. These violations can be used by a plaintiff's attorney to show that the operation was not conducted according to law and not in a professional manner. This could effect the amount of punitive damages awarded on top of the actual loss award. This article describes the operations.

Ludwiczak, J.T.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

EQUIPMENT DECONTAMINATION BY ABRASIVE BLASTING IN THE PROCESSING REFABRICATION EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to investigate abrasive blasting as a method for decontamination of radioactive Process Refabrication Experiment (PRE) in-cell equipment. Experiments were carried out, initially with nonradioactive materials, and then with low-level radioactive materials to determine the proper operating conditions and effectiveness of abrasive blasting. It was concluded that abrasive blasting with cut steel wirc should be used in PRE for decontamination ot reeovcrable non-precision materials and equipment, or for predisposal partial decontamination of non-recoverable items. Blasting with cut wire resulted in less dust production than blasting with mineral abrasives. A design study including a partial equipment mock-up was made to determine the requirements of a special piece of equipment which could perform abrasive blasting in a cell, and which would be remotely operated and maintained. The design study resuited in the establishment of a basic design for a PRE abrasive blast cabinet, and established the requirements for an air-handling system. (auth)

Savage, J.W.; Stoker, D.J.

1959-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation  

SciTech Connect

Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to the capillary force only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which the water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified measurements. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but underestimate the conductivity. The extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

Zhang, Z. F.

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength  

SciTech Connect

Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Decontamination of DWPF canisters by glass frit blasting  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant will be incorporated in borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The waste glass will be encapsulated in a 304L stainless steel canister. During the filling operation the outside of the canister will become contaminated. This contamination must be reduced to an accepable level before the canister leaves the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Tests with contaminated coupons have demonstrated that this decontamination can be accomplished by blasting the surface with glass frit. The contaminated glass frit byproduct of this operation is used as a feedstock for the waste glass process, so no secondary waste is created. Three blasting techniques, using glass frit as the blasting medium, were evaluated. Air-injected slurry blasting was the most promising and was chosen for further development. The optimum parametric values for this process were determined in tests using coupon weight loss as the output parameter. 1 reference, 13 figures, 3 tables.

Ward, C.R.; Rankin, W.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Application of computer blast modeling to oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development of computer models to describe rock fragmentation by blasting. The interest for this work has come primarily for application to large scale coal or mineral surface mines. However, the basic models developed for these applications are equally applicable for examining typical underground oil shale operations. Models that can predict blasting results starting from first principles can impact room and pillar mining in a number of ways including optimizing round design, control of particle size, evaluation of new explosives, minimizing pillar damage, and developing blasting schemes that can be used in conjunction with continuous miners. In this study, the authors explore how these codes can be used to model the blasting geometry encountered in room and pillar mining operations.

Hommert, P.J.; Preece, D.S.; Thorne, B.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Development of production drill bits and blast rounds  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development of computer models to describe rock fragmentation by blasting. The interest for this work has come primarily for application to large scale coal or mineral surface mines. However, the basic models developed for these applications are equally applicable for examining typical underground oil shale operations. Models that can predict blasting results starting from first principles can impact room and pillar mining in a number of ways including optimizing round design, control of particle size, evaluation of new explosives, minimizing pillar damage, and developing blasting schemes that can be used in conjunction with continuous miners. In this study, the authors explore how these codes can be used to model the blasting geometry encountered in room and pillar mining operations.

Baloo, G.L. (Energy Mining Div., UNOCAL Corp., Parachute, CO (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Analysis of blast mitigation strategies exploiting fluid-structure interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blast attacks have become the most pervasive threat in both civil and military contexts. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the mechanisms of loading, damage and failure of structures, and injury to ...

Kambouchev, Nayden Dimitrov, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

EnergyPlus: The Merger of BLAST and DOE-2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

building energy simulation programs, DOE-2 and Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST). Development of both software tools began in the 1970s, when the U.S....

255

Trials and Tribulations of Ancient Starch Research: An Investigation of Contamination and Earth Ovens at Fort Hood, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, earth ovens have been used to provide direct evidence of ancient plant use through the recovery of charred macrobotanical remains and indirectly by means of experimental archaeology and the ethnographic record. Experiments suggest that direct evidence of ancient starch-rich plant use can be obtained through the recovery of starch granules deposited on fire-cracked-rock (FCR) during cooking episodes even in regions where macrobotanical remains are scarcely preserved. Starch contamination, however, can enter into the archaeological record providing “background noise.” Therefore, this study analyzes the results of the Paluxy Sand Geophyte Project to determine if archaeological starch (starch that is both cultural and ancient in origin) can be differentiated from contamination using FCR recovered from heating elements in well-preserved earth ovens at Fort Hood, Texas. FCR, non-cultural rock control samples (RCS), and air control samples (ACS) were processed and analyzed from 27 earth ovens at 6 sites. Contamination control measures were used, including the use of a clean bench, powder-free latex gloves, washing samples prior to processing, spot sampling, and comparisons between starch granule assemblages recovered from FCR and control samples. Laboratory and field equipment were processed and analyzed for contamination. Only one feature (Feature 4 from 41CV984) yielded starch granules that are unambiguously archaeological in origin, rather than the result of contamination, whereas starch assemblages from the other sites could be archaeological or contamination in origin. Small sample sizes, differential preservation, and/or the cooking of non-starch-rich plants could account for the lack of differences between FCR and RCS samples. Finally, maize (Zea mays) starch granules were recovered from all sample types suggesting that maize starch, most likely from “powder-free” gloves and air-fall is a significant source of starch contamination.

Laurence, Andrew

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Engineering model for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in-situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, an engineering model is presented which describes the large rubble motion during blasting. This model is intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In this model the rock medium is represented by a discrete series of circular regions of fractured material. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of the regions is calculated using a step-wise, explicit, numerical time integration method. Interaction of adjacent regions is based on inelastic impact of spherical bodies. The derivation of this model is presented along with the background for selecting loading pressure based on explosive behavior. Three typical examples, including both cratering and bench geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of this model to predict rubble motion. This engineering representation appears to provide a practical model for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries. 15 figures.

Schamaun, J.T.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Engineering model for predicting rubble motion during blasting  

SciTech Connect

Recent applications of explosives and blasting agents to rubble rock have led to requirements for more elaborate design and analysis methods. In most blasting uses, it is necessary not only to fracture the rock, but also to move the broken rubble in a predictable manner. Many in situ extraction techniques require rubblization to take place in a confined region where rock motion is a predominate factor in creating a permeable broken bed. In this paper, an engineering model is presented which describes the large rubble motion during blasting. This model is intended to provide the blast designer with a tool for evaluation and further refinement of blasting patterns and timing sequences. In this model the rock medium is represented by a discrete series of circular regions of fractured material. These regions are set in motion by pressure loads from the explosive. The motion of the regions is calculated using a step-wise, explicit, numerical time integration method. Interaction of adjacent regions is based on inelastic impact of spherical bodies. The derivation of this model is presented along with the background for selecting loading pressure based on explosive behavior. Three typical examples, including both cratering and bench geometries, are discussed which illustrate the use of this model to predict rubble motion. This engineering representation appears to provide a practical model for use in predicting rubble motion and a tool for design evaluation of blasting in confined geometries. 15 figures, 1 table.

Schamaun, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)  

SciTech Connect

The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Thermal reclamation of used blast grit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four reclaimer feasibility tests were conducted with used blast grit from the Long Beach Naval Shipyard. The results of these tests revealed that the organic material component of the used grit was fully oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Some of the metallic oxides of copper, zinc, titanium, and lead from the used grit were largely elutriated into a cyclonic collector. The calcined (reclaimable) fraction from this test work amounted to approximately 95% of the used grit charged. The major oxide and organic component analyses conducted revealed no significant general chemical difference between the virgin and reclaimed grit. Based on these results, a commercial plant can be designed to provide a reusable grit yield in excess of 80% within the general size specifications. 2 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Sandstrom, W.A.; Patel, J.G.

1988-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

260

Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

Not Available

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology  

SciTech Connect

The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Selection and development of air-injected frit slurry blasting for decontamination of DWPF canisters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Canisters of waste glass produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Plant will be decontaminated by air-injected frit slurry blasting. The byproduct of this operation, contaminated frit slurry, will be used as part of the feed stock for the glass-making process. Therefore, no secondary waste will be created. Scouting tests of four different frit blasting techniques were conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory. The techniques investigated were dry blasting, direct pump slurry blasting, air-aspirated slurry blasting, and air-injected slurry blasting. The air-injected slurry blasting technique was chosen for development, based on results of these scouting tests. A detailed development program was undertaken to optimize the air-injected frit slurry blasting process. 3 references, 28 figures.

Ward, C.R.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Blasting practices as they affect the roof of coal mines in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Coal beds and roof in the various States are described, State blasting regulations are noted, and methods of protecting roof and advantages gained by improved blasting practices are considered.

Geyer, J.N.

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Design of a composite combat helmet liner for prevention of blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a significant percentage of military personnel injuries observed in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Prevalence of blast-induced ...

Vechart, Andrew (Andrew Peter)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Automatic flue gas heat recovery system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

Whalen, D.A.

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Kitchen Ranges and Ovens,Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Kitchen Ranges and Ovens,

Lekov, Alex

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Proceedings of the twelfth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 22 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to blast vibration assessment, slope stability, rock fragmentation, positioning of mining equipment, blasting legislation and regulations, and blast hole tests. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A method for determining the parameters of blast load on the enclosing medium and surrounding objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for computing the impact of blast energy irradiated into the three-dimensional space of the enclosing medium is suggested, which makes it possible to predict the parameters of the action of an arbitrary blast source on an arbitrarily located watched object. As a consequence, it becomes possible to optimize safe conditions of the building process under virtually any conditions of blasting.

Shuifer, M. I. ['SPII Gidrospetsproekt' Company (Russian Federation)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Van Eeckhout, E.M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Proceedings of the tenth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain 26 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to blast vibration analysis and modeling, malfunctioning explosives, detonators, rock fragmentation, structural response of buildings to blasting, computer modeling, blast design, and measurement of rock properties. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Vibration Reduction Technology for Directional Blasting Demolition of 210m Chimney in Complex Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the successful experience of the directional control blasting demolition of 210m reinforced concrete chimney, and elucidates the determination of the project scheme, parameter design, electronic digital detonator detonating network ... Keywords: reinforced concrete chimney, directional blasting, electronic digital detonator, blasting vibration, vibration reduction technology

Shunxiang Xu, Dezhi Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast process conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.

Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Ulrich, George B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Non-uniform isentropic gas flow analysis of explosion in fractured solid media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new formulation of non-uniform isentropic gas flow during an explosion in solid media. The present form takes into account additional effects of variations in geometries of voids and crack openings. Variations of mass, density, ... Keywords: Blast, Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas-solid interaction

S. Mohammadi; A. Pooladi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Metallurgical Evaluation of Grit Blasted Versus Non-Grit Blasted Iridium Alloy Clad Vent Set Cup Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Metallurgical evaluations were conducted to determine what, if any, grain size differences exist between grit blasted and non-grit blasted DOP-26 iridium alloy cup surfaces and if grit blasting imparts sufficient compressive cold work to induce abnormal grain growth during subsequent temperature exposures. Metallographic measurements indicated that grit blasting cold worked the outside cup surface to a depth of approximately 19 {micro}m. Subsequent processing through the air burn-off (635 C/4h) and vacuum outgassing (1250 C/1h) operations was found to uniformly recrystallize the cold worked surface to produce grains with an average diameter of approximately 8.5 {micro}m (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) grain size number 11). Follow-on heat treatments at 1375 C, 1500 C, and 1900 C for durations ranging from 1 min to 70 h yielded uniform grain sizes and no abnormal grain growth from grit blasting. Abnormal grain growth was noted at the 1500 C and 1900 C heat treatments in areas of cold work from excessive clamping during sample preparation.

Ulrich, George B [ORNL; Longmire, Hu Foster [ORNL

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Role of computer simulation in oil shale blasting  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated computer codes were developed to simulate the processes that occur in blasting in oil shale. Three ways these codes are used in conjunction with field results are described. First, there is a code verification stage, where the code is improved through detailed comparisons. Next, there is a stage where critical phenomena in the blasting process are identified by studying areas where there are significant differences between calculations and field results. Finally, as the code is verified and the critical phenomena are explored, the code is used as a design tool. These stages are illustrated with experience from use of the new Los Alamos SHALE code and other codes. Current understanding of blasting in oil shale is reviewed, with an emphasis on areas where simulations and experimental approaches are pushed to their limits. A recommendation is made that computer simulation be done in close coordination with an active experimental program.

Adams, T.F.; Keller, C.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The role of computer simulation in oil shale blasting  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated computer codes have been developed to simulate the processes that occur in blasting in oil shale. The authors describe the three ways these codes are used in conjunction with field results. First, there is a code verification stage, where the code is improved through detailed comparisons. Next, there is a stage where critical phenomena in the blasting process are identified by studying areas where there are significant differences between calculations and field results. Finally, as the code is verified and the critical phenomena are explored, the code is used as a design tool. These stages are illustrated with experience from use of the new Los Alamos SHALE code and other codes. Current understanding of blasting in oil shale is reviewed, with an emphasis on areas where simulations and experimental approaches are pushed to their limits. It is concluded that computer simulation be done in close coordination with an active experimental program.

Adams, T.F.; Keller, C.F.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Surface preparation via grit-blasting for thermal spraying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major reason for grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents five statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the grit blasting process. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. A substantial range of grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated, including grit type, pressure, working distance, and exposure time. The substrates were characterized for surface characteristics using image analysis. These attributes are correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Optimized process parameters for the two machines used in this study as predicted by the SDE analysis are presented.

Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Lundberg, L.B.; Hartley, R.S. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Optimum Power and Rate Allocation for Coded V-BLAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical framework for minimizing the outage probability of a coded spatial multiplexing system while keeping the rate close to the capacity is developed. Based on this framework, specific strategies of optimum power and rate allocation for the coded V-BLAST architecture are obtained and its performance is analyzed. A fractional waterfilling algorithm, which is shown to optimize both the capacity and the outage probability of the coded V-BLAST, is proposed. Compact, closed-form expressions for the optimum allocation of the average power are given. The uniform allocation of average power is shown to be near optimum at moderate to high SNR for the coded V-BLAST with the average rate allocation (when per-stream rates are set to match the per-stream capacity). The results reported also apply to multiuser detection and channel equalization relying on successive interference cancelation.

Kostina, Victoria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Synergy of seismic, acoustic, and video signals in blast analysis  

SciTech Connect

The range of mining applications from hard rock quarrying to coal exposure to mineral recovery leads to a great variety of blasting practices. A common characteristic of many of the sources is that they are detonated at or near the earth`s surface and thus can be recorded by camera or video. Although the primary interest is in the seismic waveforms that these blasts generate, the visual observations of the blasts provide important constraints that can be applied to the physical interpretation of the seismic source function. In particular, high speed images can provide information on detonation times of individuals charges, the timing and amount of mass movement during the blasting process and, in some instances, evidence of wave propagation away from the source. All of these characteristics can be valuable in interpreting the equivalent seismic source function for a set of mine explosions and quantifying the relative importance of the different processes. This paper documents work done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Southern Methodist University to take standard Hi-8 video of mine blasts, recover digital images from them, and combine them with ground motion records for interpretation. The steps in the data acquisition, processing, display, and interpretation are outlined. The authors conclude that the combination of video with seismic and acoustic signals can be a powerful diagnostic tool for the study of blasting techniques and seismology. A low cost system for generating similar diagnostics using consumer-grade video camera and direct-to-disk video hardware is proposed. Application is to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Weigand, J. [Vibronics Inc. (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Madsen, A.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

(Discussion of plastic media blasting): Foreign trip report, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The visit to MBB was to see and discuss the plastic media blasting equipment developed and manufactured as a cooperative effort by Schlick and MBB. The Germans emphasized a systematic approach and complete control over most parameters. The goal is to achieve conditions which do not cause damage to the aircraft. To arrive at the goal the air pressure that delivers the air to entrain the media, the flow rate of media, and the media itself are carefully and accurately controlled. Distance of nozzle and angle of blasting were systematically investigated. The wet (freon) cleanup system under development at Schlick was not discussed.

Gat, U.

1988-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.  

SciTech Connect

Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

Glass, Sarah Jill

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Better than blasting for blackwells. [Tractor-mounted ripper  

SciTech Connect

On opencasting, quarrying and rock removal generally, a tractor-mounted ripper is usually felt to be safer and quieter than drilling and blasting with high explosive. Helped by Newram Plant Limited, C.A. Blackwell (Contracts) Limited are seeing if this really is so and if ripping also has any economic and performance advantages.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Modeling rock fracturing in bench-blasting problems  

SciTech Connect

A computational model of rock blasting is being developed to examine the blasting problems associated with in situ oil shale processing. This model, however, will also be useful as a design tool for the traditional problems in rock blasting. The model includes fundamental treatment of both shock-wave propagation and the accumulation of brittle fracture in the rock. As a result, the model accurately predicts the degree and extent of fracturing as functions of design parameters. The model has proven useful for making parametric studies and for evaluation of alternate blast designs. This paper demonstrates the use of the numerical model to simulate the fracturing induced by the detonation of a vertical explosive column near a bench. The fracturing induced by three different explosives indicate that (in the chosen geometry) the most efficient breakage is done by a column of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixture (ANFO) used with a toe charge of aluminized ANFO. There was too much unfractured rock left when ANFO was used alone; aluminized ANFO used for the entire explosive column caused excessive fracturing. A final case involves ANFO used alone to fracture a different rock type. This case points out that in a different rock type, the ANFO will not leave excessive unfractured rock.

Kuszmaul, J.S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cushioned blasting. II. Preliminary studies of gallery testing  

SciTech Connect

Results of investigation of various means employed to reduce intensity of energy from explosions in boreholes are reported. Results seem to establish that gallery testing can contribute significantly to estimates of practical effects in cushioned blasting on ignition hazards in coal mines.

Testing, G.; Denues, A.R.T.

1943-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Ultimate in building energy analysis: DOE-2 and BLAST  

SciTech Connect

Many building energy analysis tools, ranging from the simplest to the most sophisticated, are applicable to the design of large commercial buildings. This paper focuses on two of the sophisticated, detailed, and most powerful of these tools: the DOE-2 and BLAST computer programs. DOE-2 and BLAST are generally classed as high-level, computer-dynamic methods that are based on hour-by-hour computation. These tools are placed in the context of building energy analysis, and the motivation for their development is traced. The characteristics of DOE-2 and BLAST are discussed, with emphasis on their solar simulation features, and their capabilities are contrasted and related. Three case studies, illustrating typical applications of the programs to the retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new buildings, are presented: a passive solar retrofit of an office building, the use of DOE-2 as a predesign analysis tool, and the use of BLAST in a research and development application. Future directions in research and development needs for high-level building energy analysis tools and the progress being made toward increased use of these tools are discussed.

Hunn, B.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Numerical Simulation of Blasting Demolition of 16-Storied Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separate element and common node model is setup to simulate reinforced concrete material at first, which could take fully account of the intensity difference of concrete and rebar. And then a 16-storied frame structure is build with this kind of ... Keywords: blasting demoLition, separate element, common node, unidirectional folding collapse, numerical simulation

Guo-liang Yang; Lin-lin Jiang; Chuan Huo

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Visualization and Numerical Analysis of Stress Waves in Blasting Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization studies were performed both experimentally and theoretically to observe stress wave propagation in a material and its interaction with the free surface of the material in a blasting process. PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) plates were used ... Keywords: Explosives, Shadowgraphy, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, Stress waves

S. Matsumoto; Y. Nakamura; S. Itoh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

RESPONSE OF UNCRACKED DRYWALL JOINTS AND PANELS TO BLAST VIBRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Indiana, the other near a limestone quarry in Florida ­ to blast- induced ground motion and air of possible crack extension Autonomous Crack Measurement (ACM) is based on measurement of micrometer changes mechanics foundation for the ACM approach. Just as splitting wood requires the "V" from the wedge

294

Having a BLAST: a bioinformatics project in CS2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DNA analysis is a subject that is in the news almost every day, whether it be a new advance in medical research, a criminal trial, or some other application. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) is an important tool used by biologists worldwide ... Keywords: CS2, bioinformatics, object-oriented design, programming project

Pamela Cutter

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficient Equipment Commercial Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program Southwest Gas Corporation - Commercial Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: 50% of purchase price Custom: $20,000 Program Info Expiration Date 12/15/2013 State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Curtain: $1,950 Modulating Burner Control: $10,000 Boiler Steam Trap: $250 Non-condensing Boiler: $1/MBtuh Condensing Boiler: $1.25/MBtuh Clothes Dryer: $30 Custom: $1/therm up to $20,000 Convection Oven: $550 Conveyor Oven: $300-$750 Dishwasher: $1,050-$2,000 Energy Audit: $5,000/facility; $50,000/customer Furnace (Northern Nevada Only): $300-$500

297

Abstract--The paper reviews solutions being explored to face the supply problems faced in the Chilean electricity market oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with dependence on natural gas. The Russian gas imports to central Europe were at risk on January 2006, causing, The energy thirsty Brazil and the fast economic growing Chile depend on natural gas imports which going back to thermal generation with imported coal, importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) to feed

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

298

Simulation of blasting induced rock motion using spherical element models  

SciTech Connect

Control of the rock motion associated with blasting can have significant economic benefits. For example, surface coal mining can be made more efficient if the overburden material can be cast further with explosives, leaving less work for mechanical equipment. The final muck pile shape in very type of surface and underground blasting is controlled by the blasting induced motion of the rock. A theoretically sound method of predicting rock motion will be beneficial to understanding the blasting process. Discrete element methods have been used for some time to predict rock motion resulting from blasting. What all of these approaches had in common was the use of polygonal elements with corners and sides as well as aspect ratio. Reasonably good results were obtained but treatment of the interactions of the corners and sides of elements was a computationally intensive process that made long simulations with many elements expensive to perform. The use of spherical elements showed increased efficiency but lacked the mechanisms for treating the bulking of the rock mass. The computer program developed was converted from an explicit code to an event-driven code and some bulking mechanisms were added that allowed spherical elements to exert a torque on other spherical elements with which contact was made. The architecture of this program and its event-driven nature made it difficult to vectorize for efficient execution on vector processing machines. A new code called DMC (Distinct Motion Code) has been developed this past year. DMC was designed and written especially to take advantage of super computer vector processing capabilities. This paper will discuss the use of DMC to perform accurate rock motion calculations with very reasonable computation times. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Taylor, L.M.; Preece, D.S. (Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen, Providence, RI (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

New Mexico Gas Company - Commercial Efficiency Programs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Efficiency Programs Commercial Efficiency Programs New Mexico Gas Company - Commercial Efficiency Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Institutional Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Expiration Date 3/31/2013 State New Mexico Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Storage Water Heater: $550 - 700 Tankless Water Heater: $250 - $300 Commercial Clothes Washer: $100 Furnace: $400 - $500 Boiler: $50 Condensing Boiler: $600 Gas Griddle: $50 Steam Cooker: $50 Gas Convection Oven: $1,000 Fryer: $700 Dish Washer: $150 Custom: $0.75/therm SCORE Pilot Program: Varies, contact New Mexico Gas Company The New Mexico Gas Company Commercial Energy Efficiency programs provide energy savings for businesses using natural gas for cooking and water

300

Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Idaho) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Idaho) Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Idaho) Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Idaho) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Other Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Custom: 50% of the eligible incurred project cost Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: $1/therm saved Commercial Fryer: $500 Steam Cooker: $1,000 Gas Convection/Combination Oven: $500 - 1,000 Griddle: $300 Clothes Washer: $50-$75 Gas Water Heater: $50-$100 or $2/kBtu/hour input Condensing Gas Water Heater: $350

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Surface impurity removal from DIII-D graphite tiles by boron carbide grit blasting  

SciTech Connect

During the latter half of 1992, the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics (GA) underwent several modifications of its interior. One of the major tasks involved the removal of accumulated metallic impurities from the surface of the graphite tiles used to line the plasma facing surfaces inside of the tokamak. Approximately 1500 graphite tiles and 100 boron nitride tiles from the tokamak were cleaned to remove the metallic impurities. The cleaning process consisted of several steps: the removed graphite tiles were permanently marked, surface blasted using boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) grit media (approximately 37 {mu}m. diam.), ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol to remove loose dust, and outgassed at 1000{degrees}C. Tests were done using, graphite samples and different grit blaster settings to determine the optimum propellant and abrasive media pressures to remove a graphite layer approximately 40-50 {mu}m deep and yet produce a reasonably smooth finish. EDX measurements revealed that the blasting technique reduced the surface Ni, Cr, and Fe impurity levels to those of virgin graphite. In addition to the surface impurity removal, tritium monitoring was performed throughout the cleaning process. A bubbler system was set up to monitor the tritium level in the exhaust gas from the grit blaster unit. Surface wipes were also performed on over 10% of the tiles. Typical surface tritium concentrations of the tiles were reduced from about 500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} to less than 80 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} following the cleaning. This tile conditioning, and the installation of additional graphite tiles to cover a high fraction of the metallic plasma facing surfaces, has substantially reduced metallic impurities in the plasma discharges which has allowed rapid recovery from a seven-month machine opening and regimes of enhanced plasma energy confinement to be more readily obtained. Safety issues concerning blaster operator exposure to carcinogenic metals and radioactive tritium will also be addressed.

Lee, R.L.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Holtrop, K.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; West, W.P.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Airblast and ground vibration generation and propagation from contour mine blasting. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines studied airblast and ground vibrations produced by surface coal mine blasting in Appalachia to determine the topographic or other region-specific effects on generation and propagation. Arrays of seismographs were used to measure blast effects in both rolling-terrain and steep-slope contour coal mining areas. Comparisons were then made with previous blasting data from studies of midwest coal mines located in flat areas.

Stachura, V.J.; Siskind, D.E.; Kopp, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking  

SciTech Connect

1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Proceedings of the thirty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

SciTech Connect

Papers discussed various aspects of blasting and explosive techniques used in the mining and construction industry, and elsewhere. Four papers have been abstracted separately.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Experiments on short-delay blasting in the experimental coal mine  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments on short-delay multiple blasting conducted under actual mining conditions in Bureau of Mines Experimental coal mine, Bruceton, Pa., are summarized.

Hartmann, I.; Lewis, B.

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The design and retrofit of buildings for resistance to blast-induced progressive collapse.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years, concern has risen drastically regarding the suitability of structural design for blast resistance. Historic events have proven that buildings that are designed… (more)

Abbott Galvão Sobreira Lopes, Isabel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

G2: Antibacterial Ceramic Fabricated by the Ti-bearing Blast ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Ang Tian. Abstract Scope, The comprehensive utilization of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag was a technological problem that was ...

308

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. Final report, September 9, 1990--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of tests have been conducted in the Bureau`s Lake Lynn Laboratory Cannon Gallery to evaluate the incendivity characteristics of both commercially available and experimental explosive products. The cannon gallery test results have clearly identified several lower incendive explosives that can and have significantly reduced the gas and/or dust ignition hazards associated with blasting in non-coal mines. Several of the lower incendive explosive formulations have undergone full-scale field evaluations and, to date, had been very successful in preventing ignitions in base metal mines with high sulphur-bearing ore. Tests in the cannon gallery have shown that an inert gelled water material outperforms most other stemming agents in preventing the ignition of flammable gases and/or combustible dusts outside of the bore. A new water stemming plug was evaluated in the cannon gallery and shown to be a very effective stemming device. As a means to better evaluate explosive incendivity, the initial development of two instrument sensors are underway. A fiber optic rate probe has been redesigned to accurately measure the detonation velocity of explosives in the cannon bore. A photometric sensor is also under development to measure the peak temperatures of the detonation products exiting the bore. This report discusses the results of the research program including the test apparatus and procedures and summarizes the incendivity data obtained from the various explosives. Results from the full-scale field testing of the lower incendive products in an operating mine are then presented.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

25, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on February 1, 2007) 25, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on February 1, 2007) Natural gas spot prices across the country surged this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, January 17-24) as a blast of Arctic cold covered the Lower 48 States, reaching as far south as Texas. Prices in some gas-consuming markets in the Northeast were the highest in the country at more than $10 per MMBtu by the end of the week. But price effects from the increased heating demand registered in production areas as well. On the week (Wednesday to Wednesday), the spot price at the Henry Hub increased by $0.89 per MMBtu to an average of $7.46 yesterday (Wednesday, January 24). At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the price of the futures contract for February delivery ended trading on Wednesday at $7.421 per MMBtu, which was $1.187 higher than last Wednesday's price. As of January 19, natural gas in storage was 2,757 Bcf, or 20.7 percent above the 5-year average for this week. Crude oil prices climbed $1.94 per barrel since last Wednesday to an average of $54.24, or $9.35 per MMBtu.

311

Azimuthal variation of radiation of seismic energy from cast blasts  

SciTech Connect

As part of a series of seismic experiments designed to improve the understanding of the impact of mining blasts on verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a sixteen station network of three-component seismic sensors were deployed around a large cast shot in the Black Thunder Mine. The seismic stations were placed, where possible, at a range of 2.5 kilometers with a constant inter-station spacing of 22.5 degrees. All of the data were recorded with the seismometers oriented such that the radial component pointed to the middle point of the approximately 2 kilometer long shot. High quality data were recorded at each station. Data were scaled to a range of 2.5 kilometers and the sum of the absolute value of the vertical, radial, and transverse channels computed. These observations were used to construct radiation patterns of the seismic energy propagating from the cast shot. It is obvious that cast shots do not radiate seismic energy isotropically. Most of the vertical motion occurs behind the highwall while radial and transverse components of motion are enhanced in directions parallel to the highwall. These findings have implications for local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and possibly for regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic observations of cast blasting. Locally, it could be argued that peak particle velocities could be scaled not only by range but also by azimuthal direction from the shot. This result implies that long term planning of pit orientation relative to sensitive structures could mitigate problems with vibration levels from future blasting operations. Regionally, the local radiation pattern may be important in determining the magnitude of large scale cast blasts. Improving the transparency of mining operations to international seismic monitoring systems may be possible with similar considerations.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martin, R.L. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Blasting aids in the reconstruction of a hydroelectric plant  

SciTech Connect

The replacement of failed impeller chambers in a hydroelectric plant is described in this article. The emphasis of the article is on the use of a blast-generating unit (BGU) for crushing reinforced concrete. The BGU feeds kerosene and nitrogen tetroxide from separate tanks to form a jet of liquid explosive mixture. The BGU performed safely and efficiently, and has been recommended for use at other hydroelectric plants. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Benderskii, L.F.; Evlikov, A.A.; Stupel`, R.O. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

IMAGING HIGH SPEED PARTICLES IN EXPLOSIVE DRIVEN BLAST WAVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research describes a new application of a commercially available particle image velocimetry (PIV) instrument adapted for imaging particles in a blast wave. Powder was dispersed through the PIV light sheet using a right circular cylindrical charge containing aluminum powder filled in the annular space between the explosive core and exterior paper tube wall of the charge. Images acquired from each shot showed particle agglomeration and unique structures with the smaller particle diameters having developed structured appearances.

Jenkins, C. M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Horie, Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Ripley, R. C.; Wu, C.-Y. [Martec Limited, Suite 400-1888 Brunswick Street, Halifax, NS, B3J3J8 (Canada)

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Comparison of conventional and airless abrasive blasting techniques  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of conventional and airless abrasive blasting techniques used to prepare steel surfaces (e.g., North Sea oil facilities, offshore structures, e.g., storage tanks, and land-based oil terminals) for corrosion protection shows the advantages of the Autoblast automatic abrasive blasting machine over the conventional air-blasting machine. Autoblast is based on the principle of a paddle type wheel, revolving at high speed, being continuously fed with abrasive, which is propelled off the wheel onto the work surface by centrifugal force in such a manner and at such an angle that the abrasive is reclaimed, cleaned and returned to the wheel for reuse. All this is done within a totally enclosed, self-propelled, highly maneuverable vehicle. The machine also incorporates a separator to remove dust and refuse, which is passed through a dust collector to allow the machine to operate 98% free of pollution. The production rate of Autoblast machines varies from about 20 sq m/man-hour on offshore platforms with confined areas, to 80 sq m/man-hour on newly constructed storage tanks.

Tighe, J.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is coke produced in industrial coke ovens. This category isinefficient than industrial coke ovens. This category is noFrom Gas Fields (industrial use) Coke Oven Gas (industrial

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

An application of regression model for evaluation of blast vibration in an opencast coal mine: a case analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different models of vibration studies are examined. A case analysis to determine the parameters governing the prediction of blast vibration in an opencast coal mine is described. A regression model was developed to evaluate peak particle velocity (PPV) of the blast. The results are applicable to forecasting ground vibration before blasting and to the design of various parameters in controlled blasting. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Brahma, K.C.; Pal, B.K.; Das, C. [CMPDI, Bhubaneswar (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grills, ovens or portable butane stoves. The EU Ecodesign isgrills, ovens and portable butane stoves Proposed Mandatory

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

319

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

320

China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program: Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12.97% electricity, 8.91% coke, 1.91% heat, 1.48% naturalgas from blast furnace, and coke oven gas. Pe t Co N on -fe12.97% electricity, 8.91% coke, 1.91% heat, 1.48% natural

Price, Lynn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Projected Regional Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the U.S. Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Kitchen Ranges and Ovens,heating, dishwasher motor, domes dryer, gas range and gas oven

Koomey, J.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Performance oriented packaging report for M6 electric blasting cap. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This POP report is for the M6 Electric Blasting Cap which is packaged 180/ Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted. Performance Oriented Packaging, POP, M6 Electric Blasting Cap, Mil-B-2427 wood box.

Sniezek, F.M.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

323

Planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell prototyped by rapid powder blasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a planar micro-direct methanol fuel cell (@m-DMFC) fabricated by rapid prototyping-powder blasting technology. Using an elastomeric mask, we pattern two parallel microfluidic channels in glass. The anode and cathode of the fuel cell are formed ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Microchannel, Nafion, Powder blasting

M. Shen; S. Walter; L. Dovat; M. A. M. Gijs

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Performance oriented packaging report for fuse, blasting, time, M700. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This POP report is for the Fuse, Blasting, Time, M700 which is packaged 4000 feet/ Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted on a similar packaging which is used as an analogy for this item....Performance oriented packaging, POP, Fuse, Blasting, Time, M700, Mil-B-2427 Wood box.

Sniezek, F.M.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effect of grit blasting on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of line pipe steel  

SciTech Connect

The beneficial effect of grit blasting is demonstrated by experiments in which the threshold stress for SCC was determined for various blasting conditions. Although the introduction of compressive stresses, surface deformation and mill scale removal all contribute to the increase in SCC resistance, removal of mill scale on the surface had the most significant effect.

Koch, G.H.; Barlo, T.J.; Berry, W.E.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Performance oriented packaging report for M7 non-electric blasting cap. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This POP report is for the M7 Non-Electric Blasting Cap which is packaged 480/Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted. Performance Oriented Packaging, POP, M7 Non-Electric Blasting Cap, Mil-B-2427 Wood box.

Sniezek, F.M.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

327

Special precautions for multiple short-delay blasting in coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Special precautions for multiple short-delay blasting of coal in underground mines are presented in this circular to guide safety engineers, shot firers, and coal-mine inspectors. These new safety recommendations are suggested in addition to those normally followed in blasting, as outlined in the Federal Mine Safety Codes for bituminous-coal, lignite, and anthracite mines.

Nagy, J.; Hartmann, I.; Van Dolah, R.W.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Performance oriented packaging report for ignitor, time blasting fuse, weatherproof: M60. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This POP report is for the Time Blasting Fuse, Weatherproof: M60 which is packaged 300/ Mil-B-2427 wood box. This report describes the results of testing conducted.... Performance oriented packaging, POP, Time blasting fuse, Weatherproof: M60 Mil-B-2427 wood box.

Sniezek, F.

1992-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

329

An efficient numerical method for the onset of blast waves generated by spherical detonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blast wave, generated by a high detonating spherical charge, is modeled using the Euler equations. The problem is split into two parts. The first part makes use of the isotropy to solve the problem in spherical radial coordinate. Overpressure distribution ... Keywords: Cartesian methods, blast wave, remapping techniques

Adel M. Benselama; Mame J. P. William-Louis; François Monnoyer

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Computer simulation of underground blast response of pile in saturated soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper treats the blast response of a pile foundation in saturated sand using explicit nonlinear finite element analysis, considering complex material behavior of soil and soil-pile interaction. Blast wave propagation in the soil is studied and the ... Keywords: Numerical simulation, Pile foundation, Saturated soil, Underground explosion

L. B. Jayasinghe; D. P. Thambiratnam; N. Perera; J. H. A. R. Jayasooriya

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

An Assessment of Ore Waste and Dilution Resulting From Buffer/Choke Blasting in Surface Gold Mines  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC{underscore}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece {ampersand} Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions (2-D). DMC{underscore}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Buffer Choke blasting is commonly used in surface gold mines to break the rock and dilate it sufficiently for ease of digging, with the assumption of insignificant horizontal movement. The blast designs usually call for relatively shallow holes benches ({lt} 11 m) with small blastholes (approx. 165 mm), small burdens and spacings ({lt}5 m), often with 50% or more of the hole stemmed. Control of blast-induced horizontal movement is desired because the ore is assayed in place from the blasthole drill cuttings and digging polygons of ore and waste are laid out before the blast. Horizontal movement at the ore waste boundary can result in dilution of the ore or loss of ore with the waste. The discrete element computer program DMC{underscore}BLAST has been employed to study spatial variation of horizontal rock motion during buffer choke blasting. Patterns of rock motion can be recognized from the discrete element simulations that would be difficult or impossible to recognize in the field (Preece, Tidman and Chung, 1997). Techniques have been developed to calculate ore waste and dilution from the horizontal movement predicted by DMC{underscore}BLAST. Four DMC{underscore}BLAST simulations of buffer blasting have been performed. The blasts are identical except that the burden and spacing are systematically varied which also changes the powder factor. Predictions of ore waste or dilution are made for each burden in the blast, assuming no horizontal movement, to illustrate the spatial variation observed.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chung, S.H.; Tidman, J.P. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Drilling and blasting techniques and costs for strip mines in Appalachia  

SciTech Connect

On-site investigations of blasting techniques were conducted at twenty surface coal mining operations in the steep slopes of Appalachia. The mine sites represented a range of mountain mining methods and annual coal production levels; all sites used similar techniques and equipment for the removal of fragmented waste rock. Hole loading characteristics and constraints limiting blast designs were observed at each mine site. This report summarizes technical blasting data and geological conditions which require special design considerations. Three mine sites were selected for future research in fragmentation efficiency. Detailed economic data on drilling and blasting were gathered from the three research sites and are reported herein. A great deal of fragmentation difficulties stem from tough, unpredictable geology with specific bedding characteristics and local zones of defined structural weaknesses such as jointing and vertical seams. Exceptionally hard bedrock, existing as a caprock or as the basal layer above the coal seam, persists as the cause of oversize rock breakage or, in the latter case, damage to the coal unless special precautions are taken. Federal blasting regulations strictly control the amount of explosives used as well as throw of the fragmented rock. This requires that blasting modifications be employed. The nature and extent of blast modifications were observed to be related to terrain and demographic conditions around the mine site. Drilling and blasting costs reported for the three mine sites averaged $0.21 per cubic yard of material blasted. Drilling costs varied widely, as drilling time was indicative of geologies and often, drilling costs remained the greatest percentage of total blasting and drilling costs.

Aimone, C.T.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Solar PV Sec. Chu Online Town Hall Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps Why Cool Roofs? Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future...

334

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kill-a-Watt Competition at University of Central Florida Faces of the Recovery Act: Sun Catalytix Investing in Clean, Safe Nuclear Energy Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010...

335

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Transforming the American Economy Through Innovation Linac Coherent Light Source Overview Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power...

336

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pledge? Conversation on the Future of the Wind Industry Science Lecture: Talking the Higgs Boson with Dr. Joseph Incandela Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary Poneman Discuss the...

337

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Future of Biofuels The Climate Challenge... and What's at Stake Sec. Chu Announces the First Auto Loans for Advanced Technologies...

338

Oven | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security & Safety -Emergency Response & Procedures or Search Energy.gov Search Clear Filters All Videos ARPA-E 2011 Keynote: Ray Mabus, Secretary of the Navy Electrofuels:...

339

Plasma as a Blast Furnace Supplement: An Evaluation of Thermal Plasma Energy to Heat Blast Air for Iron Productiion, CMP Report No. 89-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the use of thermal plasma heat for blast superheating in iron blast furnace operation. The basic research for this technology was carried out in the 1970's, primarily by the Centre des Recherches Metallurgiques (CRM) in Belgium. The main impetus for development was to increase productivity and efficiency and to decrease coke consumption. This was achieved by replacing some coke fuel by alternative injectant fuels (CH4, oil, coal, etc.) and compensating for these injectants by increas...

1990-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives Ameren Illinois (Gas) - Cooking and Heating Business Efficiency Incentives < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: $600,000 Program Info Expiration Date 05/31/2013 State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: $1.20/therm saved/yr Steamers: $300-$1200 Fryer: $400 Griddle: $50/ln. ft. Ovens: custom Storage Water Heaters: $150/unit Tankless Water Heater: $300/unit Gas Boiler/Furnace Replacement: $400 - $6,000

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 6) 7, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 6) Natural gas spot prices across the country surged to record highs this week as yet another Arctic blast of cold arrived, this time reaching as far south as Texas. Prices in the Northeast were the highest in the country at more than $20 per MMBtu for much of the week, but prices also tripled since last Wednesday to $18 and more at production-area trading locations along the Gulf Coast and in Texas. On the week (Wednesday to Wednesday), the spot price at the Henry Hub had a net change of $4.26 per MMBtu to an average of $10.36 yesterday (Wednesday, February 26). The NYMEX contract for March delivery ended its run as the near-month futures contract on Wednesday, settling at just over $9.13 per MMBtu, or $3 higher on the week. As of February 21, natural gas in storage was 1,014 Bcf, or 33.4 percent below the 5-year average for this week. Crude oil prices climbed $1.90 per barrel yesterday to an average of $37.96, or $6.54 per MMBtu, which is near a 12-year high.

342

Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines. Report of investigations/1994  

SciTech Connect

The mining industry and regulatory agencies have requested guidance on blasting near buried transmission pipelines and safe vibration levels. The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Company and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm diameter welded steel pipes and one 20-cm PVC water pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blast-holes. Analyses found low responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120-250 mm/s produced worst case strains of about 25 pct of those resulting from pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10-18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength.

Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schulz, D.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Bubble merger model for the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a strong blast wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bubble merger model is presented for the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a strong blast wave. Single bubble motion is determined by an extension of previous buoyancy-drag models extended to the blast wave driven case, and a simple bubble merger law in the spirit of the Sharp-Wheeler model allows for the generation of larger scales. The blast wave driven case differs in several respects from the classical case of incompressible fluids in a uniform gravitational field. Because of material decompression in the rarefaction behind the blast front, the asymptotic bubble velocity and the merger time depend on time as well as the transverse scale and the drive. For planar blast waves, this precludes the emergence of a self-similar regime independent of the initial conditions. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for the establishment of the self-similar state, but its establishment requires a very high initial characteristic mode number and a high Mach number for the incident blast wave.

Miles, A R

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

BLAST BIOLOGY--A STUDY OF THE PRIMARY AND TERTIARY EFFECTS OF BLAST IN OPEN UNDERGROUND PROTECTIVE SHELTERS  

SciTech Connect

Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear detonatiors in two open underground pantitioned shelters. The shelters were of similar constructions and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure enviromments were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of each structure to determine its effect on the pressurecurve shape inside the chamber. In one test a sieve plate bolted across the top of the mound was evaluated. Wind protective baffles of solid plate and of heavy wire screen were installed in the shelters to compare primary and tertiary blast effects on dogs. The shelters also contained static and dynamic pressure gages, radiation detectors, telemetering devices, and, in one test, air-temperature measuring instruments, dustcollecting trays, and eight pigs for the biological assessment of thermal effects. One dog was severely injured from tertiary blast effects associated with a maximal dynamic pressure (Q) of 10.5 psi, and one was undamaged with a maximal Q of 2 psi. Primary blast effects resulting from peak overpressures of 30.3, 25.5, 9.5. and 4.1 psi were minimal. The mortality was 19 per cent of the mice exposed to a peak pressure of 30.3 psi and 5 and 3 per cent of the guinea pigs and mice exposed to a peak pressure of 25.5 psi. Many of the rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice sustained slight lung hemorrhages at maximum pressures of 25.5 and 30.3 psi. Eardrum perforation data for all species, except mice, were recorded. Following shot 2, thermal effects were noted. Animals of the groups saved for observation have died from ionizing-radiation effects. (auth)

Ricmond, D.R.; Taborelli, R.V.; Bowen, I.G.; Chiffelle, T.L.; Hirsch, F.G.; Longwell, B.B.; Riley, J.G.; White, C.S.; Sherping, F.; Goldizen, V.C.; Ward, J.D.; Wetherbe, M.B.; Clare, V.R.; Kuhn, M.L.; Sanchez, R.T.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Large mining blasts from the Kursk Mining Region, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at magnitude levels where industrial explosions (primarily, mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded, and may for some countries dominate the seismicity. Thus, data on blasting practice have both political significance for the negotiation of treaties involving seismic monitoring of nuclear tests, and operational applications in terms of establishing monitoring and inspection needs on a mine-by-mine basis. While it is generally accepted that mining explosions contribute to seismicity at lower seismic magnitudes (less than about magnitude 3.5), the rate of mining seismicity as a function of seismic magnitude is unknown for most countries outside the U.S. This results in a large uncertainty when estimating the task of discriminating nuclear explosions from chemical explosions and earthquakes, by seismic means, under a comprehensive nuclear test ban. This uncertainty directly affects estimates of seismic network enhancements required to achieve treaty verification requirements at magnitudes less than about 3.5. 24 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

Leith, W. Adushkin, V.; Spivak, A.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Simulation of rock blasting with the SHALE code  

SciTech Connect

The SHALE code and its special features for simulating rock blasting are described. SHALE first simulates the detonation of the explosive and then follows the effect of the resulting shocks and stress waves on the surrounding rock. A general description is given for SHALE as a finite-difference stress-wave-propagation code, followed by a brief discussion of numerical methods, and a section on the treatment of the explosive. The constitutive model in SHALE is the BCM (Bedded Crack Model), which describes the response of the rock, including fracture. The use of SHALE is illustrated in a discussion of the basic phenomenology of crater blasting, as seen in simulations of field experiments in oil shale. Predicted peak surface velocities are found to agree with field measurements. Comparisons between predicted fracture and observed craters give insight into the relative roles played by shock waves and the high-pressure-explosive product gases. The two-dimensional version of SHALE is being documented and will be available for use by other investigators. A three-dimensional version is planned.

Adams, T.F.; Demuth, R.B.; Margolin, L.G.; Nichols, B.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 2, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

Blasting for abandoned-mine land reclamation (closure of individual subsidence features and erratic, undocumented underground coal-mine workings). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study has examined the feasibility of blasting for mitigating various abandoned mine land features on AML sites. The investigation included extensive field trial blasts at sites in North Dakota and Montana. A blasting technique was used that was based on spherical cratering concepts. At the Beulah, North Dakota site thirteen individual vertical openings (sinkholes) were blasted with the intent to fill the voids. The blasts were designed to displace material laterally into the void. Good success was had in filling the sinkholes. At the White site in Montana erratic underground rooms with no available documentation were collapsed. An adit leading into the mine was also blasted. Both individual room blasting and area pattern blasting were studied. A total of eight blasts were fired on the one acre area. Exploration requirements and costs were found to be extensive.

Workman, J.L.; Thompson, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Proceedings of the second international symposium on rock fragmentation by blasting  

SciTech Connect

This is the second international meeting of researchers in rock fragmentation by blasting. The symposium continues the information exchange initiated at the previous conference and to determine relevant directions for future research on fracture and fragmentation of rock.

Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A New Technology of Shot Blasting and Pickling in S31803 Duplex ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A New Technology of Shot Blasting and Pickling in S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate and GR2 Titanium Plate. Author(s), Qin Wei. On-Site  ...

353

Shock airwaves in short-delayed blasting for open pit mining  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the choice of the optimum delay interval in terms of seismic and shock airwaves (SAW) intensity reduction during short-delayed blasting (SDB) of surface and hole blasts depending on the position of the charges relative to the objects being protected, such as the direction of detonation from charge to charge, etc. It was observed that during a short delayed blasting with a delay interval between groups of 50 m/sec, a complete separation of SAW pulses is produced by individual charges. Calculations also show that when blasting along a linear string of charges, the delay interval at which SAW pulses are fully separated depends on the direction at which detonation propogates.

Ganopol' skii, M.I.; Smolii, N.I.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The design and retrofit of buildings for resistance to blast-induced progressive collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, concern has risen drastically regarding the suitability of structural design for blast resistance. Historic events have proven that buildings that are designed in compliance with conventional building codes ...

Abbott Galvão Sobreira Lopes, Isabel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fluid-filled helmet liner concept for protection against blast-induced traumatic brain injury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to changes in modem warfare threats, as well as advances in body armor, soldier survivability in combat has increased, but blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has become a prevalent injury in the battlefield. ...

Yost, Allison L. (Allison Lynne)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Comparison between CPBPV, ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why for Bounded Program Verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes experimental results for a set of benchmarks on program verification. It compares the capabilities of CPBVP "Constraint Programming framework for Bounded Program Verification" [4] with the following frameworks: ESC/Java, CBMC, Blast, EUREKA and Why.

Collavizza, Hélène; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constant heating of the coke ovens ensures optimization ofheating - coke plant Variable speed drive coke oven gasheating - coke plant Variable speed drive coke oven gas

Xu, T.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supplemental Supplies Supplemental Supplies Definitions Key Terms Definition Biomass Gas A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. Blast-furnace Gas The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to metallic iron. It is commonly used as a fuel within steel works. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Coke-oven Gas The mixture of permanent gases produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius.

360

Proceedings of the eighth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This edition of the proceedings of the annual symposium on Explosives and Blasting Research held concurrent with the 18th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique is the eighth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. A variety of laboratory and field research is presented on explosives, mining, detonators, and shock waves. Seventeen papers are selected for the energy data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO{sub 2})  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}), as shown in a front view, is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO{sub 2} xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. Figure 2 shows a block diagram with the various subsystems labeled.

Resnick, A.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Low frequency long duration blast vibrations and their effect on residential structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was conducted at a coal mine in India which produces 10 million tonne of coal and 27 million cubic meter of overburden per annum. Detonation of 100 tonnes of explosives in a blasting round is a common practice of the mine. These large sized blasts often led to complaints from the nearby inhabitants regarding ground vibrations and their affects on their houses. Eighteen dragline blasts were conducted and their impacts on nearby structures were investigated. Extended seismic arrays were used to identify the vibration characteristics within a few tens of meters of the blasts and also as modified by the media at distances over 5 km. 10 to 12 seismographs were deployed in an array to gather the time histories of vibrations. A signature blast was conducted to know the fundamental frequency of the particular transmitting media between the blast face and the structures. The faster decay of high frequency components was observed. It was also observed that at distances of 5 km, the persistence of vibrations in the structures was substantially increased by more than 10 seconds. The proximity of the frequency of the ground vibration to the structure's fundamental frequencies produced the resonance in the structures. On the basis of the fundamental frequency of the structures, the delay interval was optimized, which resulted in lower amplitude and reduced persistence of vibration in the structures. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Roy, M.P.; Sirveiya, A.K.; Singh, P.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of each oven temperature setting (initial heating to 350°F towels.  Ovens were additionally cleaned by heating to  the with the heating cycle used to precondition each oven prior 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Breaking down cellulose without blasting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 Breaking down cellulose without blasting lignin: "Dry rot" genome offers lessons for biofuel pretreatment WALNUT CREEK, Calif.-Feared by realtors and homeowners alike, dry rot due to the fungus Serpula lacrymans causes millions of dollars worth of damage to homes and buildings around the world. This brown rot fungus' capacity to break down the cellulose in wood led to its selection for sequencing by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in 2007, with the goal of identifying the enzymes involved in the degradation process and using the information to improve cellulosic biofuels production. Photo: A variant of Serpula lacrymans causes dry rot. (Dave Brown via Flickr/Creative Commons Attribution 2.0) As reported online July 14 in Science Express, an international team of

366

Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report  

SciTech Connect

The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage.

1991-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

367

ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE-2 (SWF)3 DOE-2 (I ') 3 . PHOENIX NBSLD BLAST DOE-2 (S~JF) 3 DOE-2 (CWF)3TAMPA NBSLD BLAST DOE-2 DOE-2 (I Feb YJ.8.r o. o. o. o. O.

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

100 High Efficiency RangeOven: 500 Conveyor Oven: 500 Fryer: 500 Broiler: 100 Steam Cooker: 500 Vent Dampers for Boilers: 125 Custom: Two year buy down or 50% of...

369

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to… (more)

Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microwave Off-gas srnlTechBriefp1  

Microwave energy combines with infrared heating ... A modified retail microwave oven requires little space, is compatible with existing electrical ...

371

Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines` research program is focused on developing procedures and guidelines for acceptable underground oil shale blasting that fulfill the operational requirements for efficiency while maintaining a high level of safety when operating under gassy mine conditions. This work is aimed at providing new information, alternate methods, and innovation in underground blasting procedures. The results from this research will have direct impact on regulatory standards for blasting under gassy mine conditions. Based on the low incendivity data from the Cannon Gallery and several months of recent testing in their mine, Kennecott`s Greens Creek base metal mine in Alaska had decided to exclusively use a low incendive bulk emulsion product in place of the low incendive water gel prod ct for all blasting operations. As was the case with the low incendive water gel product, the use of this bulk product resulted in: no dust ignitions and related injuries and/or production/equipment losses; the elimination if preblasting measures of using stemming and water sprays, and the improvement of roadways due to the reduction of water.

Weiss, E.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

Crelling, J.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

A 1D-3D mixed method for the numerical simulation of blast waves in confined geometries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blast wave generated by a high detonating spherical charge and propagating in confined domains is modeled using the Euler equations. The problem is split into two parts. The first calculation part relies on spherical isotropy to solve the problem in ... Keywords: 47.40.Rs, Blast waves, Cartesian mesh, Confined domains, Remapping techniques

Adel M. Benselama; Mame J. -P. William-Louis; François Monnoyer

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when pyroclastic flows enter the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when June 2007; accepted 26 July 2007; published 16 November 2007. [1] Steam explosions, or littoral blasts, phenomena. The development of steam explosions rather than passive steam production is related to the rate

Manga, Michael

376

Recycling contaminated spent blasting abrasives in Portland cement mortars using solidification/stabilization technology. Final research report  

SciTech Connect

The use of abrasive blasting to remove lead-based paint from steel bridges produces contaminated spent blasting abrasives that may be classified as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. If the spent abrasives leach lead, chromium, and cadmium greater than the EPA limits, the spent abrasives are classified as hazardous and must be rendered nonhazardous prior to disposal. An alternative to disposing of spent blasting abrasives is to recycle them in an environmentally sound application. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling spent blasting abrasives in portland cement mortars using solidification/stabilization technology to produce a usable construction material. Field application guidelines for recycling spent blasting abrasives in portland cement mortars are established based upon the results of this study.

Salt, B.K.; Carrasquillo, R.L.; Loehr, R.C.; Fowler, D.W.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Results of experimental drilling and blasting operations in preparing the rock foundation of the Krapivinskii hydroelectric station  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the experimental drilling and blasting operations in preparing the rock foundation of the Krapivinskii hydrostation was to test under specific conditions the parameters of blasting near the lower contour of the pit with reduced blasthole charges. Results show: the possibility of replacing shothole by blasthole charges with parameters calculated by a special method; the suitability of the method of calculating the parameters of DBO's with reduced blasthole charges developed earlier by Gidrospetsproekt, which provides preservation of the foundations of important structures with a reduction of labor intensity and work time, was confirmed; an analysis of the results of the experimental blasts and also for a number of hydrotechnical construction objects made it possible to evaluate the characteristics of irregularities of foundations with blasting preparation and to establish their practically allowable values for use in specifications; rational parameters of blasting near the foundation of the Krapivinskii hydrostation were determined.

Azarovich, A.E.; Yanovskii, V.N.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

LTC vacuum blasting machine (metal): Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect

The LTC coating removal system consists of several hand tools such as a Roto Peen scaler and a needlegun. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. These are used with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The PTC-6 is a vacuum system designed to be used with surface decontamination equipment. Dust and debris are captured by a high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) vacuum system that deposits the waste directly into an on-board 23-gallon waste drum. The PTC-6 utilizes compressed air delivered from a source via an air hose connected to the air inlet to drive the hand held power tools. The control panel regulated the air pressure delivered to the tool. A separate compressed air flow powers the vacuum generator. The vacuum hoses connect the power tools to the dust chamber, returning paint chips and dust from the surface. A third compressed air flow is used to clean filters by pulsing air through a pipe with slots. The blasts of air shake dust and debris from the filter fabric.

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 {mu}m thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m and a wavelength of 71 {mu}m. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, 400 Dirac Science Library, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Hearn, N. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt Tufts University School of Medicine Abstract Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced stage, CML blast crisis originates mainly via cell-autonomous mechanisms such as secondary mutations or genomic instability. However, there is growing evidence that intercellular interactions can play a critical role

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments  

SciTech Connect

Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

Thorne, B.J.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Synchrotron and SSC Emission and the Blast-Wave Model of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics and radiation from a relativistic blast-wave which decelerates as it sweeps up ambient matter. The bulk kinetic energy of the blast-wave shell is converted into internal energy by the process of accreting external matter. If it takes the form of non-thermal electrons and magnetic fields, then this internal energy will be emitted as synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton radiation. We perform analytic and numerical calculations for the deceleration and radiative processes and present time-resolved spectra throughout the evolution of the blast-wave. We also examine the dependence of the burst spectra and light curves on various parameters describing the magnetic field and non-thermal electron distributions. We find that for bursts such as GRB~910503, GRB~910601 and GRB~910814, the spectral shapes of the prompt gamma-ray emission at the peaks in $\

Chiang, J

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Incineration of Residue from Paint Stripping Operations Using Plastic Media Blasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PHB) wastes from paint removal operations. PHB is similar to sandblasting although blasting takes place at a much lower pressure. The blasted media can be recovered and recycled several times, but ultimately a residue of paint dust/chips and attrited media dust are left for disposal. This residue is a dry solid that may potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is incineration. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However, the fate of heavy metals from the entrained paint waste is not known. Samples of PHB residue were combusted at temperatures between 690°C and 815°C with approximately 125% of stoichiometric air. The ash remaining after combustion was then analyzed for heavy metal content and tested for leachability using the EPA toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP).

Helt, J. E.; Mallya, N.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Remote Operated Vehicle with CO{sub 2} Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}). Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the first phase of the Remote Operated Vehicle with CO{sub 2} Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}) Program. The ROVCO{sub 2} Program`s goal is to develop and demonstrate a tool to improve the productivity of concrete floor decontamination. The first phase adapted and tested the critical subsystems: the CO{sub 2} blasting, the workhead manipulation, the controls, and the base vehicle. The testing documented the performance of the subsystems and preformed a concept demonstration of the integrated ROVCO{sub 2} system. This testing and demonstration verified that the ROVCO{sub 2} development exceeded it Phase 1 success criteria.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A damage model for rock fragmentation and comparison of calculations with blasting experiments in granite  

SciTech Connect

Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried to late times. An improved damage model allows finite element calculations which remain stable at late times. Reasonable agreement between crater profiles calculated with this model using the PRONTO finite element program and excavated crater profiles from blasting experiments in granite demonstrate a successful application of this model. Detailed instructions for use of this new damage model with the PRONTO finite element programs are included. 18 refs., 16 figs.

Thorne, B.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Short-delay blasting in underground coal mines. Information Circular/1986  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has conducted research to determine whether the total elapsed delay time for blasting bituminous coal in underground mines could be safely expanded beyond the present 500-ms limitation without igniting a methane or methane-coal dust atmosphere. The results indicated that the increase of total delay from 500 to 1,000 ms had no detectable effect on safety relative to incendivity as long as permissible practices were observed in all other aspects. Research was also conducted to evaluate the safety of 18-in hole spacing for delay blasting in coal relative to misfires.

Mainiero, R.J.; Verakis, H.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

EVALUATION OF WIANCKO AND VIBROTRON GAGES AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CIRCUITRY FOR ATOMIC BLAST MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Experimental instrumentation was tested on Operation Upshot-Knothole in an endeavor to improve existing blast phenomena measuring equipment and techniques. Experimental designs tested include a field unit oscillatoramplifier using transistor circuit elements, a subminiature two-wire field unit, a commercially developed Vibrotron gage and amplifier unit, and a frequency deviation multiplier circuit for obtaining increased signal-tonoise ratios. The Wiancko pressure gage was also evaluated more fully. The results of the tests are described. Transistor circuitry was found to be little affected by atomic blast phenomena. (M.P.G.)

Petes, J.; Little, C.C.; Dossey, J.L.

1955-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

392

Gas Week  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Guy F. Caruso, EIA AdministratorPresented to: Gas WeekHouston, TexasSeptember 24, 2003

Information Center

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

393

Key China Energy Statistics 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Oven Gas Coke Source Products Petroleum IndigenousTotal Oven Gas Coke Source Products Petroleum IndigenousConsumption by Source Shares Coal Use Petroleum Natural Gas

Levine, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

396

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

397

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

398

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

399

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

400

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

402

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

403

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

404

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

405

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 34 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to explosive fracturing for construction projects (tunnels, pipelines, dams), rock drilling for explosive fracturing, surface mining, rock fragmentation, environmental impacts, storage and transport of high explosives, underwater blasting, toxic fumes, and explosives malfunctions. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

500-kV HVDC air-blast circuit breaker. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the first HVDC circuit breaker to be tested on a full-scale utility system. Modular in construction to ensure economic feasibility, this breaker has a standard ac air-blast breaker as its main component and interrupts current up to 2200-A dc.

Bachman, B.; Ruoss, E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Comparison of Current BLAST Software on Nucleotide Sequences I. Elizabeth Cha  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

similar to ncbiBLAST [19]. However, independent development over the last ten years has led comparisons with different query sequences (Q) and target databases (T): EST (Q) vs. EST (T); EST (Q) vs. chromosome (T); chromosome (Q) vs. EST (T); and chromosome (Q) vs. chromosome (T). EST vs. EST compares when

Rouchka, Eric

408

TRANSLATIONAL EFFECTS OF AIR BLAST FROM HIGH EXPLOSIVES. Technical Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

A computational model was used in studies of the biological effects of blast from nuclear explosions. The translational effects of blast waves for objects as small as a 10-mg stone and as large as a 168-lb man were computed from theoretical studies and results were compared to field data for near-ideal blast waves from nuclear explosions. Results indicate that the motion of experimental objects can be satisfactorily predicted for free-field conditions or for window glass in houses. Results were computed for high explosives with free air burst. Parameters computed include velocity, displacement, and acceleration as functions of time for a variety of objects exposed to blast waves with 12 maximum overpressures ranging from 1 to 20 atm. All computations were made for one ton of high explosives burst in free air, but the results may be readily scaled to lower or higher yields and to surface bursts. The missiles are identified by their acceleration coefficients which range from 0.01 to 6.0 ft/sup 2//lb. (C.H.)

Bowen, I.G.; Woodworth, P.B.; Franklin, M.E.; White, C.S.

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Asymptotic performance analysis of coded BLAST architectures with statistical rate and power allocations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we first analyze some mathematical properties of ergodic capacity and outage capacity functions of the layers in Bell labs layered space-time (BLAST) architectures employing successive decoding and interference cancellation. We then present ... Keywords: ergodic capacity, layered architecture, low-density parity-check (LDPC) code, multiple antennas, outage capacity, power allocation, rate allocation

Hyo-Jin Lee; Dong-Min Shin; Kyeongcheol Yang

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Effect of Blast Design on Crack Response C.H. Dowding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine those with the best correlation. Variations in the ground motion and air pressure wave (air blast Conference Siebert and Dowding (2000) described development of the autonomous crack measurement (ACM) system). These theses are available online at www.iti.northwestern.edu/research/current/acm. This article describes

411

Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department supports research and policy options to ensure environmentally sustainable domestic and global supplies of oil and natural gas.

412

Gas separating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

Gollan, A.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Spin-Dependent Electron Scattering from Polarized Protons and Deuterons with the BLAST Experiment at MIT-Bates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The experiment was designed to exploit the power of a polarized electron beam ...

Hasell, Douglas K.

414

Originally Released: August 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

August 2009" August 2009" "Revised: October 2009" "Next MECS will be conducted in 2010" "Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,"Waste" ,,,,"Blast",,,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,,"Furnace/Coke",,,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total",,"Oven Gases","Waste Gas",,"Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

415

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste" " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

416

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6

417

Improving both bond strength and corrosion resistance of steel rebar in concrete by water immersion or sand blasting of rebar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water immersion (2 days) and sand blasting were similarly effective for treating steel rebars for the purpose of improvement steel-concrete bond strength and corrosion resistance of steel in concrete. The increase in bond strength is due to surface roughening in the case of sand blasting and the presence of a surface layer in the case of water immersion. The increase in corrosion resistance is due to the surface uniformity rendered by either treatment.

Hou, J.; Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations  

SciTech Connect

Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S. [JSC 'SPII Gidroproekt' (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

,366 ,366 95,493 1.08 0 0.00 1 0.03 29,406 0.56 1,206 0.04 20,328 0.64 146,434 0.73 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: South Carolina South Carolina 88. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ...........................................

420

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0,216 0,216 50,022 0.56 135 0.00 49 1.67 85,533 1.63 8,455 0.31 45,842 1.45 189,901 0.95 - Natural Gas 1996 Million Percent of Million Percent of Cu. Feet National Total Cu. Feet National Total Net Interstate Movements: Industrial: Marketed Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: M a r y l a n d Maryland 68. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Maryland, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 9 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 33 28 26 22 135 From Oil Wells ...........................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Blast vibrations and other potential causes of damage in homes near a large surface coal mine in Indiana. Report. of investigations/1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines studied seven homes near Evansville, IN, that had various degrees of damage that the owners attributed to vibrations from surface coal mine blasting. Researchers monitored vibration and airblast impacts, crack behavior before and after blasts, and dynamic structural responses to blasting and other sources. Level-loop surveys were performed to quantify possible settlement and subsidence. These results were combined with State and coal company measurements to determine if recent vibration characteristics, airblast propagations, or structural responses were typical of results found in historical studies that produced criteria for safe blasting and regulatory limits.

Siskind, D.E.; Crum, S.V.; Plis, M.N.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Blast biology: a study of the primary and tertiary effects of blast in open underground protective shelters. Project 33. 1 of Operation Plumbbob  

SciTech Connect

Dogs, pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice were exposed to nuclear detonations in two open underground partitioned shelters. The shelters were of similar construction, and each was exposed to separate detonations. Each inner chamber filled through its own orifice; thus four separate pressure environments were obtained. An aerodynamic mound was placed over the escape hatch of each structure to determine its effect on the pressure-curve shape inside the chamber. In one test a sieve plate bolted across the top of the mound was evaluated. Wind protective baffles of solid plate and of heavy wire screen were installed in the shelters to compare primary and tertiary blast effects on dogs. The shelters also contained static and dynamic pressure gages, radiation detectors, telemetering devices, and, in one test, air-temperature measuring instruments, dust-collecting trays, and eight pigs for the biological assessment of thermal effects. One dog was severely injured from tertiary blast effects associated with a maximal dynamic pressure (Q) of 10.5 psi, and one was undamaged with a maximal Q of 2 psi. Primary blast effects resulting from peak overpressures of 30.3, 25.5, 9.5, and 4.1 psi were minimal. The mortality was 19% of the mice exposed to a peak pressure of 30.3 psi and 5 and 3% of the guinea pigs and mice exposed to a peak pressure of 25.5 psi. Many of the rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice sustained slight lung hemorrhages at maximum pressues of 25.5 and 30.3 psi. Eardrum perforation data for all species, except mice, were recorded. Following shot 2, thermal effects were noted. Animals of the groups saved for observation have died from ionizing-radiation effects.

Ricmond, D.R.; Taborelli, R.V.; Bowen, I.G.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Multicellular Basis for the Origination of Blast Crisis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Philip Hahnfeldt 1 , Lynn Hlatky 1 , Rainer Sachs 2 1 Center of Cancer Systems Biology, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; and 2 Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA Among radiation-induced cancers, some leukemias, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have especially high excess relative risks. CML, sporadic or radiogenic, is also thought to be comparatively very well understood. Accordingly, CML is considered an important model for assessing radiogenic cancer risk. CML is characterized by a specific chromosome translocation, the BCR-ABL fusion gene, and it has been widely postulated that an advanced

425

Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

Devgun, J.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Land, R.R. (Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Doane, R.W. (TMA/Eberline, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy-Dependent $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Peak Durations and Blast-Wave Deceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temporal analyses of the prompt gamma-ray and X-ray light curves of gamma-ray bursts reveal a tendency for the burst pulse time scales to increase with decreasing energy. For an ensemble of BATSE bursts, Fenimore et al. (1995) show that the energy dependence of burst peak durations can be represented by dependence has led to the suggestion that this effect is due to radiative processes, most notably synchrotron cooling of the non-thermal particles which produce the radiation. Here we show that a similar power-law dependence occurs, under certain assumptions, in the context of the blast-wave model and is a consequence of the deceleration of the blast-wave. This effect will obtain whether or not synchrotron cooling is important, but different degrees of cooling will cause variations in the energy dependence of the peak durations.

Chiang, J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

68,747 68,747 34,577 0.39 0 0.00 34 1.16 14,941 0.29 0 0.00 11,506 0.36 61,058 0.31 I d a h o Idaho 60. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Idaho, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented

428

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 540 0.01 0 0.00 2,132 0.07 2,672 0.01 H a w a i i Hawaii 59. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Hawaii, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared

429

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

483,052 483,052 136,722 1.54 6,006 0.03 88 3.00 16,293 0.31 283,557 10.38 41,810 1.32 478,471 2.39 F l o r i d a Florida 57. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Florida, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 47 50 98 92 96 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

430

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

291,898 291,898 113,995 1.29 0 0.00 4 0.14 88,078 1.68 3,491 0.13 54,571 1.73 260,140 1.30 I o w a Iowa 63. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Iowa, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation.......................... 0 0 0

431

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Vehicle Fuel: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Electric Residential: Utilities: Commercial: Total: New England New England 36. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New England, 1992-1996 Table 691,089 167,354 1.89 0 0.00 40 1.36 187,469 3.58 80,592 2.95 160,761 5.09 596,215 2.98 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................

432

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

42,980 42,980 14,164 0.16 0 0.00 1 0.03 9,791 0.19 23,370 0.86 6,694 0.21 54,020 0.27 D e l a w a r e Delaware 55. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Delaware, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

433

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-49,536 -49,536 7,911 0.09 49,674 0.25 15 0.51 12,591 0.24 3 0.00 12,150 0.38 32,670 0.16 North Dakota North Dakota 82. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Dakota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 496 525 507 463 462 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 104 101 104 99 108 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 12,461 18,892 19,592 16,914 16,810 From Oil Wells ........................................... 47,518 46,059 43,640 39,760 38,906 Total.............................................................. 59,979 64,951 63,232 56,674 55,716 Repressuring ................................................

434

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21,547 21,547 4,916 0.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 7,012 0.13 3 0.00 7,099 0.22 19,031 0.10 N e w H a m p s h i r e New Hampshire 77. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New Hampshire, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

435

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

139,881 139,881 26,979 0.30 463 0.00 115 3.92 27,709 0.53 19,248 0.70 28,987 0.92 103,037 0.52 A r i z o n a Arizona 50. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arizona, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 6 6 6 7 7 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 721 508 711 470 417 From Oil Wells ........................................... 72 110 48 88 47 Total.............................................................. 794 618 759 558 464 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease

436

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Middle Middle Atlantic Middle Atlantic 37. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Middle Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,857 1,981 2,042 1,679 1,928 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 36,906 36,857 26,180 37,159 38,000 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 161,372 152,717 140,444 128,677 152,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 162,196 153,327 140,982 129,400 153,134 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed

437

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

386,690 386,690 102,471 1.16 0 0.00 43 1.47 142,319 2.72 5,301 0.19 98,537 3.12 348,671 1.74 M i n n e s o t a Minnesota 71. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Minnesota, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

438

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,108,583 1,108,583 322,275 3.63 298 0.00 32 1.09 538,749 10.28 25,863 0.95 218,054 6.90 1,104,972 5.52 I l l i n o i s Illinois 61. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Illinois, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 382 385 390 372 370 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 337 330 323 325 289 From Oil Wells ........................................... 10 10 10 10 9 Total.............................................................. 347 340 333 335 298 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...............

439

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

286,485 286,485 71,533 0.81 25 0.00 31 1.06 137,225 2.62 5,223 0.19 72,802 2.31 286,814 1.43 M i s s o u r i Missouri 73. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Missouri, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... NA NA NA NA NA Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5 8 12 15 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 27 14 8 16 25 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 27 14 8 16 25 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

440

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

411,951 411,951 100,015 1.13 0 0.00 5 0.17 114,365 2.18 45,037 1.65 96,187 3.05 355,609 1.78 Massachusetts Massachusetts 69. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Massachusetts, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oven gas blast" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

226,798 226,798 104,124 1.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 58,812 1.12 2,381 0.09 40,467 1.28 205,783 1.03 North Carolina North Carolina 81. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas North Carolina, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

442

Natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.eia.gov Over time the electricity mix gradually shifts to lower-carbon options, led by growth in natural gas and renewable generation U.S. electricity net generation trillion kilowatthours 6

Adam Sieminski Administrator; Adam Sieminski Usnic; Adam Sieminski Usnic

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

29,693 29,693 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 0.20 17,290 0.33 0 0.00 16,347 0.52 33,644 0.17 District of Columbia District of Columbia 56. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas District of Columbia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ............... 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation..........................

444

Proceedings of the twenty-third annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This proceedings contains articles which were accepted for presentation at the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques. The articles cover a range of topics from practical to theoretical, and the reader must keep in mind that the safety or applicability of these techniques to his or her applications must be studied on a case by case basis. Separate abstracts have been indexed for inclusion in the energy data base.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Forming shale oil recovery retort by blasting into slot-shaped columner void  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating one or more slot-shaped columnar voids each having a pair of vertically extending, planar free faces, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free faces, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void one directionally toward each free face in one or more planar layers severed in a sequence progressing away from each free face and to fill with fragmented oil shale the columnar void and the space in the in situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. The pair of free faces extend across the entire width (or length) of the retort being formed. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The blasting holes are drilled and loaded with explosive from the room.

Ridley, R.D.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

447

Liquid abrasive grit blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report  

SciTech Connect

Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. As decommissioning plans are developed, new decontamination methods must be used which result in higher decontamination factors and generate lower amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. The primary initiative of the WINCO Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals. One method that was chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was abrasive grit blasting. Abrasive grit blasting has been used in many industries and a vast amount of research and development has already been conducted. However, new grits, process improvements and ICPP applicability was investigated. This evaluation report is a summary of the research efforts and scoping tests using the liquid abrasive grit blasting decontamination technique. The purpose of these scoping tests was to determine the effectiveness of three different abrasive grits: plastic beads, glass beads and alumina oxide.

Ferguson, R.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Afterglow emission from pair-loaded blast waves in gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MeV radiation front of gamma-ray bursts creates copious e+- pairs as it propagates through an ambient medium. The created pairs enrich the leptonic component of the medium by a large factor at distances R load ~ 10^{16} cm from the burst center. The following blast wave sweeps up the pair-rich medium and then emits the observed afterglow radiation. We find that the afterglow has a "memory" of e+- loading outside R_load. The e+- pairs remain in the swept-up material and slowly cool down by emitting synchrotron radiation. They are likely to dominate the blast-wave emission in IR, optical, and UV bands during the first minutes of the observed afterglow. The expected e+- radiation is described by a simple formula, which is derived analytically and checked by numerical integration of synchrotron emission over the blast material; a suitable Lagrangian formalism is developed for such calculations. The main signature of e+- radiation is its flat ("white") spectrum in a broad range of frequencies from IR to UV and possibly soft X-rays. This radiation can be detected by Swift satellite, which would enable new observational tests for the explosion physics.

Andrei M. Beloborodov

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

449

NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

450

Characterization of hydrotreating catalysts by reversed-flow gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

A flow perturbation gas chromatographic method, called reversed-flow technique, was introduced in 1980 and has been used to study the kinetics of various surface-catalyzed reactions, as well as for other physicochemical measurements. A review on the method has already been published. The new technique is based on reversing the direction of flow of the carrier gas from time to time. It uses a conventional gas chromatograph with any kind of detector, accommodating in its oven a so-called sampling cell. This consists of a sampling column and a diffusion column and is connected to the carrier gas inlet and the detector via a four-port or six-port valve. By switching the valve from one position to the other, the carrier gas is made to flow through the sampling column either from D{sub 2} to D{sub 1} or in the reversed direction. The sampling column can be filled with a catalyst whereby it plays the role of a catalytic reactor, or it filled with a usual chromatographic material acting as a conventional separation column, or it can contain both kinds of solids. Moreover, this column can be completely empty of any solid material, when it simply acts as a sampling volume to produce chromatographic signals without any separation process. The diffusion column, which was not used in the early papers, is employed either as a device for feeding catalytic or chromatographic beds with a gas diffusion stream, or as a means to study slow rate processes, normally occurring within a gas chromatographic column and usually being described as broadening factors.

Katsanos, N.A. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas from Local

452

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

453

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: 75 - 300 Furnaces: 250 - 400 Boilers: 150 - 400 Setback Thermostat: 25 - 50 Convection Oven: 100 High Efficiency...

454

Gas Delivered  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. Average . Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers, 1980-1996 Figure 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Dollars per Thousand Cubic Meters Nominal Dollars Constant Dollars Sources: Nominal dollars: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Constant dollars: Prices were converted to 1995 dollars using the chain-type price indexes for Gross Domestic Product (1992 = 1.0) as published by the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Residential: Prices in this publication for the residential sector cover nearly all of the volumes of gas delivered. Commercial and Industrial: Prices for the commercial and industrial sectors are often associated with

455

Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Case, E.R. [Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States). Research and Technology Div.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

GAS TURBINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the age of volatile and ever increasing natural gas fuel prices, strict new emission regulations and technological advancements, modern IGCC plants are the answer to growing market demands for efficient and environmentally friendly power generation. IGCC technology allows the use of low cost opportunity fuels, such as coal, of which there is a more than a 200-year supply in the U.S., and refinery residues, such as petroleum coke and residual oil. Future IGCC plants are expected to be more efficient and have a potential to be a lower cost solution to future CO2 and mercury regulations compared to the direct coal fired steam plants. Siemens has more than 300,000 hours of successful IGCC plant operational experience on a variety of heavy duty gas turbine models in Europe and the U.S. The gas turbines involved range from SGT5-2000E to SGT6-3000E (former designations are shown on Table 1). Future IGCC applications will extend this experience to the SGT5-4000F and SGT6-4000F/5000F/6000G gas turbines. In the currently operating Siemens ’ 60 Hz fleet, the SGT6-5000F gas turbine has the most operating engines and the most cumulative operating hours. Over the years, advancements have increased its performance and decreased its emissions and life cycle costs without impacting reliability. Development has been initiated to verify its readiness for future IGCC application including syngas combustion system testing. Similar efforts are planned for the SGT6-6000G and SGT5-4000F/SGT6-4000F models. This paper discusses the extensive development programs that have been carried out to demonstrate that target emissions and engine operability can be achieved on syngas operation in advanced F-class 50 Hz and 60 Hz gas turbine based IGCC applications.

Power For L; Satish Gadde; Jianfan Wu; Anil Gulati; Gerry Mcquiggan; Berthold Koestlin; Bernd Prade

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Gas laser  

SciTech Connect

According to the invention, the gas laser comprises a housing which accommodates two electrodes. One of the electrodes is sectional and has a ballast resistor connected to each section. One of the electrodes is so secured in the housing that it is possible to vary the spacing between the electrodes in the direction of the flow of a gas mixture passed through an active zone between the electrodes where the laser effect is produced. The invention provides for a maximum efficiency of the laser under different operating conditions.

Kosyrev, F. K.; Leonov, A. P.; Pekh, A. K.; Timofeev, V. A.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

458

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OvenFuel Usage Range of possible Values Stoves Electric Gasdefault usage is 1 hour per day for both electric and gas1995). For gas ovens, EC = (oven _ rate ! usage week ! 52) +

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 15:

460

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's:

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461

Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST  

SciTech Connect

We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T{sub 20} and T{sub 21} at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50 fm{sup -1} with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors G{sub C} and G{sub Q} were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of G{sub C} was confirmed at Q=4.19{+-}0.05 fm{sup -1}. The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T{sub 20} and the first node of G{sub C}.

Zhang, C.; Akdogan, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Clasie, B.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Franklin, W.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Kolster, H.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Tschalaer, C. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

73,669 73,669 141,300 1.59 221,822 1.12 3 0.10 46,289 0.88 33,988 1.24 31,006 0.98 252,585 1.26 A r k a n s a s Arkansas 51. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Arkansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,750 1,552 1,607 1,563 1,470 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,988 4,020 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 171,543 166,273 161,967 161,390 182,895 From Oil Wells ........................................... 39,364 38,279 33,446 33,979 41,551 Total.............................................................. 210,906 204,552 195,413 195,369 224,446 Repressuring ................................................

463

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-1,080,240 -1,080,240 201,024 2.27 1,734,887 8.78 133 4.54 76,629 1.46 136,436 4.99 46,152 1.46 460,373 2.30 O k l a h o m a Oklahoma 84. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Oklahoma, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 13,926 13,289 13,487 13,438 13,074 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 28,902 29,118 29,121 29,733 29,733 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 1,674,405 1,732,997 1,626,858 1,521,857 1,467,695 From Oil Wells ........................................... 342,950 316,945 308,006 289,877 267,192 Total.............................................................. 2,017,356 2,049,942 1,934,864

464

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,038,115 7,038,115 3,528,911 39.78 13,646,477 69.09 183 6.24 408,861 7.80 1,461,718 53.49 281,452 8.91 5,681,125 28.40 West South Central West South Central 42. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West South Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 87,198 84,777 88,034 88,734 62,357 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 92,212 95,288 94,233 102,525 102,864 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 11,599,913 11,749,649 11,959,444 11,824,788 12,116,665 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,313,831 2,368,395 2,308,634 2,217,752 2,151,247 Total..............................................................

465

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

77,379 77,379 94,481 1.07 81,435 0.41 8 0.27 70,232 1.34 1,836 0.07 40,972 1.30 207,529 1.04 K e n t u c k y Kentucky 65. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kentucky, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,084 1,003 969 1,044 983 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 12,483 12,836 13,036 13,311 13,501 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 Repressuring ................................................

466

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,720 0.32 31,767 1.16 29,447 0.93 153,549 0.77 Pacific Noncontiguous Pacific Noncontiguous 45. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Noncontiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341

467

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-310,913 -310,913 110,294 1.24 712,796 3.61 2 0.07 85,376 1.63 22,607 0.83 57,229 1.81 275,508 1.38 K a n s a s Kansas 64. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Kansas, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,681 9,348 9,156 8,571 7,694 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,400 19,472 19,365 22,020 21,388 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 580,572 605,578 628,900 636,582 629,755 From Oil Wells ........................................... 79,169 82,579 85,759 86,807 85,876 Total.............................................................. 659,741 688,157 714,659 723,389 715,631 Repressuring ................................................

468

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

819,046 819,046 347,043 3.91 245,740 1.24 40 1.36 399,522 7.62 32,559 1.19 201,390 6.38 980,555 4.90 M i c h i g a n Michigan 70. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Michigan, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 1,223 1,160 1,323 1,294 2,061 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,257 5,500 6,000 5,258 5,826 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 120,287 126,179 136,989 146,320 201,123 From Oil Wells ........................................... 80,192 84,119 91,332 97,547 50,281 Total.............................................................. 200,479 210,299 228,321 243,867 251,404 Repressuring ................................................

469

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

W W y o m i n g -775,410 50,253 0.57 666,036 3.37 14 0.48 13,534 0.26 87 0.00 9,721 0.31 73,609 0.37 Wyoming 98. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Wyoming, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,826 10,933 10,879 12,166 12,320 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 3,111 3,615 3,942 4,196 4,510 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 751,693 880,596 949,343 988,671 981,115 From Oil Wells ........................................... 285,125 142,006 121,519 111,442 109,434 Total.............................................................. 1,036,817 1,022,602 1,070,862 1,100,113 1,090,549 Repressuring

470

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-67,648 -67,648 75,616 0.85 480,828 2.43 0 0.00 16,179 0.31 31,767 1.16 27,315 0.86 150,877 0.75 A l a s k a Alaska 49. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Alaska, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 9,638 9,907 9,733 9,497 9,294 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 112 113 104 100 102 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 198,603 190,139 180,639 179,470 183,747 From Oil Wells ........................................... 2,427,110 2,588,202 2,905,261 3,190,433 3,189,837 Total.............................................................. 2,625,713 2,778,341 3,085,900 3,369,904 3,373,584 Repressuring

471

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

628,189 628,189 449,511 5.07 765,699 3.88 100 3.41 528,662 10.09 39,700 1.45 347,721 11.01 1,365,694 6.83 West North Central West North Central 39. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West North Central, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 10,177 9,873 9,663 9,034 8,156 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 18,569 19,687 19,623 22,277 21,669 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 594,551 626,728 651,594 655,917 648,822 From Oil Wells ........................................... 133,335 135,565 136,468 134,776 133,390 Total.............................................................. 727,886 762,293

472

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,048,760 1,048,760 322,661 3.64 18,131 0.09 54 1.84 403,264 7.69 142,688 5.22 253,075 8.01 1,121,742 5.61 N e w Y o r k New York 80. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas New York, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 329 264 242 197 232 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 5,906 5,757 5,884 6,134 6,208 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 22,697 20,587 19,937 17,677 17,494 From Oil Wells ........................................... 824 610 539 723 641 Total.............................................................. 23,521 21,197 20,476 18,400 18,134 Repressuring ................................................

473

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,554,530 1,554,530 311,229 3.51 3,094,431 15.67 442 15.08 299,923 5.72 105,479 3.86 210,381 6.66 927,454 4.64 Mountain Mountain 43. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Mountain, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 38,711 38,987 37,366 39,275 38,944 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 30,965 34,975 38,539 38,775 41,236 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 2,352,729 2,723,393 3,046,159 3,131,205 3,166,689 From Oil Wells ........................................... 677,771 535,884 472,397 503,986 505,903 Total.............................................................. 3,030,499 3,259,277 3,518,556

474

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,592,465 1,592,465 716,648 8.08 239,415 1.21 182 6.21 457,792 8.73 334,123 12.23 320,153 10.14 1,828,898 9.14 South Atlantic South Atlantic 40. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas South Atlantic, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,307 3,811 4,496 4,427 4,729 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 39,412 35,149 41,307 37,822 36,827 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 206,766 208,892 234,058 236,072 233,409 From Oil Wells ........................................... 7,584 8,011 8,468 7,133 6,706 Total.............................................................. 214,349 216,903 242,526 243,204 240,115

475

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1,999,161 1,999,161 895,529 10.10 287,933 1.46 1,402 47.82 569,235 10.86 338,640 12.39 308,804 9.78 2,113,610 10.57 Pacific Contiguous Pacific Contiguous 44. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas Pacific Contiguous, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 3,896 3,781 3,572 3,508 2,082 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 1,142 1,110 1,280 1,014 996 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... 156,635 124,207 117,725 96,329 88,173 From Oil Wells ........................................... 294,800 285,162 282,227 289,430 313,581 Total.............................................................. 451,435 409,370

476

Natural Gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-122,394 -122,394 49,997 0.56 178,984 0.91 5 0.17 37,390 0.71 205 0.01 28,025 0.89 115,622 0.58 West Virginia West Virginia 96. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas West Virginia, 1992-1996 Table 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Reserves (billion cubic feet) Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) as of December 31 ....................................... 2,356 2,439 2,565 2,499 2,703 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year.............................. 38,250 33,716 39,830 36,144 35,148 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells ......................................... E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 From Oil Wells ........................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Total.............................................................. E 182,000 171,024 183,773 186,231 178,984 Repressuring ................................................

477