National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oven gas blast

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  3. Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M206 Mechanical Convection Oven The M206 oven is dedicated to CAMD staff use only. M326 Mechanical Convection Oven Located next to the spinners, the M326 oven is availabe to External Users. VT5042EKP500 Vacuum Oven The vacuum oven is controlled by a Eurotherm 2604 PID controller. The controller is optionally PC interfaced for recipe storage and remote control. The two independent shelves with ramp control make it valuable for SU-8 processing. Additionally, nitrogen is optional for a

  4. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  5. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  7. Blast furnace gas fired boiler for Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir), Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Strickland, A.; Kimsesiz, E.; Temucin, I.

    1996-11-01

    Eregli Demir ve Celik Fabriklari T.A.S. (Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc.), known as Erdemir, is a modern integrated iron and steel works on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, producing flat steel plate. Facilities include two blast furnaces, coke ovens, and hot and cold rolling mills, with a full supporting infrastructure. Four oil- and gas-fired steam boilers provide steam for electric power generation, and to drive steam turbine driven fans for Blast Furnace process air. Two of these boilers (Babcock and Wilcox Type FH) were first put into operation in 1965, and still reliably produce 100 tons/hour of steam at a pressure of 44 bar and a temperature of 410 C. In 1989 Erdemir initiated a Capacity Increase and Modernization Project to increase the steel production capability from two million to three million tons annually. This project also incorporates technology to improve the product quality. Its goals include a reduction in energy expenses to improve Erdemir`s competitiveness. The project`s scheduled completion is in late 1995. The by-product gases of the blast furnaces, coke ovens, and basic oxygen furnaces represent a considerable share of the consumed energy in an integrated iron and steel works. Efficient use of these fuels is an important factor in improving the overall efficiency of the operation.

  8. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  9. Operating a blast furnace using dried top gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundrat, D.M.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of operating a blast furnace, comprising: introducing into the top of the furnace a charge containing metal oxide, coke and flux, collecting a top gas CO, H[sub 2], carbon dioxide and water from the furnace, increasing the reducing potential of said collected top gas by removing water but without removing carbon dioxide from at least a portion of said collected top gas thereby forming a dried top gas, heating said dried top gas to form a heated dried top gas, introducing said heated dried top gas into the lower half of the stack of the furnace at a position above which said coke is not reactive and introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrogenaceous fuel into the bosh of the furnace whereby said metal oxide is reduced to a molten metal using said heated dried top gas.

  10. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  11. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  12. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  13. Making a Solar Oven

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students make solar ovens. Student background information is provided. The expected outcome is that students will learn about solar energy transfer.

  14. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  15. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  16. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. . Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  17. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  18. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H.; Grisse, H.J.; Speranza, B.E.

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  19. Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens Colorado Academic Standards: Standard 3: Earth Systems Science Kindergarten: Concepts and skills students master: 1. The Sun provides heat and light to Earth 1 st grade: Concepts and skills students master: 1. Earth's materials can be compared and classified based on their properties 2 nd grade: Concepts and skills students master: 1. Weather and the changing seasons impact the environment and organisms such as humans, plants, and other animals Math Standard 4: Shape,

  20. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H.

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  1. Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose proposed CFD model will focus on the complex physics and chemistry found within the upper part of the blast furnace.

  2. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  3. Direct injection of natural gas in blast furnaces at high rates: Preliminary statistical analysis of blast furnace carbon balance at Armco-Middletown. Topical report, January 1990-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neels, J.K.; Brown, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    The economic benefits of supplemental fuel injections depend, in part, on the coke replacement ratio. An assessment of the accuracy with which blast furnace coke rate may be measured and a determination of the key drivers of coke rate uncertainty are offered, to provide guidance for experiments in high-rate gas injection. Using statistical analysis tools, an expression for the measurement error associated with the various terms of blast furnace carbon balance is developed. Coke rate calculations based on the material balance are most sensitive to coke carbon content and to proper tracking of hot metal tapping schedule.

  4. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  5. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace at high rates: Field experiments at Armco Steel Company. Topical technical report, January 1990-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwall, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Frydenlund, A.R.

    1993-04-01

    A study of the benefits of the injection of natural gas as a supplemental fuel for commercial blast furnaces is presented. Tests were carried out for sustained periods at natural gas injection levels of 150 and 200 pounds per therm (lb/thm). Average coke replacement ratios of 1.30 pounds of coke per pound of natural gas injected and productivity increases of about 10% were achieved at a gas injection rate of 200 lb/thm. The results were obtained without adverse effects on hot metal chemistry or furnace operability. The ability of natural gas to effectively replace an appreciable amount of coke should enable a decrease in coke production levels.

  6. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other...

  7. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  8. Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oven, Take One: FAIL Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL June 15, 2011 - 11:56am Addthis Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe Our homemade solar oven. | Courtesy of Moon Choe ...

  9. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  10. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 *

  11. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake ... Be sure to have an adult help you with this Materials - One pizza box from a local pizza ...

  12. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  13. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  14. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #11 Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency (October 2007) (228.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Check

  15. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  16. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  17. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  18. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ovens Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial ovens, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance and

  19. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei

    1997-12-31

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  20. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  1. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast furnace (BF) is the most widely used ironmaking process in the U.S. A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgi- cal coke. This results in substantial improvement in furnace effciency and thus the reductions of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. December News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December News Blast December News Blast December News Blast december_2013_newsblast.pdf (337.86 KB) More Documents & Publications November 2013 News Blast January 2014 News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast

  3. February 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 News Blast February 2014 News Blast February 2014 News Blast february_2014_newsblast.pdf (251.82 KB) More Documents & Publications March 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast January 2014 News Blast

  4. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8, 9-12 Subject Solar Summary Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language Arts Plan Time One class period Materials One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store, tape, scissors, black construction paper, clear plastic wrap, aluminum foil,

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension

  6. Use of a scale model for coke oven charging practice development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, E.R.; Pendergras, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A 1/8 scale model coke oven was designed and built for use as a tool to improve coke oven charging practice. Major goals of the program were to increase coke oven productivity and decrease charging emissions. The material used to simulate coal in the model was chosen on the basis of angle of repose. the proper choice of media to simulate the coke oven charge, under a given set of operating conditions, was essential to obtain correspondence between the model and the production oven. Oven profiles were very similar after individual larry car hoppers were dropped and after leveling. Improved coke oven charging practices developed with the coke oven model, in combination with close control by operating personnel, have resulted in increased coke oven charge weights of over 1.0 ton/oven without increased charging emissions.

  7. November 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 News Blast November 2013 News Blast November 2013 News Blast november_2013_newsblast.pdf (397.02 KB) More Documents & Publications BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r January 2014 News Blast March 2014 Monthly

  8. Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    YouTube Facebook Twitter Blog Past Newsletters Bioenergy Social Media & Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast July 2013 Secretaries Moniz and Vilsack Speaking at Biomass ...

  9. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  10. Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Mills, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

  11. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  12. Lightweight blast shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  13. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  14. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  15. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  16. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  17. Demonstration of a fuel-saving system for paint-curing ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, W P

    1980-12-01

    Two curing ovens at Roll Coater, Inc. (the Greenfield, Indiana plant) were retrofitted to save fuel and cost. Included in the fuel conserving retrofit was the design, fabrication, and installation of an afterburner for each of the two ovens, piping their combustion products to each of two commonly housed waste heat boilers before discharge from those units to the atmosphere at about 450 F. Depending on the product being run and the coating applied, natural gas requirements have been reduced by 45 to 65% with operation of the zone incinerators only and by as much as 65 to 85% including the effects of both the zone incineration and heat recovery by means of the afterburners and waste heat boilers. A demonstration program on conversion work at the No. 3 line at Greenfield and results are described in Section 2. Section 3 describes the retrofit design and the system construction. System performance (tests and measurements, qualitative performance, maintenance factors, and economic performance) is described in Section 4. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  18. Laclede Gas Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Steamer: 475 Food Service Gas Fryer: 350 Food Service Griddle: 400 Food Service Convection Oven: 200 Kitchen Low-Flow Spray Nozzle: 100 Program Info Sector Name Utility...

  19. October 2013 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast October 2013 News Blast october_2013_newsblast.pdf (326.2 KB) More Documents & Publications September 2013 News Blast BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013

  20. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  1. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  3. Thermal reclamation of used blast grit. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Naval shipyards and other domestic port facilities generate thousands of tons of used blast grit annually. There are also thousands of steel bridges in the United States on a repaint schedule that requires grit blasting for surface preparation. All the used grit, along with the paint residue it contains, is currently disposed of in landfills. Cleaning and recycling used blast grit is an attractive alternative. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed a fluidized-bed sand calciner that is well suited for cleaning and recycling used blast grit. Essentially, IGT researchers applied a transfer/adaptation of fluidized-bed calcination originally developed for the reclamation of foundry sand. The calciner has a patented sloped-grid design that enhances the combustion of paint residues and promotes the isolation of reusable material.

  4. April 2013 Monthly News Blast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The monthly news blast for April 2013 highlights the Project Peer Review, upcoming events, BETO blog posts, and more.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on February 1, 2007) Natural gas spot prices across the country surged this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, January 17-24) as a blast of Arctic cold...

  6. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  7. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  8. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  9. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Think again. Cutting your natural gas bill can be as simple as adjusting a dial. Get ... water, and oils or in preheating charge material going into a furnace or oven. n Consider ...

  10. Monthly News Blast: February 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the February 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more.

  11. April 2013 Monthly News Blast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KDF Social Media YouTube Facebook Twitter Blog Past Newsletters Bioenergy Social Media & Multimedia Corner Monthly News Blast April 2013 Register Now for the 2013 ...

  12. Monthly News Blast: January 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In the January 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two new funding opportunities, the latest MYPP update, upcoming events, and more.

  13. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H.

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  14. BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    BETO Monthly News Blast from August 2013 august2013newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 Monthly News...

  15. April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    April 2012 monthly news blast from the Biomass Program, highlighting news items, funding opportunities, and events.

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  17. Hot repair of ceramic burner on hot blast stoves at USS/Kobe`s {number_sign}3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernarding, T.F.; Chemorov, M.; Shimono, S.; Phillips, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    During the 1992 reline of the No. 3 blast furnace, three new stoves were constructed. The design of the stoves, equipped with internal ceramic burners, was for providing a hot blast temperature of 2,000 F at a wind rate of 140,000 SCFM. After 3 years the performance had deteriorated so the burners were cleaned. When a second cleaning did not improve the performance of No. 3 blast furnace, it was decided to repair the refractory while still hot. The paper describes the hot repair procedures, taking a stove off for repairs, maintenance heat up during repairs, two stove operation, stove commissioning, repair of a ceramic burner, and wet gas prevention.

  18. ISSUANCE 2016-02-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

  19. Monthly News Blast: July 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 2013 Monthly News Blast: July 2013 July 2013 Monthly News Blast july_2013_newsblast.pdf (139.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly News Blast, June

  20. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030.

  1. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  2. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  3. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  4. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  5. February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Biomass Program News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast News Blast from the February 2012 Biomass Program. february2012_newsblast.pdf (121.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012

  6. BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 BETO Monthly News Blast, June 2013 The June 2013 monthly news blast covers Biomass 2013, the Program Management Review, upcoming industry events, and more. june_2013_newsblast.pdf (144.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Monthly News Blast: March 2013 BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2013r Monthly News Blast: July 2013

  7. Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December Monthly News Blast Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast The December News Blast from the Biomass Program's monthly newsletter contains important past and upcoming Program information. december_news_blast.pdf (151.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November November 2012 Newsblast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January

  8. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast - May 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast from May 2012 may2012_newsblast.pdf (166.44 KB) More Documents & Publications June 2012 News Blast: Algae on the Mind April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast

  9. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast January 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012 This is a copy of the Biomass Program's monthly news blast from January 2012. january2012_newsblast.pdf (119.07 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012

  10. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August News and updates from the Biomass Program in August 2011. august_news_blast.pdf (198.18 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June Biomass Program News Blast: September Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July

  11. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May News and updates from the Biomass Program in May 2011. may_news_blast.pdf (142.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June Biomass Program News Blast: September Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August

  12. Biomass Program News Blast: September | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    News Blast: September Biomass Program News Blast: September News and updates from the Biomass Program in September 2011. september_news_blast.pdf (178 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July

  13. May 2013 Monthly News Blast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office's May 2013 Monthly News Blast highlights the upcoming Biomass 2013 conference, a webinar on ionic liquids, the new Multi-Year Program Plan, and more.

  14. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  15. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  16. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  17. Evaluating high-temperature intumescent insulation materials under fire and blast conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, A.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes recent testing conducted to evaluate the performance of high-temperature intumescent materials under adverse fire and blast conditions. Results from fire performance evaluations currently protecting offshore oil platforms are presented. Extensive fire and blast qualification testing of epoxy-based intumescent materials has been conducted utilizing specially designed blast chambers, jet fire facilities, and laboratory furnaces. Blast chambers are capable of loading up to a 3 x 3-m insulated bulkhead assembly to a 2 bar over pressure and having a duration of approximately 250 millisecond generated by a controlled flammable vapor cloud explosion. The jet fire test exposes an insulated test specimen to a fire environment characterized by temperatures of approximately 1100 C, sonic gas velocities, and peak heat flux levels in excess of 300 kW/m{sup 2}.

  18. Blast Effects Suppression System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to protect critical facilities from the devastating effects of blast from a vehicle bomb. HydroSuppressor uses high volume water sprays to absorb the energy of the blast as...

  19. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  20. Blast rips Texas LPG storage site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

  1. EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon | Department of Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon August 21, 2013 - 9:18am Addthis A typical microwave is used to heat food for about 70 hours each year, but continues to use electricity for the remaining 8,690 hours of the year to power

  2. June 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. june_2014_newsblast.pdf (166.48 KB) More Documents & Publications July 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast March 2014

  3. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast - March 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - March 2012 Monthly updates from the Biomass Program in March 2012. march2012_newsblast.pdf (130.51 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 April 2012 Biomass Program News Blast February 2012 Biomass Program News Blast

  4. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July News and updates from the Biomass Program in July 2011. july_news_blast.pdf (129.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August

  5. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: June News and updates from the Biomass Program in June 2011. june_news_blast.pdf (120.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: July Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: May Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October

  6. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November News and Updates from the Biomass Program in November 2011. november_news_blast.pdf (110.18 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program December Monthly News Blast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October Biomass Program Monthly News Blast January 2012

  7. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: October News and updates from the Biomass Program in October 2011. october_news_blast.pdf (187.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: August Biomass Program Monthly News Blast: November Biomass Program News Blast: September

  8. Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 2012 News Blast Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast September 2012 Biomass Program monthly news blast. september2012_newsblast.pdf (161.6 KB) More Documents & Publications August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 November 2012 Newsblast

  9. Monthly News Blast: March 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 2013 Monthly News Blast: March 2013 In the March 2013 Monthly News Blast, read about two upcoming webinars, two recently announced BETO events, recent blog posts, the monthly staff spotlight video, upcoming events, and more. march_2013_newsblast.pdf (130.06 KB) More Documents & Publications April 2013 Monthly News Blast May 2013 Monthly News Blast Monthly News Blast: February 2013

  10. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  11. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  12. April 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. april2014newsblast.pdf (373.07 KB) More ...

  13. August 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    August 2014 Monthly News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast August 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. august2014newsblast.pdf (221.76 KB) More ...

  14. July 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast July 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. july_2014_newsblast.pdf (186.62 KB) More Documents & Publications May 2014 Monthly News Blast April 2014 Monthly News Blast June 2014 Monthly News Blast Bioenergy Home About the Bioenergy Technologies Office Research & Development Education & Workforce Development Financial Opportunities Information Resources News Events Contact Us

  15. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  16. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  17. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfdblastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More ...

  18. March 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 2014 Monthly News Blast March 2014 Monthly News Blast BETO Gets Innovative with New Interactive Tool PDF icon march2014newsblast.pdf More Documents & Publications February ...

  19. Atomic Photography: Blasts from the Past

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Photography National Security Science Latest Issue:July 2015 past issues All Issues submit Atomic Photography: Blasts from the Past A gallery of images reveals the weird...

  20. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  1. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  2. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  3. Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

  4. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. )

    1993-01-01

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  5. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Build an oven, cook a meal: How solar energy empowered women in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankenship, J. )

    1990-12-01

    A pilot solar cooking project in the hot, northern province of Guanacaste promises to serve as a model for community groups wanting to build their own solar ovens. An $8,000 (US) grant has been awarded by the Canadian Embassy in Costa Rica to take the Guanacaste project into a second stage in 1990-91. Two construction workshops, with twelve participants in each, are planned in communities near Oriente. Three women from the Oriente group will have paid jobs as organizational facilitators and workshop supervisors. In popular education this is called the multiplier effect - the users of solar cookers construct the ovens themselves, and then instruct others to do the same. 3 refs.

  7. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  8. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  9. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  10. August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast August 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Monthly newsletter for August 2012 from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program. august2012_newsblast.pdf (155.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 November 2012 Newsblast

  11. Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blast, October 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast, October 2012 Copy of the Biomass Program Monthly News Blast from October 2012. october2012_newsblast.pdf (169.17 KB) More Documents & Publications November 2012 Newsblast Biomass Program September 2012 News Blast Monthly Newsblast December 2012

  12. Coke oven air and water pollution. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coke oven pollution. Monitoring, sampling, analyzing, transport properties, and control of emissions and effluents are cited in this compilation from worldwide journals. Pollutants described are sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phenols, benzopyrene, particulates, and other trace elements and compounds. Process and equipment modifications, such as pipeline charging, wet and dry quenching, retrofitting, and oven leakage preventives are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  14. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  15. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  16. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  17. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  18. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  19. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  20. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  1. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on February 1, 2007) Natural gas spot prices across the country surged this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, January 17-24) as a blast of Arctic cold...

  3. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  4. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  5. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  6. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  7. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  8. System to acquire and monitor operating machinery positions for horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, D.; Teschner, W.

    1980-02-26

    In a horizontal coke oven battery with at least one coke receiving device movable along one longitudinal side of the battery and at least one coke driving device movable along an opposite longitudinal side of the battery, an apparatus is disclosed for determining the relative position of the coke receiving device with respect to the coke driving device and for activating the coke driving device when its position corresponds with that of the coke receiving device. A first wheel is mounted on the coke receiving device for rotation with the movement of the coke receiving device, a first angle encoder is connected to the first wheel for producing a first signal corresponding to the location of the first wheel and the position of the coke receiving device along the coke oven, and an input storage in the form of a magnetic disc is connected to the first angle encoder for recording and storing the signal. A second wheel is mounted on the coke driving device for rotation with the movement of the coke driving device and a second angle encoder is connected thereto for producing a second signal which corresponds to the rotation of the second wheel and the position of the coke driving device along the coke oven. A comparator is connected to the second signal encoder for receiving the second signal and a data link is provided between the comparator and the input storage of the coke receiving device so that the first signal from the coke receiving device can be impressed on the comparator. An activator is connected to the comparator for activating the coke driving device when the first signal corresponds to the second signal indicating a corresponding positional relationship between the coke receiving device and the coke driving device.

  9. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  10. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  11. Blast furnace supervision and control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

  12. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  13. January 2014 News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 2014 News Blast January 2014 News Blast Congratulations Jonathan Male, Valerie Reed, and Joynce Yang of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) for being voted into the "Top 100 People in the Bioeconomy." In December 2013, the readers and editors of Biofuels Digest announced BETO's own staff members as the 15th most influential leaders in the bioeconomy for 2013-2014, outranking Members of Congess, leaders of large trade associations, and international bioenergy companies.

  14. The formation of an ore free blast furnace center by bell charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exter, P. den; Steeghs, A.G.S.; Godijn, R.; Chaigneau, R.; Timmer, R.M.C.; Toxopeus, H.L.; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    A research program has been started to clarify and support the central gas flow control philosophy of Hoogovens` bell-charged No. 7 blast furnace. Small scale burdening experiments and sampling of the stock surface during shut-downs suggest that a sufficiently high central gas flow is an important condition for maintenance of an ore free, highly permeable furnace center and that fluidization of coke plays a part in its formation. On the basis of these experiments a hypothesis was formulated regarding the formation of an ore free blast furnace center, but could not be confirmed satisfactorily. Forthcoming full-scale burdening experiments will provide a better insight in the burden distribution and its control.

  15. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  16. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  17. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  18. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  19. May 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    May 2014 Monthly News Blast May 2014 Monthly News Blast from the Bioenergy Technologies Office. may2014newsblast.pdf (160.85 KB) More Documents & Publications April 2014 Monthly ...

  20. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  1. July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 monthly newsletter from the Department of Energy's Biomass Program. july2012_newsblast.pdf (188.06 KB) More Documents & Publications July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast Monthly Newsblast December 2012 November 2012 Newsblast

  2. High-strength insulating castable used behind coke-oven buckstays and jambs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sich, G. Jr. ); Gladfelder, L.A. . Iron and Steel Monolithics); Cox, F.S.

    1993-10-01

    Conventional pumpable, clay-based grouting materials used behind the armor/jamb systems were inadequate. Open brick joints caused reduced end flue temperatures which resulted in improper coking with reduced yields and coke quality, as well as difficulties in controlling door emissions. Based on criteria established by an Armco task force, a unique commercial product supplied by North American Refractories was located that had the potential of meeting these requirements. A laboratory trial casting program was undertaken by Armco that verified the potential of this castable refractory. Development programs by Armco and North American Refractories were established to optimize the properties of the refractory. Actual oven repairs have demonstrated that the castable developed meets all requirements for successful performance. These include: absence of castable failures; nonspalling; repairable through ceramic welding; and acceptable flowability.

  3. The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, A. E.; Carey, L.; Feng, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

  4. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  5. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B.

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G.; Jelenich, L.; Ward, R.F.

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  7. Blast furnace control after the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyllenram, R.; Wikstroem, J.O.; Hallin, M.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid technical development together with developments in work organization makes it important to investigate possible ways to achieve a cost efficient process control of different metallurgical processes. This paper describes a research project, and proposes a human oriented Information Technology Strategy, ITS, for control of the Blast Furnace process. The method used is that of deductive reasoning from a description of the prevailing technological level and experiences from various development activities. The paper is based on experiences from the No. 2 Blast Furnace at Luleaa Works but the conclusions do not at this stage necessarily reflect the opinion of the management and personnel or reflect their intentions for system development at SSAB.

  8. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure Sensors in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Traumatic Brain Injury Protection: Blast Pressure ... Technology Marketing Summary The cost of treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is ...

  10. September 2014 Monthly News Blast | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bioenergy Technologies Office. september2014newsblast.pdf (162.13 KB) More Documents & Publications August 2014 Monthly News Blast Growing America's Energy Future: Bioenergy ...

  11. Waste gas to save steel firm $160,000/mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1982-07-19

    An Armco Inc. plant at Houston will save $160,000 a month in avoided fuel costs by burning waste gas produced in its blast furnace. The $5.3 million Schack boiler system will have a three-year payback and a 25% return on investment. Armco will apply both the 10% business investment and the 10% energy-conservation tax credits. Armco decided not to renew a natural gas contract after prices rose to over $4 per thousand cubic feet. There will be no economic benefits, however, until improvements in the economy warrant restarting the blast furnace, which has been idle since mid-June. (DCK)

  12. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  13. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C.; Steiger, R.; Jeschar, R.

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  14. BETO Monthly News Blast, August 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    News Blast August 2014 Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste as a Feedstock POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY in Emmetsburg, Iowa, will celebrate its grand opening September 3, 2014, becoming the first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock. Developed through a joint venture between POET, LLC in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and DSM Royal, a Dutch maker of enzymes, the project uses biochemical conversion technologies (yeast and

  15. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  16. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  17. Thermal reclamation of spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.G. ); Thomas, W.; Adema, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Abrasive blasting media is used to remove anticorrosive and antifoulant coatings from the hulls and tanks of US Navy ships. The total production of paint-contaminated spent abrasives from the eight US. Navy shipyards ranges from 75,000 to 100,000 tons per year. Most of this spent abrasive is disposed in landfills. Organic paint binders and heavy metals are present in the spent abrasives in concentrations sufficient to classify them as hazardous wastes in some states. In an effort to avoid the rising costs an long-term environmental liability associated with landfilling this waste, the US Navy has investigated various methods of reclaiming spent abrasives for reuse in hull- and tank-blasting operations. This paper discusses the results of a research and development project conducted under the Navy's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program to test a fluidized-bed sloped-grid (FBSG) reclaimer to determine if it could be used to recycle spent abrasive. Thirty tons of abrasive were processed and a product meeting military specifications for new abrasives was reclaimed. Blasting performance was also comparable to new abrasives. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. June 2012 News Blast: Algae on the Mind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 News Blast: Algae on the Mind June 2012 News Blast: Algae on the Mind Biomass Program monthly newsletter from June 2012. june2012_newsblast.pdf (137.87 KB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Monthly News Blast - May 2012 July 2012 Biomass Program Monthly News Blast July 2012 Biomass Program

  19. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  20. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  1. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  2. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  3. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  4. Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, T. E. Pasley, J.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.

    2014-10-15

    Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

  5. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the

  6. Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs cfd_blastfurnace.pdf (552.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry EA-1745: Finding of No Significant Impact

  7. ChemCam is having a blast on Mars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ChemCam Is Having A Blast On Mars Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit ChemCam is having a blast on Mars Following the successful landing of the Mars rover Curiosity on August 5, Lab scientists and their French counterparts have already begun firing its onboard laser and collecting data. September 1, 2012 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email

  8. LTC 1073 vacuum blasting (concrete) human factors assessment -- Baseline (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high capacity, direct pressure blasting system incorporating a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast head. A vacuum system removes dust and debris from the surfaces as it is blasted. After cleaning the surface, the abrasive, together with the rust or coating that was removed from the surface, is vacuumed into the machine through the suction hose. The dust separator contains angled steel collision pads, working with the force of gravity, to allow any reusable abrasive to fall back into the pressure vessel. The filters are manually back flushed to prevent clogging. After back flushing, dust is dumped from the dust chamber into the dust collection bag or drum by operation of the bellows valve. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on dust and noise exposure. Dust exposure was found to be minimal, but noise exposure was potentially significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may cause the results to be inapplicable to indoor settings. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  9. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  10. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E.; Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  11. Evaluation of density separation and other treatment methods for plastic media blasting (PMB) waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Morgan, I.L.; Trotter, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The United States Air Force has developed plastic media blasting (PMB) to replace solvent paint stripping of its aircraft. This paint blasting operation generates a waste stream of mainly pulverized plastic, but the stream also contains enough paint pigments to make the PMB waste RCRA hazardous. A Phase I study identified density separation as the preferred treatment alternative to land disposal of the entire PMB waste stream in a hazardous landfill. This study found density separation to be a less attractive alternative to self-encapsulation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), and low-temperature ashing. Self-encapsulation resulted in a volume decrease but only moderate improvement in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) performance Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) into cementiaous waste for resulted in excellent TCLP performances, but volume increases. Low-temperature ashing resulted in dramatic volume decreases, but off-gas control is required to contain all the RCRA metals. The resulting ash must be stabilized (e.g., S/S) to meet TCLP limits.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  13. Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) External Link: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/02/unexpectedly-navys-superlaser-blasts-awa... By jlab_admin on Fri, 2011-02-18

  14. Record production on Gary No. 13 blast furnace with 450 lb./THM co-injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coal injection was initiated on No. 13 Blast Furnace in 1993 with 400 lb/THM achieved in 9 months. In early 1994, cold weather and coal preparation upsets led to the use of a second injectant, oil atomized by natural gas, to supplement the coal. Various combinations of coal and oil were investigated as total injection was increased to 450 lb/THM. Beginning in the last half of 1994, a continuing effort has been made to increase furnace production while maintaining this high co-injection level. Typical furnace production is now in excess of 10,000 THM/day compared with about 8500 THM/day in late 1993.

  15. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  16. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  18. Surface preparation via grit-blasting for thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Lundberg, L.B.; Hartley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The major reason for grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents five statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the grit blasting process. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. A substantial range of grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated, including grit type, pressure, working distance, and exposure time. The substrates were characterized for surface characteristics using image analysis. These attributes are correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Optimized process parameters for the two machines used in this study as predicted by the SDE analysis are presented.

  19. Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

    2009-05-01

    A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

  20. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  1. Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

    2006-09-01

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

  2. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  3. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  5. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  6. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  7. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  8. RESONANT AMPLIFICATION OF TURBULENCE BY THE BLAST WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zankovich, A. M.; Kovalenko, I. G.

    2015-02-10

    We discuss the idea of whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a nonlocal resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with increasing amplification the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- (l ∼ 1), meso- (l ∼ 20), and microscopic (l > 200) scales. Since the resonance width is narrow (typically, Δl < 1), resonance should select and amplify discrete isolated harmonics. We speculate on a possible explanation of an observed regular filamentary structure of regularly shaped round supernova remnants such as SNR 1572, 1006, or 0509-67.5. Resonant mesoscales found (l ≈ 18) are surprisingly close to the observed scales (l ≈ 15) of ripples in the shell's surface of SNR 0509-67.5.

  9. Treatment studies of paint stripping waste from plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Blasting with plastic media is used to strip paint and decontaminate surfaces. For disposal the plastic media is pulverized into a plastic dust. About 10 wt % of the waste from plastic media blasting is pulverized paint, which makes the waste a characteristically hazardous waste because of the presence of barium, cadmium, chromium and lead in the paint pigments. Four separate treatments of this hazardous waste were studied: (1) density separation to remove the paint, (2) self-encapsulation of the mix of plastic and paint dust into plastic pellets, (3) solidification/stabilization (S/S) into cementitious waste forms, and (4) low-temperature ashing to destroy the large mass of nonhazardous polymer. Two types of plast blasting wastes were studied: a urea formaldehyde thermoset polymer and an acrylic thermoplastic polymer (polymethylmethacrylate). Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) extraction concentrations for the treated and untreated wastes are listed. Density separation failed to adequately separate the paint with an aqueous carbonate solution. Self-encapsulation reduced the waste volume by about 50%, but did not meet TCLP criteria. Cementitious solidification gave the lowest TCLP concentrations, but increased the waste volume by about 50%. Low-temperature ashing at 600 C resulted in a mass decrease of 93 to 98% for the wastes; the metals remaining in the ash could be stabilized with cementitious solidification and still result in a volume decrease of 75 to 95 volume percent.

  10. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  11. Gas venting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edwin F.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas venting from radioactive-material containers which utilizes the passageways between interbonded impervious laminae.

  12. Magmatic model for the Mount St. Helens blast of May 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichelberger, J.C.; Hayes, D.B.

    1982-09-10

    Analytical and numerical solutions to the hydrodynamic equations of motion, constrained by physical properties of juvenile ejecta in the Mount St. Helens blast deposit, were used to investigate magmatic conditions required to produce the initial devastating blast phase of the eruption of May 18, 1980. Evidence that the blast was magmatic includes equivalence in volume of juvenile blast ejecta to preeruption inflation of the cone, substantial vesicularity of this ejecta, and continued vesiculation of large juvenile clasts after eruption. Observed or inferred ejecta velocities of 100 to 250 m/s are shown to require 0.2 to 0.7 wt% water vapor preexisting in magma unloaded by a landslide 200 to 900 m thick. These conditions imply total magmatic water contents of 0.7 to 1.7 wt%, respectively. Such low required water content suggests that volcanic blasts may be regarded as a normal consequence of magma intrusion into an unstable edifice.

  13. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO{sub 2})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}), as shown in a front view is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO{sub 2} xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. The cryogenesis subsystem performs the actual decontamination work and consists of the dry ice supply unit, the blasting nozzle, the remotely controlled electric and pneumatic valves, and the vacuum work-head. The COYOTEE subsystem positions the blasting work-head within a planar work space and the vacuum subsystem provides filtration and containment of the debris generated by the CO{sub 2} blasting. It employs a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration unit to separate contaminants for disposal. All of the above systems are attached to the vehicle subsystem via the support structure.

  14. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H.

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  15. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  16. The stability of slopes subjected to blasting vibration -- Assessment and application in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, R.; Keller, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the rush to beat the clock before the handover of Hong Kong back to China in June of 1997, an unprecedented amount of infrastructure work is being undertaken at a breakneck pace. In the middle of this construction explosion, on this island of barren granite, stands some of the most concerning and restrictive slope stability measures. So conservative, these measures impact blasting and vibration control to an extent unmatched anywhere in the world. This paper covers the application of vibration limitations and assessment of the stability of rock slopes subjected to blasting vibration in a very challenging application. The widening of the Tuen Mun highway, a project to improve a main artery to the city center to accommodate the ever increasing traffic, involves the blasting of existing slopes in cuts only a few meters wide and up to 45 meters in height, while addressing assessment limitations in a variety of geological conditions. Discussed in the paper is the application of guidelines imposed by the Geotechnical Engineering Office and the Mines Division of the Hong Kong Government and measures taken to address them, i.e., adjustment of geological factors for practical application in blast design; blasting with minimal effect; and maximum protective measures. As slope stability becomes another ever-increasing environmental concern affecting blasting, these applications may be helpful in addressing the encroachment of impending restrictions in other parts of the world on challenging projects where blast assessment of slopes is a critical factor.

  17. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  18. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  19. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L.

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  20. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  1. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Sirgado, M.

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  2. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, P.W.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  3. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  4. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  5. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  6. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  7. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  8. Gas magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  9. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  10. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  11. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... Grid Integration & Advanced Inverters Materials & Fabrication Microsystems Enabled ...

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  13. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  14. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  15. Process control techniques at the blast furnaces of Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Beppler, E.; Kreibich, K.; Muelheims, K.; Peters, M.; Wieters, C.U.

    1995-12-01

    Process improvements, capacity increases and the use of modern measuring and process control techniques have helped to ensure that the blast furnace will remain an indispensable means of supplying steelworks with hot metal until well into the next century. The survival of a future-oriented company such as Thyssen Stahl AG depends on long-term improvements in economic viability. Today, Thyssen Stahl AG operates two blast furnace plants comprising a total of five blast furnaces with hearth diameters ranging from 9.3 to 14.9m. This choice of furnaces permits flexible adjustment to changing workload situations and enables about ten million tons of hot metal to be produced each year. The wide range of measuring devices specially fitted on Schwelgern blast furnace No. 1 made a vital contribution to the development of blast furnace models. The purpose of these models was to make a general assessment of the state of the furnace and so create an objective basis for furnace operation. The paper describes the development of these measuring techniques and process model and the application of the model.

  16. New results from BLAST on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (deuterium) internal polarized gas target, and the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance ... using a polarized proton target, which is complementary to recoil polarimetry experiments. ...

  17. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 2. 9. Blast injuries in foxholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, J.M.; Maupin, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to gain information about the amount of protection from direct blast effects that may be provided by foxholes of uniform dimensions located within distances of a nuclear explosion that are recognized as lethal for combinations of thermal and ionzing radiations and indirect blast injuries. Sixteen dogs protected in foxholes were exposed in pairs to the nuclear detonation. Autopsies performed between 10 and 15 hours after the blast demonstrated mild to moderately severe lung hemorrhages and three instances of mild to moderately severe brain hemorrhage. Ruptured ear drums and blast damage to abdominal viscera were infrequent. Evidences of acute ionizing radiation injury consisted in decreases in absolute lymphocyte counts and changes in lymph nodes and spleens. Photographs and diagrams of foxholes, animals, and tissue speciments; graphs of blast pressures, gamma doses, and neutron fluxes are included.

  18. A Novel Flash Ironmaking Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A novel ironmaking process is proposed that reduces energy consumption and greenhouse gases compared with blast furnaces and coke ovens. A falling stream of iron ore particles is ...

  19. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. Deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. Denominators represent the value of...

  20. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and...

  1. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  2. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  3. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  5. Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chien-Chih Liu, J.

    1993-12-31

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  7. Investigation of separation, treatment, and recycling options for hazardous paint blast media waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1996-02-01

    U.S. Army depot depaint operations generate over 4 million kg per year of contaminated paint blast media wastes. The objective of this work was to investigate technologies that might significantly mitigate this Army hazardous waste disposal problem. Most of the technologies investigated either failed to meet acceptable TCLP levels for hazardous metals content, or failed to meet Army disposal requirements. However, based on a review of several commercially available services, it is recommended that Army depot depaint operations consider processing hazardous blast media waste through properly regulated contractors that offer safe, effective, and economical stabilization, fixation, and recycling technologies.

  8. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  9. Altos Hornos de Mexico blast furnace No. 5 certification in ISO-9002 standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamez, O.; Liceaga, F.; Arredondo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico`s Blast Furnace No. 5, as a means to improve its product quality, sought and obtained the certification of its quality system based on the international standard ISO-9002. The certification was obtained under this quality standard in Dec. 1995 and has successfully been maintained after two continuance audits. For blast furnace No. 5 (BF5) the benefits are reflected by a reduction in the hot metal silicon content variability, a decrease in fuel consumption and a higher productivity. Benefits were also obtained in the working environment where the personnel became more highly motivated, procedures were carried out to completion and the quality records were filled correctly.

  10. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  11. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  13. GAS SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  14. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  15. Development of quick repairing technique for ceramic burner in hot stove of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Atsushi; Doura, Kouji; Nakamura, Hirofumi

    1997-12-31

    Refractories of ceramic burner in hot stoves at Wakayama No. 4 blast furnace were damaged. There are only three hot stoves, so repairing must be done in a short. Therefore, a quick repairing technique for ceramic burners has been developed, and two ceramic burners were repaired in just 48 hours.

  16. Development and application of new techniques for blast furnace process control at SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braemming, M.; Hallin, M.; Zuo, G.

    1995-12-01

    SSAB Tunnplaat AB operates two blast furnaces (M1 and M2) in Luleaa. In recent years research efforts have to a great extent been aimed at the development of new techniques for blast furnace process control. An example is the installation of a burden profile measurement system, which was useful in the development of a new burden distribution praxis on the big furnace (M2), equipped with a bell-less-top. Hearth level detection and continuous measurement of the hot metal temperature in the runner are under evaluation. The purpose of these techniques is to give earlier information concerning the state of the blast furnace process. Parallel to this work, models for prediction of silicon in hot metal, the position and shape of the cohesive zone and slip-warning are being developed and tested off-line. These new models and information from new measuring techniques will be integrated into a new Operating Guidance System, hopefully resulting in a powerful tool in the efforts to stabilize blast furnace operations.

  17. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural Gas ...

  18. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural Gas ...

  19. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  20. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary ... Fossil Energy Research Benefits FE's early investments in shale research in the 1970s ...

  1. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  2. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  3. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New York Natural Gas ...

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

  5. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  6. EA-1662: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: EnergyConservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)

  7. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  8. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  9. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  10. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  11. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  12. Incineration of residue from paint stripping operations using plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helt, J.E.; Mallya, N.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PMB) wastes from plant removal operations. PMB is similar to sandblasting although blasting taken place at a much lower pressure. The blasted media can be recovered and recycled several times, but ultimately a residue of paint dust/chips and attrited media dust are left for disposal. This residue is a dry solid that may potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is incineration. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However, the fate of heavy metals from the entrained paint waste is not known. Samples of PMB residue were combusted at temperatures between 690/degree/C and 815/degree/C with approximately 125% of the stoichiometric air. The ash remaining after combustion was then analyzed for heavy metal content and tested for leachability using the EPA toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP). 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  13. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  14. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  15. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  17. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  18. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  19. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New Mexico Natural ...

  20. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) North Dakota Natural ...

  1. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  3. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  5. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  7. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  11. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  12. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  13. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  14. Imported resources - gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marxt, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines aspects of the supply and demand of natural gas and natural gas products such as LNG in the Czech Republic.

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  18. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  19. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  4. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  7. Unconventional Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... lb Pound LCA Life cycle analysis LNG Liquefied natural gas M Magnitude (Richter ... reversed plans to import liquefied natural gas (LNG), and many are now proposing exports. ...

  8. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

  9. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  10. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  11. Asian natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Ohashi, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

  12. NETL: Natural Gas Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Resources Useful for heating, manufacturing, and as chemical feedstock, natural gas has the added benefit of producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other fossil fuels used in power production.The United States is endowed with an abundance of natural gas resources, so increasing use of natural gas power can help strengthen domestic energy security. NETL research efforts enhance technologies that reduce the cost, increase the efficiency, and reduce the environmental risk of

  13. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  14. Experimental characterization of energetic material dynamics for multiphase blast simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresh, Steven Jay; Wagner, Justin L.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Wright, Elton K.; Baer, Melvin R.; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Currently there is a substantial lack of data for interactions of shock waves with particle fields having volume fractions residing between the dilute and granular regimes, which creates one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of energetic material detonation. To close this gap, a novel Multiphase Shock Tube has been constructed to drive a planar shock wave into a dense gas-solid field of particles. A nearly spatially isotropic field of particles is generated in the test section by a gravity-fed method that results in a spanwise curtain of spherical 100-micron particles having a volume fraction of about 19%. Interactions with incident shock Mach numbers of 1.66, 1.92, and 2.02 were achieved. High-speed schlieren imaging simultaneous with high-frequency wall pressure measurements are used to reveal the complex wave structure associated with the interaction. Following incident shock impingement, transmitted and reflected shocks are observed, which lead to differences in particle drag across the streamwise dimension of the curtain. Shortly thereafter, the particle field begins to propagate downstream and spread. For all three Mach numbers tested, the energy and momentum fluxes in the induced flow far downstream are reduced about 30-40% by the presence of the particle field. X-Ray diagnostics have been developed to penetrate the opacity of the flow, revealing the concentrations throughout the particle field as it expands and spreads downstream with time. Furthermore, an X-Ray particle tracking velocimetry diagnostic has been demonstrated to be feasible for this flow, which can be used to follow the trajectory of tracer particles seeded into the curtain. Additional experiments on single spherical particles accelerated behind an incident shock wave have shown that elevated particle drag coefficients can be attributed to increased compressibility rather than flow unsteadiness, clarifying confusing results from the historical database of shock tube

  15. Characterization and dispersion of pollutant releases from the abrasive blasting of lead paint from steel bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Rana, B.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of airborne and spent material for abrasive blasting of steel paint was performed as part of the Environmental Impact Statement for Lead Paint Removal Operations on New York City Department of Transportation Bridges1. Laboratory tests were performed on painted steel components of the Williamsburg Bridge, to determine the sizes of particles typically released into the air as aerosol and onto the ground as bulk material, as a result of accidental releases from abrasive blasting operations. Two of the most commonly used abrasives for paint removal on steel structures, recyclable steel grit and expendable abrasives were subjected to the laboratory tests. The results of the tests were used to determine the percentage of existing paint and abrasive which becomes airborne and the resultant particle size distributions, which were employed in the air quality concentration and deposition modeling for the EIS. Particle size distributions of the airborne material indicated that the profiles of airborne lead and particulate matter have a mean particle size between 15 and 21 microns. Spent abrasives and paint chips that settle on the floor are larger in size with a mean diameter greater than 259 microns, although up to 6% of this material has a mean diameter less than 50 microns. The percentage of paint and expendable abrasives that become airborne as a result of abrasive blasting were estimated to be as high as 9.0 and 12.4%, respectively. Potential release rates were derived for total accumulation (duration of the project), annual, quarterly, 24-hour, and 1-hour time averaging periods for abrasives, lead, and other metals. Pollutant releases were simulated as individual sources at multiple release heights with the Environment Protection Agency's ISC3ST model for six representative bridges near potential places of public exposure.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  17. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  18. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  19. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluation of Plastic Media Blasting for paint stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darvin, C.H.; Wilmoth, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency and the U.S. EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory cooperated to investigate the feasibility of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) as a paint-removal technique for aluminum military shelters. The PMB process was compared in field tests with sandblasting and with chemical stripping to determine relative cost, effectiveness, efficiency, and environmental consequence. The PMB process was judged superior to the chemical-stripping process and marginally better than sandblasting based upon the evaluation criteria.

  20. A method for burden distribution estimation from probe data in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.; Bulsari, A.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach for estimation of burden distribution in the blast furnace is presented. The proposed model makes use of only temperature measurements from an above-burden probe, and interprets the changes in temperature at charging in terms of burden distribution. In this study it is demonstrated that the temperature changes can be predicted quite accurately for all dumps in a charging sequence using neural networks., The basic structures of both an on-line and an off-line model are presented.

  1. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. . Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  2. Bosh repairs No. 3 blast furnace, Edgar Thomson Plant Mon Valley Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoupis, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the steps taken from quenching to dry out of the furnace to repair the bosh area of the No.3 blast furnace. Inspection of the area revealed that there was no brick anywhere in the bosh. Brick in the tuyere breast area had been peeled back to reveal the steel plate, and descaling revealed 14 pipes fully exposed. None were leaking, but one seemed badly deteriorated. Conventional repairs could not take place before the scheduled blow-in. Installation of coolers were instead tried.

  3. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  4. Suppressor for reducing the muzzle blast and flash of a firearm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W

    2014-09-30

    Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases.

  5. Variable leak gas source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Combined Natural Gas Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  7. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  8. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  9. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  10. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  11. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  12. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  13. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  14. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  15. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  16. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  17. ,"Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  18. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  19. ,"Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  20. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural ...

  2. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural ...

  3. Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Virginia Underground Natural ...

  4. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  5. Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  6. US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  7. Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  8. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  9. Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  10. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  11. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    delivery volumes. Northern Natural Gas Company issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) for all market-area zones for gas day February 21, 2008. The SOL was the result of...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 2,414 Bcf as of Friday, January 9,...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 821 Bcf as of May 2, according to...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Natural gas stocks stood at 2,155 Bcf as of Friday, July 9,...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage as of September 2 totaled 2,669 Bcf,...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  18. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  19. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped 0.24 from the previous Friday to 4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of...

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  4. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    while the OFO was in effect. Pacific Gas and Electric Company extended a systemwide high-inventory OFO on its California Gas Transmission system through Saturday, July 5. It was...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the OFO customers who delivered more than 110 percent of their actual gas usage into the system would be assessed for charges. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in storage, as well as decreases in the price of crude oil. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 2,905 Bcf as of...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of natural gas into storage, despite robust inventories. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 3,258 Bcf as of...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas inventories...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Northeast were expected to be in the single digits. Prices off Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line in New York and Algonquin Gas Transmission in the New England region yesterday...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in combination with water. Gas hydrate is thought to exist in great abundance in nature and has the potential to be a significant new energy source to meet future energy...

  18. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  19. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    withdrawal from working gas storage reported last Thursday. A contributing factor to the run-up in natural gas prices could be climbing crude oil prices, which rallied late last...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

  2. offshore_gas.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Source: Energy Information Administration based on data from MMS, HPDI, CA Dept of Oil , Gas & Geothermal Updated: April 8, 2009 Alabama 20 0 m Gas Production, Last Reported Year ...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on Thursday, May 9, 2002. A sample of EIA's report can be seen at: Weekly Gas Storage Test Page. The Natural Gas Weekly Market Update report will convert to the new data series...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.217 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.315 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 17) Natural gas spot prices increased this week (Wednesday to Wednesday, March 2-9) as a late season cold front moved into major gas-consuming...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  9. ,"Texas Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","2... 6:46:23 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TX3"...

  10. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

  11. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  12. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO{sub 2} Cleanblast{trademark}) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO{sub 2} particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO{sub 2} Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended.

  13. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Cooper, Candice Frances; Burnett, Damon J.

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  14. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  15. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  16. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P.; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  20. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  3. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M.

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  4. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  5. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas Safety Research

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page 1 Liquefied Natural Gas Safety ... Energy | May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page i Message from the ...

  7. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  8. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  9. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission Path Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural Gas Transmission Path

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... distribution, or storage operations. 2 Capacity ... as found in the Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Transportation Information System, Natural Gas ...

  12. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  13. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  14. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  16. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 2. Measurement of surface-air movements associated with atomic blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rados, R.M.; Bogert, J.C.; Haig, T.O.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to record continuous measurements of the surface winds in the vicinity of an atomic blast immediately prior to the blast, during passage of the shock wave, and immediately after the blast with special regard to the blast-induced afterwind following local dissipation of the shock wave. From the data obtained, it was concluded that following an atomic explosion there are two specific causes of air-mass movement. One is related to the shock phenomenon and the other to the rising fireball. It can also be concluded that the heated-thermopile-type and strain-gage-type anemometers could be developed to yield more complete data on the air-mass movement at ground level following an atomic explosion.

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  18. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  19. Originally Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 *

  20. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,"Waste",," " ,,,"Blast",,,"Pulping Liquor",,"Oils/Tars" "NAICS",,,"Furnace/Coke",,"Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black

  1. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  2. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  3. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  4. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  5. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stations Compressor Stations Illustration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Illustration, 2008 Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil & Gas, Natural Gas Division, Natural Gas Transportation Information System. The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  7. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  8. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovtun, Maxim Kearsley, Elsabe P. Shekhovtsova, Julia

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  9. Revisiting the emission from relativistic blast waves in a density-jump medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<10{sup 4} s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  10. Laboratory verification of blast-induced liquefaction mechanism. Final report Jan-Jul 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fragaszy, R.J.; Voss, M.E.

    1981-10-01

    A mechanism for blast-induced liquefaction was tested in a series of high pressure undrained, isotropic compression tests on saturated samples of Eniwetok beach sand and Ottawa sand. Theory, based on inelastic volume compressibility of sand, was shown to be valid for the case of quasi-static, isotropic loading. Specimens of Eniwetok sand subjected to an initial effective stress of 1 MPa were liquefied by a single cycle of loading of 34 MPa. Specimens of Ottawa sand, tested in the same manner, generated excess pore pressure but not enough to completely liquefy the soil. The errors introduced by flexibility of the testing systems were analyzed and found to be insignificant. Suggestions for future research were made.

  11. Hoogovens blast furnace No. 6 -- The first eleven years of a continuing campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tijhuis, G.; Toxopeus, H.; Berg, H. van den; Vliet, C. van der

    1997-12-31

    Blast furnace No. 6 of Hoogovens Steel has just completed its eleventh year of the fourth (running) campaign, with a total production of approx. 23 million metric tonnes of hot metal. During the last reline in 1985 the furnace was equipped with a third taphole and a bell-less top. The lining consists of graphite and semi-graphite and the cooling consists of a dense pattern of copper plate coolers. The current campaign is marked by several important operational events, in particular the high productivity and PCI rates, but also by the remarkable performance of the lining which has shown limited wear in the first four years of the campaign, and hardly any reduction of the lining thickness in the last seven years. This paper discusses the design of the furnace, and the history of the current campaign with respect to its productivity, PCI rates and lining wear.

  12. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  13. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  14. Pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  16. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    As of February 14, Northern Natural Gas implemented a system overrun limitation (SOL) affecting all market area zones. These zones are located in the northern part of the...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Company, for example, on Tuesday, October 21, issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) that allows for penalties on variances between flows and nominations. The SOL is in...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Government Accountability Office into specific leases that excluded price threshold language and a court action by Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corporation challenging the Department...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    oil and gas resources will be necessary even as efficiency improvements reduce demand and renewable sources become more available. In order to retain public trust environmentally...

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    average, the general price level in the natural gas market has shown surprising resilience over the past few weeks. After an extended price decline since mid December, spot...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Other Market Trends: MMS Issues Final Notice of Western Gulf Lease Sale: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) will offer several incentives to increase domestic oil and gas...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Storage Estimates Database. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on the Fundamentals of Natural Gas Storage: EIA prepared a new report to provide general background...

  5. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    over the next few days. To avoid penalties, Northwest requested that customers stay within their scheduled volumes, and asked customers who owe gas to Northwest north of...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Upward pressure on prices at the NYMEX also appears related to concerns over events in Japan that could affect energy markets. Japan, the worlds largest liquefied natural gas...

  8. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    , 2009 Next Release: July 9, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 2, 2009) Since...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6, 2008 Next Release: November 14, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, November 5) Since...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0, 2009 Next Release: August 6, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 29, 2009) Since...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2008 Next Release: July 24, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview The report week ended July 16 registered significant...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    constraint. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a systemwide Stage 2 high-inventory OFO for Saturday, May 5, because of projections that linepack on the California...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), futures prices also increased this week in tandem with the crude oil prices. The natural gas futures contract for delivery in June...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on December 9, falling from somewhat higher intraweek levels. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage dropped 64 Bcf during the...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and October 2010 contracts all fell by less than 1 cent. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working natural gas inventories set a new record,...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    recorded last year. Other Market Trends: FERC Releases Report on Underground Natural Gas Storage: The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a report last week that...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Estimates Database. Other Market Trends: Comments Received on Proposed Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Revision Policy: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) solicited...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    compared with its settlement price a week ago, ending yesterday at 5.974 per MMBtu. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that natural gas inventories in...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    storage facilities. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases Report on Underground Natural Gas Storage Developments: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) released a special...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 7, 2009) Since Wednesday, December...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    March 12, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 4, 2009) A late winter cold spell in...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, April 15, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 7, 2010) Since...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, February 25, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, February 17, 2010)...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, March 18, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 10, 2010) Since...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release: Thursday, March 24, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 16, 2011) With...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Inventory of Onshore Federal Lands' Oil and Gas Resources and the Extent and Nature of Restrictions or Impediments to Their Development. The report, which was...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Accounting Standards Board. The changes will allow FERC an understanding of the nature and extent to which hedging activities are used by electric utilities and gas...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storm activity has been above average this year, there has been little impact on natural gas markets. Tropical Depression 6 showed up in the eastern Caribbean early this...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 Next Release: December 11, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, December 3, 2008) Since...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2009 Next Release: March 26, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, March 18, 2009) Warmer...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    P.M. Next Release: October 29, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, October 21, 2009) Since...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 Next Release: October 2, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (Wednesday, September 17, to Wednesday, September 24)...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Release: Thursday, January 20, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 12, 2011)...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    with hopes for the eventual return of winter was likely the catalyst enabling natural gas prices to recapture the 4 mark this week despite an environment of negative...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, May 19, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 11, 2011) Natural...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thursday, September 16, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 8, 2010) Price...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thursday, September 23, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 15, 2010)...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next Release: Thursday, May 12, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 4, 2011) Wholesale...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    data to EIA. The number of companies reporting increased by 3 from 2008, to include Alon USA, Chalmette Refining LLC, and Western Refining, Inc. Natural Gas Transportation Update...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    kept up significant downward pressure on both cash and futures prices. Lower prices may eventually lead to fewer rigs exploring for gas, thereby stemming the growth in production....

  2. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    planning information that will assist in maintaining the operational integrity and reliability of pipeline service, as well as providing gas-fired power plant operators with...

  4. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2009 Next Release: August 13, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 5, 2009) Natural...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, July 1, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 23, 2010)...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, September 9, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 1,...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, January 14, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 6,...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Next Release: Thursday, November 19, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, November 11,...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, June 17, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 9, 2010)...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, August 12, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 4, 2010)...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, September 2, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 25,...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, August 5, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 28, 2010)...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, May 13, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 5, 2010)...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2009 Next Release: April 16, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 8, 2009) Since...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15, 2009 Next Release: January 23, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, January 14, 2009) In...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16, 2009 Next Release: April 23, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 15, 2009) Since...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 to Wednesday, December 12) Released: December 13 Next release: December 20, 2007 Natural gas spot and futures prices increased this report week (Wednesday to Wednesday,...

  19. Breathable gas distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Elmer D.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for safely supplying breathable gas or air through individual respirators to personnel working in a contaminated area.

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    which summarizes the likely demand, supply, and prices for natural gas, heating oil, propane, and electricity during the upcoming winter (October 2004 - March 2005). According to...