National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oven fryer griddle

  1. Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M206 Mechanical Convection Oven The M206 oven is dedicated to CAMD staff use only. M326 Mechanical Convection Oven Located next to the spinners, the M326 oven is availabe to External Users. VT5042EKP500 Vacuum Oven The vacuum oven is controlled by a Eurotherm 2604 PID controller. The controller is optionally PC interfaced for recipe storage and remote control. The two independent shelves with ramp control make it valuable for SU-8 processing. Additionally, nitrogen is optional for a

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Griddles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program

  3. Covered Product Category: Commercial Fryers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  4. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Griddles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tankless water heaters, boiler equipment, furnaces, griddles, fryers, combination ovens, air curtains and custom rebates. Up to 50% of the purchase price may be covered for...

  6. Commercial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers rebates for ENERGY STAR certified fryers, griddles, convection ovens, and steam cookers. Custom rebates for other types of commercial cooking equipment may be available...

  7. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Griddles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Griddles Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Griddles The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance

  8. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Fryers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  9. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Fryers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Fryers Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Fryers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by

  10. Laclede Gas Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Steamer: 475 Food Service Gas Fryer: 350 Food Service Griddle: 400 Food Service Convection Oven: 200 Kitchen Low-Flow Spray Nozzle: 100 Program Info Sector Name Utility...

  11. Questar Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to 300 Low-Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valve: 25 Commercial Fryer: 500 Steam Cooker: 1,000 ConvectionGas Combination Oven: 500 - 1,000 Griddle: 300 Windows: 0.28-0.37sq. ft....

  12. Christopher L. Fryer, 2014 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Christopher L. Fryer, 2014 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's ...

  13. Making a Solar Oven

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students make solar ovens. Student background information is provided. The expected outcome is that students will learn about solar energy transfer.

  14. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.1 ENERGY STAR

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Specification Dates for ENERGY STAR-Labeled Commercial and Miscellaneous Products Commercial Products Dates of updated specification Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers 2001 2009/2010 Hot Food Holding Cabinets 2003 2011 Commercial Steam Cookers 2003 - Commercial Fryers 2003 2011 Cold Beverage Vending Machines 2004 2006, 2007 Solid State Lighting 2008 2009 Commercial Dishwashers 2007 - Commercial Icemakers 2008 - Commercial Griddles 2009 2011 Commercial Ovens 2009 - Enterprise Servers 2009 -

  16. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  17. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  18. Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - 800 Indirect Water Heater: 400 Condensing Stand Alone Water Heaters: 500 Storage Water Heaters: 100 After Market Boiler Reset: 225 Commercial Griddles: 500 Gas Fryers...

  19. Ameren Illinois (Gas)- Business Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Specialty Equipment Application offers incentives on steamers, griddles, fryers, and other commercial kitchen equipment. The Steam Trap/Process Steam Incentive Program offers incentives on st...

  20. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other...

  1. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to ... Now open the flap and turn the box so the foil is facing the sun. The shadow of the flap ...

  2. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  3. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  4. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #11 PDF icon Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency (October 2007) More Documents & Publications Check Burner

  5. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  6. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  7. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei

    1997-12-31

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  8. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ovens Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Ovens The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial ovens, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's acquisition guidance and

  9. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4, 5-8, 9-12 Subject Solar Summary Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. Curriculum Science, Visual Arts, Language Arts Plan Time One class period Materials One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store, tape, scissors, black construction paper, clear plastic wrap, aluminum foil,

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension

  11. Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Mills, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

  12. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  13. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  14. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  15. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  16. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  17. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  18. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  19. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  20. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bills | Department of Energy for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on Energy Bills May 31, 2013 - 3:26pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30

  1. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  2. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  3. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  4. ISSUANCE 2016-02-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for Microwave Ovens; Correction

  5. EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon | Department of Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon EERE Success Story-Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon August 21, 2013 - 9:18am Addthis A typical microwave is used to heat food for about 70 hours each year, but continues to use electricity for the remaining 8,690 hours of the year to power

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  7. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  8. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  9. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  11. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  12. A Fully Integrated Oven Controlled Microelectromechanical OscillatorPart II. Characterization and Measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmoreof milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.less

  13. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillatorPart I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymoreand piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.less

  14. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  15. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  16. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  17. Coke oven air and water pollution. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coke oven pollution. Monitoring, sampling, analyzing, transport properties, and control of emissions and effluents are cited in this compilation from worldwide journals. Pollutants described are sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phenols, benzopyrene, particulates, and other trace elements and compounds. Process and equipment modifications, such as pipeline charging, wet and dry quenching, retrofitting, and oven leakage preventives are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. System to acquire and monitor operating machinery positions for horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, D.; Teschner, W.

    1980-02-26

    In a horizontal coke oven battery with at least one coke receiving device movable along one longitudinal side of the battery and at least one coke driving device movable along an opposite longitudinal side of the battery, an apparatus is disclosed for determining the relative position of the coke receiving device with respect to the coke driving device and for activating the coke driving device when its position corresponds with that of the coke receiving device. A first wheel is mounted on the coke receiving device for rotation with the movement of the coke receiving device, a first angle encoder is connected to the first wheel for producing a first signal corresponding to the location of the first wheel and the position of the coke receiving device along the coke oven, and an input storage in the form of a magnetic disc is connected to the first angle encoder for recording and storing the signal. A second wheel is mounted on the coke driving device for rotation with the movement of the coke driving device and a second angle encoder is connected thereto for producing a second signal which corresponds to the rotation of the second wheel and the position of the coke driving device along the coke oven. A comparator is connected to the second signal encoder for receiving the second signal and a data link is provided between the comparator and the input storage of the coke receiving device so that the first signal from the coke receiving device can be impressed on the comparator. An activator is connected to the comparator for activating the coke driving device when the first signal corresponds to the second signal indicating a corresponding positional relationship between the coke receiving device and the coke driving device.

  19. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  20. Demonstration of a fuel-saving system for paint-curing ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, W P

    1980-12-01

    Two curing ovens at Roll Coater, Inc. (the Greenfield, Indiana plant) were retrofitted to save fuel and cost. Included in the fuel conserving retrofit was the design, fabrication, and installation of an afterburner for each of the two ovens, piping their combustion products to each of two commonly housed waste heat boilers before discharge from those units to the atmosphere at about 450 F. Depending on the product being run and the coating applied, natural gas requirements have been reduced by 45 to 65% with operation of the zone incinerators only and by as much as 65 to 85% including the effects of both the zone incineration and heat recovery by means of the afterburners and waste heat boilers. A demonstration program on conversion work at the No. 3 line at Greenfield and results are described in Section 2. Section 3 describes the retrofit design and the system construction. System performance (tests and measurements, qualitative performance, maintenance factors, and economic performance) is described in Section 4. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  1. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  2. Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MA.01.142.02.03 Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units. ... the top (class set) Masking tape Scissors Black construction paper Clear plastic wrap or ...

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  4. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppbC, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power ...

  5. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. ... OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates ...

  6. Supercomputers Take a Cue From Microwave Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for one or a few dedicated functions. "Because the ultimate goal of the embedded market is to maximize battery life, these technologies have always been driven by...

  7. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Positive Impact Significant savings to consumer energy bills and reductions in carbon pollution. Locations Nationwide Partners Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Navigant EERE ...

  8. Covered Product Category: Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    product is available to meet the functional requirements, or that no such product is life cycle cost-effective for a specific application. Additional information on Federal...

  9. Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Industry Scorches Records Solar Industry Scorches Records March 6, 2014 - 5:24pm Addthis Workers install a solar energy system on the rooftop of a home in Golden, Colorado. More than 4,751 megawatts of solar power was installed in the United States last year, an increase of 41%. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Workers install a solar energy system on the rooftop of a home in Golden, Colorado. More than 4,751 megawatts of solar power was installed in the United

  10. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Appliance efficiency standards represent a huge opportunity to help families save money by saving energy, while still delivering high quality appliances for consumers," said ...

  11. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  12. What do you get when two neutron stars merge?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What do you get when two neutron stars merge? Led by Chris Fryer of the University of ... Led by Chris Fryer of the University of Arizona and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a ...

  13. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  14. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE's new microwave standards will reduce carbon pollution and save consumers money on their energy bills.

  15. Spotlight: Two Los Alamos scientists honored with E.O. Lawrence Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Los Alamos scientists honored with E.O. Lawrence Awards Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Spotlight: Two Los Alamos scientists honored with E.O. Lawrence Awards Fryer and Dors noted for achievements in space physics, satellite radiation sensors July 1, 2015 Eric E. Dors (l) and Christopher L. Fryer (r) Eric E. Dors (l) and Christopher L. Fryer (r) Contact Linda Anderman Email Outstanding performance

  16. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Hungerford, Aimee L. 1 ; Fryer, Christopher L. 1 ; Hughes, John P. 2 ; Smith, Randall K. 3 ; Badenes, Carles 4 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National ...

  17. Insights into Autoregulation of Notch3 from Structural and Functional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rajiv ; Fryer, Christy ; Blacklow, Stephen C. 1 ; Novartis) 2 ; Maastricht) 2 ; Harvard-Med) 2 ; BWH) 2 + Show Author Affiliations (DFCI) ( Publication Date: 2015-07-01 ...

  18. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proving this required a series of additional computational models by the international theory team studying this "Christmas burst" and the work still under way. Fryer is working...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fryer, Christy" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All BookMonograph ConferenceEvent Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software Manual Technical Report ...

  20. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fryer Christopher L Los Alamos National Laboratory Hughes John P Rutgers University Smith Randall K Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Badenes Carles University of...

  1. CoverSheet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Author(s): Even, Wesley P. Frey, Lucille H. Fryer, Christopher L. Young, Patrick Intended for: Part of annual report for...

  2. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Even Wesley P Los Alamos National Laboratory Frey Lucille H Los Alamos National Laboratory Fryer Christopher L...

  3. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Even, Wesley P. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frey, Lucille H. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer,...

  4. CoverSheet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Zhang, Honglin Hungerford, Aimee L. Fryer, Christopher L. Hughes, John P. Smith, Randall K. Badenes, Carles Intended for: AtomDB Work Week and Workshop, 2012-08-062012-08-10...

  5. Florida Public Utilities (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida Public Utilities offers natural gas customers energy efficiency rebates  to save energy in facilities. Rebates are available for water hears, dryers, fryers, and cooking ranges.  All...

  6. Cooking Up Some Energy Saving Tips | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Copper bottomed pans heat up faster than regular pans, and in the oven glass or ceramic ... your oven, think about alternatives, like a toaster oven, microwave oven, or slow cooker. ...

  7. Energy Education Photo Gallery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The LAYC Career Academy builds a solar oven from a pizza oven. 9 of 14 The LAYC Career Academy builds a solar oven from a pizza oven. The LAYC Career Academy Public Charter School ...

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 121 - 130 of 189 results. Download Making a Solar Oven Students make solar ovens. Student background information is...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Production...

  11. ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final ...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloads...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Fuels...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download...

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, ...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Geothermal Energy:...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy in Today's Global Society Energy is an abstract concept that is very familiar to...

  18. EA-1662: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: EnergyConservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Green Fuel This activity allows students the opportunity to explore different methods for...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Science & Innovation Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 31 - 40 of 36 results. Download Making a Solar Oven Students make solar ovens....

  1. Momentum-Savings-Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential Room Air Conditioning Residential Ceiling Fan Light Kits Electric Clothes Dryers Electric Cooktops Electric Ovens Residential Furnace Fans Microwave Ovens...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Protect Your Climate Curriculum and Training Request projects here....

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun (10 activities) Hands-on explorations to teach intermediate students...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0...

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Ovens, Final Rule | Department of Energy 18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule ISSUANCE 2015-06-18: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule This document is the Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Conventional Ovens, Final Rule. PDF icon conventional_ovens_tp_finalrule.pdf More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

  7. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas No abstract prepared. Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Hughes, John P. [2] ; Smith, Randall K. [3] ; Badenes, Carles [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Rutgers

  8. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Authors: Even, Wesley P. [1] ; Frey, Lucille H. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Young, Patrick [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Arizona State University Publication Date: 2013-04-29 OSTI Identifier: 1077017 Report Number(s):

  9. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 15, 2014-The Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows list

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Fellows for 2014 December 15, 2014 Honorees span sciences in physics, astrophysics, chemistry LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 15, 2014-The Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows list expands by five this week as a new group of high achievers is named. The honorees this year are Christopher L. Fryer, Herbert O. Funsten, John C. Gordon, Jaqueline L. Kiplinger and David S. Moore. "The sustained scientific excellence demonstrated by the work of Chris, Herb, John, Jaqueline and David

  10. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Hughes, Jack [2] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Badenes, Carles [3] ; Slane, Patrick [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National

  11. Awards | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Awards ASC researcher, Dr. Kurt B. Ferreira from Sandia National Laboratories, received a 2015 IEEE Technical Committee on Scalable Computing Award for Excellence for Early Career Researchers. The award is bestowed on individuals who have made outstanding, influential, and potentially long-lasting contributions in the field of scalable computing within five years of receiving their PhD degree. The 2015 E.O. Lawrence Award was conferred on Dr. Christopher L. Fryer from Los Alamos National

  12. Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Awards ASC researcher, Dr. Kurt B. Ferreira from Sandia National Laboratories, received a 2015 IEEE Technical Committee on Scalable Computing Award for Excellence for Early Career Researchers. The award is bestowed on individuals who have made outstanding, influential, and potentially long-lasting contributions in the field of scalable computing within five years of receiving their PhD degree. The 2015 E.O. Lawrence Award was conferred on Dr. Christopher L. Fryer from Los Alamos National

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun...

  15. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Coal coke oven gas production is dependant on the use of coal as an energy source, particularly in manufacturing iron and steel. Coke oven gas from petroleum production is more ...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Wonders of the Sun...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Green Fuel This...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download An Exploration of...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy in Today's...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download What Makes A Home...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Plants in Your Gas...

  2. EA-1662: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) and for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment (Commercial Clothes Washers)

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is the notice of proposed rule for Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens. PDF icon

  4. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A coal based dri and molten metal process for long range replacement of blast furnaces and coke ovens

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension. conventionalovenscommentextension.pdf More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy...

  6. LANL names new head of Nuclear and High Hazard Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    names new Fellows for 2014 Monday, December 15, 2014 - 11:16am Los Alamos National Laboratory has named five new Fellows this week. The honorees this year are Christopher L. Fryer, Herbert O. Funsten, John C. Gordon, Jaqueline L. Kiplinger and David S. Moore. The Fellows are selected for sustained, high-level achievements in programs of importance to LANL and a fundamental or important discovery that has led to widespread use. In addition, the Fellows are selected for having become a recognized

  7. Charles F. McMillan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving neutron capture rate predictions using Apollo + HELIOS Experiment development : A. Couture, M. Devlin, H. Y. Lee and J. M. O'Donnell (LANSCE-NS) Nuclear reaction model and mass: T. Kawano, M. Bertolli, P. Talou and P. Möller (T2) Supernova modeling : C. Fryer, A. Hungerford, and G. Rockefeller (CCS, XTD) ATLAS Users Meeting on May 15-16 2014 | Los Alamos National Laboratory | | 2 Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA Slide 2 Neutron

  8. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 28 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  12. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 20.3 14.9 5.4 1....................................................................... 103.3 18.7 13.6 5.2 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.6 1.4 0.2 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.2 Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 9.7 6.2 3.6

  13. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 25.3 17.6 7.7 1....................................................................... 103.3 24.0 16.8 7.3 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.3 0.8 0.5 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.3 Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 14.7 9.5 5.2

  14. Total U.S.....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven........................................................ 109.6 23.7 7.5 16.2 1....................................................................... 103.3 22.4 6.8 15.6 2 or More.......................................................... 6.2 1.3 0.6 0.6 Do Not Use an Oven............................................ 1.5 0.5 Q 0.4 Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.............................................................. 67.9 13.4 4.5

  15. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 20.3 25.3 40.2 23.7 1........................................................................... 103.3 18.7 24.0 38.2 22.4 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 1.6 1.3 2.1 1.3 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  16. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 40.2 21.5 6.8 11.9 1........................................................................... 103.3 38.2 20.5 6.4 11.3 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 2.1 1.0 0.4 0.7 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 0.5 Q Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel

  17. Total U.S........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................................ 109.6 46.2 18.8 22.5 22.1 1........................................................................... 103.3 44.1 17.8 21.2 20.2 2 or More.............................................................. 6.2 2.1 1.0 1.3 1.9 Do Not Use an Oven................................................ 1.5 1.0 Q 0.2 Q Most-Used Oven Fuel

  18. Total U.S...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.............................................................. 109.6 7.1 6.9 7.8 11.7 1............................................................................. 103.3 6.5 6.6 7.4 11.2 2 or More................................................................ 6.2 0.6 Q 0.4 0.5 Do Not Use an Oven.................................................. 1.5 Q Q Q 0.4 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities) Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel...

  20. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chicken quesadilla - Dijon roasted pork loin with black bean salsa - Oven-roasted turkey and dressing - Italian antipasto panino - Italian pasta bar - White chicken chili -...

  1. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and eggs - Grilled chicken quesadilla - Chicken vincenza with pasta - Oven-roasted turkey and dressing - Italian antipasto panino - Italian pasta bar - White chicken chili -...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 59 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Survival Still Students design and build a solar still to capture drinking water from the capillary water in the...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 15 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Elementary (K-5) Teachers Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun (10 activities) Hands-on explorations to teach intermediate students the scientific...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Wonders of the Sun (8 activities) Hands-on explorations that introduce scientific concepts of solar energy...

  10. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. Deflated by the chain-type price indices for iron and steel mills shipments. 2. Denominators represent the value of...

  11. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This process heating tip sheet recommends using lower flammable limit monitoring equipment to improve oven efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 11 PDF icon Use Lower Flammable ...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Protect Your Climate Curriculum and Training Request projects here. Upon request you will be sent a 16-unit...

  13. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) guidelines require the removal of significant ... For a continuous strip coating process requiring 46 gallons of xylol with a maximum oven ...

  14. Thermal Product Solutions aka Kayex | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product Solutions aka Kayex Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Product Solutions (aka Kayex) Place: Rochester, New York Zip: 14624 Product: Makes industrial ovens and...

  15. EA-0819: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conservation Standards for Eight Types of Consumer Products: Room Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Ranges and Ovens, Pool ...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    downloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Alternative Energy Sources- An Interdisciplinary Module for Energy Education Find activities focused on renewable energy sources...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 35 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  18. brwtp-icoke | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1989) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications...

  19. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S.........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ........................................................ 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................. 109.6 77.3 63.4 4.1 1.8 2.3 5.6 1............................................................ 103.3 71.9 58.6 3.9 1.6 2.2 5.5 2 or More............................................... 6.2 5.4 4.8 Q Q Q Q Do Not Use an Oven................................. 1.5 0.8 0.6 Q N Q Q Most-Used Oven Fuel

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Scale Models and Wind Turbines As wind turbines and wind farms become larger to take advantage of the...

  1. Appliance Equipment Standards Northwest Impact Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (2) Automatic Ice Makers; (3) Commercial Water Heaters; (4) Ranges and Ovens; (5) Vending Machines; (6) Pool Heaters; (7) Small electric motors; (8) Residential Central Air...

  2. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time. 3. Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those...

  3. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coke ovens), and rolling mills. 3. 1998 data unavailable due to disclosure avoidance procedures in place at the time. 4. Denominators represent the value of production for the...

  4. EERE Guide for Managing General Program Evaluation Studies |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    evaluationmgmtguidefinal2006.pdf More Documents & Publications Wind is Energy (17 activities) SolarHarvest.pdf Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  6. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS 331111 includes steel works, blast furnaces (including coke ovens), and...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Expos Students work in groups to create hands-on exhibits about the energy sources that power the nation,...

  8. EA-0404: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program - Coke Oven Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland

  9. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 21 2.2.7 Microwave Ovens ... Losses of Data Center Uninterruptible Power Supplies ..... 149 5.12.9 Design ... in generation, transmission and distribution. ...

  10. Sales Tax Holiday for Energy-Efficient Appliances | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    each year for the following appliances*: Clothes washers Clothes dryers* Water heaters Trash compactors* Dishwashers Conventional ovens, ranges, and stoves* Air conditioners...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tornado in 2007. http:energy.goveerevideosre-building-greensburg Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that...

  14. Ditec Automation Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ditec Automation Group Place: Mexico City, Mexico Product: Mexico City-based manufacturing and installation company. Focused on material handling, industrial ovens,...

  15. JCESR Presents to the Illinois General Assembly | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago View presentation Mil Oven, Chief Marketing Officer, Navitas Systems View presentation Samir Mayekar, Chief Executive...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Laboratory Facilities and Collaborative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Equipment for synthesizing samples, including a vacuum oven, ability to use the hot-press technique for synthesizing bonded interfaces (such as solders, sintered silver and ...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy to help engage students in energy. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsenergy-literacy-videos Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward...

  18. December | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... to the world of consumer electronics like microwave ovens, cameras and cell phones, where everything from chips to batteries to software is optimized to the device's application. ...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its Energy (11 activities) Hands-on investigations and explorations to introduce...

  20. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S...........................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven...... 109.6 14.4 7.2 12.4 12.4 18.6 ...

  1. Cokemaking sees environmental improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalherm, D.; Piduch, H.G.; Schuepphaus, K.; Worberg, R.

    1996-07-01

    The image of a coke plant created worldwide by many negative presentations in the media--above all in the US and in Europe--is the image of an industrial plant alleged to cause substantial burdens on the environment. This allegation is often substantiated by showing obsolete coke plants where little had been done regarding maintenance, upkeep and modernization. But this picture ignores the fact that over the past decades, emissions from coke plants have been successfully reduced to a fraction of previous levels by implementing state-of-the-art technologies. When reference is made to emissions from coke plants, the first emissions considered ar those occurring during coal charging, coke pushing and coke quenching. This is the reason why the prevention of gas or dust emissions during oven operation processes is an important focus in the design of coke oven service machines. If it is impossible to prevent emissions from escaping coke ovens, such emissions have to be captured and cleaned by specially developed facilities. The most important factor in achieving efficient environmental protection is to regard the oven machines as an integrated part of the coking process itself. Only a perfectly harmonized and optimized coke oven and oven machine technology will result in an emission-free charging of the oven chamber.

  2. Table HC2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S............................................................ 111.1 72.1 7.6 7.8 16.7 6.9 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................... 109.6 71.3 7.4 7.7 16.4 6.8 1.............................................................. 103.3 66.2 7.2 7.4 15.9 6.7 2 or More................................................. 6.2 5.1 Q 0.3 0.5 Q Do Not Use an Oven................................... 1.5 0.7 Q Q 0.4 Q

  3. Operational experience using the novel FixCup collecting main valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Spitz, J.

    1996-12-31

    On the occasion of the 1995 AIME conference the new PROven (Pressure Regulated Oven) process to control the pressure in coke ovens individually was introduced. This process was made feasible with a new collecting main valve, termed FixCup, with the aid of this valve a variable flow resistance to the raw gas discharge can be realized using a water immersion system. However, just the application of the FixCup system alone--without any pressure regulation--is very advantageous and cost saving. Thyssen has equipped 30 ovens with the new valve. The special constructive features as well as the operational experience using the FixCup valve are treated.

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  5. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for...

  7. Total U.S......................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.......................................... 109.6 26.1 28.5 20.2 12.9 21.8 16.3 37.8 1......................................................... 103.3 25.1 27.1 19.2 12.3 19.6 15.8 36.3 2 or More............................................ 6.2 0.9 1.4 1.0 0.6 2.2 0.5 1.5 Do Not Use an Oven.............................. 1.5 0.7 0.3 0.3 Q Q 0.4 0.8 Most-Used Oven Fuel

  8. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewables Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  10. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    make a solar oven, there's absolutely no reason why I, as a fully functioning, 26-year-old adult, can't successfully make one, too June 13, 2011 Fighting with South-Facing...

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Figure 2. Thermal Modeling for Camera using CO 2 Cooling Figure 4. Conical Mirror Optics Figure 5. Example of a deconvoluted conical-mirror image High-temp ovens are used to...

  12. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Blast Furnaces and Coke Ovens The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further signifcant ...

  13. What Does the Sun Give Us: Science Projects in Renewable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The second column lists the science content standard, as well as any other strong areas. ... Project Key Standards Grades Pizza Box Oven E-Design 6-8 (3-5 if given Web site first) ...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Download Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 35 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 35 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be...

  16. Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S.........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................. 109.6 32.3 7.9 3.3 5.9 14.1 1.1 1............................................................ 103.3 31.4 7.6 3.3 5.7 13.7 1.1 2 or More............................................... 6.2 0.9 0.3 Q Q 0.4 Q Do Not Use an Oven................................. 1.5 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Most-Used Oven Fuel Electric.................................................. 67.9 19.4 4.5

  17. CX-006399: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microbiological Sample Preparation and Analysis For Use With Hybrid Microwave OvenCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 05/19/2011Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 6 of 6 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

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    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 3 of 3 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 11 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 9 of 9 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

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    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 20 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  15. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 9 of 9 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 27 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 6 of 6 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels,...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    downloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Making Energy Personal Students will work with an interactive website in oder to determine their own CO2 output per year....

  19. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beyer, Norman S.; Lewis, Robert N.; Perry, Ronald B.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 17 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 28 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 31 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 33 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 59 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

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  12. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 27 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 18 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 15 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

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    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  18. Search results | Department of Energy

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    Search results Enter terms Search Showing 1 - 10 of 11 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade...

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    izza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Scale Models and Wind Turbines As wind turbines and wind farms become larger to take advantage of the economies of scale and increased wind speeds at...

  20. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  1. Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... If there is insufficient sample, the result should be flagged and the lack of precision noted. 14.6 Sample storage: If applicable, oven dried samples should be stored in a ...

  2. Position Paper for High Moisture Content Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The oven-drying test should be performed at a relatively low temperature (i.e., 50 C) over ... either in storage or during transport will require treatment to control moisture. ...

  3. DOE Cites UChicago Argonne, LLC for Worker Safety and Health...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed civil penalty is 280,000. The first incident occurred when two small glass tubes containing chemicals were being heated in a laboratory oven. During the heating ...

  4. EA-0819: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proposed Energy Conservation Standards for Eight Types of Consumer Products: Room Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces, Ranges and Ovens, Pool Heaters, Fluorescent Ballasts, and Television Sets

  5. Nonrecovery cokemaking/cogeneration complex at Inland Steel scheduled to start up in mid-1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samways, N.L.

    1997-12-01

    A 1.33 million ton/year cokemaking/cogeneration power complex is under construction at the Indiana Harbor Works. The cokemaking plant consists of four batteries of nonrecovery type coke ovens representing a total of 268 ovens. The cogeneration energy facilities include: 16 heat recovery boilers; a steam turbine generator, and a flue gas desulfurization system. Start-up is scheduled for mid-1998. Both facilities are described.

  6. Modification of environmental control of cokemaking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, H.; Yasuno, M.; Gotch, T.; Yoshida, F.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, global environmental protection has been a great concern in the world. In the United States of America, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has been revised to control emissions strictly. Especially in the field of cokemaking, the restriction of fume emission from a coke oven is so severe that old coke ovens will stop operation with the application of CAA. In Japan, it is expected that more severe protection measures are going to be requested for keeping environmental quality. In this situation, it is indispensable to strengthen environmental protection measures for cokemaking plants to continue coke production in the 21st century. In Chiba Works, Kawasaki Steep Corp., the Ironmaking Department has been struggling for the improvement of environmental measures for. These activities for coke ovens are described in this report. The paper describes fume emission control from the coke oven door and dust emission control measures, including the dust monitoring system, prevention of secondary dust scattering from coke ovens, replacement of dedusters, and fume and dust control of stack emission.

  7. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  8. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1996-07-16

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  9. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1993-09-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  10. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1995-11-28

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  11. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  12. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  13. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-24

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Young, Albert C.

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  15. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  16. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  17. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half

  19. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S.............................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.................................................. 109.6 29.5 34.4 18.2 15.7 11.8 1................................................................. 103.3 28.4 32.0 17.3 14.7 11.0 2 or More.................................................... 6.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 Do Not

  20. Table HC9.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S............................................................ 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................... 109.6 10.9 25.7 27.1 23.4 22.4 1.............................................................. 103.3 10.2 24.3 25.3 22.2 21.3 2 or More................................................. 6.2 0.6 1.5 1.8 1.2 1.1 Do Not Use

  1. TableHC2.9.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total U.S............................................................ 111.1 72.1 7.6 7.8 16.7 6.9 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven............................................... 109.6 71.3 7.4 7.7 16.4 6.8 1.............................................................. 103.3 66.2 7.2 7.4 15.9 6.7 2 or More................................................. 6.2 5.1 Q 0.3 0.5 Q Do Not Use an

  2. Solar Policy Environment: Boston | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other treats, like s'mores. It won't get really hot, though, so you can't bake things in it and you won't burn yourself when playing with it. Be sure to have an adult help you with this! Materials - One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store. Here's a good excuse to ask your parents to order pizza tonight! - Newspapers

  3. Find Energy Education Resources in a Snap with New Search Tool | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Education Resources in a Snap with New Search Tool Find Energy Education Resources in a Snap with New Search Tool January 7, 2015 - 1:46pm Addthis Fun learning activities, like the <a href="http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/pdfs/solar_pizza_oven_box.pdf">pizza box solar oven exercise</a> above, are just a few of the resources that can be found using the new <a href="http://energy.gov/education-toolbox/search">Education Toolbox</a>

  4. Finding & Sharing Information about Energy Efficiency | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Find Energy Education Resources in a Snap with New Search Tool Find Energy Education Resources in a Snap with New Search Tool January 7, 2015 - 1:46pm Addthis Fun learning activities, like the <a href="http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/pdfs/solar_pizza_oven_box.pdf">pizza box solar oven exercise</a> above, are just a few of the resources that can be found using the new <a href="http://energy.gov/education-toolbox/search">Education

  5. From: J B Hoyt [mailto:J_B_Hoyt@whirlpool.com]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    J B Hoyt [mailto:J_B_Hoyt@whirlpool.com] Sent: Wednesday, December 14, 2011 2:43 PM To: Armstrong, Ashley; Anderson, Wes Subject: Ex-Parte Meeting Summary To Whom It May Concern: On December 12, 2011 a meeting was held amongst Wes Anderson (DOE), Ashley Armstrong (DOE), and J.B. Hoyt (Whirlpool Corporation). The purpose was to discuss the definition of a built-in cooking product which includes one conventional radiant oven cavity and one microwave oven cavity, with both controlled by a single

  6. 1997 RECS data on consumer usage of appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latta, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration contained questions on how households use various appliances. This includes the following appliance usage (1) personnel computers, (2) cooking appliances, (3) conventional ovens, (4) microwave ovens, (5) clothes washers, and (6) clothes dryer. Many of these items were first collected in the 1997 RECS. In this paper, appliance usage by household demographic characteristics (household income, age of householder, and number of household members) are examined with an emphasis on results for data items that were first collected in the 1997 RECS.

  7. Note: Effect of hot liner in producing {sup 40,48}Ca beam from RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozeki, K. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2015-01-15

    In order to produce a high-intensity and stable {sup 48}Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we have begun testing the production of a calcium beam using a micro-oven. To minimize the consumption rate of the material ({sup 48}Ca), we introduced the hot liner method and investigated the effect of the liner on the material consumption rate. The micro-oven was first used to produce the {sup 48}Ca beam for experiments in the RIKEN radioisotope beam factory, and a stable beam could be supplied for a long time with low consumption rate.

  8. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Green | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green Green 08-03-2015 - Verification of Protective Properties is Critical before Using any PPE Read more about 08-03-2015 - Verification of Protective Properties is Critical before Using any PPE 12-28-1999 - Catastrphic Failure of a Questron Q3000 Very High Pressure (VHP) Microwave Oven Vessel Read more about 12-28-1999 - Catastrphic Failure of a Questron Q3000 Very High Pressure (VHP) Microwave Oven Vessel 12-16-1997 - Digital Cameras Reduce Personnel Exposures Read more about 12-16-1997 -

  10. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC8.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"City","Town","Suburbs","Rural" "Total U.S.",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,46.2,18.8,22.5,22.1

  11. "Table HC10.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by U.S. Census Regions, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total U.S.",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,20.3,25.3,40.2,23.7

  12. "Table HC14.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total U.S.",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,23.7,7.5,16.2

  13. "Table HC15.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total U.S.",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,7.1,6.9,7.8,11.7

  14. Solar Radiation Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other treats, like s'mores. It won't get really hot, though, so you can't bake things in it and you won't burn yourself when playing with it. Be sure to have an adult help you with this! Materials - One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store. Here's a good excuse to ask your parents to order pizza tonight! - Newspapers

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 2008 Microwave Oven Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Company Market Share (%) LG Electronics (Goldstar) 33% Sharp 15% Samsung 15% Daewoo 7% Matsushita 10% Whirlpool 3% Sanyo 9% Others 8% Total 100% Source(s): Total Units Shipped: 11,340,000

  16. IMPROVED ION-PRODUCING MECHANISM FOR CALUTRONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Prater, W.K.

    1963-12-24

    An ion source for electromagnetically operated equipment for the separation of isotopes, such as the Calutron, wherein a unitized construction is employed to house both the arc chamber and the oven chamber to facilitate assembly and maintenance and to improve operation. ( LAMBDA EC)

  17. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  18. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  19. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  20. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  1. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Annual Cost Active Idle Off Active Idle Off ($) (2) Kitchen Coffee Maker 1,000 70 0 38 229 8,493 58 5.6 Dishwasher (3) 365 (4) 120 11.6 Microwave Oven 1,500 3 70 8,690 131 12.6 Toaster Oven 1,051 37 54 5.2 Refrigerator-Freezer 660 63.1 Freezer 470 45.0 Lighting 18-W Compact Fluorescent 18 1,189 20 2.1 60-W Incandescent Lamp 60 672 40 3.9 100-W Incandescent Lamp 100 672 70 6.4 Torchiere Lamp-Halogen 300 1,460 440 42.0 Bedroom and Bathroom Hair Dryer 710 50 40 3.4 Waterbed Heater 350 3,051 1,070

  3. TableHC2.10.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 71.3 7.4 7.7 16.4 6.8 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 5.7 0.5 0.6 1.3 0.7 Once a Day....................................................... 19.2 13.3 1.3 1.4 2.1 1.0 Between Once a Day and Once a Week........... 32.0 22.7 2.1 1.8 4.0 1.5 Once a Week.................................................... 19.1 12.2 1.2 1.3 3.0 1.4 Less than Once a

  4. Putting icing on the cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    By reclaiming the waste heat in the stacks of a steam boiler and baking ovens, the Pisano French Baking Company of California has reduced the boiler plant natural gas fuel consumption by 40% and has reduced its need for two boilers to one. Since the bakery produces French breads, live steam is required for the glazing operation. Therefore, two steam generators operate at about 12 psig with a design pressure of 15 psig. Due to the additional hardware requirements of the oven steam generator systems, the payback was extended, but fell within the investment company's guidelines. Installed cost for both generators was $26,865. First year savings for this portion of the project was $9,850, resulting in a simple payback of 33 months. The combined payback for both systems is 25 months.

  5. Use of predissociation to enhance the atomic hydrogen ion fraction in ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1979-01-01

    A duopigatron ion source is modified by replacing the normal oxide-coated wire filament cathode of the ion source with a hot tungsten oven through which hydrogen gas is fed into the arc chamber. The hydrogen gas is predissociated in the hot oven prior to the arc discharge, and the recombination rate is minimized by hot walls inside of the arc chamber. With the use of the above modifications, the atomic H.sub.1.sup.+ ion fraction output can be increased from the normal 50% to greater than 70% with a corresponding decrease in the H.sub.2.sup.+ and H.sub.3.sup.+ molecular ion fraction outputs from the ion source.

  6. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  7. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  8. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  9. The AISI (American Iron and Steel Inst. ) program for direct steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. ); Downing, K.B. )

    1990-01-01

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. It is thought that this new process, if successful, would have significant capital and operating cost benefits. Further, there would be important energy savings and environmental benefits, primarily as a result of the elimination of coke ovens. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  11. Improved energy efficiency by use of the new ultraviolet light radiation paint curing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosset, A.M.; Su, W.-F.A.

    1984-08-01

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures is more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. The replacement of a conventional natural gas fired oven by an ultraviolet radiation curing line for paint curing could save quadrillions of joules per year for each finishing line. In this program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs, two photoinduced polymerizations, via free radical or cationic mechanisms, were considered in the formulation of UV curable paints. The spectral output of radiation sources was chosen so as to complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents; thus highly pigmented thick films could be cured fully by UV radiation. One coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be applied on three dimensional objects by spraying and can be cured by passing through a tunnel containing UV lamps.

  12. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. Inquiring Minds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory at Fermilab Roughly half of our understanding of the physical world comes from direct experiment, while the other half comes from the systematic, logical fomulation of the laws of nature known as theoretical physics. Our modern machines, from the radio and microwave oven to supercomputers and the Tevatron, rely upon the established theories of nature--the laws of electrodynamics, quantum physics and relativity--and their profound and arcane mathematics. Lattice Computer Farm Fermilab's

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products (RIN: 1904-AD15) EERE- Buildings Technology Program Nationwide In this SNOPR, DOE is combining the June 2015 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for new and amended energy conservation standards for residential conventional ovens with the new energy conservation standards for conventional cooking tops as well as aligning the compliance dates for both product categories.

  16. brwtp-icoke | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications - There is no Project Brief for this project (Withdrawn) Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bethlehem, PA PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Annual/Quarterly Technical Reports Quarterly Technical Progress Reports Number 6, April - June 1991 [PDF-409KB] (Aug 1994) Number 5, January - March 1991 [PDF-326KB] (Mar 1994) Number 4, October - December 1990 [PDF-453KB] (Dec 1990) Number 2, April - June 1990 [PDF-500KB] (Sept 1990) Number 1, May 1989 - March

  17. Using Waste Heat for External Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat for External Processes Using Waste Heat for External Processes This tip sheet describes the potential savings resulting from using waste heat from high-temperature process heating for lower temperature processes, like oven-drying. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #10 PDF icon Using Waste Heat for External Processes (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions

  18. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  19. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  20. A Novel Flash Ironmaking Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Novel Flash Ironmaking Process A Novel Flash Ironmaking Process American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) - Salt Lake City, UT A novel ironmaking process is proposed that reduces energy consumption and greenhouse gases compared with blast furnaces and coke ovens. A falling stream of iron ore particles is directly converted to metal in just seconds using low cost natural gas. This project seeks to demonstrate the scaleup feasibility of the process allowing for new ironmaking capacity at a

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Mode Stirred Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mode Stirred Chamber The Mode Stirred chamber is essentially a large microwave oven. It consists of a metal room that serves as a high-Q chamber and a metal paddle wheel to "stir" the chamber modes. Mixing the modes in this manner allows test objects, in a single orientation to be exposed to EM energy in many different angles of incidence and polarization. Electronic susceptibility tests can be performed, or test object electromagnetic transfer functions can be determined through

  2. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Bills | Department of Energy NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz announced today that the Energy Department has finalized new energy efficiency standards for microwave ovens that will save consumers nearly $3 billion on their energy bills through 2030. Over the next 30 years, it will dramatically reduce harmful carbon pollution, equivalent to taking over 12 million new cars off the road for one year. "Appliance efficiency standards

  3. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  4. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  5. Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Robert B.

    1988-03-24

    The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

  6. Uranium at Y-12: Heat Treating and Machining | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Heat ... Uranium at Y-12: Heat Treating and Machining Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:39pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 Heat treating comprises various thermal processes, namely baths, furnaces and ovens. Heat treating operations allow uranium to acquire the appropriate mechanical properties such as high strength or high ductility. Knowledge of grain growth is essential for achieving specified properties. Machining involves precisely removing uranium from a cast or formed

  7. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small

  8. Improved method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, A.; Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.

    An improved method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100..mu.. to about 500..mu.. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5 to 20..mu.. are described. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions.

  9. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  10. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-10-22

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ convented to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reaction chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. The oven is then swept clean of hydrogen and the water vapor formed by means of nitrogen and then while continuing to maintain the temperature between 400 and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion to uranium tetrafluoride, the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to ahout 400 deg C, and elemental fluorine is used as the fluorinating agent for the conversion of UF/sub 4/ into UF/sub 6/. The fluorine gas is passed into the chamber, and the UF/sub 6/ formed passes out and is delivered to a condenser.

  11. Production of high intensity {sup 48}Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M. Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D.; Franzen, K. Y.

    2014-02-15

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 e?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam current was impressive. The consumption of {sup 48}Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 p?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+}, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 e?A. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  12. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Major Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Typical Service Average 2005 Average Lifetime Range Lifetime Stock Age Units to be Replaced Appliance Type (years) (years) (years) During 2011 (thousands) Refrigerators (1) 10 - 16 12 7.8 9,217 Freezers 8 - 16 11 11.3 2,215 Microwave Ovens 7 - 10 9 N.A. Ranges (2) Electric 12 - 19 16 N.A. 4,281 Gas 14 - 22 17 N.A. 2,854 Clothes Washers 7 - 14 11 N.A. 7,362 Clothes Dryers Electric 8 - 15 12 N.A. 5,095 Gas

  13. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Rand, Peter B.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  14. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  15. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  16. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  17. Battery operation experience at SSAB, Luleaa six years after rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrini, H.; Sundgren, M.; Meyer, G.

    1995-12-01

    SSAB operates a coke oven plant in Luleaa, Sweden, consisting of one 7 m battery. Pushing the first coke in 1975, the battery encountered over the years more and more difficulties in keeping coking time and operation level at the design rate. In order to improve the coke supply a major repair of the battery was made. In 1989 the battery was fully rehabilitated by Krupp Koppers. The experience made during the years before and during repair contributed to a new policy for the operation of the plant. The policy has led to considerable improvements. It is clear that it is possible to successfully operate a rehabilitated battery.

  18. Results of Active Test of Uranium-Plutonium Co-denitration Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Numao, Teruhiko; Nakayashiki, Hiroshi; Arai, Nobuyuki; Miura, Susumu; Takahashi, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Hironobu; Tanaka, Izumi

    2007-07-01

    In the U-Pu co-denitration facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), Active Test which composes of 5 steps was performed by using uranium-plutonium nitrate solution that was extracted from spent fuels. During Active Test, two kinds of tests were performed in parallel. One was denitration performance test in denitration ovens, and expected results were successfully obtained. The other was validation and calibration of non-destructive assay (NDA) systems, and expected performances were obtained and their effectiveness as material accountancy and safeguards system was validated. (authors)

  19. INEXPENSIVE, OFF THE SHELF HYBRID MICROWAVE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, T; Paul Burket, P; John Scogin, J

    2007-06-21

    A hybrid-heating microwave oven provides the energy to heat small 10-gram samples of spent metal tritide storage bed material to release tenaciously held decay product {sup 3}He. Complete mass balance procedures require direct measurement of added or produced gases on a tritide bed, and over 1100 C is necessary to release deep trapped {sup 3}He. The decomposition of non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3} and the quantitative measurement of CO{sub 2} within 3% of stoichiometry demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus to capture generated (released) gases.

  20. Firm develops own EMS built on Apple computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pospisil, R.

    1982-04-05

    Firestone Fibers and Textile Co. programmed a $2000 desktop Apple II computer and special electronic panels designed by the engineering staff to perform process control and other energy-management functions. The system should reduce natural gas consumption 40% and save the company up to $75,000 a year by reducing the amount of hot air exhausted from fabric-treating ovens. The system can be expanded to control lights and space-conditioning equipment. The company is willing to negotiate with other firms to market the panels. The Apple II was chosen because it has a high capacity for data acquisition and testing and because of the available software. (DCK)

  1. Other States Natural Gas Coalbed Methane, Reserves Based Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Revised: October 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Waste Blast Pulping Liquor Oils/Tars NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, and Waste Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Materials Total United States 311 Food 10 0 3 0 0 7 Q 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 7 0 1 0 0 6 *

  2. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1999-02-16

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  3. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1998-04-28

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2,000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2,400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  4. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  5. New Nissan Paint Plant Achieves 30% Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Nissan Paint Plant Achieves 30% Energy Savings The new paint plant, which is Nissan North America's showcase project under the Better Plants Challenge, is expected to be about 30% more efficient than the plant it is replacing. Nissan deployed a number of energy-efficient technologies and practices to drive energy savings at the paint plant, including application of a "3-wet" process that eliminates one high-temperature, 30-minute oven bake step with a 3-minute, low-temperature

  6. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  7. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphite at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More Members" "Appliances",,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members" "Total Homes",113.6,31.3,35.8,18.1,15.7,12.7 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)"

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold/","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry/" "Appliances",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid","Marine" "Total Homes",113.6,38.8,35.4,14.1,19.1,6.3 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)"

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)","Census Region" "Appliances",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total Homes",113.6,20.8,25.9,42.1,24.8 "Cooking Appliances" "Stoves (Units With Both" "an Oven and a Cooktop)" "Use a Stove",102.3,19.2,23.9,38.2,20.9

  11. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total U.S.",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  12. "Table HC11.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total U.S.",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  13. "Table HC12.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an

  14. "Table HC13.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total U.S.",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use

  15. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  16. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B.

    1995-12-01

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  17. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  18. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  19. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  20. Recent development of RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higurashi, Y. Ohnishi, J.; Ozeki, K.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    Over the past two years, we have tried to improve the performance of the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using several methods. For the production of U vapor, we chose the sputtering method because it is possible to install a large amount of material inside the plasma chamber and thus achieve long-term operation without a break, although it is assumed that the beam intensity is weaker than in the oven technique. We also used an aluminum chamber instead of a stainless steel one. Using these methods, we successfully produced ?180 e?A of U{sup 35+} and ?230 e?A of U{sup 33+} at the injected radio frequency (RF) power of ?4 kW (28 GHz). Very recently, to further increase the beam intensity of U{sup 35+}, we have started to develop a high temperature oven and have successfully produced a highly charged U ion beam. In this contribution, we report on the beam intensity of highly charged U ions as a function of various parameters (RF power and sputtering voltage) and discuss the effects of these parameters on the beam stability in detail.

  1. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  2. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  3. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Other Major Appliance Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 1990 2000 2009 2009 Value of Shipments (4) Appliance Type (thousands) (thousands) (thousands) ($million) Room Air Conditioners 3,799 6,496 6,418 129 Ranges (total) 5,873 8,202 5,941 3,158 Electric Ranges 3,350 5,026 3,509 2,041 Gas Ranges 2,354 3,176 2,433 1,117 Microwave Ovens/Ranges 7,693 9,333 N.A. Clothes Washers 5,591 7,495 7,999 4,820 Clothes Dryers (total) 4,160 6,575 6,547 N.A. (5) Electric Dryers 3,190 5,095 5,261 N.A. Gas

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Major Appliance Ownership (Millions of Households and Percent of U.S. Households) Appliance Type Room Air Conditioners 30.2 32% 30.4 31% 26.9 26% 27.4 25% 32.7 29% Refrigerators 91.2 98% 96.8 98% 100.0 96% 104.7 96% 111.6 99% Freezers 42.4 45% 41.9 42% 42.8 41% 36.1 33% 48.5 43% Electric Ranges/Cooktops 58.4 63% 65.3 66% 69.2 66% 71.0 65% 68.8 61% Gas Ranges/Cooktops 36.1 39% 38.3 39% 39.4 38% 42.2 39% 45.1 40% Microwave Ovens 77.2 83% 89.5 91% 94.6 91% 97.2 89% 102.6 91% Clothes Washers 86.4

  6. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G.; Jellison, James L.; Staley, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  7. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  8. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gonzales, Gilbert R.; Adzic, Radoslav; Meinken, George E.

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  9. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  10. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Evans, R.

    1991-11-26

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the [sup 196]Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of [+-]0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour. 8 figures.

  11. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Evans, Roger

    1991-01-01

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the .sup.196 Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of .+-.0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour.

  12. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. . Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  13. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N.

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  14. Analysis of ammonium sulfate circulation tank failure -- Possible causes and their remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hearn, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Acme steel manufactures a liquid solution of ammonium sulphate by scrubbing the coke oven gas with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the bath reaches a predetermined specific gravity, it is isolated from the system, neutralized with aqua ammonia, pumped to the shipping tanks, re-charged with water and acid, then placed back in service. To improve the ammonia removal efficiency, three circulation tanks are used in this system. In June 1996, the volume of two of the sulfate solution tanks in the ammonia removal plant were increased by two different pressure events. The first tank was damaged by pressure that was not relieved due to a plugged vent line. The second tank was damaged by a pressure event generated during the process of making ammonium sulfate. This paper will discuss the cause of the second tank`s failure, and the design solution to restart the operation of the plant.

  15. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H.

    1995-12-01

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  16. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  17. AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1991-01-09

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. The second year of the Direct Steelmaking Program (November 29, 1989, through November 28, 1990) was a year of significant accomplishment. The various research programs proceeded essentially on schedule and the pilot plant, the centerpiece of the program, was completed about three months behind schedule but began operation in almost a picture-perfect manner. This report presents the last years accomplishments.

  18. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atzmon, M.; Johnson, W.L.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1987-02-03

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container to form a disc. The disc is cold-rolled between the nip of rollers to form a flattened disc. The grains are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet of a lamellar filamentary structure containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil is thermally treated in oven to form a composite sheet containing metastable material dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material. 4 figs.

  19. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  1. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  2. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  3. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  4. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  5. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  6. Part 2: Performance of the THERMOSELECT{reg_sign} plant at Fondotoce, Italy: Product quality and distribution of chemical elements in the material flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stahlberg, R.

    1996-12-31

    Results of an extended and complete investigation period at the Thermoselect{reg_sign} solid waste demonstration plant in Fondotoce, Italy, will be discussed. The demonstration plant is an in-line process for commingled wastes combining a compression step, coking oven, and high temperature gasification using oxygen to achieve total decomposition of solid waste and simultaneous production of pollutant-free energy rich synthesis gas, inert and non-toxic vitrified mineral product, and the recovery of metals from the solid wastes. The process air emissions are by a significant margin below the current European and proposed USEPA, NSPS emission standards for MWCs. All processing water and that from the solid waste is recovered, cleaned in-house and reused by the process.

  7. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  8. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  9. Note: A sample holder design for sensitive magnetic measurements at high temperatures in a magnetic properties measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arauzo, A.; Guerrero, E.; Urtizberea, A.; Stankiewicz, J.; Rillo, C.

    2012-06-15

    A sample holder design for high temperature measurements in a commercial MPMS SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design is presented. It fulfills the requirements for the simultaneous use of the oven and reciprocating sample option (RSO) options, thus allowing sensitive magnetic measurements up to 800 K. Alternating current susceptibility can also be measured, since the holder does not induce any phase shift relative to the ac driven field. It is easily fabricated by twisting Constantan Copyright-Sign wires into a braid nesting the sample inside. This design ensures that the sample be placed tightly into a tough holder with its orientation fixed, and prevents any sample displacement during the fast movements of the RSO transport, up to high temperatures.

  10. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  11. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C.; Morgan, John P.; Marchant, Norman J.; Bolton, Steven M.

    1994-01-01

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  12. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  13. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    1998-12-23

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Conducting bench-scale tests to produce coke and acceptable tar from the process to satisfy Koppers, a prospective stakeholder; Consolidation of the project team players to execute the full size commercial cokemaking reactor demonstration; and Progress made in advancing the design of the full size commercial cokemaking reactor.

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  15. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  16. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  17. Compact cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andy J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric; Murray, James E.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2003-10-28

    A low-cost, high performance cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method, for deployment in metro and access networks. The waveguide amplifier has a compact monolithic slab architecture preferably formed by first sandwich bonding an erbium-doped core glass slab between two cladding glass slabs to form a multi-layer planar construction, and then slicing the construction into multiple unit constructions. Using lithographic techniques, a silver stripe is deposited and formed at a top or bottom surface of each unit construction and over a cross section of the bonds. By heating the unit construction in an oven and applying an electric field, the silver stripe is then ion diffused to increase the refractive indices of the core and cladding regions, with the diffusion region of the core forming a single mode waveguide, and the silver diffusion cladding region forming a second larger waveguide amenable to cladding pumping with broad area diodes.

  18. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Blue, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in terms of revolutionizing manufacturing. However, fundamental hurdles limit mass adoption of the technology. First, production rates are extremely low. Second, the physical size of parts is generally small, less than a cubic foot. Third, while there is much excitement about metal additive manufacturing, the major growth area is in polymer additive manufacturing systems. Unfortunately, the mechanical properties of the polymer parts are poor, limiting the potential for direct part replacement. To address this issue, we describe three benefits of blending carbon fiber with polymer additive manufacturing. First, development of carbon fiber reinforced polymers for additive manufacturing achieves specific strengths approaching aerospace quality aluminum. Second, carbon fiber radically changes the behavior of the material during deposition, enabling large scale, out-of-the-oven, high deposition rate manufacturing. Finally, carbon fiber technology and additive manufacturing complement each other. Merging the two manufacturing processes enables the construction of complex components that would not be possible otherwise.

  19. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic solgel route. The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic solgel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 C. Fired needles were of 12 cm in length and 550 ?m in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  20. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    1999-06-23

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed studies of LTV's site for the installation of the commercial Demonstration Unit with site specific layouts; Environmental Work; Firm commitments for funding from the private sector; and Federal funding to complement the private contribution.

  1. Chronic disease and early exposure to air-borne mixtures. 2. Exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Argo

    2007-10-15

    This work is part of a larger study of the impact of early exposure to releases from industry on the etiology of cancer. Releases from all kraft and sulfite mills, coke ovens, oil refineries, copper, nickel, and lead/zinc smelters operating in Canada during the exposure period of 1967-1970 have been determined. All plumes have been expressed in g BaP eq/d using the RASH methodology. The releases have been divided into process, boiler fuel, dioxin, and SO{sub 2} emissions. Combustion sources have been defined with FIREv6.23. Dioxin congenors are expected in all source types when the boiler fuel is heavy fuel oil, wood or wood bark, or coal. All about 90 communities examined have an inverted sex ratio. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    1999-09-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed workings of the team; Proposal to FETC for Phase II; Permitting and Environmental Work; and Engineering Progress.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  4. 2014-2015 SectionI IV: Superconducting Cyclotron, Instrumentation, and RIB

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upgrade P. May, G.J. Kim, B.T. Roeder, H.L. Clark, and F.P. Abegglen Texas A&M cyclotron radiation effects facility April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015 H.L. Clark, J. Brinkley, L. Chen, G. Chubarian, V. Horvat, B. Hyman, B. Roeder, and G. Tabacaru Plans for new ECR4 ion source D.P. May and L.E. Henderson Axially-mounted, high-temperature oven for ECR2 H. Peeler, F.P. Abegglen, B.T. Roeder, and D.P. May Texas A&M cyclotron K150 broad beams for foil irradiation L.E. Henderson and H.L. Clark

  5. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ov, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline acid leaching. The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  6. Final Report: No{sub x} Emissions from By Product Fuel Combustion in Steel Making, September 15, 1996 - October 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershing, David W.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Eddings, Eric G.; Cacciatore, David A.

    1999-01-28

    Exhaust gases from the primary operations in the steel making process are almost exclusively utilized as supplemental fuels within the steel plant. These by-product fuels include blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) which contain mixtures of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and trace amounts of some heavier hydrocarbons and the impurities NH{sub 3} and HCN. These fuels are burned alone or in combination with natural gas to fire the coke ovens, blast furnace stoves utility boilers and metal working furnaces. The utilization of these by-product fuels reduces the waste gas emissions at the steel mill and reduces the requirements for outside fuel sources. However, as with primary fuel sources, the combustion of these by-product fuel blends does produce hazardous pollutants, in particular nitrogen oxides, and because these are atypical fuel blends of varying composition, the pollutant formation is not well understood. The objective of this research was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms controlling NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of by-product fuels from the steel industry and investigate control and design options to minimize emissions. The minimization strategies investigated were constrained by limits on CO and hydrocarbon emissions, both of which increased under fuel-rich combustion scenarios that resulted in reduced NO{sub x} emissions. Also, the minimization strategies were constrained by the need for reasonable heat generation rates in the furnaces that employ these by-product fuels, so that product steel quality is not adversely affected.

  7. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  8. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  9. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  10. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  11. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novelo, T.E.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Maldonado, R.D.; Oliva, A.I.; Alonzo-Medina, G.M.

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  12. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  13. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franois, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.; Danet, J. M.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192?GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192?GHz output signal are measured to be ?42, ?100, ?117 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz and ?129 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 10{sup ?14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  14. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, Allen; Koo, Jackson C.; Dressler, John L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

  15. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-04-28

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness. No Drawings

  16. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  17. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  18. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  19. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  20. The start-up of the DIOS pilot plant (DIOS Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Terutoshi

    1995-12-01

    The DIOS process has been successfully developed as an 8-year project commenced in April 1988. Based on the results of the element studies reported at the previous conference and at other meetings, the pilot plant, with a designed capacity of 500 t/d, was constructed and started up in october 1993. After the starting operation with the single smelting reduction furnace in the beginning of the first campaign, the pilot plant has been principally operated in integration, that is, with the smelting reduction furnace connected with the preheating and prereduction furnaces. So far five campaigns have been successfully conducted on schedule. The operation has been improved gradually and the designed performance has been achieved. New processes are targeted at the direct use of coal and iron ore fines to eliminate not only the problematic coke ovens but also pellet and sinter plants. The direct smelting reduction processes currently at the most advanced stage of development are the DIOS in Japan, the AISI in the USA and the HIsmelt in Australia.

  1. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  2. Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. . AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

    1993-01-01

    The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

  3. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual technical report for year ending November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Direct Steelmaking Program has completed the third year of research and development since cost-share funding was provided by the Department of Energy. The physical chemistry programs conducted by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been completed. A pilot plant has been constructed and successfully operated at Universal, Pennsylvania, and construction of a new, two-zone vessel pilot plant has been completed and trial operation is underway. The success of the pilot plant operation coupled with the development of process models involving reaction rates, heat-transfer and fluid-flow rates, and mass and energy balances has led to a basic study of a 350,000 tonne per year demonstration plant that gives promise of being a low capital and operating cost alternative for ironmaking as compared to the coke oven, blast furnace process. It has the further advantages of ease of startup and shutdown, lower energy consumption, and modularity so that capacity can be adapted to need. The physical chemistry programs at CMU and MIT studied fundamental reactions among ore, coal, flux, slag, metal droplets, and the liquid metal bath. Work at CMU centered on slag foaming studies, coal devolatilization, dissolution of hematite and wustite pellets in bath smelting slags, reduction of FeO in slag by char, extent of reverse or depostcombustion reactions in postcombustion gases, and developing an overall smelting model.

  4. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

    1995-08-01

    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  5. What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds (492nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael [BNL Environmental Sciences

    2014-02-19

    Some clouds look like cotton balls and others like anvils. Some bring rain, some snow and sleet, and others, just shade. But, whether big and billowy or dark and stormy, clouds affect far more than the weather each day. Armed with measurements of clouds updrafts and downdraftswhich resemble airflow in a convection ovenand many other atmospheric interactions, scientists from Brookhaven Lab and other institutions around the world are developing models that are crucial for understanding Earths climate and forecasting future climate change. During his lecture, Dr. Jensen provides an overview of the importance of clouds in the Earths climate system before explaining how convective clouds form, grow, and dissipate. His discussion includes findings from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a major collaborative experiment between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA scientists to document precipitation, clouds, winds, and moisture in 3-D for a holistic view of convective clouds and their environment.

  6. Metastable alloy materials produced by solid state reaction of compacted, mechanically deformed mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atzmon, Michael (Herzlia, IL); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    Bulk metastable, amorphous or fine crystalline alloy materials are produced by reacting cold-worked, mechanically deformed filamentary precursors such as metal powder mixtures or intercalated metal foils. Cold-working consolidates the metals, increases the interfacial area, lowers the free energy for reaction, and reduces at least one characteristic dimension of the metals. For example, the grains (13) of powder or the sheets of foil are clad in a container (14) to form a disc (10). The disc (10) is cold-rolled between the nip (16) of rollers (18,20) to form a flattened disc (22). The grains (13) are further elongated by further rolling to form a very thin sheet (26) of a lamellar filamentary structure (FIG. 4) containing filaments having a thickness of less than 0.01 microns. Thus, diffusion distance and time for reaction are substantially reduced when the flattened foil (28) is thermally treated in oven (32) to form a composite sheet (33) containing metastable material (34) dispersed in unreacted polycrystalline material (36).

  7. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  8. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  9. Static critical phenomena in Co-Ni-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sethi, Brahmananda Sarma, S. Srinivasan, A. Santra, S. B.

    2014-04-24

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are smart materials because they exhibit temperature driven shape memory effect and magnetic field induced strain. Thus two types of energy, i.e. thermal and magnetic, are used to control their shape memory behaviour. Study of critical phenomenon in such materials has received increased experimental and theoretical attention for better understanding of the magnetic phase transition behavior as well as further development of ferromagnetic shape memory materials. In the present study we report the preparation and characterization of bulk Co{sub 45}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 30} alloy, prepared by a sequence of arc melting technique followed by homogenization at 1150 C for 24 hours and ice-water quenching. Structural and magnetic properties of the alloys were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied field range of 18 kOe equipped with a high temperature oven. We have determined the critical temperature T{sub C} (?375.5 K) and the critical exponents viz; ?=0.40, ?=1.68 and ?=5.2. Asymptotic critical exponents ?, ?, and ? obey Widom scaling relation, ?+?=??, and the magnetization data satisfy the scaling equation of state for second-order phase transition in the asymptotic critical region.

  10. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  11. Titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition and a process for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  12. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A ceramic composition composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to aobut 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  13. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  14. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  15. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  16. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  17. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  18. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  20. Method for making fine and ultrafine spherical particles of zirconium titanate and other mixed metal oxide systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2006-05-23

    Disclosed is a method for making amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate and crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate comprising the steps of mixing an aqueous solution of zirconium salt and an aqueous solution of titanium salt into a mixed solution having equal moles of zirconium and titanium and having a total salt concentration in the range from 0.01 M to about 0.5 M. A stearic dispersant and an organic solvent is added to the mixed salt solution, subjecting the zirconium salt and the titanium salt in the mixed solution to a coprecipitation reaction forming a solution containing amorphous spherical particles of zirconium titanate wherein the volume ratio of the organic solvent to aqueous part is in the range from 1 to 5. The solution of amorphous spherical particles is incubated in an oven at a temperature .ltoreq.100.degree. C. for a period of time .ltoreq.24 hours converting the amorphous particles to fine or ultrafine crystalline spherical particles of zirconium titanate.

  1. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-09-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (iv) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: ? Consolidation of the project team-players; ? Recruiting Koppers Industries as an additional stakeholder; ? Developing a closed system for the production of binder pitch from tar in the Calderon coking process as the incentive for Koppers to join the team; ? Gathering appropriate equipment for conducting a set of experiments at bench scale to simulate tar quality produced from the Calderon coking process for the production of binder pitch; and ? Further progress made in the design of the commercial coking reactor.

  2. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-06-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitating commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on three main activities: Continuation of design of the coking reactor; Raising funds from the private sector; and Detailed analysis of the tests conducted in Alliance, Ohio. The design of the reactor work centered on the provision for the capability to inspect and maintain the internals of the reactor. The activities relating to raising funds from the steel industry have been fruitful. Bethlehem Steel has agreed to contribute funds. The collected data from the tests at Alliance were analyzed and a detailed report was completed and presented to the International Iron & Steel Institute by invitation.

  3. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  4. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  5. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  6. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  7. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  8. Thermal oxidation technology ready for tougher paint finishing regs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is good news and bad news in the air for commercial paint finishers. The bad news is that future local and federal clean-air regulations are almost certain to require control of volatile organic compound emissions from spray booths and drying ovens. The good news is that one of the most effective systems for meeting such requirements also can help cut operations and maintenance costs. There are as many solutions to VOC emissions problems in paint finishing as there are types of paint-spraying facilities. However, despite the range of choices, regenerative thermal oxidation systems are gaining favor among plant managers, for whom performance and maximum application flexibility are key considerations. Compared to other VOC-destruction approaches, RTO systems are more forgiving and reliable. Although RTO systems involve somewhat higher capital investments than alternative approaches, such costs typically are offset by lower long-term fuel and maintenance requirements. In addition, RTO systems can convert pollutants into usable energy sources, helping minimize operating costs of abatement equipment.

  9. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2000-09-19

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports; and (vi) applying the Calderon technology to making additional iron units. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: (1) Bethlehem Steel's withdrawal and efforts expended to substitute U.S. Steel for Bethlehem; (2) Assessment work performed with U.S. Steel to show that the Calderon Technology has merit and would add to U.S. Steel's economic benefit by being involved in it, including for making additional iron units; (3) Addressing material selection and heat input capacity to increase heat input into the processing reactor by actual modeling of such approach; (4) Construction of two full size courses of heating tiles to verify the manufacturing and the fitting of the tiles with one another; (5) Making available equipment to test carbon deposition on sorbent; and (6) Permitting issues.

  10. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2000-06-21

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  11. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Yellow Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, A.X.; Lang, Y.H.; Xue, L.D.; Liao, S.L.; Zhou, H.

    2009-11-15

    Based on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 12 surface sediment samples from Yellow Sea, the relative risk of 9 PAHs was investigated using joint risk probability distribution curves and overlapping area, which were generated based on the distributions of exposure and acute toxicity data (LC50), and the sources of PAHs were apportioned using principal component analysis. It was found that joint probability curve and overlapping area indicated the acceptable ecological risk of individual PAHs, only a small fraction of the benthic organisms was affected. Among the nine PAHs studied, the overall risk of pyrene was the highest, with that of naphthalene the lowest. For lower exposure levels at which the percentage of species affected was less than 10%, the risk associated with phenanthrene and fluorene were clearly higher than that of the other seven PAHs. It was indicated that PAHs in surface sediments mainly originated from vehicular emissions, coal combustion sources, coke oven emission and wood combustion, petroleum origin made little influence on sources of PAHs by PCA.

  12. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2000-03-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu/h, to 49 vppm. CO emissions fluctuated with the oxygen content and remained below 135 vppm during all tests. The boiler’s maximum output was not achieved due to a limitation dictated by the host site natural gas supply. The FIR burner benefits the public by simultaneously addressing the problems of air pollution and energy conservation through a low-NOx combustion technology that does not increase energy consumption. Continuing activities include the negotiation of a license with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion, Incorporated (Hamworthy Peabody) to commercialize the FIR burner for steel industry applications. Hamworthy Peabody is one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of combustion equipment for boilers in the Steel Industry, and has stated their intention to commercialize the FIR burner.

  14. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  15. Determination of total and isotopic uranium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.L.; Bolin, R.N.; Feller, M.T.; Danahy, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in southwestern Ohio, ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with sample introduction by peristaltic pumping, is used to determine total and isotopic uranium (U-234, U-235, U-236 and U-238) in soil samples. These analyses are conducted in support of the environmental cleanup of the FEMP site. Various aspects of the sample preparation and instrumental analysis will be discussed. Initial sample preparation consists of oven drying to determine moisture content, and grinding and rolling to homogenize the sample. This is followed by a nitric/hydrofluoric acid digestion to bring the uranium in the sample into solution. Bismuth is added to the sample prior to digestion to monitor for losses. The total uranium (U-238) content of this solution and the U{sup 235}/U{sup 238} ratio are measured on the first pass through the ICP-MS. To determine the concentration of the less abundant U{sup 234} and U{sup 236} isotopes, the digestate is further concentrated by using Eichrom TRU-Spec extraction columns before the second pass through the ICP-MS. Quality controls for both the sample preparation and instrumental protocols will also be discussed. Finally, an explanation of the calculations used to report the data in either weight percent or activity units will be given.

  16. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  17. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andr

    2010-06-11

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  18. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  19. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  20. Characterization of a new photo-fluorescent film dosimeter for high-radiation dose applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Mark K. ); Miller, Steven D. ); Kovacs, Andras; Mclaughlin, William L.; Slezsak, Istvan

    2001-12-01

    Characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna fluorescent dosimeter have been published by Kovacs and McLaughlin. This present study describes testing results of a newer version of the dosimeter (Model and 61543;, batch 0399-20). This dosimeter is a 1-cm by 3-cm polymeric film of 0.5 mm thickness that emits a green fluorescence component at intensities almost linear with dose. The manufacturing method (injection molding) allows potential batch sizes on the order of a million while maintaining a signal precision on the order of+/- 1%. Studies include dose response, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, post-irradiation stability, environmental effects, and variation of response within a batch. Data for both food irradiation and sterilization dose levels were obtained. The results indicate that the green signal (0.3-200 kGy) works well for food irradiation dose levels, especially in refrigerated facilities that maintain tight temperature control. The green signal also works well in sterilization facilities because its irradiation temperature coefficient above room temperature is minimal at sterilization doses. If the user requires readout results in less than 22 hours after room temperature irradiation, the user can either calibrate for a specific post-irradiation readout time(s) or simply heat the dosimeters in a small laboratory oven to quickly stabilize the signal.

  1. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  2. Instrumentation and Equipment for Three Independent Research Labs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darlene Roth

    2012-03-29

    Completed in 2011, Albright's new Science Center includes three independent student and faculty research labs in Biology, Chemistry/Biochemistry, and Physics (separate from teaching labs). Providing independent research facilities, they eliminate disruptions in classrooms and teaching labs, encourage and accommodate increased student interest, and stimulate advanced research. The DOE grant of $369,943 enabled Albright to equip these advanced labs for 21st century science research, with much instrumentation shared among departments. The specialty labs will enable Albright to expand its student-faculty research program to meet growing interest, help attract superior science students, maximize faculty expertise, and continue exceeding its already high rates of acceptance for students applying for postgraduate education or pharmaceutical research positions. Biology instrumentation/equipment supports coursework and independent and collaborative research by students and faculty. The digital shaker, CO{sub 2} and water bath incubators (for controlled cell growth), balance, and micropipettes support cellular biology research in the advanced cell biology course and student-faculty research into heavy metal induction of heat shock proteins in cultured mammalian cells and the development of PCR markers from different populations of the native tree, Franklinia. The gravity convection oven and lyophilizer support research into physical and chemical analysis of floodplain sediments used in assessment of riparian restoration efforts. The Bio-Rad thermocycler permits fast and accurate DNA amplification as part of research into genetic diversity in small mammal populations and how those populations are affected by land-use practices and environmental management. The Millipore water deionizing system and glassware washer provide general support of the independent research lab and ensure quality control of coursework and interdisciplinary research at the intersection of biology, chemistry, and toxicology. Grant purchases support faculty and students working in the areas of plant cellular biology, landscape ecology and wildlife management, wetland restoration, and ecotoxicology of aquatic invertebrates. Chemistry/BioChemistry instrumentation supports a wide range of research and teaching needs. The Dell quad core Xeon processors and Gaussian 09 support computational research efforts of two of our faculty. The computational work of one of these groups is part of close collaboration with one organic chemist and provides support info for the synthetic work of this professor and his students. Computational chemistry studies were also introduced into the physical chemistry laboratory course for junior chemistry concentrators. The AKTA plus system and superdex columns, Thermoscientific Sorvall RC-6 plus superspeed centrifuge, Nanodrop spectrometer, Eppendorf microfuge, Homogenizer and Pipetman pipetters were incorporated into a research project involving purification and characterization of a construct of beta 2-microglobulin by one of our biochemists. The vacuum system (glove box, stand, and pump) makes a significant contribution to the research of our inorganic chemist, the newest department member, working on research projects with four students. The glove box provides the means to carry out their synthetic work in an oxygenless atmosphere. Supporting basic research pursued by faculty and students, the remaining items (refrigerator/freezer units for flammable storage, freezer, refrigerated water bath, rotary evaporator system, vacuum oven, analytical and top-loading balances) were distributed between our biochemistry and chemistry research labs. The Nanodrop spectrometer, Sorvall centrifuge, and rotary evaporator system are used in several junior/senior lab courses in both biochemistry and chemistry. To date, 14 undergraduate research students have been involved in projects using the new instrumentation and equipment provided by this grant. Physics equipment acquired is radically transforming Albright research and teaching capabilities. The tw

  3. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  5. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  6. Mixed convection transport from an isolated heat source module on a horizontal plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, B.H.; Jaluria, Y.; Tewari, S.S. )

    1990-08-01

    An experimental study of the mixed convective heat transfer from an isolated source of finite thickness, located on a horizontal surface in an externally induced forced flow, has been carried out. This problem is of particular interest in the cooling of electronic components and also in the thermal transport associated with various manufacturing systems, such as ovens and furnaces. The temperature distribution in the flow as well as the surface temperature variation are studied in detail. The dependence of the heat transfer rate on the mixed convection parameter and on the thickness of the heated element or source, particularly in the vicinity of the source, is investigated. The results obtained indicate that the heat transfer rate and fluid flow characteristics vary strongly with the mixed convection variables. The transition from a natural convection dominated flow to a forced convection dominated flow is studied experimentally and the basic characteristics of the two regimes determined. This transition has a strong influence on the temperature of the surface and on the heat transfer rate. As expected, the forced convection dominated flow is seen to be significantly more effective in the cooling of a heat dissipating component than a natural convection dominated flow. The location of the maximum temperature on the module surface, which corresponds to the minimum local heat transfer coefficient, is determined and discussed in terms of the underlying physical mechanisms. The results obtained are also compared with these for an element of negligible thickness and the effect of a significant module thickness on the transport is determined. Several other important aspects of fundamental and applied interest are studied in this investigation.

  7. Preparation and structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}/Cu{sup 2+} doped hematite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srikrishna Ramya, S.I. Mahadevan, C.K.

    2014-03-15

    Pure and Mn{sup 2+} / Co{sup 2+} / Cu{sup 2+} doped (1 and 2 at.%) spherical hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal method using a domestic microwave oven. XRD measurements confirm that all the seven nanocrystals prepared consist of nanocrystalline hematite phase without any other phases. The energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the phase purity of the nanocrystals prepared. TEM analysis shows the average particle sizes within the range 33–51 nm. Optical absorption measurements indicate that all the three dopants enhance the optical transmittance and reflectance. A red shift is observed in the bandgap energy values estimated from optical absorption and reflectance spectra. Results of magnetic measurements made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties (coercivity, retentivity and saturationmagnetization) due to doping. Results of magnetic measurements indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties. Results of AC electrical measurements made at various temperatures in the range 40–130 °C and frequencies in the range 100 Hz –1 MHz indicate low dielectric constants and AC electrical conductivities and consequently show the occurrence of nanoconfined states. -- Graphical abstract: The indexed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the seven nanocrystals indicate the rhombohedral structure of hematite (JCPDS card No.13-0534). No impurity phase like oxides of Mn or Co or Cu was detected above equipment limit. The average crystallite (grain) sizes estimated using the Scherrer's formula. Highlights: • Pure and Mn/Co/Cu-doped hematite nanocrystals have been prepared. • The method adopted for the preparation is simple, economical and scalable. • Prepared nanocrystals are spherical in shape with good crystallinity and phase purity. • Mn/Co/Cu-doping enhances the optical transmittance and ferromagnetic order. • Optical, magnetic and electrical properties tuned by Mn/Co/Cu-doping are explained.

  8. The characteristic of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} as cathode material for lithium ion battery synthesized by sol-gel process in one step heating and varied pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triwibowo, J.; Yuniarti, E.; Suharyadi, E.

    2014-09-25

    This research has been done on the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO{sub 4} through sol-gel process. Carbon layer serves for improving electronic conductivity, while the variation of pH in the sol-gel process is intended to obtain the morphology of the material that may improve battery performance. LiFePO{sub 4}/C precursors are Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and citric acid. In the synthesis process, consisting of a colloidal suspension FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and distilled water mixed with a colloidal suspension consisting of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and distilled water. Variations addition of citric acid is used to control the pH of the gel formed by mixing two colloidal suspensions. Sol in this study had a pH of 5, 5.4 and 5.8. The obtained wet gel is further dried in the oven and then sintered at a temperature 700C for 10 hours. The resulting material is further characterized by XRD to determine the phases formed. The resulting powder morphology is observed through SEM. Specific surface area of the powder was tested by BET, while the electronic conductivity characterized with EIS.

  9. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fresh and smoked fish samples from three Nigerian cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akpan, V.; Lodovici, M.; Dolara, P. )

    1994-08-01

    Nigeria is a major producer of crude oil in sub-Saharan Africa. In-shore and off-shore wells are located in richly watered creeks in the southern part of the country. Although published data on environmental impact assessment of the petroleum industry in Nigeria are lacking, there is a growing concern about the possible contamination of estuarine and coastal waters and of marine species by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). PAHs are ubiquitous priority pollutants that occur naturally in crude oil, automobile exhaust emissions and smoke condensates from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials. PAHs with high molecular weight are less readily biodegraded by indigenous microorganisms in some regions, and given their marked hydrophobic characteristics, may persist in the aqueous environment, thus contaminating the food chain by bioaccumulating in aquatic species like fish and mussels. Major Nigerian oil wells are located in the vicinity of breeding and harvesting sites serving the fresh-water fishing industry. Large hauls of fresh fish are normally consumed cooked in soups or smoke cured in handcrafted traditional ovens using freshly cut red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa) wood as fuel. Though smoke curing is economical and may ensure longer conservation of fish, it undoubtedly increases the burden of PAHs in finished products as a result of partial charring and from smoke condensates or mangroves that also contain PAHs in measurable quantities as reported by Asita et al. (1991). Apart from PAHs analyzed by Emerole (1980) in smoked food samples from Ibadan using simple analytical methods, those from industrial and other anthropogenic sources have rarely been analyzed in Nigeria. We tried therefore to update the data and address this discrepancy. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  12. Round-Robin Verification and Final Development of the IEC 62788-1-5 Encapsulation Size Change Test; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Bokria, J.; Gu, X.; Honeker, C.; Murua, N.; Nickel, N.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wang, E.; Yang, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2015-02-23

    Polymeric encapsulation materials may a change size when processed at typical module lamination temperatures. The relief of residual strain, trapped during the manufacture of encapsulation sheet, can affect module performance and reliability. For example, displaced cells and interconnects threaten: cell fracture; broken interconnects (open circuits and ground faults); delamination at interfaces; and void formation. A standardized test for the characterization of change in linear dimensions of encapsulation sheet has been developed and verified. The IEC 62788-1-5 standard quantifies the maximum change in linear dimensions that may occur to allow for process control of size change. Developments incorporated into the Committee Draft (CD) of the standard as well as the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of the test method are described here. No pass/fail criteria are given in the standard, rather a repeatable protocol to quantify the change in dimension is provided to aid those working with encapsulation. The round-robin experiment described here identified that the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements is on the order of 1%. Recent refinements to the test procedure to improve repeatability and reproducibility include: the use of a convection oven to improve the thermal equilibration time constant and its uniformity; well-defined measurement locations reduce the effects of sampling size -and location- relative to the specimen edges; a standardized sand substrate may be readily obtained to reduce friction that would otherwise complicate the results; specimen sampling is defined, so that material is examined at known sites across the width and length of rolls; and encapsulation should be examined at the manufacturers recommended processing temperature, except when a cross-linking reaction may limit the size change. EVA, for example, should be examined 100 C, between its melt transition (occurring up to 80 C) and the onset of cross-linking (often at 100 C).

  13. Recent progress in the feasibility study for the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subki, I.R.; Iskandar, A.; Supadi, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    Many have come to realise that an increasing demand for and supply of energy is a necessity to support national development. Conservation efforts also contribute, by the more efficient use of energy and by avoiding its unnecessary use. However, some are of the opinion that conservation would be able to add to the supply of energy, but this viewpoint still requires further consideration. In Indonesia, the energy consumption since 1970 has been continually increasing with an average rate of 10.6%/year in support of the development in all sectors. In the case of electric energy for the whole of Indonesia, in the year 1990/1991 the installed capacity was 9275 MW in the State Electricity Company (PLN) network with an electrical consumption during that year amounting to 34.0 TWh. The increase of consumption during the last two years amounted to 17.5% and 17.9%/year. Over this period the share of supply of electricity has consistently increased. Specifically for the island of Java, which accounts for 80% of all of the Indonesian electricity consumptions, the installed capacity by PLN in the year 1990/1991 was 6363 MW (the same amount of capacity also exists outside PLN), and increased by 17%/year during it last three years. The actual and projected figures at Oven. It is worth noting that, for example, the projected installed capacity for 2003-04 is now 31.8 GW, which is far higher than the previous projection for 2010-11 of only 25.5 GW. In view of this the government has decided to conduct feasibility studies of the nuclear option, with the goal of fulfilling the deficit or gap in supply where other options are likely to reach their limitations.

  14. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  15. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  16. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  17. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  18. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  19. A kinetic approach to modeling the manufacture of high density strucutral foam: Foaming and polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Long, Kevin Nicholas; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Celina, Mathias C.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Tinsley, James

    2015-09-01

    We are studying PMDI polyurethane with a fast catalyst, such that filling and polymerization occur simultaneously. The foam is over-packed to tw ice or more of its free rise density to reach the density of interest. Our approach is to co mbine model development closely with experiments to discover new physics, to parameterize models and to validate the models once they have been developed. The model must be able to repres ent the expansion, filling, curing, and final foam properties. PMDI is chemically blown foam, wh ere carbon dioxide is pr oduced via the reaction of water and isocyanate. The isocyanate also re acts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. A new kinetic model is developed and implemented, which follows a simplified mathematical formalism that decouple s these two reactions. The model predicts the polymerization reaction via condensation chemis try, where vitrification and glass transition temperature evolution must be included to correctly predict this quantity. The foam gas generation kinetics are determined by tracking the molar concentration of both water and carbon dioxide. Understanding the therma l history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven heating is very important to the results, since the kinetics and ma terial properties are all very sensitive to temperature. The conservation eq uations, including the e quations of motion, an energy balance, and thr ee rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. We assume generalized-Newtonian rheology that is dependent on the cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations are comb ined with a level set method to determine the location of the free surface over time. Results from the model are compared to experimental flow visualization data and post-te st CT data for the density. Seve ral geometries are investigated including a mock encapsulation part, two configur ations of a mock stru ctural part, and a bar geometry to specifically test the density model. We have found that the model predicts both average density and filling profiles well. However, it under predicts density gradients, especially in the gravity direction. Thoughts on m odel improvements are also discussed.

  20. Use of Lubricants in the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdin, W; Biltoft, P

    2006-07-06

    There are two principal concerns that govern the use of lubricants in NIF: (1) Airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs)--AMCs are known to seriously degrade the performance of sol-gel coated optics. AMCs are produced by the slow outgassing of residues (non-volatile residues or ''NVRs'') of high molecular weight compounds left on surfaces. Lubricants, particularly hydrocarbon lubricants, are a primary source of such NVRs. (2) Particulates--Particulates that accumulate on optical surfaces can cause permanent physical damage when exposed to high energy density laser light. Lubricant residues exposed to high energy density light will pyrolyze or decompose and produce carbon particulates. The NIF Approved Materials Database lists several lubricants that have been tested for use in NIF environments. Many of these lubricants were tested according to MELs 99-006 (oven outgassing test) or 99-007 (vacuum outgassing test). In these tests, the change in percent transmission of light through a sol-gel coated optic placed next to the sample under evaluation is used as the diagnostic. Samples that cause less than 0.1% change in optical transmission are deemed suitable for use inside beam enclosures. This testing, however, addresses only the concern associated with AMCs. To assess the issue of particle generation, a flashlamp or ''aerosol'' test is used. In this test a sample with residues is subjected to intense light from the main amplifier flashlamps. The number density of particles per unit volume is measure after each flash. A measurement of an average of fewer than 1000 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to be acceptable for polymers. A measurement of an average of fewer than 100 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to be acceptable for metals.

  1. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media. [Quarterly] progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramaniam, B.

    1993-10-01

    Figure 1 shows the physical appearance of the reactor and analytical units. The feed preparation section consists of a mass flow controller for syngas introduction, the BPLC pump for n-hexane introduction, preheaters, check valves, static mixer, and safety head has been completed. The stainless steel reactor was fabricated and was alonized to passivate the stainless steel surface. The fluidized sand bath surrounding the reactor was fabricated in house. Aluminum oxide (120 mesh) will be used as the fluidized medium. Stepping-motor-driven micrometering (Autoclave{reg_sign}) valves have been installed for pressure control of the reactor and of the syngas feed stream. The sample transfer lines connected to the gas sampling valves in the GC will be routed inside the valve oven and out through the front top of the GC, where they will be connected with the heated sample transfer lines from the reactor. The sample outlet line will be routed through a cold trap operated at 20{degrees}C or lower and the gases from the cold trap will be exhausted to the roof vent. The reactor unit is versatile and permits us to investigate the effect(s) of any of the following variables on syngas conversion, selectivity and reaction rate maintenance: (1) pressure (25--70) bars, (2) syngas flowrate (30--150) cc/min/g{center_dot}cat, (3) syngas ratio (H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0) (4) ratio of syngas to reaction media (0.2--5.0), (5) catalyst type (Fe or Co), (6) direction of cocurrent flow (upflow or downflow), (7) cosolvent effects (such as n-pentane), and (8) sulfur content (1--50 mg{center_dot}/g{center_dot}Fe). Based on a literature review (Pennline et al., 1987; Baltrus et al., 1989; Bukur et al., 1990), the pretreatment of Fe catalysts will be performed with flowing CO at low pressure ({approximately}1 atm) and high temperatures ({approximately}280{degrees}C).

  2. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup ?} ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H{sup ?} ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ?1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ?4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H{sup ?} beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (?1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (?0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ?15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV)

  3. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  4. Functionalization/passivation of porous graphitic carbon with di-tert-amylperoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, David S.; Gupta, Vipul; Olsen, Rebecca E.; Miller, Alex T.; Davis, Robert C.; Ess, Daniel; Zhu, Zihua; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R.

    2011-11-18

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) particles were functionalized/passivated in situ in packed beds at elevated temperature with neat di-tert-amylperoxide (DTAP) in a column oven. The performance of these particles for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was assayed before and after this chemistry with the following analytes: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, n-propyl benzene, n-butyl benzene, p-xylene, phenol, 4-methylphenol, phenetole, 3,5-xylenol, and anisole. After the first functionalization/passivation, the retention factors, k, of these compounds decreased by about 5% and the number of theoretical plates (N) increased by ca. 15%. These values of k then remained roughly constant after a second functionalization/ passivation but a further increase in N was noticed. In addition, after each of the reactions, the peak asymmetries decreased by ca. 15%, for a total of ca. 30%. The columns were then subjected twice to methanol at 100 C for 5 h at 1 mL/min. After these stability tests, the values of k remained roughly constant, the number of plates increased, which is favorable, and the asymmetries rose and then declined, where they remained below the initial values for the unfunctionalized columns. Functionalized and unfunctionalized particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and BET measurements, which showed no difference between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), where ToF-SIMS suggested some chemical differences between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials. In particular ToF-SIMS suggested that the expected five-carbon fragments from DTAP exist at higher concentrations on DTAP-functionalized PGC. First principle calculations on model graphitic surfaces suggest that the first addition of a DTAP radical to the surface proceeds in an approximately isothermal or slightly favorable fashion, but that subsequent DTAP additions are then increasingly thermodynamically favorable. Thus, this analysis suggests that the direct functionalization/passivation of PGC with DTAP is plausible. Chemometric analyses of the chromatographic and ToF-SIMS data are also presented.

  5. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the moisture range of 2.5-13.6 v% moisture at 140 C and 120-123 psia. (2) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} appear to decrease slightly with increased reaction temperatures over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. (3) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} increase significantly with increased reaction pressures over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C.

  6. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 0.01 to 0.98 cm min{sup -1} in Cumberland and 0.1 to 1.68 cm min{sup -1} in Wilds. The cumulative infiltration (I) was highly variable (CV > 0.6) and ranged from 4.2 to 110 cm in Cumberland and 17.4 to 250 cm in Wilds. The AWC for 0-15 cm depth also showed moderate variability (CV = 0.3) for Cumberland but high for Wilds (CV = 0.4). The sand and silt contents showed strong spatial dependence with nugget-sill ratio of 15 and 23%, respectively with a range of 50 m in Cumberland site. Strong spatial dependence for sand content was also obtained for Wilds. The VSP, AWC, I, clay content, VTP, and i{sub c}, showed moderate to low spatial dependence (nugget-sill ratio varied from 32 to 72% in Cumberland and 37 to 88% in Wilds). These preliminary results along with those reported earlier during the third quarter suggest that the management effects are important and indicative of these sources of variability.

  7. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.

    2013-09-30

    Plausible, but unvalidated, theoretical model constructs for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media are currently used in Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for cracked saltstone and concrete (Flach 2011). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern about the lack of model support for these assumed Moisture Characteristic Curves (MCC) data, as noted in Requests for Additional Information (RAIs) PA-8 and SP-4 (Savannah River Remediation, LLC, 2011). The objective of this task was to advance PA model support by developing an experimental method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured cementitious materials under unsaturated conditions, and to demonstrate the technique on fractured saltstone samples. The task was requested through Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0016 and conducted in accordance with Task Technical & Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-TR-2012-00090. Preliminary method development previously conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) identified transient outflow extraction as the most promising method for characterizing the unsaturated properties of fractured porous media. While the research conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) focused on fractured media analogs such as stacked glass slides, the current task focused directly on fractured saltstone. For this task, four sample types with differing fracture geometries were considered: 1) intact saltstone, 2) intact saltstone with a single saw cut, smooth surface fracture, 3) micro-fractured saltstone (induced by oven drying), and 4) micro-fractured saltstone with a single, fully-penetrating, rough-surface fracture. Each sample type was tested initially for saturated hydraulic conductivity following method ASTM D 5084 using a flexible wall permeameter. Samples were subsequently tested using the transient outflow extraction method to determine cumulative outflow as a function of time and applied pressure. Of the four sample types tested, two yielded datasets suitable for analysis (sample types 3 and 4). The intact saltstone sample (sample type 1) did not yield any measureable outflow over the pressure range of the outflow test (0-1000 cm H{sub 2}O). This was expected because the estimated air entry pressure for intact saltstone is on the order of 100,000 cm H{sub 2}O (Dixon et al., 2009). The intact saltstone sample with a single saw cut smooth surface fracture (sample type 2) did not produce useable data because the fracture completely drained at less than 10 cm H{sub 2}O applied pressure. The cumulative outflow data from sample types 3 and 4 were analyzed using an inverse solution of the Richards equation for water flow in variably saturated porous media. This technique was implemented using the computer code Hydrus-1D (im?nek et al., 2008) and the resulting output included the van Genuchten-Mualem water retention and relative permeability parameters and predicted saturated hydraulic conductivity (Van Genuchten, 1980; Van Genuchten et al., 1991). Estimations of relative permeability and saturated conductivity are possible because the transient response of the sample to pressure changes is recorded during the multi-step outflow extraction test. Characteristic curves were developed for sample types 3 and 4 based on the results of the transient outflow method and compared to that of intact saltstone previously reported by Dixon et al. (2009). The overall results of this study indicate that the outflow extraction method is suitable for measuring the hydraulic properties of micro-fractured porous media. The resulting cumulative outflow data can be analyzed using the computer code Hydrus-1D to generate the van Genuchten curve fitting parameters that adequately describe fracture drainage. The resulting characteristic curves are consistent with blended characteristic curves that combine the behaviors of low pressure drainage associated with fracture flow with high pressure drainage from the bulk saltstone matrix.

  8. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 0.20 and averaged 1.18 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

  9. CRADA Final Report for NFE-08-01826: Development and application of processing and processcontrol for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, C.; Armstrong, B.; Maxey, C.; Sabau, A.; Wang, H.; Hagans, P.; and Babinec, S.

    2012-12-15

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System’s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged ‘pinch point’ test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

  10. Final Report - Recovery Act - Development and application of processing and process control for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Armstrong, Beth L; Maxey, L Curt; Sabau, Adrian S; Wang, Hsin; Hagans, Patrick; Babinec, Sue

    2013-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged pinch point test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

  11. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  12. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  13. Final Technical Report for Industrial Assessment Center at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran

    2008-01-09

    The Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program at West Virginia University (WVU), which is funded by the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) in the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has provided a unique opportunity to enhance efficient energy utilization in small to medium-sized manufacturers. It has also provided training to engineering students in the identification and analysis of efficient energy use in each aspect of the manufacturing process and associated supporting elements. The outcomes of the IAC Program at WVU have assisted the manufacturers and the students in having a heightened sensitivity to industrial energy conservation, waste reduction, and productivity improvement, as well as a better understanding of the technical aspects of manufacturing processes and the supporting elements through which efficient energy utilization can be enhanced. The IAC at WVU has conducted 101 energy assessments from 2002 until 2006. The focus of the industrial assessments has been on energy savings. It has been the IACs interest to strongly focus on energy savings and on waste minimization and productivity improvements that strictly have an impact on energy. The IAC at WVU was selected as the Center of the year in 2005 from amongst 26 centers and has obtained a ranking within the top 5 in the previous few years. From 2002 to 2006, the total recommended energy savings produced by the IAC at WVU is 1,214,414 MMBtu, of which the electricity accounts for 93,826,067 kWh (equivalent to 320,226 MMBtu) and natural gas for 871,743 MMBtu. The balance is accounted for in savings in other fuels, mainly coal and wood. This results in an average recommended energy savings of 928,971 kWh from electricity and 8,631 MMBtu from natural gas per facility. The total CO2 emissions saved from 2002 to 2006 is 154,462 tons, with an average of 1,529.3 tons per facility. The average recommended energy cost savings per facility is $135,036. The overall implementation rate of the assessment recommendations is 60.6% for the 101 industrial assessments conducted since 2002. The implemented recommendations resulted in total energy savings of 62,328,006 kWh from electricity, 295,241 MMBtu from natural gas, and 43,593 MMBtu from other fuels, totaling 551,557 MMBtu. The average implemented energy savings per industrial facility is 5,461 MMBtu and the average implemented energy cost savings is $ 59,879. The average implemented energy and productivity cost savings exceeds the program average of $ 60,000 per assessment. The IAC at WVU has produced a variety of energy efficiency recommendations in areas of industrial energy consumption such as Boilers and Steam systems (19), Air Compressors (15), HVAC (4), Chillers (12), Furnaces and Ovens (17), Motors (8), Lighting (20), Insulation (3), CHP and Cogeneration (4), and Process Equipment (7). The project has benefited the public by enabling the reduction of CO2 emissions by 89,726 tons due to the implemented energy saving recommendations at 101 small and medium sized manufacturing facilities. Since CO2 is a green house gas, its reduction will improve the quality of the environment significantly. The reduction in operating costs for the manufacturing facilities in terms of energy cost savings will increase the manufacturing facilities profits and improve their competitive edge, thus causing possible expansion in the manufacturing activities, leading to increase in good paying jobs.

  14. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  15. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  17. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Forest products provide essential resources for human civilization, including energy and materials. In processing forest products, however, unwanted byproducts, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. The goal of this study was to develop a cost effective and reliable air pollution control system to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from pulp, paper and paperboard mills and solid wood product facilities. Specifically, this work focused on the removal of VOCs and HAPs from high volume low concentration (HVLC) gases, particularly methanol since it is the largest HAP constituent in these gases. Three technologies were developed and tested at the bench-scale: (1) A novel composite material of activated carbon coated with a photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) (referred to as TiO{sub 2}-coated activated carbon or TiO{sub 2}/AC), (2) a novel silica gel impregnated with nanosized TiO{sub 2} (referred to as silica-titania composites or STC), and (3) biofiltration. A pilot-scale reactor was also fabricated and tested for methanol removal using the TiO{sub 2}/AC and STC. The technical feasibility of removing methanol with TiO{sub 2}/AC was studied using a composite synthesized via a spay desiccation method. The removal of methanol consists of two consecutive operation steps: removal of methanol using fixed-bed activated carbon adsorption and regeneration of spent activated carbon using in-situ photocatalytic oxidation. Regeneration using photocatalytic oxidation employed irradiation of the TiO{sub 2} catalyst with low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light. Results of this technical feasibility study showed that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate a spent TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent. A TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent was then developed using a dry impregnation method, which performed better than the TiO{sub 2}/AC synthesized using the spray desiccation method. The enhanced performance was likely a result of the better distribution of TiO2 particles on the activated carbon surface. A method for pore volume impregnation using microwave irradiation was also developed. A commercial microwave oven (800 W) was used as the microwave source. Under 2450 MHz microwave irradiation, TTIP was quickly hydrolyzed and anatase TiO2 was formed in a short time (< 20 minutes). Due to the volumetric heating and selective heating of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickly removed which reduced energy consumption and processing time. Activated carbon and TiO{sub 2}/AC were also tested for the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which was chosen as the representative total reduced sulfur (TRS) species. The BioNuchar AC support itself was a good H{sub 2}S remover. After coating TiO{sub 2} by dry impregnation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC decreased compared with the virgin AC due to the change of surface pH. Under UV light irradiation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC composite doubled, and its sulfate conversion efficiency was higher than that of AC. The formation of sulfate is preferred since the sulfate can be removed from the composite by rising with water. A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor was designed to test the efficiency of methanol oxidation with TiO{sub 2}/AC in the presence of UV light. TiO{sub 2}/AC was prepared using the spray desiccation method. The TiO{sub 2}/AC was pre-loaded with (1) methanol (equivalent to about 2%wt) and (2) methanol and water. When the TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol only was exposed to UV light for one hour in the reactor, most of the methanol remained in the carbon pores and, thus, was not oxidized. The TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol and water desorbed about 2/3 of the methanol from its pores during fluidization, however, only a small portion of this desorbed methanol was oxidized. A biofilter system employing biological activated carbon was developed for methanol removal. The biofilter contained a mixed packing with Westvaco BioNuchar granular activated carbon, perlite, Osmocote slow release ammonium nitrate pellets, and Agrasoke water crystals in a 4:2:1:1 ratio by volume. The biofilter was inoculated with a bacterial culture collected from a Florida pulp and paperboard plant. A non-inoculated biofilter column was also tested. Use of a biological inoculum enriched from biofilm in the pulp and paper process has the potential to enhance the performance of a GAC biofilter. During testing, packing material was removed from the inlet and oulet of the biofilters and analyzed for genetic diversity using molecular techniques. The biofilter inoculated with specifically-enhanced inoculum showed higher bacterial diversity for methylotrophs and all bacteria, as compared to a non-inoculated biofilter. Mixed methylotrophic cultures, selected as potential biofilter inocula, showed increased methanol removal with highest concentrations of nitrogen provided as nitrate.