Sample records for oven fryer griddle

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Griddles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Griddles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilers Covered ProductFryersGriddles

  3. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, Gregory K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioning, ASHP = air source heat pump, HP = heat pump,Conditioners and Air-Source Heat Pumps • Commercial FryersOvens -Griddles HVAC -Air Source Heat Pump -Geothermal Heat

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Fryers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  5. Energy Recovery from Potato Chip Fryers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, H. B.; Kympton, H. W.; Arnold, J. W.; Paisan, J. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, operating characteristics, and energy savings from an energy recovery system employed on a potato chip fryer which became operational in December, 1979, is discussed. The design incorporates a modification to an odor control system which...

  6. Covered Product Category: Commercial Fryers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilers Covered ProductFryers Covered

  7. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  8. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth (20 Avondale Cres., Markham, CA); Whike, Alan S. (R.R. #1, Caledon East, both of Ontario, CA)

    1980-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  9. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  10. Rapid baking characteristics and energy efficiency of an impingement air oven compared to a reel oven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd Hobart

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    had e i ght set s o f bo t t om j et modul es while oven number 1 had six top jets and oven number 2 had seven. The Conventional Reel Oven A M idd1 eby Marshal 1 Model H-725 gas f ired 36 pan reel oven [Ill ustrat ion 3 ) was used as the control o... heating to 400 'P. Data represents gas consmsptinn for "Jet Sweep" oven heating to a baking temperature of 320/300'P. and control oven to a baking temperature of 400'P. Equal quantities of hamburger buna were baked in both ovens and the gas...

  11. Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics Group (X-rayLSDPreciousM206 Mechanical Convection

  12. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  13. Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients: Vegetable cooking spray 1 1/2 pounds sweet potato (about spray a 10 x 14 cookie sheet with non-stick cooking spray. 2. Scrub potatoes under tap water with a vegetable brush. With a knife remove any bad spots or defects on the potato. Do not peel. 3. On a cutting

  14. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  15. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  16. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, Ibaraki (Japan). Kashima Steel Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  17. Reducing Energy Consumption on Process Ovens & Oxidation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worachek, C.

    recovery systems are capable of metals in the heat exchangers along with stresses recovering up to 97% of the energy used in the induced by changing process conditions can oxidation process. Most units on the market severely reduce the life...REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION ON PROCESS OVENS & OXIDATION SYSTEMS Chris Worachek Design Engineer MEGTEC Systems De Pere, WI ABSTRACT With the uncertain cost of energy, optimizing the use of air in process dryers, ovens and air pollution...

  18. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany); Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D. [Ruhrkohle Bergbau AG, Bottrop (Germany). Prosper Coking Plant; Platts, M. [Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  19. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  20. Polymer Surface Modification Using Microwave-Oven-Generated Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbock, Oliver

    , diameter 160 mm) are from Fisher Scientific. Compressed oxygen and ethanol (100%) are from Air Products with plasma is a frequently used technique to accomplish surface modifi- cations that affect chemical products. Our approach relies on an unmodified "kitchen microwave oven" and standard laboratory glassware

  1. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    for industrial applications where electric ovens have predominant use. Tests were performed to obtain the process efficiency and examine cost savings potential in converting electric ovens to natural gas. Preliminary results show that, for the plat studied, cost...

  2. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  3. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  4. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  5. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  6. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  7. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  8. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  9. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Schioppo; Nicola Poli; Marco Prevedelli; Stephan Falke; Christian Lisdat; Uwe Sterr; Guglielmo Maria Tino

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

  10. A compact and efficient strontium oven for laser-cooling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schioppo, Marco; Prevedelli, Marco; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe; Tino, Guglielmo Maria

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we describe a compact and efficient strontium oven well suited for laser-cooling experiments. Novel design solutions allowed us to produce a collimated strontium atomic beam with a flux of 1.0\\times10^13 s^-1 cm^-2 at the oven temperature of 450 {\\deg}C, reached with an electrical power consumption of 36 W. The oven is based on a stainless-steel reservoir, filled with 6 g of metallic strontium, electrically heated in a vacuum environment by a tantalum wire threaded through an alumina multi-bore tube. The oven can be hosted in a standard DN40CF cube and has an estimated continuous operation lifetime of 10 years. This oven can be used for other alkali and alkaline earth metals with essentially no modifications.

  11. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  12. MidAmerican Energy (Gas)- Commercial EnergyAdvantage Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers a variety of incentives for commercial customers to improve the energy efficiency of facilities. Qualified natural gas equipment includes ovens, steamers, fryers, furnaces...

  13. Energy Management A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OVENS FRYERS STEAM COOKERS REFRIGERATORS and FREEZERS Somegas and cut costs. Steam cookers, steam kettles and tiltinggriddles, ranges, steam cookers, and warmers. Equipment may

  14. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  15. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  16. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  17. What to Bring to Lehigh Electric cooking appliances (including but not limited to coffee makers, toasters, toaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Terrence

    , toasters, toaster ovens, grills, griddles, hot pots, hot plates) Portable heaters or air conditioners's license or ID card Storage bins, trunks or foot lockers Free-standing lamp (No halogen bulbs) Games snacks Water bottles Sewing kit #12;

  18. Development of a high-temperature oven for the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohnishi, J., E-mail: ohnishi@riken.jp; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Ozeki, K.; Nakagawa, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have been developing the 28 GHz ECR ion source in order to accelerate high-intensity uranium beams at the RIKEN RI-beam Factory. Although we have generated U{sup 35+} beams by the sputtering method thus far, we began developing a high-temperature oven with the aim of increasing and stabilizing the beams. Because the oven method uses UO{sub 2}, a crucible must be heated to a temperature higher than 2000?°C to supply an appropriate amount of UO{sub 2} vapor to the ECR plasma. Our high-temperature oven uses a tungsten crucible joule-heated with DC current of approximately 450 A. Its inside dimensions are ?11 mm × 13.5 mm. Since the crucible is placed in a magnetic field of approximately 3 T, it is subject to a magnetic force of approximately 40 N. Therefore, we used ANSYS to carefully design the crucible, which was manufactured by machining a tungsten rod. We could raise the oven up to 1900?°C in the first off-line test. Subsequently, UO{sub 2} was loaded into the crucible, and the oven was installed in the 28 GHz ECR ion source and was tested. As a result, a U{sup 35+} beam current of 150 ?A was extracted successfully at a RF power of approximately 3 kW.

  19. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  20. Extra Crispy OvenFried Drumsticks 3 cups cornflake cereal, crushed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Extra Crispy OvenFried Drumsticks 3 cups cornflake cereal, crushed 1/3 cup grated Parmesan pepper sauce 8 chicken drumsticks, skinned Vegetable cooking spray 1. Combine buttermilk and hot pepper sauce in an extralarge ziptop freezer bag. Add chicken drumsticks, turning to coat. Place bag

  1. PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Dr for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas

  2. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  3. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  4. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  5. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  7. Demonstration of a fuel-saving system for paint-curing ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, W P [comp.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two curing ovens at Roll Coater, Inc. (the Greenfield, Indiana plant) were retrofitted to save fuel and cost. Included in the fuel conserving retrofit was the design, fabrication, and installation of an afterburner for each of the two ovens, piping their combustion products to each of two commonly housed waste heat boilers before discharge from those units to the atmosphere at about 450 F. Depending on the product being run and the coating applied, natural gas requirements have been reduced by 45 to 65% with operation of the zone incinerators only and by as much as 65 to 85% including the effects of both the zone incineration and heat recovery by means of the afterburners and waste heat boilers. A demonstration program on conversion work at the No. 3 line at Greenfield and results are described in Section 2. Section 3 describes the retrofit design and the system construction. System performance (tests and measurements, qualitative performance, maintenance factors, and economic performance) is described in Section 4. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  8. March 1980 / Vol. 5, No. 3 / OPTICS LETTERS 117 Disk-shaped heat-pipe oven used for lithium excited-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud, Carlos R.

    March 1980 / Vol. 5, No. 3 / OPTICS LETTERS 117 Disk-shaped heat-pipe oven used for lithium excited-vapor spectroscopic oven based on the heat-pipe principle has been constructed in which the heated stain- less steel and Cooperl from an evaporative conductive device known as a heat pipe, described first by Grover et al. 2

  9. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  10. Grass roots technology and energy policy: Solar ovens and wind turbines in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kammen, D.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kenya is said to be an ideal site for projects that promote renewable energy sources since it devotes over forty percent of its GNP to the purchase of imported coal and oil. The author presents a chronology of solar oven projects in Kenya and suggests that success of the program will be measured by the number of people who move on to wind turbine use. He discusses the role of renewable energy technology in reducing greenhouse gases and closes by recommending that industrialized nations that produce large amounts of carbon dioxide provide aid to develop projects that reduce carbon dioxide elsewhere in the world. At the same time they would receive credit towards their carbon dioxide quotas.

  11. MSU Recycling recycle.msu.edu 517-355-1723 MARCH 15, 2014 9:00A.M.1:00P.M.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    ELECTRONICS Computers (All Parts) Mice Keyboards Laptops All Types of External Drives CRT Monitors LCD Makers Fryers Toaster Ovens Electric Knives Electric Razors/Trimmers Hair Dryers Electric Toothbrushes

  12. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  13. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  14. "Diffusion of Innovation: Solar Oven Use in Lesotho (Africa)." Grundy, William and Roy Grundy. Advances in Solar Cooking: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Cooker Use and Technology. Shyam S. Nandwani, ed. July 12-15, 1994.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, William Stafford

    "Diffusion of Innovation: Solar Oven Use in Lesotho (Africa)." Grundy, William and Roy Grundy. Advances in Solar Cooking: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Solar Cooker Use and Technology. Shyam S. Nandwani, ed. July 12-15, 1994. pp. 240-247. 1 DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION: SOLAR OVEN USE

  15. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  16. Black Hole Formation from Stellar Collapse Chris L. Fryer x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1. Collapse Versus Envelope Ejection Stars are powered by the fusion of elements in their core. Hydrogen halts (regardless of a star's mass). The iron core is supported by electron degeneracy and thermal to dissociate into alpha particles, an endothermic reaction which reduces the thermal pressure. In addition

  17. Lesson 9 - Solar Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H NLensless Lesson 16 - Pinwheel

  18. The effect of varying oven temperatures and residence times on thermal desorption of n-hexane and 1-hexene from diffusive organic vapor dosimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Kenneth Garnett

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , which caused a pis- ton situated on top of the thermal desorber to be pneuma- tically pulled up, causing nitrogen purge gas from the connected cylinder to be drawn up through the desorbing oven containing an empty flare tube and then into the de...M Monitor into Foil Pouch 5. Sealed Foil Pouch, Ready for Storage 6. Filter Paper in place on Draft Shield 7. Injecting 10pL Liquid Sample onto Filter Paper 8. Rolling Charcoal Wafer into a Cylinder 9, Inserting Charcoal Wafer into Flare Tube...

  19. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  20. Supercomputers Take a Cue From Microwave Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    many different licenses for different applications," says Shalf. "Just as the consumer electronics chip designers choose a set of processor characteristics appropriate to the...

  1. Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and ResponseStaffServicesFutureU.S.Solar Cell | Department

  2. Making a Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-TemperatureEnergy Maine State

  3. Supercomputers Take a Cue From Microwave Ovens

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium OxideSumin Kim Sumin KimSunilSupercomputers Take a Cue

  4. Production of low oil content potato chips using vacuum frying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garayo, Jagoba

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    element to heat the frying oil. Characteristics of commercial batch fryers (Frymaster, Shreveport, Louisiana) include different types of fryers. Countertops fryers are small-capacity fryers (oil capacity 8-11 L), and economic and high efficiency fryers..., and the fryer type are factors that affect the frying process. The chemical composition of the frying oil, the physical and physicochemical constants, and the presence of additive and contaminants also influence the frying process. Additives or contaminants...

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery via exhaust gas combustion Using spent fryer oil asrecovery via exhaust gas combustion. It is also possible toavailable fryer gas combustion systems exist that can

  6. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Positive Impact Significant savings to consumer energy bills and reductions in carbon pollution. Locations Nationwide Partners Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Navigant EERE...

  7. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    through 2030. Over the next 30 years, it will dramatically reduce harmful carbon pollution, equivalent to taking over 12 million new cars off the road for one year. "Appliance...

  8. Oven rack having integral lubricious, dry porcelain surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, Jeffrey A; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail; Sikka, Vinod K; Qu, Jun

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A lubricious glass-coated metal cooking article capable of withstanding repeated heating and cooling between room temperature and at least 500.degree. F. without chipping or cracking the glass coating, wherein the glass coating includes about 0.1 to about 20% by weight of a homogeneously distributed dry refractory lubricant material having a particle size less than about 200 .mu.m. The lubricant material is selected from the group consisting of carbon; graphite; boron nitride; cubic boron nitride; molybdenum (FV) sulfide; molybdenum sulfide; molybdenum (IV) selenide; molybdenum selenide, tungsten (IV) sulfide; tungsten disulfide; tungsten sulfide; silicon nitride (Si.sub.3N.sub.4); TiN; TiC; TiCN; TiO.sub.2; TiAlN; CrN; SiC; diamond-like carbon; tungsten carbide (WC); zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2); zirconium oxide and 0.1 to 40 weight % aluminum oxide; alumina-zirconia; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony trioxide; and mixtures thereof.

  9. Solar Oven, Take One: FAIL | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (e.g. newspaper) Black construction paper (black non-toxic paint can also be used) Plastic wrap Aluminum foil Tape Our delicious test product. More detailed instructions can be...

  10. Surveys of Microwave Ovens in U.S. Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Alison

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AHAM ..Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM), and Appliance Magazine.and (3) refrigerator. 1.1.3 AHAM AHAM collected information

  11. Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EEREDepartmentFebruary 4,Brent Nelson About UsDepartment ofBudgetBuild

  12. Covered Product Category: Commercial Ovens | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilers Covered

  13. Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA5 & 6,Department of EnergyAn agreementUpdates the Social

  14. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. ofUSA RSDepartment of EnergyEfficiency | Department of

  15. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Criteria and Test Procedures in Standards and Labeling Programs for Computer Monitors and Commercial Gas Stoves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khanna, Nina

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in), on top of a range cooker with an over or as a portablefryers, griddles, and steam cookers but does not cover any

  16. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  17. Created March 2009 Microwave ovens are located throughout Swinburne University campuses in both staff & students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liley, David

    burns. · Never use plastic grocery bags, newspaper or plastic containers for frozen foods (such as ice-cream containers) in the microwave. · Avoid using plastic containers or film unless the manufacturer explicitly not touch food to avoid migration of chemicals from the plastic. · Open or pierce sealed food containers

  18. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens to Save Consumers on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugustNationalMarkets with Wind PowerProcesses |FYEnergy Bills

  19. MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this procedure (4-7) to remove the other leg. The legs or drumsticks are about 16 percent of the fryer while

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - arch dam karaj Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Engineers - Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CERC) Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Vicksburg, MS Collection: Engineering 77 To: Derek Fryer, USACE Walla Walla...

  1. Calendar Year 2009 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, Gregory K

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    covers central air conditioners and heat pumps with up toconditioning, ASHP = air source heat pump, HP = heat pump,Conditioners and Air-Source Heat Pumps • Commercial Fryers

  2. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, GregoryK

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    covers central air conditioners and heat pumps with up toconditioning, ASHP = air source heat pump, HP = heat pump,Conditioners and Air-Source Heat Pumps • Commercial Fryers

  3. Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, GregoryK

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioning, ASHP = air source heat pump, HP = heat pump,Conditioners and Air-Source Heat Pumps • Commercial Fryers •Heating and Cooling -Air Source Heat Pump -Geothermal Heat

  4. Fast Fractal Transform Method for Data Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGreggor, D.; Fryer, R.; Cockshott, P.; technical report university of strathclyde dept of computer science Academic Press [More Details

    McGreggor,D. Fryer,R. Cockshott,P. technical report university of strathclyde dept of computer science Academic Press

  5. Structure From Optical Probing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, J.P.; Fryer, R.J.; Siebert, J.P.

    McDonald,J.P. Fryer,R.J. Siebert,J.P. Joint Funding for Information Technology Conference, Keele, UK, 1993.

  6. The Food Supply of Texas Rural Families.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitacre, Jessie (Jessie Opal)

    1943-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Percent, families owning. .. 46 Range, n~~niber owned. ... 1-100 Average nlirnb~r owned. .. 13.1 Poultry Percentfamilie~eatinglfryers 96 Rang0 tiumber fryers/year 6-180 Av, no. frgers/fan~ily/yr. . Y I'erceut fami!ies entirip hens 1 F Range number... than of those butchered by white families. Fryers were eaten by the great majority of families. Owners and renters had fairly similar records for the average number of fryers eaten during the year, owner groups consuming from 35 to 72 fryers, renter...

  7. 2005 Status Report Savings Estimates for the ENERGY STAR(R) Voluntary Labeling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; Sanchez, Marla

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial Steam Cookers……………… Commercial Fryers……………………….and commercial steam cookers. Refrigerated beverage vendingS TAR commercial steam cookers have the highest absolute per

  8. College Summer Accommodation Terms and Conditions This agreement when accepted by you contains obligations which are legally binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , candles, rice cookers (in bedrooms) and deep fat fryers and hookah pipes; 5.1.5 not to wire more than one

  9. Usnesen ze 4. zasedn Vdeck rady AV CR konanho dne 10. z 1. Oven a kontrola zpisu z 3. zasedn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tebbens, Jurjen Duintjer

    reform terciárního vzdlávání. Vdecká rada AV CR bere se souhlasem na vdomí stanovisko AR AV CR k reform

  10. J. Am. Chem. SOC 1982, 104, 313-315 313 the vapor to 670 K oven temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervan, Peter B.

    with the is0 (valence) electronic acrolein, the PE spectrum8 of which (Figure 1) displays a similar ionization

  11. Correlation between self-ignition of a dust layer on a hot surface and in baskets in an oven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as heat of combustion, heat capacity, density) [dimensionless] P: lumped parameter [K] r: critical

  12. Abstract--The paper reviews solutions being explored to face the supply problems faced in the Chilean electricity market oven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    coal has to be used for electric generation. Hydroelectric generation has developed using most Argentina. Investment in generation came to a stall, given uncertainties in natural gas supply and the risk only provides less than 10% of the country's needs, while its coal is of poor quality, so that imported

  13. PITTSBURGH REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Coke Oven Emissions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Carbon Tetrachloride.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Acetaldehyde

  14. Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of vacuum frying can be a feasible alternative method to produce chips with lower oil content and high quality color and texture (Garayo and Moreira, 2002). 7 Figure 2-1 displays the use of different deep-fat fryers in the commercial food industry.... Countertops are generally used in homes, while high efficiency batch fryers are employed in commercial (McDonalds, KFC, etc.) food services as well as industries (Frito Lay, Pringles, etc.). Application of a batch fryer is limited to frying small loads...

  15. Cooking with Oatmeal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    it to the dry ingredients; mix until slightly moist. Note: The batter may look a little thin. 4. Cook the pancakes on a nonstick or lightly oiled griddle or skillet. Possible toppings for oatmeal pancakes: cinnamon, applesauce, or canned peaches. How to make...

  16. STATE OF UTAH CONTRACT NUMBER: MA962 September 30, 2010 Page 1 of 2 Revision number: Purchasing Agent: Terri O'Toole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    invoice which reflects incorrect pricing. #12;FINET COMMODITY CODE(S): 04506- Appliances, small, electric, griddles, hot plates, warmers, etc., electric and gas 93107- Appliances and equipment, household, (not: lbkandwk@thebluezone.net Reporting Type: Line-Item Brand/trade name: Frigidaire Price: Pricing link Terms

  17. Senior Director Student Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    Senior Director Student Development & Services Janet Teasdale Assistant to the Vice President, Conferences & Food Operations (dual campus) Andrew Parr Chaplains Roberta Fraser Inter-Fraternity & Panhellenic Community Service Learning Margot Fryer Alma Mater Society UBCV Graduate Student Society UBCV

  18. SUGGESTED ITEMS TO BRING BED SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    /bag Over the door organizers BATHROOM Underbed storage containers Shower shoes Deep fryers/fry daddy Can opener Charcoal, electric, gas, and George Plastic storage containers Forman grills Dish towels Conpressed gas containers Paper towels

  19. Developmental mechanisms underlying the formation of ciliated epithelia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stubbs, Jennifer Louise

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    645-90. Fryer, C. J. , Lamar, E. , Turbachova, I. , Kintner,cells. PLoS Biol 1, E80. Lamar, E. and Kintner, C. (2005).since leaving the lab. Elise Lamar for her mentorship while

  20. FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reuses excess heat to warm Frito-Lay's chip fryer oil - cutting costs and reduce harmful air pollution. The Department is also supporting new CHP technologies that are cleaner,...

  1. IGPPS Currently Funded Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris UCSD-George Fuller UCSD-Evan Grohs (student) Spectral Variation Studies of Gamma-Ray Bursts Los Alamos-Chris Fryer Ohio State-Michael Stamatikos Climate Effects of...

  2. The CENTRE for EDUCATION in MATHEMATICS and COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    , April 18, 2013 (in North America and South America) Friday, April 19, 2013 (outside of North America and South America) Solutions c 2013 University of Waterloo #12;2013 Fryer Contest Solutions Page 2 1. (a

  3. The CENTRE for EDUCATION in MATHEMATICS and COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Thursday, April 12, 2012 (in North America and South America) Friday, April 13, 2012 (outside of North America and South America) Solutions c 2012 University of Waterloo #12;2012 Fryer Contest Solutions Page 2

  4. Backyard Production of Meat Rabbits in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukefahr, Steven D.; Paschal, Joseph C.; Ford, John E.

    1998-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    and timely manage- ment, the enterprise goal of year-round fryer production is certainly possible. One or more of these three basic necessities is usually lacking when poor fertility or produc- tion problems occur. Commercial Meat Stock Commercially bred... bred stock, have more vigor and are more productive (for example, have higher fertility, kindle larger litters, and pro- duce meatier fryers). For the backyard meat rabbit enter- prise, purebred or fancy stock may not produce as well as the commercial...

  5. Mathematical modeling of fluidized bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasif, Nilufer Havva

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    39 40 Comparison of concentration profiles predicted by CCBM with constant bubble size (dB ) using dif- ferent solution procedures Schematic representation of Fryer and Potter (1974) algorithm . Schematic representation of Peters et al. (1982... description of the downward flow of emulsion phase gas under certain conditions, such as those of Kunii and Levenspiel (1968b, 1969), and Fryer and Potter (1972a) have this limitation in common. Dubble size is one of the most important parameters...

  6. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Baseline sampling program report: Volume 2, Appendix sections 1--7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains no text. It consist entirely of results monitoring stack opacity, benzene surveys, chemical effluent in wastewater, etc.

  7. Use Lower Flammable Limit Monitoring Equipment to Improve Process Oven Efficiency; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Process Heating Tip Sheet #11 (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New12.'6/0.2 ......Uranium LeaseThrough the Use

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  9. Developing Efficient Algorithms for Data Mining Large Scale High Dimensional Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakaria, Jesin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a year. Screen Group Oven/Cooker Washing Machine Immersionthe rinse and clean cycles. Oven/Cooker Dishwasher WashingMachine Oven/Cooker Dishwasher Washing Machine Figure 27 :

  10. EA-1662: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: EnergyConservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)

  11. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other CokingTJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products

  12. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Green Fuel This activity allows students the opportunity to explore different methods for...

  13. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Powering the...

  14. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Expos...

  15. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Transmission...

  16. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy Production...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0...

  18. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity,...

  19. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Making Energy...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Scale Models and Wind Turbines As wind turbines and wind farms...

  1. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Power to the Plug: An Introduction to Energy, Electricity,...

  3. Three Essays on Home Production and the Chinese Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yabin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    microwave ovens and electrical cookers. There is substantialoven, and electrical cooker. Results from Table 1.6 showWashing machine Electrical cooker Microwave oven Market

  4. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    this staightforward lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download...

  5. Outdoor Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jenoyce; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ham slices; sirloin, T-bone; rib and ribeye steaks; lamb or pork chops; beef or lamb cubes or patties; Cana. dian bacon; and some varieties of sausage; fryers and fish. Some outdoor cooks prefer a large sirloin steak about 1% inches thick. Allow 1..., sirloin tips and high /-I quality (low choice) chuck and arm roasts are suitable for this 0 .' type of cooking. Lamb, pork and bologna may also be used. / (-)/ Poultry for this method include rock cornish game hen, broiler 1 \\ or fryer, roaster...

  6. Market Demands on Broilers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beanblossom, Floyd Z.; Miller, Marshall M.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of flesh through skin ering over all parth of carcass Fat Covering : Well covered-some fat under skin over entire carcass Broilers or fryers only mod- erate covering Breast and Elsewhere Legs Pinfeat hers : Breast and Elsewhere Legs Dressed... tract None Disjointed bones Broken bones No limit Wing tips and if R-to-C wings and tail None (except 1 nonprotruding wing bone if fryer) Missing parts 1 Nonprotruding (may be in leg or wing) Wing tips Wing tips and if R-to-C 2nd wing joint...

  7. Rabbit Project Reference Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootton, Chad

    2000-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    breed or produc- tion standards whenever possible to 4-H mem- bers or other people wishing to raise rabbits. You might sell fryers live to commercial rab- bit processors or to laboratory animal suppli- ers. Or, dress and sell the fryers to friends, rela... or more litters are raised. Offspring are sold for breed stock and show animals. Members should also market the young. Members are encouraged to use pure- bred commercial breeds for this project, al- though crossbred rabbits are acceptable. Mem- bers must...

  8. PHYSICS DIVISION ESH BULLETIN 2004-01 1/5/04 OFFICES, SAFETY GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    __ Coffee pots must have timers __ No toasters, toaster ovens or other infrared heating devices. Microwaves

  9. 530-752-7456 sustainability.ucdavis.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ; washers; water heaters; AC units; ovens; dish washers; dryers; microwaves. Laser scanners; printers

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air  quality,  kitchen,  oven,  nitrogen  dioxide,  pollutant   emissions,  range  hood,  residential,  source  control,  

  11. Personal Reflections on War and Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    personal stories -- from "showering" with bottled water to teaching villagers to cook with solar ovens

  12. House Rules [ 2010 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    The following items are prohibited in student housing: coffee makers, rice cookers, toaster ovens, air

  13. www.residences.qmul.ac.uk ACCOMMODATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    /freezers, cookers, microwave ovens, toasters, washing up facilities, storage cupboards, food preparation surfaces

  14. Standby power use: How big is the problem? What policies and technical solutions can address it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliances, such as rice cookers, washing machines, etc. ,power, such as rice cookers, microwave ovens, cellular

  15. De-oiling and Pre-treatments for High-Quality Potato Chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae Hoon

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A de-oiling step using a centrifuge ensures oil content reduction and improves the quality of fried snacks. A commercial deep-fat fryer with the basket loaded with potatoes and a sample holder was used to fry potato slices, non-pretreated, blanched...

  16. Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 14.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted amplifiers electrical heaters cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted cooking

  17. Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with the Agreement Terms and Conditions clause to the Residence. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld systems amplifiers electrical heaters cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note

  18. Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 15.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted · amplifiers · electrical heaters · cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted

  19. The Active Stereo Probe: Dynamic Video Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebert, J.P.

    Siebert,J.P. Urquhart,C.W. Wilson,D.F. Mowforth,P.H. McDonald,J.P. Fryer,R.J. Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1991, Glasgow, UK, p.p. 383-386, 1991. pp 383-386

  20. Deep fat frying of tortilla chips: an integrated approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palau, Jaime

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tortilla chips were prepared from commercial nixtamilized dry masa flour. They were baked and then fried in fresh and used partially hydrogenated soybean oil for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45 and 60 seconds at 1500C and 1900C. A commercial batch fryer...

  1. The Magazine of the Penn State College of Engineering Spring/Summer 2013 for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    APhy: Curtis Chan Victoria Fryer Penn State Live grAPhics & design: Snavely Associates AdministrAtive officers hailed as hometown hero 9 university chosen for Department of Energy inaugural wind contest 6 #12;3S P R Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering for a faculty chair focused on energy and energy

  2. Principle Investigator M. Cooney (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel (Produce Biodiesel from grease trap waste and fryer grease), Diacarbon Energy (Biochar producer: Anaerobic packed bed reactor GOALS: Reduction in pollutant levels by 90% and methane production that approaches theoretical maximum of 0.35 m3/Kg COD reduced. GTW Brown grease for biodiesel Separated wastewater

  3. Quick Breads and Cereals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MILK HOT CAKES .t'" 2" mp"" 3 te- b* RD~? 'pmJ h@-ml, -1 4 2 *Prpoartbl ang= r eggs in mixing bowl, add milk and short- p,mi&, Measure and mmbine dry ingredients; g-,. c-. stir into egg mixture. Drop batter by spoonfuls onto a dry* griddle... cake batter before baking. Vmiatbn APPLE COFFEE CA-KE-Slice 2 to 3 medium apples. Cover coffee cake batter in 9-inch pan with apple slices, begi~ing by laying slices length- wise around edge of pan. Continue arranging apple slices in circles until...

  4. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Power to the Plug:...

  5. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Fun with the Sun-...

  6. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Wonders of the Sun...

  7. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lesson, that can be adapted for all grade levels, on how to build a solar oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its...

  8. Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato 2 cups orange marmalade 1 cup potato. Spoon into phyllo tart shells. Top with Brie cheese and bake in oven for 10 min at 350 deg oven

  9. Taking ramen seriously : food, labor, and everyday life in modern Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solt, George Sekine

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    goods (such as rice-cookers, refrigerators, gas ovens,81.3%), electric rice cookers (68.7%), and ovens (47.7%),machines and electric rice-cookers. [Garon 1997:160- 165] In

  10. INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL ENERGY END USE DATA: ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL AND PRESENT DAY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooking tables, only for rice-cookers and microwave ovens.cooking (microwave rice cooker). n) Disposable Income not

  11. Doing It: A Process to Screen, Design, Implement, and Evaluate Industrial Eco-Efficiency Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, J.; Robertson, C.; Klein, R. C.

    . Sources of funding may include internal budgeting, financial institutions, government grants or loans, utility rebates, and performance contractors. Design and Prototyping During the Design and Prototyping step, designers produce plans... to upgrade their internal management infonnation systems, or as training tools for future projects. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to Barry Bennett, Gil Friend, Lynn Fryer, Fred Gordon, and others too numerous to mention here for their input. Thanks as well...

  12. Tender Texas Chicken: The Natural Light Meat.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, J.H.; Gardner, F.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    minutes to 4 hours) to achieve the desired results. Chicken broilers offer the consumer one of the most consistently high-quality, uniform and versatile meats in today's market regardless of the market location. This is possible because all commercial... Chicken Stir Fry 1 whole fryer breast, boned and skinned 4 fresh mushrooms, or 4-ounce can sliced mushrooms 2 large carrots, pared V2 stem celery 2 cups broccoli, broken into flowerettes Chicken Seasoning 1 egg white, beaten 1 tablespoon red wine...

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  14. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 65716603, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/6571/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    for coal-charging process 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 FGD for coke oven gas 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 Combination[1] BAU[2]/PC[2] 2005 2010 2020 2030 2020 2030 2030 Sintering FGD 0 10 20 40 95 100 100 Coke oven FGD 100 Hot rolling ESP 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Cold rolling HED 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Coke oven WET 100 100 100 100

  15. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  16. Nationwide: New Efficiency Standards for Power Supplies Anticipate...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon California: Heliotrope Technologies Wins R&D 100 Award for Universal Smart...

  17. Energy-Saving Homes, Buildings, and Manufacturing Success Stories...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Standards for Microwave Ovens Saves Consumers Energy and Updates the Social Cost of Carbon Read more homes success stories Manufacturing February 4, 2015 Just Plain...

  18. EA-0404: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program - Coke Oven Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland

  19. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt...

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NOPR Light Emitting Diodes SNOPR Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) NOPR Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps NOPR Plumbing Products SNOPR Residential Furnaces &...

  1. ef501714j 1..9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    yielding approximately 310 million oven dry Megagrams for bioenergy production. 2 Fast-pyrolysis technologies to convert woody biomass to bio- oil and biochar are becoming more...

  2. aircraft fuselage structures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stabilizer. All structural components are fabricated from oven-cured laminated carbon composite materials using uniaxial and biaxial prepreg fabric. In the current effort, the...

  3. absorbing fuselage section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stabilizer. All structural components are fabricated from oven-cured laminated carbon composite materials using uniaxial and biaxial prepreg fabric. In the current effort, the...

  4. aircraft fuselage panels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stabilizer. All structural components are fabricated from oven-cured laminated carbon composite materials using uniaxial and biaxial prepreg fabric. In the current effort, the...

  5. Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium- and Large-Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises, 2000-2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ironmaking .the ovens (U.S. EPA 2010). 2.2. Ironmaking The subsectionsbelow describe three ironmaking processes: the BF/BOF,

  6. TBA values of beef cuts with differing external fat trim levels and methods of cookery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nurmahmudi

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sec to 70'C had higher nonheme-iron release than extract heated to 70 C for 50 sec. They also reported that the optimum temperature for nonheme-iron release was between 62 to 73 C. Schricker and Miller (1983) reported that an oven temperature of 176...) and conductional (steam oven environment) heat transfer into products during cooking. An alternative oven type used in the foodservice industry is the low temperature holding oven, which uses dry roasting for long period of time to reach internal cook...

  7. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  8. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 33 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  9. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  10. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  11. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewables Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  12. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 28 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  13. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 13 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  14. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  15. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Innovation Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  16. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Science Education Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 26 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  17. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Download Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 33 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  18. University of California Davis West Village: The Largest Planned...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lighting fluorescent or LED Assume 80% hardwired lighting Lighting controls Vacancy sensors Energy Star Appliances Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Washer Cooktop Oven Standard...

  19. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewables Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  20. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewables Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 30 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  1. Energy Management A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation leaks; they waste energy and can be dangerous. Atduct work tight? leaks waste energy) Filters (clean; properone; it will only waste energy. Load ovens to capacity to

  2. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewables Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 53 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check...

  3. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 23 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out...

  4. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sources Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 36 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  5. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download The Sun and Its Energy (11 activities) Hands-on investigations and explorations to introduce...

  6. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Energy From the Sun (10 activities) Hands-on explorations to teach intermediate students the scientific...

  7. Reminder: Personal Appliance Use at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Lab provides refrigerators, microwave ovens, and coffee makers in common use space of buildings. Personal household appliances are not authorized. For your reference, a copy of...

  8. Better Buildings Challenge Reports First Year's Savings; Partners...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in West Hartford, Connecticut, the company has repaired leaks in the facility-wide compressed air system and added additional insulation to existing paint line ovens....

  9. Revised November 2007 Faculty of Graduate Studies Website

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotze, Heike K.

    Analyzer, Market forge Autoclave, Isotemp programmable oven, Isotemp muffle furnace, Pilot scale biomass energy storage, desiccant dehumidification and cooling, HVAC/indoor air quality, solar energy, greenhouse

  10. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Creating Biodiesel & Mitigating Waste Safety practices for handling the materials involved in producing...

  11. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Kitchen Ranges, Ovens,Use of Residential Water Heaters. Lawrence Berkeley NationalEnergy Use of Residential Water Heaters. Lawrence Berkeley

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - americas energy environment Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ECPA) INITIATIVE Peace Corps... the capacity of communities in Latin America to address rural energy poverty through a multi-faceted approach... barrel oven 12;Collaborating...

  13. brwtp-icoke | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Dec 1989) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit...

  14. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irons Automatic rice cookers Microwave Radio receivers andFluorescent Lamp Ballast Rice cooker Microwave ovens OfficeOthers include: rice cookers, microwaves, laser printers,

  15. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Sources Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 8 of 8 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  16. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Sources Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  17. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Sources Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 28 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  18. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sources Solar Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven...

  19. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landel, Julien R.; McEvoy, Harry; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the plate surface is critical. Moreover, minimizing the water consumption and the energy of such automatic cleaning devices can have an important environmental and sustainable impact. Dussan (1987) analysed the effect of a shearing immiscible fluid... liquid films on non-porous substrates with topography, J. Fluid Mech. 509, 253–280. Gillham, C. R., Fryer, P. J., Hasting, A. P. M. and Wilson, D. I. (2000) Enhanced cleaning of whey protein soils using pulsed flows, J. Food Eng. 46, 199–209. Hayes, M...

  20. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Following the validation of the measurement system, various gas mixtures were tested to study the effect of gas compositions have on burner performance. Results indicated that the emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. The maximum radiant efficiency of the burner was obtained close to air/fuel ratio of 1.

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilers Covered ProductFryers

  2. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 35873596, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/3587/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    on the emis- sion data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The ma- jor sources

  3. Safe Operating Procedure (Reviewed 7/09)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    of explosive mixtures by volatile substances and the air inside an oven, laboratory ovens should be constructed) require auto- transformers to control the temperature. · Auto-transformers must be wired according to code and have a two-pole switch, a three-prong plug, and a power overload device. These devices

  4. Study of the EDLs for photochemical applications , S. Relich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    reactor consisting of electrodeless discharge lamp (EDL) placed into the reactor vessel of a commercial microwave oven. The UV light in the lamp is generated by MW field resulting in direct simultaneous UV and MW with Hg-EDL and S-EDL in microwave oven at 64°C (bp of hexane). For comparison we are also irradiated

  5. Shipley Protocol: Last Mofified by Jack: 8/18/2012 5:54:00 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Jeffrey

    surfaces are dry and clear of chemicals. Coating: 1. Remove chuck from spinner and line the spinner bucket dry the substrate until it is dry. 5. Dehydrate Substrates a. Place the substrate in the oven at ~200°C for 30 minutes, then cool to RT shortly before spin-coating. *Make sure to turn on oven before

  6. Inspection Checklist When you are being shown a new rental facility, thoroughly inspect the area. Note any damages or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    need to have a phone line installed or activated? · If the house operates on gas or oil heat, how do for outside? Appliances: · Do all the knobs on the oven work? · If the oven is a gas grill, does it light you get the tank filled? Who pays for it? #12;· Are there smoke detectors and fire extinguishers

  7. Operational experience using the novel FixCup collecting main valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Spitz, J. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On the occasion of the 1995 AIME conference the new PROven (Pressure Regulated Oven) process to control the pressure in coke ovens individually was introduced. This process was made feasible with a new collecting main valve, termed FixCup, with the aid of this valve a variable flow resistance to the raw gas discharge can be realized using a water immersion system. However, just the application of the FixCup system alone--without any pressure regulation--is very advantageous and cost saving. Thyssen has equipped 30 ovens with the new valve. The special constructive features as well as the operational experience using the FixCup valve are treated.

  8. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for varying settling times. Samples will be brought to temperature through the use of water baths and ovens currently resident in 735-11A, Lab 134. Temperature treatment times...

  9. 7, 14791506, 2007 apportionment of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke is the world's largest coal consumption region (IEA, 2006). Thu

  10. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    other bituminous coal and coking coal. Small differences incoal (used as fuel) Coking coal Coke oven coke Natural gasrange for typical NCVs of coking coal of 26.6 to 29.8Mj/kg.

  11. Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    . These processes include natural gas processing, petroleum refining, petrochemical plants, Kraft mills, coke ovens, and coal gasifiers. H2S concentrations in these processes vary from 0 to 60 vol % (6). The Claus process

  12. HOW TO LIVE (almost) FOREVER Justyna Derkach, UG Lab/Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    before you work with these. acrylonitrile arsenic asbestos benzene coke oven emissions ethylene from ABB Scientific Stores or Justyna ­ JHE-A106) #12;NASTIES (designated substances) More paperwork

  13. 1 novembre 8, 2011 Title: The Employment Potential of Site Remediation Policies: a Micro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the first gathering gasworks and coke ovens and the other dealing with petrol filling stations. As regards are only beginning to design a policy. It is very likely that this will become a major policy issue

  14. lentil-buckwheat-loaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... Lentils 1 pint veg stock dried herbs (parsley + rosemary are recommended) 1 tsp Marmite ... While 3. is taking place, preheat oven to 200C/400F/Gas Mark 6 5.

  15. Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Eric N.

    . All reactions were performed in oven dried scintillation vials unless otherwise stated. The vessels at the Harvard University mass spectrometry facility. Chiral HPLC analysis was performed on a Shimadzu VP

  16. CHARGE TRANSFER BETWEEN POSITIVE ALKALI IONS AND ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentry, W.R.; Lee, Yuan-tseh; Mahan, Bruce H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    average velocity of atoms , ::. : . . :. . in the oven. Thisfor a potassium ", . atom beam operating under conditionsPOSITIVE ALKALI IONS AND ATOMS I W. R. Gentry, Yuan-tseh L e

  17. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 12 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  18. Courtyard Hanover Lebanon 10 Morgan Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    · Meeting spaces· Pool entrances· Restaurants and lounges· Self-operating lifts· Service animals allowed: HBO· Cable/satellite TV· Color TV· Wet bar· Kitchen Amenities Microwave oven· Silverware· Business

  19. Computer-Aided Verification: How to Trust a Machine with Your Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    are used to control all sorts of devices -- from washing machines and microwave ovens to braking systems is formidable. The formal verification of a five-line algorithm can easily run into pages of dense mathematical

  20. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 31 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  1. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 16 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  2. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 11 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  3. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 46 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  4. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 27 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  5. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 10 of 29 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  6. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Education Toolbox Search Education Toolbox Search Enter terms Search Retain current filters Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results. Download Build a Pizza Box Solar Oven Check out this...

  7. The effect of drying treatment on the n-alkane analysis M Olivn, K Osoro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    38 and lucerne hay samples (n = 33) were prepared for the alkane analysis by two procedures : freeze-dried faeces and herbage (lucerne hay) samples. Therefore oven-drying would not affect on the estimation

  8. THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT HEALTH CENTER JOHN DEMPSEY HOSPITAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    oven. Containers with restricted openings such as syrup bottles must not be used for cooking. Food recommended by microwave food manufacturers. You can heat food in containers made of glass, plastic, paper bottles, formula bottles, irrigation bottles, towels, and blankets

  9. CDDI Major Instrumentation and Software STERIS AMSCO Lab250

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    purification system - removes residual water from organic solvents (chroroform, tetrahydrofuran, toluene system Chromatography (HPLC/FPLC/MPLC), separation and solvent purification Thermo High-Flow Surveyor LC synthesis Multisample microwave oven -coming soon Innovative Technology Pure Solv solvent purification

  10. Dry, portable calorimeter for nondestructive measurement of the activity of nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beyer, Norman S. (Elmhurst, IL); Lewis, Robert N. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Perry, Ronald B. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity of a quantity of heat-producing nuclear fuel is measured rapidly, accurately and nondestructively by a portable dry calorimeter comprising a preheater, an array of temperature-controlled structures comprising a thermally guarded temperature-controlled oven, and a calculation and control unit. The difference between the amounts of electric power required to maintain the oven temperature with and without nuclear fuel in the oven is measured to determine the power produced by radioactive disintegration and hence the activity of the fuel. A portion of the electronic control system is designed to terminate a continuing sequence of measurements when the standard deviation of the variations of the amount of electric power required to maintain oven temperature is within a predetermined value.

  11. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

  12. De l e c t a b l e Im p e c c a b l e Un f o r g e t t a b l e We pride ourselves in offering an array of exquisite appetizers, entres and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    with Ranch Dressing Crostini Pomodoro: Oven Roasted Tomatoes, Fresh Basil and-dried Tomatoes, Shaved Romano Cheese and Focaccia Croutons Tossed with Garlic Dressing Lobster Pillows Niman Ranch Filet Mignon with Brandy Peppercorn Sauce, White Truffle Roasted Fingerling Potatoes

  13. FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES types of potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ranch-style salad dressing or low-fat cheese. Boil, cube and serve as salad with low-fat or fat free salad dressing Oven Wedge Fries 2 large russet potatoes 1 teaspoon olive oil or other vegetable oil

  14. zzz abcdefg test zzz seattle pi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    preparation pan egg recipe makes medium large chopped oven bowl onion sauce cream milk stir water com pound brown corn zzz texas juice ingredient cool analysis serve zzz fort worth zzz nutritional small product

  15. Environmental and Resource Studies Program Equipment Available For Use in ERS Courses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Michael

    microscopes, dissecting mixers/homogenizers muffle furnace (high temperature) ovens/incubators pH meters (battery tester) power inverter solar panel and solar charge controller Audio-Visual Equipment camera

  16. Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    18, 2014 Solar Pizza Oven Box k - 6 May 5, 2014 Register by May 9 to attend the SunShot Grand Challenge Summit, May...

  17. The University of Texas at Austin Environmental Health & Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    been used with radioactive materials, chemicals, or biological agents NOTE: must still be cleaned) ____________________________________________________________ Radioactive Materials (list radioisotopes used the potential for contamination, e.g., chemical storage cabinets, fume hoods, refrigerators, centrifuges, ovens

  18. Fuel Saving Ideas for Metal and Ceramic Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, R. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An easy method is presented for analyzing sources of heat loss from industrial processing furnaces, kilns, and ovens; and thus for recognizing opportunities for fuel saving. This will relate to melting, heat treating and hot forming of metals...

  19. A New Concept in Dryer Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J. W.

    , lumber, fiberboard, gypsum board, crumb rubber, etc. In addition, such dryer types as Rotary Drum, Suspension, Flash, Through, Spray, Oven, Tray, Lime Kilns, etc., should be amenable to control utilizing this model. Moreover, it should apply to most thin...

  20. Laboratory Handbook Department of Ecology and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    , ...) 1118 toxic waste storage room Recycling and waste disposal (paper, glass, aluminum, PET, Styrofoam autoclave the tip boxes, and afterwards, place them in the drying oven. · Waste disposal: Recycling). · Chemical waste: Organic compounds (phenol, chloro

  1. Field data collection of miscellaneous electrical loads in Northern California: Initial results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ovens/toasters, rice/slow cookers and wine chillers). Theseinclude a DSL modem and a wireless router. Rice Cookers/Slow Cookers: These devices consist of an enclosed volume (

  2. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used either natural gas or propane for cooktop fuel. Of the1302 Cooktop Fuel Type Gas Propane Electric - ResistanceFuel Type Gas Electric Propane Cooktop and Oven Together

  3. Allison Lab Protocol: Microbial Biomass by Fumigation, 1/2008, Steve Allison CHLOROFORM FUMIGATION DIRECT EXTRACTION (CFDE) PROTOCOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    the chloroform by running 500 ml over 25 g of basic grade 1 alumina in a syringe or column. (or purchase ethanol soil moisture (48 hours @ 100°C) -one non-fumigated sample (10 g oven-dry equivalent) for immediate extraction with 0.5 M K2SO4. -one fumigated sample (10 g oven-dry equivalent). 2. Place non

  4. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared burner is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. Applications of radiant burners includes boilers, air heaters, deep fat fryers, process heaters, and immersion heaters. On reason for the present interest in this type of burner is its low NO{sub x} emissions, which is attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the combustion heat is given out as radiation from the burner surface, which results in relatively low gas temperature in the combustion zone compared to that of a conventional free-flame burner. As a consequence, such burners produce less NO{sub x}, mainly by the so-called prompt-NO mechanism. A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of spectral radiance as well as flue gas composition measurements. Measurement capabilities were tested using methane; results were consistent with literature.

  5. Modification of environmental control of cokemaking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, H.; Yasuno, M.; Gotch, T.; Yoshida, F.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, global environmental protection has been a great concern in the world. In the United States of America, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has been revised to control emissions strictly. Especially in the field of cokemaking, the restriction of fume emission from a coke oven is so severe that old coke ovens will stop operation with the application of CAA. In Japan, it is expected that more severe protection measures are going to be requested for keeping environmental quality. In this situation, it is indispensable to strengthen environmental protection measures for cokemaking plants to continue coke production in the 21st century. In Chiba Works, Kawasaki Steep Corp., the Ironmaking Department has been struggling for the improvement of environmental measures for. These activities for coke ovens are described in this report. The paper describes fume emission control from the coke oven door and dust emission control measures, including the dust monitoring system, prevention of secondary dust scattering from coke ovens, replacement of dedusters, and fume and dust control of stack emission.

  6. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  7. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1993-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  8. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  9. Process for making photovoltaic devices and resultant product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, James B. (Toledo, OH); Kaake, Steven A. F. (Perrysburg, OH); Meyers, Peter V. (Bowling Green, OH); Nolan, James F. (Sylvania, OH)

    1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  10. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  11. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  12. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG); Young, Albert C. (Flushing, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  13. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  14. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  15. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  16. Emission Control and Elimination Through The Use Of Condensation and Heat Recovery Technologies- A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madewell, A. E.; Bullock, W. N.

    be no addition of water in the process, the level of water in the condensate would falloff dramatically. A prototype unit capable of handling three ovens with a total air flow of 1200 ft 3 /min (cfm) was installed. The unit performed as expected... ether (butyl cellosolve) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether. Butyl cellosolve is a regulated glycol ether (which is a HAP). At the oven process temperatures, the vapor pressure of the solvent mixture is 250 rom Hg. This corresponds to a saturated...

  17. An investigation of three problems concerning the analysis of airborne asphalt fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird, Larry Teal

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and well documented carcinogens; however, the BaP content of asphalt fumes is only about 0. 03 percent of the BaP content of coal fed coke oven emissions. 4 This strongly illustrates the need to avoid confusion between asphalts and tars or pitches from... in the composition of asphalt and tar or pitch . The principal significant difference lies in the fact that there are much smaller amounts of PNA's in asphalt fumes than are found in tar or pitch fumes. Coke ovens and coal gasification plants also produce a fume...

  18. Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  19. Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  20. Cooking for One or Two.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for one or two servings and reduce waste and cleanup time, For oven dishes, try this idea. Line serving-size oven dishes with foil, fill with food and freeze. Once frozen , remove the item from the dish , seal the foil , label and return to the freezer.... Later, simply return the item to the original dish, heat and serve. Main Dishes Main dishes take a large share of the food dollar, so plan their purchase and use wisely. Instead of cooking a whole roast or steak, divide each into serving...

  1. Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sugars after inversion, moisture, Brix and ash. Moist.ure was determined by the vacuum oven drying method and ranged from 19 to over 31 percent. Over 71.0 percent of the samples contained 26 percent or more of lwater. If 10 percent of molasses... in a feed contain a normal amount of water, the extra water added in the molasses might raise the moisture content to an unsafe level. Different values for solids were obtained by the Brix and the vacuum oven drying methods, Brix is an unreliable...

  2. A scattered-light three-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis of a thick-walled pressure vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lednicky, Edward Frank

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    maintain temperature by turning off the heating elements when the temperature exceeds the preset value. This indicated that an exothermic reaction had taken place in the casting, which raised the temperature of the oven. The exothermic reaction was prob... mixture being high enough to sustain an exothermic reaction when placed in the oven. This casting was cured along with the others, but was not used for parts of the model that would undergo anal- ysis. An important secondary nb)ective of the research...

  3. FT-ICR Study of Precursor Clusters of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    gas was injected to the nozzle. In the atmosphere of helium gas, vaporized atoms condensed to clusters vaporization of Ni/Co and Ni/Y doped graphite samples used for the macroscopic laser-oven production of SWNTs was drastically different. The chemical reaction of these clusters with NO gas was used as the probe

  4. RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

  5. Master Thesis: Collaboration between Utility Systems and Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ) Electricity Natural GasElectricity Generation (Power Plant) 1. Abbreviations: CO (coke oven), SP (sinter plant and LF) Casting (CC) Storage (SY) Reheating (RF) Rolling (HSM) Meltshop Hot Rolling Mill Coal Iron Ore) Meltshop Hot Rolling Mill Coal Iron Ore Slabs CO and BF Gas BOF Gas Given: Hot rolling mill produces set

  6. Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.I. Fal'kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

  7. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  8. 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BAOTOU EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    frame gallery (west) of No. 5 coke oven system of BISC. It acted in the violation of the national of the ore dressing system. The original design did not consider earthquake resistance, so the stressed standard "Aseismic Design Code of Structures", as a result, shear failures and dislocation occurred

  9. ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    solubility and porosity · Defects · Design rules · Economics #12;ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems with charge · steel making in blast furnace -mix coke with steel · Furnace material - refractory ­ high;Melting Time · Estimate by · Take into account oven efficiency ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

  10. TMUG ToSIA Management and User Group European Forest Institute EFI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a pellet-burning oven in my house? Now there is a tool that can help you with answering these questions: To along the chain (e.g. wood, timber products, reindeer meat ­ all converted to tons of Carbon) 3 impacts of alternative supply chains · Gross value added · Production costs · Resource use · Total

  11. 5/3/12 PHYSICS DIVISION ESH BULLETIN 2004-2 1/3www.phy.ornl.gov/divops/ESH/04-3.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to assure a commonality of grounds between the different system components. If systems rely on water piping by a lowvoltage supply. Most commercially available OEM equipment is now available with a 24 VDC input power during operation, particularly under heavy loads. Vacuum ovens require their own set of precautions

  12. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  13. 2 mathNEWS Friday, February 26, 1999 Hi everybody out there. I hope everybody is happy in Math

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Mu

    missed something last article so here it is. Remember about entering the engineering scunt. We placed second. That's good. We didn't win. That's bad. We brought a pig's head to p.o.e.t.s. That's good. Mike Froh hasn't gotten his oven rack back. That's bad. The head scunt g-d was one of my frosh brothers

  14. Demand Forecast Advisory Committee in Preparation for the Seventh Power Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products, electric motors, commercial water heaters, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning and Ovens R Ai C diti Direct heating equipment Electric Motors Exit Signs General Service Fluorescent (HVAC) systems. EPAct also authorized DOE to develop of standards for products and directed DOE

  15. Coherent Control of Laser Field and Spectroscopy in Dense Atomic Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hebin

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -optic modulator; AOM - acousto-optic modulator; PD - photodiode; the oven is assembled with 1. copper tube; 2. non-magnetic heater; 3. magnetic shield; 4. microwave cavity with antenna; 5. Rb cell. Inset (a) shows the relative frequency of the laser fields. L1...

  16. In-home consumer evaluations of individual muscles from beef rounds subjected to tenderization treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Stacy Layne

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......... 1 II MATERIALS AND METHODS............................................. 6 2.1 Processing???????????.......................... 6 2.2 Tenderization treatments???????????? 6... cooked using moist cookery ......................................................... 19 6. Least-squares means ? SEM for consumer evaluations of beef steaks cooked in an oven...

  17. Supporting Information Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 17535

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Eric N.

    powdered and dried in a vacuum oven prior to use. Solvents were purified and dried using standard methods) precoated with a fluorescent indicator. The developed plates were examined under a UV light and stained was stirred one hour under air and then concentrated. The crude brown residue was treated with racemic 3

  18. Supporting Information for Cribrostatin 6 induces death in cancer cells through a reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    Procedures All reactions were conducted in oven-dried glassware when appropriate and air- or water- sensitive were visualized by UV light (254 or 365 nm). 1 H NMR spectra and 13 C NMR spectra were recorded. The crude material was purified via silica gel column chromatography eluting with 1:1 ethyl acetate

  19. Technical Note Field Test of Digital Photography Biomass Estimation Technique in Tallgrass Prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Lloyd W.

    Technical Note Field Test of Digital Photography Biomass Estimation Technique in Tallgrass Prairie unmeasured because of the time required to clip plots and process samples, as well as limited access or proximity to a drying oven. We tested the digital photography biomass estimation technique for measuring

  20. Strength and drying shrinkage of slag paste activated by sodium carbonate and reactive MgO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Fei; Gu, Kai; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    for ?3 days followed by oven drying at 60 °C before microstructural analysis. The samples were then further ground to pass through a 75 micron sieve prior to XRD tests and TGA. XRD was carried out on a Siemens D5000 X-ray diffractometer using a...

  1. Carbon 41 (2003) 11751180 Thermomechanical behavior of a graphite foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    greater than that of electronics cooling, brake and clutch cooling, oven wall copper [3]. lining, etc-Coronado , D.D.L. Chung Composite Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, State University of New analysis; D. Viscoelasticity; D. Mechanical properties 1. Introduction K [3]. The material is derived from

  2. Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    End Time: Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate and vegetable oil containers; ovenable food trays. 2 high density polyethylene Milk jugs, juice bottles; bleach, piping, candy wrappers 4 low density polyethylene Squeezable bottles; bread, frozen food, dry cleaning

  3. WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cufar, Katarina

    1 WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007 1-10 WOOD FORMATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE PICEA ABIES STUDIED BY PINNING Zupani, Katarina Cufar, Primoz Oven University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood methods for examining wood formation. Pinning induced desiccation of differentiated xylem, necrosis

  4. SOLAR SEMINAR SERIESS P R I N G 2 0 1 3 P H O T O V O L T A I C S E M I N A R S E R I E S SURESH V. GARIMELLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    . 0928 088 Consumption by thermal power plants & auxiliaries Consumption by other energy producers Conversion in thermal power plants F30 Fossil fuel use: Other transformation sector (refineries, coke ovens how the usage types of the two datasets were merged. - Figure S1, referring to the model simulations

  5. Characterization of residual stress relaxation in welded steel plate using TAP-NDE and wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jhun, Choon-Sik

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    residual stresses. Immediately after each oven-curing procedure, laser-generated surface acoustic waves (SAW) were initiated in the welded steel plate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) pulsed laser and then acquired using...

  6. Quick Meals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    --...........-------- ...-.....--....--.- ..._ G Oven Meals ----..-..--...----------------------------------------------- 9 One-dish Meals ....---....--.------------------.--. 13 Broiler Meals ..............----------------------------.---------------- 15 Top-of-the-range Meals... other vegetables or fruit Bread-whole grain or enriched Butter or margarine Dessert or fruit Milk Supper Main dish--could be same as served for dinner Vegetable-cooked or raw in salad Bread-whole grain or enriched Butter or margarine Dessert...

  7. SHOPPING GENIE Ethernet cables must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    ) to rent a unit for academic year. 2. Purchase both items Maximum size allowed for refrig- erators is 4 e d i t : PLEASE NOTE: ITEMS SUCH AS FANS, IRONS, IRONING BOARDS, & MATTRESS TOPPERS ARE USEFUL, toasters, toaster ovens, hot pots, heating coils, George For- man Grill®. In general anything

  8. Information on the Department of Energy's analyses to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A historical overview of three separate Department of Energy analyses performed to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards is presented. An identification of the assumptions used in each of the analyses and the conclusions reached in each analysis are covered. Standards for furnaces, water heaters, central air conditioners, refrigerators, ranges/ovens, clothes dryers, freezers, and room air conditioners are considered. (MCW)

  9. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vessel Sanitation Program is proud to bring to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Cold Holding · 4 °1 F or below ­ Walk-in refrigerators ­ Other refrigerators ­ Buffets ­ Cold tables ­ Ice baths ­ Freezers · Ambient temperature thermometers #12;Hot Holding · 140°F or above ­ Buffets ­ Warming Cabinets ­ Ovens ­ Double boilers · Ambient temperature thermometers #12;Refrigerated

  10. Revolutionary ultrasonic nozzle can reduce water and energy used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Family, Get the Hell Out of America Before they Fire Up the Ovens (Video) Industrial Cable Manufacturer on Furukawa Electric acquires SuperPower Inc., U.S. manufacturer of second generation high temperature Peter Birkin's device works with cold water, minimal additives and consumes as much electrical power

  11. Rapid and Mass Production of Porous Materials Using a Continuous Microwave Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    % of the maximum power of the oven (Wmax = 1200 watts, frequency = 2.45 GHz, Pmax = 800 psi). The fiber optic probe aluminosilicate gel with a nanoseed solution obtained under microwave irradiation, and pumped continuously irradiation. In the case of NaY zeolite, the precursor gel without nanoseeds was also introduced into the CME

  12. STALL STREET JOURNAL [A WEEKLY DOSE OF KNOWLEDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    bottles, and plastic tubs or jars are not microwave safe. Check for a symbol indicating it is before using veggies. Follow these tips to prevent fires--and burned food. 1. Most plastic take-out containers, water, and heavy plastic wrap 3. Vent plastic wrap to allow steam to escape. 4. Always use oven mitts or a thick

  13. Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

    each step is calibrated against Commerce Dept. data. Third, a detailed energy flow model is presented for coke ovens and blast furnaces, two very energy-intensive steps in our seven step model of steelmaking. This process-step model is calibrated...

  14. Send Orders of Reprints at reprints@benthamscience.net 126 Letters in Organic Chemistry, 2013, 10, 126-130

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    , 126-130 Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of N-alkylbenzamides Under Microwave Irradiation Jan K. ermáka The development of microwave ovens for the heating of food has more than 60-year old history [1] and since of organic reactions carried out under microwave (MW) irradiation increased exponen- tially. This increase

  15. Pumpkin Crme Brulee Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Yu

    Pumpkin Crčme Brulee Ingredients: · 1 1/2 cups heavy cream · 1/2 cup whole milk · 1/8 teaspoon Directions: 1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. 2. In a medium saucepan, heat the heavy cream, milk, cinnamon in the center. The custard should "shimmy" a bit when you shake the pan; it will firm up more as it cools. 9

  16. Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients: 1 onion 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 cup ketchup, low sodium 4 medium potatoes 4 ounces cheddar cheese, low-fat Directions 1. Cut the ends off of the onion. Meanwhile pierce potatoes in several places with fork. Place on baking dish in microwave oven. Microwave

  17. Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Baked Potato Primavera Ingredients: 4 medium potatoes 2 cups frozen mixed vegetables 8 ounces. Pierce each potato several times with a fork. Microwave on high until tender, about 3-4 minutes per potato. When done, take potatoes out of microwave oven, place in bowl and cover in towel to keep warm. 2

  18. 01/25/2007 04:20 PMLos Angeles Times: A Primeval Tide of Toxins Page 1 of 5http://www.latimes.com/news/local/oceans/la-me-ocean30jul30,0,2628678,print.story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Bruce

    , it stained fishing nets a dark purple and left them coated with a powdery residue. When fishermen tried of the hairy weed made it to the University of Queensland's marine botany lab. Samples placed in a drying oven is most pronounced, scientists evoke a scenario of evolution running in reverse, returning to the primeval

  19. SU-8 Photolithography BioMEMS Laboratory Cleanroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Jeffrey

    for 10 minutes 4. Rinse with DI water, blow dry with nitrogen or filtered air 5. Bake in oven ~200C for 30 minutes, allow to cool before coating Coating: 1. Power on spinner controller if necessary (box during photoresist coating, you may switch the vacuum toggle in front of the spinner to "On", remember

  20. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  1. Pyroelectric Crystal-Generated Neutron Production: Preliminary Results Using a Portable Vacuum System Don Gillich, Yaron Danon, Andrew Kovanen, Bryan Herman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Setup. Two programmable thermoelectric module controllers (Oven Industries, Inc., Model 5R7-388) were during heating or cooling. This potential gives rise to an electric field which is used to ionize D2 gas diameter, 10 mm thick LiTaO3 crystals were mounted on thermoelectric heaters. One crystal had a 70 nm

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, David

    in foundries, baking ovens that cook food, infrared heating systems that cure painted surfaces, and rapidOPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT HEATER SETTINGS TO PROVIDE SPATIALLY UNIFORM HEATING IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES INVOLVING RADIANT HEATING K. J. Daun, J. R. Howell, and D. P. Morton Department of Mechanical

  3. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  4. Office for Off Campus Living Program Housing Safety Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    : stable with handrail Porch: railing is over 3 ft. from ground No lead paint if children under the age, electricity, and gas must be on at all times except during actual repair Transportation Driveway, off street included? Stove & oven clean and in good repair? Turn on stove ­ do all burners work? Garbage disposal run

  5. Migration of antimony from PET trays into food simulant and food: determination of Arrhenius parameters and comparison of predicted and measured migration data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Migration of antimony from PET trays into food simulant and food: determination of Arrhenius) Migration experiments with small sheets cut out from ovenable PET trays were performed in two-sided contact) was estimated to be 62% in the PET sample under study. Apparent diffusion coefficients of Sb in PET trays were

  6. Curried Pumpkin Soup with Roasted Apple and Crme Frache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    Curried Pumpkin Soup with Roasted Apple and Crème Fraîche Recipe courtesy of Gordon Hamersley teaspoon chili powder (optional) 3 medium apples, peeled, cored, and chopped 2 1/2 quarts chicken stock 1 apple, roasted and sliced for garnish crème fraîche DIRECTIONS 1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. 2

  7. A.Antkowiak C. Josserand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neukirch, SĂ©bastien

    (2009) Micro-Origamis 3D photovoltaic devices 9 micro solar oven #12;1 - Motivations 10 2 - Experiments = 0.53 m/s target drop encapsulation in 20 ms total video length 133 ms #12;Antkowiak et al, PNAS/3 gravito-elastic length ~ 3.6 mm bending rigidity weight per length 15 R 1.5 mm #12;encapsulation Instant

  8. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV C2-857 C o l l o q u e C2, s u p p l . a u J o u r n a l d e P h y s i q u e 11, Vol 1, s e p t e m b r e 1 9 9 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    fillinP because of its useful materials properties ( for example its low specffic contact resistance(PPQ)has a high thermal stability, a low moisture adsorption (-red lamps instead of resistive ovens guarantee very high depositionrates (3).In conjunctionwith a small cold

  9. April 10, 2012 Student author

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    on coal power generation capacity growth. Coal Science and Engineering. 17(2): 217-224. (MinE) Bailey* , EApril 10, 2012 * Student author + Faculty member outside the College 1 2011 Peer Reviewed Archival Publications Abdul-Razzaq, W., R. Bushey, and G.L. Winn. 2011. Leakage of microwave ovens. Physics Education

  10. SURPLUSING INSTRUCTIONS ITEMS BEING SURPLUSED NEED THE FOLLOWING: Please provide the name of each

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, John

    cabinets, Hoods, Centrifuges, Incubators, Cryostats, Microfuges, Dead tanks, Microwave ovens, Environmental but must be drained of oil and the oil must have been tested tested and certified by EH&S as being non-PCB) * Gas Cylinders, Pressurized Containers / Vessels * Instruments Containing Mercury (measure temperature

  11. managed by Brookhaven Science A the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Group: _________________________ Number of People: _____________ Host/Person in Charge (please print: If there are to be any alcoholic beverages served, the person- in-charge must complete the BSA/BNL Request Form "Serving a definite closing time no later than 1:00 a.m. Equipment Available: Refrigerator, stove, microwave oven

  12. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  13. 2, 9711009, 2005 A fast TDR-inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to reconstruct a reliable soil moisture profile. The inclusion of an additional effective conductivity profile profile within a sufficiently short time. The20 additional transformation to the water content requires such as oven-drying are very time-consuming and destructive, neutron moderation or gamma25 attenuation

  14. SUPERCONDUCTING RF STRUCTURES TEST FACILITIES AND H. Weise, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany for the TESLA Collaboration Abstract The design of the TESLA superconducting electron than 16 thousand hours of operation demonstrated this technology. Results of single cavity tests followed by drying in a class 100 clean room; annealing at 800°C in an Ultra High Vacuum oven to relieve

  15. ION SOURCES AT GANIL R. LEROY, C. BARUE, C. CANET, M. DUBOIS, M. DUPUIS, F. DURANTEL, J-L. FLAMBARD, G. GAUBERT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the oven. · ionization efficiency : since most of the metallic atoms or ions condense on the cold plasma to be as high as possible. · beam stability : The chemical reactivity of metallic atoms condensed on the plasma in this paper. THE PRODUCTION OF STABLE ION BEAMS AT GANIL Metallic ion beam developments for the high energy

  16. : : Aeron ChairHome Personal Care Wednesday, August 02 AERON CHAIR -FULLY LOADED $745!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Bill

    Grills Juice Extractors Toaster Ovens Wafflemakers Home Care Center Air Cleaners Air Conditioners equitably distributes body weight on the seat and back. The material lets air pass through for comfort Limited Warranty. ComfortLiving will repair or replace (at our discretion) at no charge, any noticeable

  17. Home > Visit apartments online > Vacation Rental > Bailleul I own an Apartment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Robert M.

    with baker, wine shop, pharmacy and small bars and bistrots with a FRANPRIX supermarket nearby and security description: - 1890 Building, 4 floor, with lift, entry code security system, with interphone, 2 Bedrooms Apt clean. - Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Freezer, Cooking rings, Oven, Microwave, Dinnerware and serving

  18. Home > Visit apartments online > Vacation Rental > Bailleul I own an Apartment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Robert M.

    Paris ambience with baker, wine shop, pharmacy and small bars and bistrots with a FRANPRIX supermarket floor, entry code security system, with interphone, 2 Bedrooms Apt, furnished, 66m / 660 sqft, high. - Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Freezer, Cooking rings, Oven, Microwave, Dinnerware and serving pieces, Toaster

  19. Agent Notes Day 3 ~ Food Safety Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . If possible, acquire food and refrigerator thermometers for each participant. Also, show a variety of thermometers (food, refrigerator, oven, candy, etc.), and explain their purpose. You may set up any food for foodborne illness because their immune systems are not fully developed. This lesson outlines the causes

  20. ARDB-221 Bob Siemann May 21,2000 Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    starting at the plasma entrance. They are given by .cossin 1 ,sincos L k SLkC +=-= k is the plasma focusing strength, and is the phase advance through the plasma. is given by ,ovenLk= and k in terms

  1. Solid Targets for the Neutrino J R J Bennett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    heat to water-cooled surroundings toroid magnetically levitated and driven by linear motors #12 vacuum pump or helium gas cooling heater test wire insulators to pulsed power supply to pulsed power supply water cooled vacuum chamber Schematic diagram of the wire test chamber and heater oven. #12;VERY

  2. Carbon Monoxide I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    every 5 years. DO have your fuel-burning appliances -- including oil, gas or wood furnaces, gas water heaters, gas ranges and ovens, gas dryers, gas or kerosene space heaters, fireplaces and wood stoves avoid using an unvented gas or kerosene space heater, carefully follow the precautions that come

  3. 1. Control moisture. 2. Clean regularly.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , water heaters, and fireplaces that burn fuel must vent to the outside. Stoves, ovens, and cook on the things we do to affect how healthy our home is. Step 1. Control Moisture Water and excessive humidity of pesticides. Food and water attract pests. Controlling food and water helps to minimize pests. Sealing

  4. Reliability, Safety, and Security in Everyday Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    lives. From automobiles to elevators, kitchen appliances to televisions, and water heaters to cell. A domestic hot water heater that overheats water, causing scalding burns on a child. A thermostat that doesn't turn on heat when needed, causing household water pipes to freeze and burst. A microwave oven

  5. Abandoned Property Abandoned and unclaimed property left in residential facilities, on breezeways, in stairwells, laundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Richard L.

    Abandoned Property Abandoned and unclaimed property left in residential facilities, on breezeways in the residence halls. Non-grounded extension cords are not permitted in any residential facility. Up to six (6, dryers, toaster ovens, and dishwashers are NOT permitted in any residential facility. Coffee pots

  6. The Dose-Response of Vitamin D on Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Lindsey M.

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    in a 65?C oven for one hour. The sections were processed fo r Ki67 immunocytochemistry on a Dakocytomation Autostainer according to the manufacturer?s protocol (Dakocytomation, Carpinteria, CA). Antibody to Ki67 23 (clone MIB-1) was purchased...

  7. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fam powered, infrared, natural gas burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Tiejun

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (PIR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. This project consists of both experimental research and numerical analysis. To conduct the experiments, an experimental setup has been developed and installed in the Combustion Laboratory at Clerk Atlanta University (CAU). This setup consists of a commercial deep fat fryer that has been modified to allow in-situ radiation measurements on the surface of the infrared burner via a view port installed on the side wall of the oil vat. Proper instrumentation including fuel/air flow rate measurement, exhaust gas emission measurement, and radiation measurement has been developed. The project is progressing well. The scheduled tasks for this period of time were conducted smoothly. Specifically: 1. Baseline experimental study at CAU has been completed. The data are now under detailed analysis and will be reported in next quarterly report. 2. Theoretical formulation and analysis of the PIR burner performance model are continuing. Preliminary results have been obtained.

  8. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared(PIR) burner at various barometric pressures (operating altitude) and gas compositions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. In this program, the theoretical basis for the behavior of PIR burners will be established through analysis of the combustion, heat and mass transfer, and other related processes which determine the performance of PIR burners. Based on the results of this study, a first order model of the performance of the burner, including radiant output will be developed. The model will be applied to predict the performance of the selected burner and modified through comparison with test results. Concurrently, an experimental setup will be devised and built. This experimental rig will be a modified appliance, capable of measuring the heat and combustion product output, as well as providing a means by which the radiant heat output can be measured. The burner will be selected from an existing commercial appliance, a commercial deep fat fryer, and will be of a scale that will be compatible with the laboratory facilities in the Combustion Laboratory at Clark Atlanta University. Theoretical analysis and formulation of the PIR burner performance model has been started and the development of the test facilities and experimental setup has also been initiated. These are described.

  9. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  10. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y., E-mail: shibata.yoshihide@jaea.go.jp; Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  11. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  12. Calderon cokemaking process/demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 set new emission standards for hazardous air pollutants from coke ovens. Congress, recognizing that the coke industry faces technological and financial difficulties in meeting these new, stringent emission standards, required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and DOE to conduct a joint six-year research and development program to assist the industry in developing and commercializing new technologies and work practices that would significantly reduce hazardous coke oven emissions. DOE`s purpose for sponsoring the proposed demonstration project is to provide the coke industry with a new option for the economical production of high quality coke that significantly reduces the quantity of pollutants entering the environment.

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  15. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  16. Supplementary Information for Refined Estimate of China's CO2 Emissions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    .95-0.98); Weibull Other washed coal 0.96 (0.92-1); Triangular Briquettes 0.90 (0.89-0.98); Weibull IPCC( 2006); Coke coal 0.93 (0.89-0.98); Gamma IPCC( 2006); Cai et al. (2009); Zhao et al (2012) Cleaned coal 0.96 (0 0.93 (0.89-1); Triangular Coke Oven Gas 0.99 (0.98-1); Triangular Other Gas 0.99 (0

  17. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 56175638, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/acp-14-5617-2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    .2 Industry Combustion Coal/Boiler, Kilns Liu et al. (2008), 1185 1185 1701.2 Coke Oven Blast Furnace Gas in the original INTEX-B NMVOC Emissions /Gg Power Coal 1178 1178 1130.7 Biofuel Tsai et al. (2003), Liu et al, 4421, 5561 (Andreae and Merlet, 2001) Tsai et al.(2003) 16.8 Industry Non-combustion Coke 11, 217 11

  18. The stereochemistry and steric requirement of phosphonate Wittig reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsen, Chung-Ye

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxide, respectively, just prior to use. A 19-in Spinning Band Column, Nester Faust Corp. , Model NFT-51, equipped with a Te f ion band and rated at 75 theoretical plates was used for fractional distilla- tions. Evaporative distillations refer... to bulb-to-bulb (Kugelrohr), short-path distillations in which the bulb was heated by an oven. The temperatures cited for these dis tillations refer to the maximum temperature attained by the air chamber during the distillation. The isolation...

  19. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  20. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  1. The environment of deposition of the Dalton Coal (Upper Pennsylvanian), Palo Pinto Co., TX.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Glenn Robert

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , dried them in an oven, and picked the fossils out of the residue under a binocular scope. Or. Thomas Yancey assisted in the identification. Coal balls and concretions - Coal balls are thought to preserve the original texture, detrital mineral... kane content. Three of the samples were sent to Core Lab to determine the B. T. U. , ash, and sulfur content of the coal. I analyzed the remaining twenty- one samples with the use of the Oceanography department's Leco Combustion Furnace...

  2. The effect of wettability on capillary pressure and oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chon, Bohyun

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by treating the core samples with four different reagents mixed with kerosene. The concentration of the reagents and the storage period in the oven, set and maintained at 125'F, are varied to duplicate the wetting conditions that might exist in a reservoir... Comparison of Pore Volume and Porosity as Determined with Kerosene and Water as Satuzants on Cleaned Cores 27 Permeabilities and Residual Oil Satuzations of Cleaned Cores 28 Comparison of Physical Properties Between Cores Before and After Treatment 30...

  3. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C8, suppte'ment au n012, Tome 42, de'cembre 1981 page C8-253

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a stepping motor. Cesium oven has a hole of 1 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm length and its opera- ting.8 Tesla of the magnetic field intensity at the pole piece is set symmetri- cally at both sides. (3) C to the axis are about 6 nano-Tesla and about 3 nano-Tesla respectively. 500 e/s Ion pump Fig. 1. Structure

  4. Sustainability Engineering Challenge Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Towers Cafeteria 1:00 p.m. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell G-3 ESB Dr. Nick Wu and Joey Bright 2:00 p.m. Human Towers Cafeteria 1:00 p.m. Build your Own Solar Cell G-3 Matt Asher 3:00 p.m. Build a Solar Oven ESB Evening Counselors 11:00 p.m. Lights Out Brooke Tower Tuesday, July 9, 2013 SOLAR ENERGY DAY Time Activity

  5. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  6. Energy Consumption and Potential for Energy Conservation in the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, M. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , April 22-25, 1979 IRON ORE REDUCTION STEELMAKING PRIMARY CONVERSION HOT ROLLING FINISHING SIMPLIFIED FLOW SHEET STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESSES Iron Ore & Wastes , Agg lomerating Pellets Ore & Flux Coal ~ " Sinter - Blast ~ Coke Furnaces... - Ovens '( BF Iron Outside ,~., Scrap Open Hearth Furnaces , Ingot Casting Basic Oxygen Furnaces Raw Steel Electric Arc Furnaces Scrap , Primary Rolling Mills Continuous Casting Slabs, Blooms, Billets r Secondary Hot Rolling Bars...

  7. Energy Efficiency Business in China: A Roadmap For American Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburger, J.; Sinton, J.

    the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 FIGURE 1. Energy Use by Equipment Type in China, 1990 (l) Coal Electricity ~ Industrial Boilers o Pumps II Power Plant Boilers III Fans D Coke Ovens and Smelting Furnaces o... currency (16). As part of the economic reform program, the Chinese goverrunent stopped paying the coal industry its annual subsidy of $230 million. Coal prices began rising sharply in many areas in 1993 and continued to increase after being...

  8. Energy-conservation program: notice of proposed rulemaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A notice of proposed rulemaking, proposing energy efficiency standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment (not including furnaces) kitchen ranges and ovens, and central air conditioners ispresented. Comments are invited and the procedure for public comment is detailed. Issues included and presented in the proposed rulemaking are: determination of energy efficiency levels, macro-economic analysis, certification and enforcement, effect on other law, small business exemptions, environmental assessment, and regulatory analysis. (MCW)

  9. Sociological adaptation among bacterial populations in an activated sludge ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Robert George

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Nm. B. Davis The predominant heterotrophic bacteria in a butanal adapted, laboratory scale, and batch fed activated sludge culture were mon- itored during substrate removal (as revealed by gas liouid chrom- atography), The changing concentrations...-Brevibacterium coryneforms (804) and Arthrobacter-like organisms (11$). Gram negative bacilli were rarely isolated, and the few observed were members of the genus Pseudomonas. The test culture (500 mg/1 oven dried solids) consistently re- moved up to 600 mg/1 of butanal...

  10. Fishery Notes Pollock or Cod: Can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thawed at 40°F and cooked in steam-jacketed kenles. 2. The fish was cooled and packed in polyethylene were prepared and fried according to the recipe. 2. Fish cakes were cooled and wrapped in a clear in a convection oven at 325°F for 15-20 minutes. 3 medium eggs V, tsp. black pepper 1V4 cups milk 4 cups vegetable

  11. Ultrastructure and development of laticifers in Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockstill, Barbara Layne

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Laticifer containing a proplastid with plasto- globuli but no distinct lamellar structure 38 33 ' Pzoplastid in a root laticifer with plastoglobuli . . 38 34. Light micrograph of an anther containing long straight laticifezs (L) with many spherical lipid... in an ethanol-acetone series and embedded in Spurr's low viscocity resin (TABLE V) (Spurz, 1969). The resin was cured in an oven for 8 hr at approximately 70'C. Specimens were flat embedded and mounted on plexiglas rods. Sections for light microscopy were...

  12. CSA Standards April 29, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    service. The pressure relief devices will be selected to be in compliance with Section 5 in Section 5.3.3, whichever is lower. The devices shall be placed in an oven or liquid bath be cooled to -40°C ± 1°C (-40oF ± 2°F). The cycling rate shall not exceed ten cycles per minute

  13. Investigation on multi-variable decoupled temperature control system for enamelling machine with heated air circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Qin, Le; Zou, Shipeng; Long, Shijun [School of Information Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A lots of problems may occur frequently when controlling the temperature of the enamelling machine oven in the real industrial process, such as multi-variable coupled problem. an experimental rig with triple inputs and triple outputs was devised and a simulation modeling was established accordingly in this study,. the temperature control system based on the feedforward compensation algorithm was proposed. Experimental results have shown that the system is of high efficiency, good stability and promising application.

  14. Evaluation of Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. for sod- seeding on blackland prairie soils in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Msiska, Harry Darius Chandiwira

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . is browsed by all classes of livestock and wildlife, and also provides cover and seed as food for wildlife. Plant tops have llf crude protein which is 47$ digestible. Illinois bundleflower seeds were evaluated for germination character- istics at water... by oven-dry weight of the native pasture sampled before sod-seeding (Mar. 1984) at Caldwell. . Plant density (plants/m of row) of sod-seeded Illinois bundleflower during the first growing season (1984) for untreated control, disked, and herbicide...

  15. How Much Forage Do You Have?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne; McGinty, Allan

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ?c infor- mation for improving stocking rate grazing manage- ment decisions. The only materials required are a range site map (aerial photograph), plot frame, grass shears, paper sacks, drying oven, camera, weigh scales, notepad (data sheet), pencil... publication L-5476.) In the representative range site areas, select plot locations that have different quantities and species mixtures. Place the plot frame over the vegetation to be photographed. The frame perimeter should be clearly visible...

  16. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donhowe, E. T.

    printing operations, including those in metal decorative printing, utilize solvent based, or solvent-eontaining, ink and varnishes. As a result, conventional printing technologies produce significant VOC (volatile organic compound) and HAP (hazardous..., warmed slightly above ambient temperature due to the heat evolution from the UV lamps. The UV oven contains between six and eight 10 inch, 300 watt/inch, microwave energized mercury lamps. The lamps are positioned with parabolic reflectors in a...

  17. Experiments, Using Natural Thermal Waters, on the Illitization of Interlayered Illite-Smectite and the Crystallinity of Illite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Junfeng; Browne, P.R.L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated experimentally the effects of temperature and time on the extent of interstratification of illite-smectite (I/S) and the crystallinity of illite using natural solutions and clay minerals from the Waiotapu geothermal field, New Zealand. Reactions were conducted in sealed stainless steel vessels kept in an oven at 270 C for 100 days. These reactions increased the illite crystallinity but decreased the expandability of I/S.

  18. Laboratory studies of imbibition flooding using carbonated brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharif, Qamar Javaid

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures was a major part of the phase II studies. A high pressure core holder was developed and set inside a temperature regulated in-house constructed oven for this purpose. The core face flushing method was developed for conducting imbibition... and the field for improving oil recovery. The most common techniques used to increase oil recovery include water injection, steam injection, in-situ combustion, carbon dioxide (CO&) injection, chemical flooding and caustic injection. Currently, however, due...

  19. Cytosine as an indicator of microbial nitrogen in the rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hegerle, Kelly Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (1970) or Mathison and Milligan (1971), it is based on the incorporation of nitrogen from ammonia and thus would not account for microbial protein synthesized directly from amino acids. Smith and coworkers (1976) observed...). It involves several extractions and a column purification step which could result in only partial recovery of the nucleic acids. Nucleic acid base analysis is much simpler and the potential for error considerably lower. Sample preparation involves oven...

  20. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  1. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Y. Chertkov

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural porosity; (6) the ratio of aggregate solid mass to solid mass of intraaggregate matrix; (7) the lacunar factor that characterizes the rate of the lacunar pore volume change with water content; and (8) oven-dried lacunar pore volume. The model was validated using available data. The model predicted value of the slope of the reference shrinkage curve in the basic shrinkage area is equal to unity minus the lacunar factor value, and is between unity and zero in the agreement with observations.

  2. Nutritive evaluation of two native north Texas legumes (Strophostyles) for goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Jamie Lee

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) in an oven dryer at 100?C in a pre-weighed crucible for 4 hours, placing in a dessicator, allowing to reach room temperature, and weighing (A.O.A.C., 1990). Ash was determined by placing crucibles with samples in a muffle furnace at 540?C for 4 hours... To determine the nutritional impact of the previous method the following calculations were used: Dry Matter (g kg-1) = [(pan weight (g) + sample weight, dried (g)) ? empty pan weight (g)] ? 1000 sample weight, as is (g) Ash (g kg-1) = [(pan weight (g...

  3. Comparison of the Blaney-Criddle method of determining the consumptive use of water to that of actual measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mixon, Tommy Lee

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of paris absorption blook being placed in the so11 Soil-moisture meter oonnected to an absorption block Soil samples being taken from the auger and plaoed 1n sampling cane )'?sighing soil samples Oven used for drying soil samples View of weather..., or intercepted preoipitation on the area in auy specified time, divided by the given area, If ths unit of time ie small, the consumptive use is expressed in aors-1nchss per acre or depth 1n inches. If the unit of time is large, such as a crop growing season...

  4. Building Energy Supply Infrastructures and Urban Sustained Development of Shenyang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    store 300-thousand-cubemeter gases. The compressor is designed to distribute 63? 000m3/h gas. At present, in Shenyang there are oil gases, coal seam gases, mine gases, coke oven gases, liquefied petroleum gases with air, liquefied petroleum gases...-generation power, immaculate energy and coal boiler. The heating area of combination between heat and electricity is 18 million square meters. The heating area of immaculate energy is 1.4 million square meters, in which that of electric, oil and gas heating...

  5. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  6. Forage production of coastal Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., in combination with certain legumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usrey, Edward Lee

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if the legumes were grmm in media which permitted contaminating orga~9sms first to %econ pose the excreted ani~o nitrogen? Vlrtanon and Laine stated that Mhen the ratio of legumes to nonlogumes ex- ceeds 1&1~ thc legume vill suffer from nitrogen deficien- cy... vere dried in an electr1c oven at 70oC for 24 hours and then reweighedx and the yield of air-dry forage was calculated, The four replications of each treatment were conposited~ and an analysis fox' total ni trogen vas made on l 4-gran sanplcs...

  7. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  8. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  9. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphite at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  10. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2,000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2,400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  11. Tradable Permits with Incomplete Monitoring: Evidence from Santiago’s Particulate Permits Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    1980s. The TSP trading program, established in March of 1992, was designed to curb TSP emissions from the largest stationary sources in Santiago (industrial boilers, industrial ovens, and large residential and commercial heaters) whose emissions... to trade permits only on an annual or permanent basis.22 4.2 The data The data for the study were obtained from PROCEFF’s databases for the years 1993 through 1999.23 Each database includes information on the number of sources and their dates of regis...

  12. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  13. Battery operation experience at SSAB, Luleaa six years after rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrini, H.; Sundgren, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa (Sweden); Meyer, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SSAB operates a coke oven plant in Luleaa, Sweden, consisting of one 7 m battery. Pushing the first coke in 1975, the battery encountered over the years more and more difficulties in keeping coking time and operation level at the design rate. In order to improve the coke supply a major repair of the battery was made. In 1989 the battery was fully rehabilitated by Krupp Koppers. The experience made during the years before and during repair contributed to a new policy for the operation of the plant. The policy has led to considerable improvements. It is clear that it is possible to successfully operate a rehabilitated battery.

  14. Estimation of interstitial water in porous medium by capillary pressure measurements at various temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Mahesh Chander

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water to remove the salt. Ten pore volumes of distilled water were flushed through each core and diaphragm. They were then dried in the oven overnight and oooled. Finally they were saturated with kerosene. Run V was made at 75 F with the cores... saturated with kerosene. In this run kerosene was the wetting fluid instead of brine. A standard Du Nouy Tensiometer was used to measure surface tension of the brine solution at 75'F, 150'F and 200'F. Surface tension of kerosene, and brine solution...

  15. The system silver fluoride - hydrogen fluoride - water at zero degrees centigrade and at minus fifteen degrees centigrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Hiram Jack

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    samples from the acid&ass titraticna vere filtered J ' through veigbed fritted glass filter oruclbles~ snd washed with 1 . V 0. 01 I nitrio aoid and vator. %e oruoiblee vere then dried in aa, oven eot at 140 for fogr bcnua, plaoed in a vaomsa... . . and Coupons, Xeu Tork (1952) ~ 'I g 16 I l \\ 1 I ( v' 4 o Al Figure 1 AHF-HF-HFO At 0 C, Figure 2 AHP-HP-H2G At -15 G. o b0 ID III IS Cw IS ...

  16. An Examination of Some Theories about Beef Tenderness by Using New Methods.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cover, Sylvia; Hostetler, Robert L.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . rib cut. Scores for softness were highest in steaks cooked Two types of methods were used for tenderness rare (142?F.) by dry heat. Apparently their h:jh 1 testing: shear force values as the obiective method moisture content was at least partly... that specific es could be studied. dry heat method was needed for cooking which would be similar to home broiling ve the advantage of easy standardization. e oven temperatures are more easily stand- I than broiler temperatures, cooking in the 3mpartment...

  17. Acid-producing potential of the various lithic units associated with the mining of coal. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renton, J.J.; Stiller, A.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collection of the seven different potentially toxic lithotypes encountered in the mining of coal were collected for five coals in 18 mines over a 5 county area in northern West Virginia for a total of 89 samples. Each sample was subjected to total sulfur analysis and to the soxhlet extraction/oven reoxidation procedure devised by the authors for the evaluation of an acid-production rate constant, alpha. The data show that the samples with the lowest sulfur contents have the highest acid production rate constants.

  18. The response of some putting green soil mixtures to compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Hugh Leon

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 11 Sand, soil, and peat ratios used in the test . . . . . . 11 Capillay porosity, non-capillary porosity, visual ratings, weight of clippings, hydraulic conductivity, bulk density and total porosity as indicated . . . , . . . 60 Grams of oven dried...-percent-moisture sand-Houston Black clay various tensions retained by cores of concrete soil-peat when sub]ected to 12. 13. Volume-percent-moisture sand-Houston Black clay various tensions Volume-percent-moisture land sand-Houston Black to various tensions...

  19. Factors influencing germination and emergence of four warm-season grasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Thomas Paxton

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    & Qexooc 1957 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Qd 10. Qiold ia peands por sore ef oooo dry forage of fear ?are season grasoee ?14h 4?o rates of nitrogoa aad throe fortilisor Qlaeoasat sothods. College Statics? Qoxasc 1951... ih ponndo por aero of 4?e ?am ooaoon grosses ?1th throe crcthods of plooeaont ef a $0 $0?$0 for4ilisor. College Stationc %'osasc 1959 . . . . 29 1$. knalysis of rariaooe of yield of oven?dry forage ia posnds per aors of t?o ?ara seasos grasses...

  20. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  1. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -20). Analysis of products consists of determining the point at which no free lithium alkyl remains. Thus if a butyl lithium initiated polymerization were terminated with water, butane would be evolved as long as the initiator were present. The butane...? agent were evaporated under a hood. Finally the polymer. was dried in a vacuum oven at about 50'C and under a vacuum of 30 inches of gg for about 30 hours. The weight of polymer formed was determined by final weighing. 25 The monomer conversion...

  2. Low density inorganic foams fabricated using microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Gregory, T.G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our work was to determine if high temperature foams could be made using microwave heating; and if so, to investigate some of their properties. Several foams were made and their compressive strengths, tensile strengths and densities were determined. Foams were made of glass, metal-glass, glass-fiber, metal-glass-fiber, and fly ash. The microwave source used was a Litton model 1521 microwave oven which operated at 2.45 GHz and had an output of 700 watts.

  3. Direct gas chromatography for the study of substrate removal kinetics in multi-component aqueous systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langley, William Douglas

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    component analyses of the aqueous solutions were performed by gas chromatography. The instrumentation consisted of' an Aero- graph Hy-Fi Model 550 gas chromatograph oven utilizing a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The detector was con- trolled... BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND Time Total Expected Measured R COD BOD Organics COD COD rrMn nEn mg. /1. nE'r mg. /1. nMn mg. /1. mg. /1. mg. /1. Control Hr 280 604- 225. 6 536 633 +29- 278 543 + 7 1...

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography using a Lee Scientific Series 600 SFE/SFC System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Timothy Scott

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resolution. Oven temperature during all separations was 75 and 125' during cleanup. The initial pump pressure was 85 atm for injection runs and either 85 or 100 atm for on-line SFE/SFC runs. The actual chromatography programs are provided in appendix B... chromatography (SFC) was conducted with high purity carbon dioxide as the carrier fluid and mobile phase. On-line extraction utilized a cryofocusing tee on the instrument to immobilize and concentrate the analytes during dynamic extraction of the sample...

  5. Samuel Taylor Coleridge's treatment of evil from 1794-1800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snodgrass, Billie Kay

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , rincr's univer c. Instead, writ. 's 3oulger, the poem moves;. ccnrding to "dream logic" of its own and is "the first modern religious poem in the sense that it assorts a m. ', sterious xeli- ious unik ense but oanno ii giv'e us oven parti" 1... Merner Beyer and Ghe. rl es Tom3. i?son also concur that Ckir~ st, ", , be3. sugge. . t's the pox!er of evil to infect and disintegrate good. Bi milarly C. Id. Bow?a writes that in Ceraldine "wc see :=n embod im"nt of evil powers f rom another wor3. d...

  6. Above Vulgar Economy: Jane Austen and Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Sheryl Ann

    2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    the demand for precious metals (Olsen 246). Our coins are merely tokens of value made from base metals, and the metal in our coins is practically worthless (Ferguson 30). An economist may attempt to equate a box of candles with a modern electric bill..., and here the exchange system totally fails. A box of candles and an electric bill both provide light, but the electric bill is radically altered by the presence of a refrigerator, a furnace, an air-conditioner, a stove, a microwave oven, a hot water...

  7. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  8. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    steel and glass. Pins, glass beads and headers are assembled manually and are put in a carbon tray. Carbon trays are put in furnaces (ovens) which are maintained at a constant temperature between 160Q-2000F and have an exothermic gas environment.... At this time, company registers its peak demand. Company keeps all furnaces on and keep them available for workers in case they will need it for their products. On average, no more than two furnaces will have same temperature and exothermic gas...

  9. A study of hand tamper design for compaction of soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonough, Brian

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination Standard Oven Dry Method versus Frying Pan Method Grain Size Distribution Curve Centerville Sand 34 Tamper Comparison Chart: Dry Density after 200 Blows per Square Foot of Layer Dry Density versus Compactive Effort Curve on 3. 0 Inch Square... of Utah revealed that a point exists at which an ultimate density is obtained, and any further increase in compaction effort results in lower than ultimate values. Shear Stress and Beari Ca acit If the resistance in a soil is exceeded by applied loads...

  10. Industrial Plate Exchangers Heat Recovery and Fouling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, P. H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (still)for separation of light oil from the wash oil,which is then returned to absorber tower.The debenzolised wash 0 0 oil is cooled indirectly to 20 C/30 C before returning to the absorber tower. This is toprevent condensation of water from the gas... Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 -- c.O.G. LIGHT OIL SCRUBBER COKE OVEN GAS(C.O.G,J BENZINE COOLING WATER BENZOLISED ~WASH OILSTRIPPER CONVENTIONAL LIGHT OIL RECOVERY PLANT DEBENZOLISED WASH OIL / COOLING WATER...

  11. Cooking with Cornmeal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and onion in a skillet until the ground beef is crumbly; drain off any excess fat. 3. In a bowl, mix the corn, tomato sauce, chili powder, cornmeal and water. Add the cooked ground beef and onion. 4. Place mixture in a casserole dish and bake at 350... degrees F for 45 minutes. 5. Remove the dish from the oven. Sprinkle the cheese on the top. 6. Bake the casserole for 10 minutes or until the cheese is melted. Cornmeal Mix (makes about 5? cups of mix) Cornbread (makes 12 servings, each 2 by 2? inches...

  12. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A HIGHLY MODIFIABLE RETAIL E-COMMERCE WEBSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soenen, Mark

    2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    that runs on a propane tank. The propane provides the energy to make a flame that will cook food. Once the propane runs out, the grill is unusable. The best case scenario is the propane runs out after all the food for one meal is cooked. The worst case... scenario is the propane runs out just minutes into cooking a meal. At this point, the propane tank must be refilled to cook food on the grill. Otherwise, the meal must be cooked using alternative means such as the oven or microwave. If the grill is seen...

  13. A deformation hypothesis for granular materials subjected to rapid, repetitive loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bratton, Jimmie Lloyd

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Friction oi Rocks and Minerals. Reference Rock Ex10" I' Oven S;1tu- Drv rated Reynolds (15) Quart='ito L1111ostono Oranite San?lstone 'l. 5-8. 3 4. 8-5. 4 4. 5-8. 3 4. 8-5. 4 0. 16-0. 23 0 . 15-0 . Zjl 0. I '? hjillis and De I?:us (16... accurate means of selecting the required thickness of overlying material. If this hypothesis wore based solely on material properties and environment, it would make possible a de- sign procedure appli. cable to all localities and all conditions, Basic...

  14. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  15. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Hoerber, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de; Franke, J., E-mail: klaus.schuetz1@gmx.de, E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: franke@faps.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  16. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  17. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  18. Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

  19. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  20. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D. [Hoogovens IJmuiden (Netherlands). Ironmaking and Raw Materials Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  1. Forest land application of sewage sludge on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E. (comp.)

    1989-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additions beneficially enhance forest productivity. Sewage sludge, either as a liquid anaerobic sludge at 0, 402, or 804 kg N/ha (360 and 720 lb/ac) containing approximately 7% N (oven dry) or a solid aerobic material at 632 kg N/ha (560 lb/ac) with approximately 1.3% N (oven dry), was applied to 1-, 3-, 8-, and 28-year-old loblolly pine stands on sandy and clayey upper coastal plain soils. A total of 525,000 gallons of liquid sludge and 560 tons of solid sludge was applied on 11.6 hectares (28.7 acres) of loblolly pine forest plots. Sludge additions were monitored to determine availability and movement so that potential impacts could be evaluated on water quality, nutrient and heavy metal cycling, soil and forest floor, understory vegetation, tree foliage, stand growth, biomass production, and wood quality. This study concluded that using liquid sludge at rates of 400 kg N/ha or less as a silvicultural treatment to fertilize pulp and sawtimber loblolly pine stands resulted in increased forest productivity without environmental or wood quality degradation. Application recommendations for stand age and loading rates for management purposes are addressed.

  2. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  3. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  4. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  5. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  6. Calderon Cokemaking Process/Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon with the following objectives in order to enable its commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in high driving (highly productive) blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; and (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process. The activities of the past quarter were entirely focused on operating the Calderon Process Development Unit (PDU-I) in Alliance, Ohio conducting a series of tests under steady state using coal from Bethlehem Steel and U.S. Steel in order to demonstrate the above. The objectives mentioned above were successfully demonstrated.

  7. Determination of tritiated formaldehyde in effluents from tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DPEI/SERGD, BP 6, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (FR))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations suggested that formal-dehyde can be incorporated in vegetation at a very high rate. In this paper, the authors develop a methodology for determining tritiated formaldehyde (CHTO) in gaseous effluent containing HTO and HT as dominant species. CHTO being very soluble in water is collected in a solution of carrier formaldehyde. This carrier is necessary for precipitating for formaldehyde derivative of dimedone and collecting it by filtration. The precipitate, which contains the formaldehyde hydrogens, is freed from exchangeable tritium, dried in oven, and combusted to water for tritium determination. CHTO can thus be separated from HTO with a high efficiency, leading to the possibility of determining accurately 1 Bq of CHTO in as much as 5 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq of HTO. The methodology has been applied in preliminary experiments to determine the ratio of CHTO to HTO in effluent from a tritium-handling facility and effluent released from solid miscellaneous wastes.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  11. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  12. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  13. Upgrading Amerada-type survey clocks for high-temperature geothermal service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, B.H.; Witten, C.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amerada type subsurface recording gauges have been used by the oil and gas industry for many years. These mechanical logging instruments are currently used by the growing goethermal industry. As the gauges were designed for service in low-temperature oil and gas wells, a significant number of failures are occurring at elevated geothermal temperatures. The spring driven mechanical survey clocks appear to be the primary cause of the failures. The clock mechanisms tend to stop or lock-up when exposed to temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/C. This paper summarizes a project that was undertaken to upgrade the survey clocks to 300/sup 0/C capability. The major problems causing clock failure were indentified and corrected by straightforward design modifications together with special lubrication of the moving parts. Several clocks so modified performed reliably, both during laboratory oven tests and during field tests that were performed in actual geothermal wells at temperatures up to 330/sup 0/C.

  14. Analysis of ammonium sulfate circulation tank failure -- Possible causes and their remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hearn, R.J. [Acme Steel, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Acme steel manufactures a liquid solution of ammonium sulphate by scrubbing the coke oven gas with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the bath reaches a predetermined specific gravity, it is isolated from the system, neutralized with aqua ammonia, pumped to the shipping tanks, re-charged with water and acid, then placed back in service. To improve the ammonia removal efficiency, three circulation tanks are used in this system. In June 1996, the volume of two of the sulfate solution tanks in the ammonia removal plant were increased by two different pressure events. The first tank was damaged by pressure that was not relieved due to a plugged vent line. The second tank was damaged by a pressure event generated during the process of making ammonium sulfate. This paper will discuss the cause of the second tank`s failure, and the design solution to restart the operation of the plant.

  15. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  16. Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

  17. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  18. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Gonzales, Gilbert R. (New York, NY); Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Meinken, George E. (Middle Island, NY)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  19. Solid-liquid equilibria for binary mixtures composed of acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, and diphenylmethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.J.; Chen, C.H.; Lin, H. [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquidus lines were determined with a solid-disappearance method for binary mixtures composed of acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, and diphenylmethane. While the first four substances are model compounds of wash oil, which has widely been used as a solvent to remove aromatics from coal oven gas, diphenylmethane is a high-boiling and low-melting compound that is a potential additive to modify the performance of wash oil. Each of the seven binaries appears to be a simple eutectic system, as evidenced by the experimental results. The Wilson and the NRTL models were employed to correlate the solid-liquid equilibrium data. Both activity coefficient models were found to represent accurately the nonideality of the liquid-phase for the investigated systems.

  20. Fatty acid composition and distribution in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel, Asha Melina

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbochrome 4 (TC4). Helium was used as the carrier gas. Injector temperature was held at 250'C, and detector temperature remained at 270'C. Initial oven temperature was maintained at 153'C for 2 minutes, then ramped at 2. 3'C/min to 174'C, held for 0. 2... at the first split in CART analysis. 24 (18. 96 9/6 16:1n-7 &18. 960 11/2 11/3 (1. 000 &1. XO 16:3n-4 &0. 970 &0. 970 16:3' 2/1 5/14 3/7 5/26 &0. 190 &0. 190 4:1n- 0/4 1/10 Q Sub-epidermal Middle ~ Deep Figure 4. Classification and regression...

  1. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  2. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  3. Development of a high current H{sup -} source for ESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maaser, A.; Beller, P.; Klein, H.; Volk, K.; Weber, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt Robert-Mayer-Str. 2-4, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For the European Spallation Source (ESS), a volume source based on the HIEFS (high efficiency source) is being developed. The source will be optimized to produce high current densities in pulsed operation. A pulse generator delivering 1 to 1.5 ms pulses was installed. Furthermore, cesium was supplied to the plasma generator from an external oven. The cesium injection was optimized for a low e/H{sup -} ratio and a high current. We obtained a current density of 70 mA/cm{sup 2}. This way, with an aperture radius of 4.25 mm, an H{sup -} current of 40 mA was extracted at an extraction voltage of 22 kV. After a description of the source and the experimental setup, measurements of the beam current density and the e/H{sup -} ratio will be presented in this paper.

  4. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  5. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  6. Compact cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andy J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric; Murray, James E.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost, high performance cladding-pumped planar waveguide amplifier and fabrication method, for deployment in metro and access networks. The waveguide amplifier has a compact monolithic slab architecture preferably formed by first sandwich bonding an erbium-doped core glass slab between two cladding glass slabs to form a multi-layer planar construction, and then slicing the construction into multiple unit constructions. Using lithographic techniques, a silver stripe is deposited and formed at a top or bottom surface of each unit construction and over a cross section of the bonds. By heating the unit construction in an oven and applying an electric field, the silver stripe is then ion diffused to increase the refractive indices of the core and cladding regions, with the diffusion region of the core forming a single mode waveguide, and the silver diffusion cladding region forming a second larger waveguide amenable to cladding pumping with broad area diodes.

  7. Estimating the aggregate/intraaggregate mass ratio of a shrinking soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Y. Chertkov

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently introduced parameter, the ratio of an aggregate solid mass to a solid mass of an intraaggregate matrix (K ratio) is connected with the mean thickness of a deformable, but non-shrinking surface layer of aggregates and is a fundamental property of aggregated soils that essentially influences their shrinkage. The objective of this work is to suggest and validate an approach to estimating the K ratio at any soil clay content through characteristics of soil texture and structure. We derive an equation that reflects the interrelation between the K ratio and soil texture and structure. The K ratio can be estimated as the solution of the equation and is determined by the mean size of soil solids and the maximum size of soil aggregates in the oven-dried state, independently of a measured shrinkage curve. To validate the approach we use available data for eight soils.

  8. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Evans, Roger (N. Hampton, NH)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the .sup.196 Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of .+-.0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour.

  9. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Evans, R.

    1991-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the [sup 196]Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of [+-]0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour. 8 figures.

  10. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    1999-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: Detailed workings of the team; Proposal to FETC for Phase II; Permitting and Environmental Work; and Engineering Progress.

  11. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  12. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  13. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. The use of the photo-electric cell in the determination of ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Leon Milton

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the "~'1oulturul end )%~oh". uicul Callo' of' Tox~s ; ertial !"ulflltw. nt of the Bequixc-:. onto for the De8roe of UGotor of' . ' ogsnco ;, eJor "ub$oot: 83r Leon ffilto~ Adam xupgct l9, 4 Cia']KENT ' 91CWQQ i i X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ I...~i~ated by tho substitution of th&: c. ll since its rco. xnsc to a &', ivan dap'h of color is a" a'"a the oa m hi, p de, ~ee Of ac~ay in rocp~nae hae bosn prOVen by artridgo in '. io . cork in precise titranetry. Pe obtained results hich checked each o'~', er...

  15. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  16. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

  17. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  18. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Annual technical report for year ending November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Direct Steelmaking Program has completed the third year of research and development since cost-share funding was provided by the Department of Energy. The physical chemistry programs conducted by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have been completed. A pilot plant has been constructed and successfully operated at Universal, Pennsylvania, and construction of a new, two-zone vessel pilot plant has been completed and trial operation is underway. The success of the pilot plant operation coupled with the development of process models involving reaction rates, heat-transfer and fluid-flow rates, and mass and energy balances has led to a basic study of a 350,000 tonne per year demonstration plant that gives promise of being a low capital and operating cost alternative for ironmaking as compared to the coke oven, blast furnace process. It has the further advantages of ease of startup and shutdown, lower energy consumption, and modularity so that capacity can be adapted to need. The physical chemistry programs at CMU and MIT studied fundamental reactions among ore, coal, flux, slag, metal droplets, and the liquid metal bath. Work at CMU centered on slag foaming studies, coal devolatilization, dissolution of hematite and wustite pellets in bath smelting slags, reduction of FeO in slag by char, extent of reverse or depostcombustion reactions in postcombustion gases, and developing an overall smelting model.

  19. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  20. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (iv) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: ? Consolidation of the project team-players; ? Recruiting Koppers Industries as an additional stakeholder; ? Developing a closed system for the production of binder pitch from tar in the Calderon coking process as the incentive for Koppers to join the team; ? Gathering appropriate equipment for conducting a set of experiments at bench scale to simulate tar quality produced from the Calderon coking process for the production of binder pitch; and ? Further progress made in the design of the commercial coking reactor.

  1. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  2. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  3. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  4. Cooling of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnet Ferrite Yoke: Measurements and Future Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobiech, Z; Bouleghlimat, S; Ducimetičre, L; Garlaschč, M; Kramer, T; Namora, V; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; Weterings, W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LHC operation with high intensity beam, stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of the ferrite yoke of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. The beam screen, which screens the ferrite yoke from wakefields, has been upgraded to limit ferrite heating. In addition it is important to improve the cooling of the ferrite yoke: one method is to increase the internal emissivity of the cylindrical vacuum tank, in which the kicker magnet is installed. This paper describes a method developed for measuring the emissivity of the inside of the tanks, which has been benchmarked against measurements of the ferrite yoke temperature during heat treatment in an oven and transient thermal simulations. Conclusions are drawn regarding an ion bombardment technique evaluated...

  5. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  6. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  7. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  8. Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. (LTV Steel Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States). AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

  9. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  10. The start-up of the DIOS pilot plant (DIOS Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Terutoshi

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DIOS process has been successfully developed as an 8-year project commenced in April 1988. Based on the results of the element studies reported at the previous conference and at other meetings, the pilot plant, with a designed capacity of 500 t/d, was constructed and started up in october 1993. After the starting operation with the single smelting reduction furnace in the beginning of the first campaign, the pilot plant has been principally operated in integration, that is, with the smelting reduction furnace connected with the preheating and prereduction furnaces. So far five campaigns have been successfully conducted on schedule. The operation has been improved gradually and the designed performance has been achieved. New processes are targeted at the direct use of coal and iron ore fines to eliminate not only the problematic coke ovens but also pellet and sinter plants. The direct smelting reduction processes currently at the most advanced stage of development are the DIOS in Japan, the AISI in the USA and the HIsmelt in Australia.

  11. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  12. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  13. Analyses of high-level radioactive glasses and sludges at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Dewberry, R.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable analyses of high level radioactive glass and sludge are necessary for successful operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility will convert the radioactive waste sludges at SRS into durable borosilicate glasses for final disposal in a geologic repository. Analyses that are crucial to DWPF operation and repository acceptance of the glass are measurement of the radioactive and nonradioactive composition of the waste sludges and final glasses and measurement of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in a vitrified sample of melter feed. These measurements are based on the remote dissolutions of the glass and sludge followed by appropriate chemical analyses. Glasses are dissolved by a peroxide fusion method and a method using HF, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and HCl acids where the solutions are heated in a microwave oven. The resulting solutions are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for nonradioactive elements and appropriate counting techniques for radioactive elements. Results for two radioactive glasses containing actual radioactive waste are also presented. Sludges are dissolved by the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} fusion method and an aqua regia method. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Loading of a surface electrode ion trap from a remote, pre-cooled source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate for the first time the loading of ions into a surface electrode trap (SET) from a remote, laser-cooled source of neutral atoms. We first cool and load $\\sim$ $10^6$ neutral $^{88}$Sr atoms into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) from an oven that has no line-of-sight with the SET. The cold atoms are then pushed with a resonant laser into the trap region where they are subsequently photoionized and trapped in an SET operated at a cryogenic temperature of 4.6 K. We present studies of the loading process and show that our technique achieves ion loading into a shallow (15 meV depth) trap at rates as high as 125 ions/s while drastically reducing the amount of deposition of metal on the trap surface as compared with direct loading from a hot vapor. Furthermore, we note that due to multiple stages of isotopic filtering in our loading process, this technique has enhanced isotopic selectivity over other loading methods. Rapid loading from a clean, isotopically pure, and pre-cooled source will potentially enab...

  15. A New Rb Lamp Exciter Circuit for Rb atomic clocks and Studies on Transition from Ring to Red mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savita Singh; Bikash Ghosal; G M Saxena

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe the development of novel RF exciter circuit for electrode less Rb lamp. The lamp exciter circuit is a RF oscillator with a a new configuration operating at 60 to 65 MHz frequency with 3 to 4 watt power. The Rb lamp is used in exciting the ground state hyperfine transitions in Rb atom in a glass cell placed inside a tuned microwave cavity, As the frequency of these hyperfine transitions is very stable it is used in the development of Rb atomic clock by phase locking the oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO) to this atomic transition frequency. The details of the Rb lamp exciter are presented in the paper.The Lamp is ideally operated in ring mode as in this mode the linewidth is narrow and there is no self reversal. However, high temperature and RF excitation power may drive the Rb lamp to red mode which gives rise to line broadening and self reversal. It is the experience that mode change from ring to red deteriorates the atomic signal strength and S/N. In this paper the reasons of mode change are also discussed.

  16. Benefits of solvent extracted pitch in the densification of carbon-carbon composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.F. [Fiber Materials, Inc., Biddeford, ME (United States); Stiller, A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As new commercial/industrial applications for carbon-carbon develop, it is necessary to adjust the matrix to the needs of the application, and reduce the cost of carbon-carbon. In addition, the environmental impact of current pitch production has resulted in the closing of coke ovens, and the loss of sources of raw material. To over come these problems, a new source of pitch is being developed utilizing a unique process involving the solvent extraction of coal. This process, developed at West Virginia University, has resulted in a number of pitch materials which are currently undergoing studies to determine the feasibility of their use in carbon-carbon composites. Work to date has centered on comparison of the microstructure of coked samples of the new pitches with those of currently used coal tar and petroleum pitches. Because of the ability to vary process parameters, it is possible to very closely replicate the microstructure of a typical carbon-carbon composites using solvent extracted pitch. Additional work will completely characterize the new materials to ensure they have similar properties as currently used pitches. Future work will alter and improve the properties of solvent extracted pitch to produce composites with special properties and at lower cost.

  17. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Param H. (Milpitas, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  18. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  19. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andr& #233

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer?s production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  20. Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saheb, Yamina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After implementing several energy efficiency standards and labels (30 products covered by MEPS, 50 products covered by voluntary labels and 19 products by mandatory labels), the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) is now implementing verification and compliance mechanism to ensure that the energy information of labeled products comply with the requirements of their labels. CNIS is doing so by organizing check testing on a random basis for room air-conditioners, refrigerators, motors, heaters, computer displays, ovens, and self -ballasted lamps. The purpose of the check testing is to understand the implementation of the Chinese labeling scheme and help local authorities establishing effective compliance mechanisms. In addition, to ensure robustness and consistency of testing results, CNIS has coordinated a round robin testing for room air conditioners. Eight laboratories (Chinese (6), Australian (1) and Japanese (1)) have been involved in the round robin testing and tests were performed on four sets of samples selected from manufacturer's production line. This paper describes the methodology used in undertaking both check and round robin testing, provides analysis of testing results and reports on the findings. The analysis of both check and round robin testing demonstrated the benefits of a regularized verification and monitoring system for both laboratories and products such as (i) identifying the possible deviations between laboratories to correct them, (ii) improving the quality of testing facilities, (iii) ensuring the accuracy and reliability of energy label information in order to strength the social credibility of the labeling program and the enforcement mechanism in place.

  1. What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds (492nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael [BNL Environmental Sciences

    2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Some clouds look like cotton balls and others like anvils. Some bring rain, some snow and sleet, and others, just shade. But, whether big and billowy or dark and stormy, clouds affect far more than the weather each day. Armed with measurements of clouds’ updrafts and downdrafts—which resemble airflow in a convection oven—and many other atmospheric interactions, scientists from Brookhaven Lab and other institutions around the world are developing models that are crucial for understanding Earth’s climate and forecasting future climate change. During his lecture, Dr. Jensen provides an overview of the importance of clouds in the Earth’s climate system before explaining how convective clouds form, grow, and dissipate. His discussion includes findings from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a major collaborative experiment between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA scientists to document precipitation, clouds, winds, and moisture in 3-D for a holistic view of convective clouds and their environment.

  2. Titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition and a process for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  3. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to aobut 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  4. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness. No Drawings

  5. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Stricker, J.A. [Polk County Extension Office, Bartow, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  8. A solar photovoltaic power system for use in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, L.L.; Merolla, A.; Colozza, A.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar photovoltaic power system was designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA/NSF Antarctic Space Analog Program. The system was installed at a remote field camp at Lake Hoare in the Dry Valleys, and provided a six-person field team with electrical power for personal computers and printers, lab equipment, lighting, and a small microwave oven. The system consists of three silicon photovoltaic sub-arrays delivering a total of 1.5 kWe peak power, three lead-acid gel battery modules supplying 2.4 kWh, and an electrical distribution system which delivers 120 Vac and 12 Vdc to the user. The system was modularized for ease of deployment and operation. Previously the camp has been powered by diesel generators, which have proven to be both noisy and polluting. The NSF, in an effort to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel from both an environmental and cost standpoint, is interested in the use of alternate forms of energy, such as solar power. Such a power system also will provide NASA with important data on system level deployment and operation in a remote location by a minimally trained crew, as well as validate initial integration concepts.

  9. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitating commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (4) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on three main activities: Continuation of design of the coking reactor; Raising funds from the private sector; and Detailed analysis of the tests conducted in Alliance, Ohio. The design of the reactor work centered on the provision for the capability to inspect and maintain the internals of the reactor. The activities relating to raising funds from the steel industry have been fruitful. Bethlehem Steel has agreed to contribute funds. The collected data from the tests at Alliance were analyzed and a detailed report was completed and presented to the International Iron & Steel Institute by invitation.

  10. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  12. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  13. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  14. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  15. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the total amount of Hg passing through the filter as well as the percentages of elemental and oxidized Hg collected. Results indicated that substantial amounts of Hg oxidation did not occur with either fly ash, regardless of the temperature used for testing. When oxidation was observed, the magnitude of the oxidation was comparable between the two fly ashes. These results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important than the ash components with respect to the distribution of Hg species observed in gaseous effluents at coal-fired power plants.

  16. Energy and materials savings from gases and solid waste recovery in the iron and steel industry in Brazil: An industrial ecology approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to investigate, from an entropic point of view, the role of selected technologies in the production, transformation, consumption and release of energy and materials in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. In a quantitative analysis, the potential for energy and materials savings with recovery of heat, gases and tar are evaluated for the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil. The technologies for heat recovery of gases include Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), applied only in one of the five Brazilian coke integrated steel plants, Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbines (TPRT), recovery of Coke Oven Gas (COG), recovery of Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), recovery of BOF gas, recovery of tar, and thermal plant. Results indicate that, in a technical scenario, some 5.1 TWh of electricity can be generated if these technologies are applied to recover these remaining secondary fuels in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil, which is equivalent to some 45% of current total electricity consumption in the integrated plants in the country. Finally, solid waste control technologies, including options available for collection and treatment, are discussed. Estimates using the best practice methodology show that solid waste generation in the Iron and Steel Industry in Brazil reached approximately 18 million metric tons in 1994, of which 28% can be recirculated if the best practice available in the country is applied thoroughly.

  17. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  18. Calderon cokemaking process/demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (1) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (2) providing proof that such a process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (3) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (4) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (5) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Drafting of Contracts among the Stakeholders of the Team, Completion and Delivery of Proposal for Phase 2 Permitting and Environmental Work Engineering Progress Preparation of Final Report for Phase 1 DCAA Audit Funding for Phase 2.

  19. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; (iv) conducting a blast furnace test to demonstrate the compatibility of the coke produced; and (v) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter continued to be focused on the following: Concluding the Negotiation and completing Contracts among Stakeholders of the Team; Revision of Final Report for Phase I; Engineering Design Progress; Selection of Systems Associates, Inc. for design of Control System; Conclusion of Secrecy Agreement with Carborundum (St. Gobain); and Permitting Work and Revisions.

  20. Magnetic Phase Development of Iron Oxide-SiO{sub 2} Aerogel and Xerogel Prepared using Rice Husk Ash as Precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maamur, K. N.; Jais, U. S.; Yahya, S. Y. S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is aimed to produce iron incorporated silica aerogel and xerogel from rice husk ash. Two sol--gel chemistry routes have been used to synthesize both samples. Iron in the form of hydrated iron nitrate with compositions in the range of 3-17 wt%(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}+SiO{sub 2}) were used as iron source. For aerogel samples, iron was added at the solution level whereas for xerogel samples, iron was added after the gelation. The synthesis of iron doped aerogel was done by supercritical drying at temperature about 250 deg. C and pressure of about 5.9 MPa (850 psi) while xerogel was formed by drying the aquagel in an oven at 110 deg. C for 24 hours. The iron doped aerogel and xerogel composites were further heated to various temperatures to obtain the magnetic phase. Results show that the only sample that signifies the presence of maghemite (gamma-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is the aerogel sample doped with 7.3 wt% iron at temperature 1100 deg. C while other samples show the presence of magnetite.

  1. Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150Ľm thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

  2. Instrumentation and Equipment for Three Independent Research Labs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darlene Roth

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Completed in 2011, Albright's new Science Center includes three independent student and faculty research labs in Biology, Chemistry/Biochemistry, and Physics (separate from teaching labs). Providing independent research facilities, they eliminate disruptions in classrooms and teaching labs, encourage and accommodate increased student interest, and stimulate advanced research. The DOE grant of $369,943 enabled Albright to equip these advanced labs for 21st century science research, with much instrumentation shared among departments. The specialty labs will enable Albright to expand its student-faculty research program to meet growing interest, help attract superior science students, maximize faculty expertise, and continue exceeding its already high rates of acceptance for students applying for postgraduate education or pharmaceutical research positions. Biology instrumentation/equipment supports coursework and independent and collaborative research by students and faculty. The digital shaker, CO{sub 2} and water bath incubators (for controlled cell growth), balance, and micropipettes support cellular biology research in the advanced cell biology course and student-faculty research into heavy metal induction of heat shock proteins in cultured mammalian cells and the development of PCR markers from different populations of the native tree, Franklinia. The gravity convection oven and lyophilizer support research into physical and chemical analysis of floodplain sediments used in assessment of riparian restoration efforts. The Bio-Rad thermocycler permits fast and accurate DNA amplification as part of research into genetic diversity in small mammal populations and how those populations are affected by land-use practices and environmental management. The Millipore water deionizing system and glassware washer provide general support of the independent research lab and ensure quality control of coursework and interdisciplinary research at the intersection of biology, chemistry, and toxicology. Grant purchases support faculty and students working in the areas of plant cellular biology, landscape ecology and wildlife management, wetland restoration, and ecotoxicology of aquatic invertebrates. Chemistry/BioChemistry instrumentation supports a wide range of research and teaching needs. The Dell quad core Xeon processors and Gaussian 09 support computational research efforts of two of our faculty. The computational work of one of these groups is part of close collaboration with one organic chemist and provides support info for the synthetic work of this professor and his students. Computational chemistry studies were also introduced into the physical chemistry laboratory course for junior chemistry concentrators. The AKTA plus system and superdex columns, Thermoscientific Sorvall RC-6 plus superspeed centrifuge, Nanodrop spectrometer, Eppendorf microfuge, Homogenizer and Pipetman pipetters were incorporated into a research project involving purification and characterization of a construct of beta 2-microglobulin by one of our biochemists. The vacuum system (glove box, stand, and pump) makes a significant contribution to the research of our inorganic chemist, the newest department member, working on research projects with four students. The glove box provides the means to carry out their synthetic work in an oxygenless atmosphere. Supporting basic research pursued by faculty and students, the remaining items (refrigerator/freezer units for flammable storage, freezer, refrigerated water bath, rotary evaporator system, vacuum oven, analytical and top-loading balances) were distributed between our biochemistry and chemistry research labs. The Nanodrop spectrometer, Sorvall centrifuge, and rotary evaporator system are used in several junior/senior lab courses in both biochemistry and chemistry. To date, 14 undergraduate research students have been involved in projects using the new instrumentation and equipment provided by this grant. Physics equipment acquired is radically transforming Albright research and teaching capabilities. The tw

  3. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  4. Correlation for the total sulfur content in char after devolatilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilije Manovic; Borislav Grubor [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro)

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall process of coal combustion takes place in two successive steps: devolatilization and char combustion. The fate of sulfur during the devolatilization of coal of different rank was investigated. The significance of the investigation is in fact that a major part of sulfur release occurs during devolatilization of coal, (i.e., emission of sulfur oxides during combustion of coal largely depends on sulfur release during devolatilization). The experimental investigations were conducted to obtain the data about the quantitative relation between sulfur content in the coal and sulfur content in the char. Standard procedures were used for obtaining the chars in a laboratory oven and determining the sulfur forms in the coal and char samples. The experiments were done with ground coal samples ({lt}0.2 mm), at the temperatures in the range of 500-1000{sup o}C. We showed that the amount of sulfur remaining in the char decreases, but not significantly in the temperature range 600-900{sup o}C. On the basis of the theoretical consideration of behavior of sulfur forms during devolatilization, certain simplifying assumptions, and obtained experimental data, we propose two correlations to associate the content of sulfur in the coal and in the char. The correlations are based on the results of the proximate analysis and sulfur forms in coal. Good agreement was found when the proposed correlations were compared with the experimental results obtained for investigated coals. Moreover, the correlations were verified by results found in the literature for numerous Polish, Albanian, and Turkish coals. Significant correlations (P {lt}0.05) between observed and calculated data with correlation coefficient, R {gt}0.9, were noticed in the case of all coals. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted by Western Research Institute (WRI). The ESO residue, have a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{lg_bullet}s at 60{degree}C (140{degree}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, ASD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, which are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a siliceous Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquettes. The rheological analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respective blends indicate that the samples satisfy the rutting requirement. However, the aging indexes for the rolling thin film oven (RTFO)-aged and RTFO/pressure aging vessel (PAV)-aged samples indicate that the blends are stiffer than the petroleum-derived asphalts. This means that when in service the blends will be more prone to pavement embrittlement and fatigue cracking than the petroleum-derived asphalts. Infrared analyses were also conducted on the three petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends before and after RTFO/PAV aging. In general, upon RTFO/PAV aging, the amounts of carbonyls and sulfoxides in the samples increase, indicating that the addition of the ESO residue does not mitigate the chemical aging (oxidation) of the petroleum-derived asphalts. This information correlates with the rheological data and the aging indexes that were calculated for the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends.

  6. The characteristic of carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4} as cathode material for lithium ion battery synthesized by sol-gel process in one step heating and varied pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triwibowo, J., E-mail: joko.triwibowo@lipi.go.id [Research Center for Physics LIPI, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong (Indonesia); Yuniarti, E.; Suharyadi, E. [Gadjah Mada University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has been done on the synthesis of carbon coated LiFePO{sub 4} through sol-gel process. Carbon layer serves for improving electronic conductivity, while the variation of pH in the sol-gel process is intended to obtain the morphology of the material that may improve battery performance. LiFePO{sub 4}/C precursors are Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and citric acid. In the synthesis process, consisting of a colloidal suspension FeC{sub 2}O{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O and distilled water mixed with a colloidal suspension consisting of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and distilled water. Variations addition of citric acid is used to control the pH of the gel formed by mixing two colloidal suspensions. Sol in this study had a pH of 5, 5.4 and 5.8. The obtained wet gel is further dried in the oven and then sintered at a temperature 700°C for 10 hours. The resulting material is further characterized by XRD to determine the phases formed. The resulting powder morphology is observed through SEM. Specific surface area of the powder was tested by BET, while the electronic conductivity characterized with EIS.

  7. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  9. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Full Range of Saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to capillary forces only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified with six datasets from the literature. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but under-estimate the conductivity while the extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  10. Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, M.J.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Hast, C.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; /Southern California U.

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to {approx}20{micro}m long and focused to {approx}10{micro}m wide. The intense fields of the FACET bunches will be used to field ionize neutral lithium or cesium vapor produced in a heat pipe oven. Previous experiments at the SLAC FFTB facility demonstrated 50GeV/m gradients in an 85cm field ionized lithium plasma where the interaction distance was limited by head erosion. Simulations indicate the lower ionization potential of cesium will decrease the rate of head erosion and increase single stage performance. The initial experimental program will compare the performance of lithium and cesium plasma sources with single and double bunches. Later experiments will investigate improved performance with a pre-ionized cesium plasma. The status of the experiments and expected performance are reviewed. The FACET Facility is being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The facility will begin commissioning in summer 2011 and conduct an experimental program over the coming five years to study electron and positron beam driven plasma acceleration with strong wake loading in the non-linear regime. The FACET experiments aim to demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of electron and positron beams with high efficiency and negligible emittance growth.

  11. Effect of Thick Film Firing Conditions on the Solderability and Structure of Au-Pt-Pd Conductor for Low-Temperature, Co-Fired Ceramic Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, C.L; Vianco, P.T.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature, co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are the substrate material-of-choice for a growing number of multi-chip module (MCM) applications. Unlike the longer-standing hybrid microcircuit technology based upon alumina substrates, the manufacturability and reliability of thick film solder joints on LTCC substrates have not been widely studied. An investigation was undertaken to fully characterize such solder joints. A surface mount test vehicle with Daisy chain electrical connections was designed and built with Dupont{trademark} 951 tape. The Dupont{trademark} 4569 thick film ink (Au76-Pt21 -Pd3 wt.%) was used to establish the surface conductor pattern. The conductor pattern was fired onto the LTCC substrate in a matrix of process conditions that included: (1) double versus triple prints, (2) dielectric frame versus no frame, and (3) three firing temperatures (800 C, 875 C and 950 C). Pads were examined from the test vehicles. The porosity of the thick film layers was measured using quantitative image analysis in both the transverse and short transverse directions. A significant dependence on firing temperature was recorded for porosity. Solder paste comprised of Sn63-Pb37 powder with an RMA flux was screen printed onto the circuit boards. The appropriate components, which included chip capacitors of sizes 0805 up to 2225 and 50 mil pitch, leadless ceramic chip carriers having sizes of 16 I/O to 68 I/O, were then placed on the circuit boards. The test vehicles were oven reflowed under a N{sub 2} atmosphere. The solderability of the thick film pads was also observed to be sensitive to the firing conditions. Solderability appeared to degrade by the added processing steps needed for the triple print and dielectric window depositions. However, the primary factor in solderability was the firing temperature. Solderability was poorer when the firing temperature was higher.

  12. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  13. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto, E-mail: soares@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues, E-mail: finotti@ens.ufsc.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson, E-mail: vamilson@epagri.sc.gov.br [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); EPAGRI, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1347, Itacorubi, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina 88034-901 (Brazil); Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F., E-mail: alvarenga.raf@gmail.com [Department of Sanitary Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Campus Universitario, Centro Tecnologico, Trindade, PO Box 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Ghent University, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure Links 653/9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  14. Two-Factor Model of Soil Suction from Capillarity, Shrinkage, Adsorbed Film, and Intra-aggregate Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Y. Chertkov

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to derive the soil water retention from the soil structure without curve-fitting and only using the physical parameters found irrespective of an experimental retention curve. Two key points underlie the work: (i) the soil suction at drying coincides with that of the soil intra-aggregate matrix and contributive clay; and (ii) both the soil suction and volume shrinkage at drying depend on the same soil water content. In addition the two following results are used: (i) the available two-factor (capillarity and shrinkage) model of clay suction enables one to connect a clay suction and clay water content using the clay matrix structure; and (ii) the recent reference shrinkage curve model based on the concepts of intra-aggregate soil structure permits one to connect the soil water content at shrinkage with the water content of the contributive clay. With that the available two-factor model was essentially modified and, in particular, the effect of adsorbed water film was taken into account. The developed model includes the following input parameters: the solid density, relative volume of contributive-clay solids, relative volume of contributive clay in the oven-dried state, soil clay content, aggregate/intra-aggregate mass ratio, and specific volume of lacunar pores in the aggregates at maximum swelling. The validation of the model is based on available data of water retention and the above input parameters for six soils. A promising agreement between the predicted and observed water retention curves was found.

  15. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  16. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, L.R. (Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States)); Hogsett, R.F. (AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)); Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  17. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  18. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  19. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.