Sample records for outsmarting flu viruses

  1. avian flu virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among water McCracken, Kevin G. 14 Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  2. A Guide For Parents FLU INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Peter

    viruses spread mainly by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. These droplets can land of the flu? Symptoms of flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache

  3. What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    What is the flu? Influenza, "the flu" is a contagious respiratory infection caused by the influenza medications are used. How is flu spread? The influenza virus is very contagious and is spread by respiratory

  4. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  5. 83www.acschemicalbiology.org VOL.3 NO.2 ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY In the hopes of avoiding a pandemic in humans by the deadly bird flu virus, intense efforts to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasisekharan, Ram

    in humans by the deadly bird flu virus, intense efforts to determine the molecular features responsible for species-specific infection are underway. A key step in the process by which influenza A viruses infect on the surface of host epithelial cells. Now, Chandrasekaran et al. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2008, 26, 107-113) report

  6. Everyday Preventive Actions That Can Help Fight Germs, Like Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    spread? Flu viruses are thought to spread mainly from person to person through the coughing, sneezing and mouth with a tissuey when you cough or sneeze. This will block the spread of droplets from your mouth

  7. BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BE A FLU FIGHTER! 2014 Seasonal Flu Shot Clinics Have Health Coverage Through Mason? Free Seasonal... COVA CARE (Anthem), COVA HealthAware (Aetna) and COVA HDHP (Anthem) On-Site Winter Wellness Clinic Thursday, October 9, 2014 On-Site Faculty-Staff Enrichment Day Clinic, Tuesday, December 2, 2014

  8. Swine Influenza (swine flu) Fact Sheet What is swine flu?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Stephen L.

    that the child does not want to be held · Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough your health: #12;· Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. · Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough

  9. Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Nabil A. NIMER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the lungs #12;H1N1 Seasonal flu/swine flu Spreads easily through coughing and sneezing Less severe

  10. attacks avian flu: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from wild waterfowl Tipple, Brett 14 Free Flu Vaccinations protect yourself and your family Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Free Flu Vaccinations protect...

  11. avian flu vaccine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Free Flu Vaccinations protect yourself and your family Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Free Flu Vaccinations protect...

  12. avian flu update: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from wild waterfowl Tipple, Brett 15 Free Flu Vaccinations protect yourself and your family Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Free Flu Vaccinations protect...

  13. Nucleoprotein of influenza B virus binds to its type A counterpart and disrupts influenza A viral polymerase complex formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaru-ampornpan, Peera, E-mail: peera.jar@biotec.or.th; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Wanitchang, Asawin; Jongkaewwattana, Anan, E-mail: anan.jon@biotec.or.th

    2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •FluB nucleoprotein (BNP) can bind to FluA nucleoprotein (ANP). •BNP–ANP interaction inhibits FluA polymerase activity. •BNP binding prevents ANP from forming a functional FluA polymerase complex. •Nuclear localization of BNP is necessary for FluA polymerase inhibition. •Viral RNA is not required for the BNP–ANP interaction. -- Abstract: Upon co-infection with influenza B virus (FluB), influenza A virus (FluA) replication is substantially impaired. Previously, we have shown that the nucleoprotein of FluB (BNP) can inhibit FluA polymerase machinery, retarding the growth of FluA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this inhibitory action awaited further investigation. Here, we provide evidence that BNP hinders the proper formation of FluA polymerase complex by competitively binding to the nucleoprotein of FluA. To exert this inhibitory effect, BNP must be localized in the nucleus. The interaction does not require the presence of the viral RNA but needs an intact BNP RNA-binding motif. The results highlight the novel role of BNP as an anti-influenza A viral agent and provide insights into the mechanism of intertypic interference.

  14. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggle, Peter J.

    varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

  15. INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    INFLUENZA 101 Symptoms of the flu Sudden onset of fever/chills, coughing, muscle aches, headache · Stay home and limit contact with others until coughing and/or sneezing subside (usually · If having difficulty breathing doing ordinary things, or are coughing up blood · If not improving by the end

  16. Pandemic Flu: What To Know and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    cough or sneeze Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it Ifor sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. If a tissue is unavailable, cough or sneeze into your shoulder or elbow instead sick children at home. ­ If you have flu-like symptoms (fever with cough or sore throat), stay home

  17. FLU ALERT SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT Spring 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    : Dry Cough Nasal Congestion Sore Throat THE BEST TREATMENT FOR THE FLU IS ­ Rest! Cough syrup if coughing interferes with sleep You are most contagious from the day before your symptoms begin, through the period of prominent symptoms. Symptoms usually last a week, but coughing can persist

  18. H1N1 (swine flu) Information for Students, Faculty & Staff There have been confirmed H1N1 cases and a death in Tennessee. The Center for Disease Control (CDC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States, in the United States, on average 36,000 people die from flu-related complications and more than 200,000 people and a death in Tennessee. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) reports that H1N1 is contagious

  19. September 2007 Influenza (Flu) Immunization: Myths and Facts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or flu shot, is the best protection against illness and complications. Many people use the term the `flu serious illness and even death for people with certain chronic health concerns. The influenza vaccine in BC, hundreds of people die from influenza or complications, such as pneumonia. Influenza in people 65

  20. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! (2010-2011) GET THE FLU VACCINE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    is ok) 5. Cough syrup (similar to Robitussin DM, generic is ok) 6. Tissues Students can purchase a "Flu, hand sanitizer, acetaminophen, cough syrup, and throat lozenges. You may also purchase the items above, cough, sore throat, and body aches. · Most individuals who get the flu who do not have a high risk

  1. Battling bird flu by the numbers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BESFor Users LiveBattling bird flu

  2. Dear CSU students, faculty and staff, There has been a lot of attention recently paid to the severity of this flu season and the importance of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    OF YOURSELF OR SOMEONE ELSE WITH THE FLU: Flu symptoms are fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose

  3. Avian Flu Pandemic OCTOBER 1, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    community, it may be only a matter of time before the virus enters the United States. Consistent scenario ­ that of a highly infectious and fatal virus entering the United States ­ the plan developed (death rate) · Rate/speed of disease spreading #12;3 · Local public health recommendations to curtail

  4. Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1663 Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy Dark Universe Mysteries WILL NOT NEED TESTING Expanding Nuclear Energy the Right Way GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS AND AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE sense.The Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy

  5. EDUCATION BULLETIN INFLUENZA A (H1N1) VIRUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and respiratory etiquette. These measures are also effective in curtailing the spread of the seasonal flu virus through the MELS Internet application. If the situation were to change, however, this mechanism could of this recommendation will have on pregnant school system employees who are currently on preventive leave because

  6. Pandemic Flu Planning | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTestPhysics Lab PPPLEIA-815, Monthly BulkPandemic Flu

  7. City of Chicago won't sweat the flu with Argonne's help | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    track city agencies' responses. After carefully planning out the spread of the "flu attack," they launched the scenario. Over a three-day period, at specific points, they fed...

  8. Students experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    Students experiencing flu-like symptoms, such as fever with cough and/or sore throat, should other difficulty breathing beyond a typical cough. Inform Undergraduates: Notify the director

  9. What can you do to protect yourself and others against Flu?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    respiratory and hand hygiene: Always carry tissues. Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing Lack of appetite o Coughing o Sore throat o Some people with swine flu have also reported having

  10. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combined effects could allow the Viet04 virus to escape entrapment by mucins in the lungs and increase binding to susceptible human epithelial cells. These mutations therefore...

  11. Find may yield flu early warning -The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasisekharan, Ram

    underway before they realize it, unless they can develop an early warning system to detect when the germFind may yield flu early warning - The Boston Globe THIS STORY HAS BEEN FORMATTED FOR EASY PRINTING Find may yield flu early warning By Stephen Smith, Globe Staff | January 7, 2008 For a decade, disease

  12. What can you do to stop the flu? Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Peter

    What can you do to stop the flu? · Cover your cough! Help stop the spread of germs by covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze with a tissue or with your upper sleeve. · Wash your hands surfaces. · Flu symptoms include: - Fever - Extreme tiredness - Headache - Cough - Muscle aches - Runny

  13. What is Pandemic Influenza? A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic occurs when a new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the country and around the world in very short time. It is difficult to predict when the next influenza? Development of a vaccine for the H5N1 flu began shortly after the strain was detected. It appears. These medicines also may be effective in treating the current H1N1 flu. #12;The U.S. and State governments have

  14. HelenPilcher,London An avian flu virus is mutating and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    an unspecified period of time through the auction of radio spectrum that is currently used for television broad that, if elected, he would lift Pre

  15. What are the symptoms of flu? Symptoms include sudden onset of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Randy

    What are the symptoms of flu? · Symptoms include sudden onset of: o fever/chills o cough o muscle lasting 5 or more days (measured with a thermometer; 37.0 Celsius is normal) · Coughing up blood that improve but then return with fever and worse cough Those in high risk groups including pregnant women

  16. Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swarup, Samarth

    Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu a policy that encourages healthy behaviors (such as covering your cough and using hand sanitizers) at four coughs, minimizing contact with potential fomites) at major tourist locations. We use a synthetic

  17. Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinkmann, Peter

    with severe illness like difficulty breathing AND YOU HAVE Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat YOU SHOULD Stay home until you. The illness can cause fever, cough, sore throat, tiredness, aches, chills and stuffy nose. H1N1 flu spreads

  18. PREPARE NOW TO BEAT THE FLU! Updated for 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    is ok) 5. Cough syrup (similar to Robitussin DM, generic is ok) 6. Tissues 7. Contact numbers: Primary sanitizer, acetaminophen, cough syrup, and throat lozenges. These are also located at the Sandburg Emporium include: Fever over 100 degrees F, cough, sore throat, and body aches. · Most individuals who get the flu

  19. Worried about H1N1 SWINE FLU? What you should do.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    with severe illness like difficulty breathing AND YOU HAVE Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat Fever (100.4) plus cough or sore throat YOU SHOULD Stay home until you fever, cough, sore throat, tiredness, aches, chills and stuffy nose. H1N1 flu spreads when a sick person

  20. FluCaP: A Heuristic Search Planner for First-Order MDPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoelldobler, S; Skvortsova, O; 10.1613/jair.1965

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a heuristic search algorithm for solving first-order Markov Decision Processes (FOMDPs). Our approach combines first-order state abstraction that avoids evaluating states individually, and heuristic search that avoids evaluating all states. Firstly, in contrast to existing systems, which start with propositionalizing the FOMDP and then perform state abstraction on its propositionalized version we apply state abstraction directly on the FOMDP avoiding propositionalization. This kind of abstraction is referred to as first-order state abstraction. Secondly, guided by an admissible heuristic, the search is restricted to those states that are reachable from the initial state. We demonstrate the usefulness of the above techniques for solving FOMDPs with a system, referred to as FluCaP (formerly, FCPlanner), that entered the probabilistic track of the 2004 International Planning Competition (IPC2004) and demonstrated an advantage over other planners on the problems represented in first-order terms.

  1. INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (also called Swine Flu) is caused

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    to person through coughing, sneezing, and sometimes through touching objects contaminated with the virus. Signs of 2009 H1N1 can include: · Fatigue ·Fever ·Sore Throat · Muscle Aches · Chills ·Coughing

  2. INFLUENZAVACCINE 2009 H1N1 influenza (sometimes called Swine Flu) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    from person to person through coughing, sneezing, and sometimes through touching objects contaminated with the virus. Signs of 2009 H1N1 can include: · Fatigue ·Fever ·Sore Throat · Muscle Aches · Chills ·Coughing

  3. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urges you to take the following steps to protect yourself and others from influenza (the flu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    , cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people may also://WWW.FLU.GOV or call 800-CDC-INFO ·Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue-LIKE SYMPTOMS INCLUDE: fever cough sorethroat runnyorstuffynose bodyaches headache chills fatigue Some people

  4. http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    , warmer than average temperatures in the Atlantic and Mediterranean ­ all pumping heat into the atmosphere_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000 Monday 05.03.2007 Climate warning resonates in Switzerland weather heralded a bumper year for bugs and ticks. He said a cold snap in February or March would still

  5. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  6. Overview Gaming SciTech Fun BizWorld Downloads Mobile Minigames Search text in Everything Go!Submit News | RSS Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    Of Bird Flu Virus Superconductivity 'gridlock' Is Explained Cause Of Supervolcano Eruption Determined

  7. Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Robert J.

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan Benjamin J. Briggs, Barry Atkinson, Donna M. Czechowski-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously

  8. NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY he emergence of the highly pathogenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    's Gen- Bank database. Six months later, the sequences of 150 human H3N2 isolates had been deter- mined and made available. Information now deposited in GenBank from various sources includes sequences of 110 in the generation and maintenance of the virus, with migratory birds possibly contributing to the spread

  9. Generating electricity from viruses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  10. Generating electricity from viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  11. Winter Infections: Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    spread? Sick person can spread influenza by: ­ Touching ­ Sneezing ­ Coughing Picture: newbedfordguide Fever Cough Fatigue (feel "worn out") Headaches Body aches Runny nose #12;Influenza ("Flu") Treatments paralysis) #12;"MythBusters" Reported That: Sneezes can travel ~35 mph Cough/sneeze droplets can travel

  12. CD8? T Cell Response to Influenza Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doty, Daniel, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flu is an extremely prevalent and potentially devastating disease, especially dangerous to the very young, the elderly, and to people with compromised immune systems. Influenza has a characteristic course of infection, ...

  13. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  14. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  15. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  16. DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200800171 "Superbugs Bunny" Outsmarts Our Immune Defense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizet, Victor

    . aureus (MRSA)[2] has exceeded the number of HIV-associated deaths in the US.[3] Bacteria rapidly mutate population and select for re- sistant organisms.[4] Multi-resistant and hyper-virulent microbes such as MRSA have become a physician's nightmare in hospitals and in the community (e.g. CA- MRSA USA300

  17. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  18. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  19. Identification and evaluation of an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorda de Messina, Laura Maria

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    isolate; SH, sugarcane mosa1c virus strain H; H, healthy sorghum sap; SA, sugarcane mosaic virus strain A; SB, sugarcane mosa1c virus strain B; SM, sugarcane mosa1c virus strain M; SD, sugarcane mosaic virus strain D; SI, sugarcane mosaic virus strain..., sugarcane mosaic virus strain I; H, healthy sorghum sap; SA, sugarcane mosaic virus strain A; SB, sugarcane mosaic virus strain 8; SM, sugarcane mosaic virus strain M; SD, sugarcane mosaic virus strain D; SH, sugarcane mosaic virus strain H; RH, Rio...

  20. LOUISIANA GUIDANCE FOR CLINICIANS ON THE NEED FOR MEDICAL EVALUATION, TESTING, AND TREATMENT OF POSSIBLE NOVEL H1N1 "SWINE"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    viruses spread by coughing, sneezing and touching contaminated surfaces. The symptoms of the H1N1 flu virus in people are similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny that the child does not want to be held Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough

  1. Should I Work Today? | Flu Information | DHMC Intranet http://intranet.hitchcock.org/hc/webpage.cfm?site_id=1&org_id=393&morg_id=0&gsec_id=36557&item_id=36570&printable=true[5/13/2013 2:25:34 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Lesions, rashes, and eye conditions may not apply to flu-like illness. COUGH If you have a cough and fever (>100 F or 38 C within the last 24 hours) NO If you have a new (cough, but no fever (, or aspirin) YES, but wear a mask that covers nose and mouth. If you have a prolonged cough of unknown cause

  2. Is It A Cold Or The Flu? Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Usual Sometimes Sore throat Common Sometimes Chest discomfort, cough Mild-moderate, hacking Common, can fever and cough with medicines you can buy at the store. 5. If you get very sick or are pregnant or have

  3. NOVEL INFLUENZA A "SWINE FLU"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegner, Tracy N.

    an infected person sneezes or coughs. People in close (within 3 feet) proximity can become inflected. Steps to protect yourself and others: · Washhandsoftenwithsoapandwater especially after coughs: · Feverof100.4degreesormore · Cough · Bodyaches · Runnynose · Sorethroat · Nausea · Vomiting · Diarrhea

  4. Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tank, David

    on motor and sensory neuron activity. For example, herpes simplex virus type 1 causes herpes labialis-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV with the sensations of numbness and tingling [1]; herpes simplex virus type 2 causes genital herpes

  5. Host-virus interactions in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorensen, George Edwin Peter

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving virus that has significant economic and welfare implications for the pig industry. Vaccination strategies have proved largely ineffective ...

  6. Serology of a cotton virus in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darling, Dale Robert

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the virus through two or more generations of healthy plants by, s. draft transmission from an infected plant, b. mechanical transfer of the sap of infected plants, c. insect transmission of the virus from infected planta, and by 2. serological...) found that inoculations smde with expressed leaf sap of virus-infected cotton to cotton, bean, cowpes, tobacco and hollyhock plants failed to result in symptoms. Approach drafts of diseased to healthy plants of the Empire variety of cotton were smde...

  7. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielian, Margaret [Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: kielian@aecom.yu.edu

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the class II fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Inhibition of the fusion protein refolding reaction confirms its importance in fusion and suggests new antiviral strategies for these medically important viruses.

  8. acquired immunodeficiency virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  9. animal virus replication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  10. aleutian mink disease virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  11. affect virus replication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  12. attenuate virus replication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  13. archaeal viruses unique: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  14. aleutian disease virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  15. arthritis encephalitis virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  16. acquired respiratory virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  17. Recombinant herpes simplex virus useful for treating neoplastic disease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitley, Richard J.; Roizman, Bernard

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Recombinant herpes simplex viruses comprising DNA encoding cytokines and methods for treating neoplastic diseases using the inventive recombinant viruses are disclosed.

  18. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases No More Excuses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    to protect yourself and your family. If you miss getting your flu vaccine in the fall, make it a New Year Vaccine WrongThe flu (influenza) is a contagious disease which affects the lungs and can lead to serious protect against non-flu viruses. · Oryoumighthavebeenexposedtoflu after you got vaccinated but before

  19. Paramyxovirus fusion: Real-time measurement of parainfluenza virus 5 virus-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, Sarah A. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States); Lamb, Robert A. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States) and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States)]. E-mail: ralamb@northwestern.edu

    2006-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Although cell-cell fusion assays are useful surrogate methods for studying virus fusion, differences between cell-cell and virus-cell fusion exist. To examine paramyxovirus fusion in real time, we labeled viruses with fluorescent lipid probes and monitored virus-cell fusion by fluorimetry. Two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) isolates (W3A and SER) and PIV5 containing mutations within the fusion protein (F) were studied. Fusion was specific and temperature-dependent. Compared to many low pH-dependent viruses, the kinetics of PIV5 fusion was slow, approaching completion within several minutes. As predicted from cell-cell fusion assays, virus containing an F protein with an extended cytoplasmic tail (rSV5 F551) had reduced fusion compared to wild-type virus (W3A). In contrast, virus-cell fusion for SER occurred at near wild-type levels, despite the fact that this isolate exhibits a severely reduced cell-cell fusion phenotype. These results support the notion that virus-cell and cell-cell fusion have significant differences.

  20. Review article Molecular biology of fish viruses: a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Molecular biology of fish viruses: a review J Bernard, M Brémont* INRA, laboratoire aspects in the fish virus studies. Although more than 50 different fish virus have been isolated family, the fish lym- phocystis disease virus (FLDV) is the most studied. Retroviridae have been recently

  1. Selecting a path against Hepatitis C Virus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simeon, Rudo Lyndon

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently affects ~5% of the world’s population and has relatively limited treatment options for infected patients. Genetic suppressor elements (GSE) derived from a gene or genome of interest can act as transdominant...

  2. Theiler's virus-induced apoptosis in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayak, Mamatha Somanath

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is classified as a Cardiovirus in the Picornaviridae family. An enteric virus, TMEV, spreads within the mouse population by the fecal-oral route. The neurovirulent GDVII ...

  3. Field studies of virus transport in a heterogeneous sandy aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Jason Robert

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water. Ground water transport models can be used to predict the transport of viruses. However, if current public domain virus transport models are to be used for this purpose, they need to be verified under operating field conditions. To evaluate...

  4. Treatment of tumors with genetically engineered herpes virus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Roizman, Bernard; Whitley, Richard J

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods for treating cancer by administering an effective amount of a modified Herpes simplex virus.

  5. REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory Jérôme LeGoff1* , Hélène Péré2,3 and Laurent Bélec2,3 Abstract Since the type of herpes simplex virus antiviral therapy. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Genital herpes, Diagnosis Introduction Key structure

  6. Review article Pseudorabies virus infections in pigs. Role of viral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Pseudorabies virus infections in pigs. Role of viral proteins in virulence porc. Cet article est une revue de nouveaux résultats concernant les fonctions biologiques des includes the human herpes simplex virus (HSV) types I and 2, vari- cella-zoster virus, bovine herpesvirus

  7. Review article Aujeszky's disease virus: opportunities and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Aujeszky's disease virus: opportunities and challenges Federico A. ZUCKERMANN les réponses immunitaires humorale et cellulaire chez le porc ont été mises en évidence. Cet article infection in swine similar to that of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in man. ADV is a neuroinvasive virus

  8. A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE OF SALMON POSSIBLY OF VIRUS ORIGIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE OF SALMON POSSIBLY OF VIRUS ORIGIN BY R. R. RUCKER, W. J. WHIPPLE, J. R A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE OF SALMON POSSIBLY OF VIRUS ORIGIN By R. R. Rucker, W. J. Whipple, J. R. Parvin and C. A #12;A CONTAGIOUS DISEASE OF SALMON, POSSIBLY OF VIRUS ORIGIN By R. R. Rucker,! Fishery Research

  9. VirusPKT: A Search Tool For Assimilating Assorted Acquaintance For Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manicassamy, Jayanthi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viruses utilize various means to circumvent the immune detection in the biological systems. Several mathematical models have been investigated for the description of viral dynamics in the biological system of human and various other species. One common strategy for evasion and recognition of viruses is, through acquaintance in the systems by means of search engines. In this perspective a search tool have been developed to provide a wider comprehension about the structure and other details on viruses which have been narrated in this paper. This provides an adequate knowledge in evolution and building of viruses, its functions through information extraction from various websites. Apart from this, tool aim to automate the activities associated with it in a self-maintainable, self-sustainable, proactive one which has been evaluated through analysis made and have been discussed in this paper.

  10. PHOTO:MARTINDEE The virus that binds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    mineral extraction." Bacteriophage, commonly called phage, refers to viruses that infect bacteria to use these bio-engineered proteins to separate common economic sulfide minerals from waste during of sulfide mineral separation add detergent-like chemicals called collectors to a tank containing a slurry

  11. Clinical mite infestations of domestic cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and/or feline leukemia viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Christian Eric

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are both immunosuppressive viruses that compromise the ability of a feline host to combat foreign parhogens. Skin infections caused by parasitic mites are often observed among...

  12. Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes virus simplex type -1 infections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    virus simplex type -1 infections Françoise Megret1 , Christophe Prehaud1 , Mireille Lafage1 , Philippe), HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), mAb monoclonal antibody, HCMV ( Human cytomegalovirus) #12 to virus and tumour immune escape. We recently described that the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1

  13. tchen@engr.smu.edu Trends in Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    Tom Chen SMU tchen@engr.smu.edu Trends in Viruses and Worms #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p Super Worms? · Some Research Issues Outline #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p. 3 1979 1983 1988, Mutation Engine Concept macro virus #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p. 4 · 70,000+ viruses are known

  14. A synchronized cell suspension method for growing virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuloaga Guillermo Gerardo

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : g (Hs bar j An@net L9~p'0 ABSTRACT A Synchronized Cell Suspension Method. for Growing Virus. (August 1970) Guillermo Gerardo Zuloaga, Licentiate, Buenos Aires, Argentina; M. S. , Texas ARM University Directed. by: Dr. Stewart Mc...Connell The purpose of this study was to develop tech- niques for growing viruses in a synchronized. suspen- sion cell culture system. Virus replication in such a system should potentially yield a greater quantity of high quality antigen essential for vaccine...

  15. flu preparations Wash your hands, cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    and audiology. Koop currently co-leads the three-year GenomicsinLiceandSalmonprojectusing advanced genomics in Genomics and Molecular Biology. He was also part of the world-wide team of scientists who mapped the human genome. Koop's team is

  16. RESPONDING TO FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    to frequently clean room surfaces. Avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth. Cough or sneeze into your sleeve

  17. PREGNANCY AND SWINE FLU FOR THE Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    of appetite and cough), you should contact your GP as soon as possible and this should be done by phone. Other: · People covering their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, using a tissue when possible. · Disposing

  18. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2o w a r d C o d

  19. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2o w a r d C o

  20. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2o w a r d C

  1. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2o w a r d CToward

  2. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances » TopTours Sign In About |Toward

  3. Berkeley Lab Pandemic Flu Information - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like3.3BenefitsSearch This page

  4. Microsoft Word - 1918flu.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPA /9-1595:UFC649:UFC02/18/14Department7Figure

  5. Better predicting flu outbreaks with Wikipedia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefitsProgramBestmodelBetter

  6. anemia virus infection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    against chicken anemia virus in unvaccinated broilers and broiler breeders in Croatia CiteSeer Summary: The prevalence of antibodies against infectious chicken anemia...

  7. anemia virus isav: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    against chicken anemia virus in unvaccinated broilers and broiler breeders in Croatia CiteSeer Summary: The prevalence of antibodies against infectious chicken anemia...

  8. anemia virus p9: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    against chicken anemia virus in unvaccinated broilers and broiler breeders in Croatia CiteSeer Summary: The prevalence of antibodies against infectious chicken anemia...

  9. anemia virus reveal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    against chicken anemia virus in unvaccinated broilers and broiler breeders in Croatia CiteSeer Summary: The prevalence of antibodies against infectious chicken anemia...

  10. HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIV and evolution studied through computer modeling HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling This approach distinguishes between susceptible and infected...

  11. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Ebola Virus Print A central dogma of molecular biology is that a protein's sequence dictates its fold, and the fold dictates its function. Scientists typically expect...

  12. anti-influenza virus activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  13. adeno-associated virus type: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  14. arthritis-encephalitis virus surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cause diseases with long incubation periods, insidious onsets, and slowly progressive courses (1). The members of the virus group include visna virus of sheep, caprine...

  15. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H., E-mail: CHuang1@cdc.go [Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas [Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Erb, Steven M. [Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M. [Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Blair, Carol D. [Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Roehrig, John T. [Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States)

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  16. Heterosubtypic Immunity to Influenza A Virus Infections in Mallards May Explain Existence of Multiple Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzaro, Brian

    and Integrate Risk Management, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier, France, 3 Karolinska Institutet, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract Wild birds, particularly duck species, are the main reservoir of influenza A virus (IAV) in nature. However, knowledge of IAV infection dynamics in the wild bird reservoir

  17. Mechanisms of virus removal during transport in unsaturated porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Mechanisms of virus removal during transport in unsaturated porous media Yanjie Chu and Yan Jin retention and retardation during transport in unsaturated systems. In this study, bacteriophages X174 and MS at the solid-water interface rather than at the air-water interface dominates in virus removal and transport

  18. Cell Host & Microbe Durable Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Judy

    Cell Host & Microbe Article Durable Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Transmission Following is a problem. Intravaginal administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) lipoplexes targeting Herpes Simplex protection against viral transmission. INTRODUCTION Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) infection causes

  19. Molecular biology study of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Dong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions...

  20. The Pathogenesis of Cache Valley Virus in the Ovine Fetus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Aline

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    demonstrated that after subcutaneous inoculation, the virus replicates in smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and later enter the reticulo-endothelial system with a short 1-3 day viremia. After primary viremia, the viruses cross the blood-brain barrier...

  1. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 Expression on Influenza A Virus Infection Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Fred

    Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 Expression on Influenza A Virus Infection Kinetics Amber M. Smith1 al. (2011) Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 Expression on Influenza A Virus Infection Kinetics. PLoS Comput Biol influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8

  2. The co-chaperone BAG3 regulates Herpes Simplex Virus replication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Symington, Lorraine S.

    The co-chaperone BAG3 regulates Herpes Simplex Virus replication Christos A. Kyratsous and Saul J-chaperone, as a regulator of herpes virus immediate early gene expression. We report that a herpes simplex virus lacking of promyelocytic leukemia to increase herpes simplex virus replication. Hsc70 HSV ICP0 VZV Productive infection

  3. Intracellular transactivation of HIV can account for the decelerating decay of virus load during drug therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    between an activated and latent state results in the typical decelerating decay of virus load following

  4. Aphid Ecology and Epidemiology of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Snap Bean Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nault, Brian

    Aphid Ecology and Epidemiology of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Snap Bean Fields: Implications for Management Aphid Ecology and Epidemiology of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Snap Bean Fields: Implications, NY Updated March 2007Updated March 2007 #12;Snap Bean/ Aphid/ Virus ProjectSnap Bean/ Aphid/ Virus

  5. UHS Health Promotion Office, 110 Anderson Tower, 273-5775 The Monthly InSTALLment November 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    coughing or sneezing, or by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching your mouth or nose suddenly. Flu symptoms include fever (usually high), headache, extreme tiredness, dry cough, sore throat who are sick. If you are sick, stay home from work and school to help protect others. Cover your cough

  6. Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 05/09/2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the flu. What are flu symptoms? Fever (usually 100 degrees or greater) and cough and/or sore throat alcohol-based hand sanitizers after coughing, sneezing and wiping your nose to reduce the spread of the virus. Cover all coughs and sneezes with a disposable tissue and discard immediately into a trash can

  7. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  8. West Nile virus transmission in resident birds, Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komar, Oliver; Robbins, Mark B.; Klenk, Kaci; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Burkhalter, Kristen L.; Gubler, Duane J.; Gonzá lvez, Guillermo; Peñ a, Carlos J.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Komar, Nicholas

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report West Nile virus (WNV) activity in the Dominican Republic for the first time. Specific anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 5 (15%) of 33 resident birds sampled at one location in November 2002. One seropositive bird ...

  9. african virus adapting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    African hosts. Fungal Biology 118: 168-179. www 382 Cowpox Virus in CiteSeer Summary: depression and lethargy, anorexia, and recumbency until death. A short time later, another...

  10. Do viruses use vectors to penetrate mucus barriers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribbeck, Katharina

    I propose a mechanism by which viruses successfully infect new individuals, despite being immotile particles with no ability for directed movement. Within cells, viral particle movements are directed by motors and elements ...

  11. apple mosaic virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite RNA University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: origin and life cycle of viroids and human hepatitis delta virus.origin of the subviral agents in general....

  12. Taxonomy of rigid rod-shaped viruses transmitted by fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Taxonomy of rigid rod-shaped viruses transmitted by fungi Jianping Chen TMA Wilson Scottish Crop genus. taxonomy / transmission / fungi / epidemiology / genome organization Résumé — Taxonomie des représentant 3 sous-genres distincts du genre furovirus. taxonomie / transmission / champignon / épidémiologie

  13. Auxiliary metabolic genes in viruses infecting marine cyanobacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Luke Richard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine viruses shape the diversity and biogeochemical role of their microbial hosts. Cyanophages that infect the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus often carry metabolic genes not found in other bacteriophages. ...

  14. Host/virus interactions in the marine cyanobacterium prochlorococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frois-Moniz, Katya

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacterial viruses shape the diversity, metabolic function, and community dynamics of their microbial hosts. As microbes drive many major biogeochemical cycles, viral infection is therefore a phenomenon of global significance. ...

  15. Nanomachines: How Viruses Work, and How We Can Stop Them

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carolyn Bertozzi

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nature's Nasty Nanomachines: How Viruses Work, and How We Can Stop Them. Carolyn Bertozzi, director of Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry, discusses this topic at a Feb. 21, 2009 Nano*High talk.

  16. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer Print Immortality is not a good thing for cells, and in fact, cells will destroy themselves in a process called...

  17. archaeal virus acidianus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Genomics of bacterial and archaeal virus isolates from extreme aquatic environments. Open...

  18. Structural Rearrangement in Ebola Virus Protein VP40 Creates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Rearrangement in Ebola Virus Protein VP40 Creates Multiple Functions Monday, March 31, 2014 Figure 1. Three structures of VP40. Top, a butterfly-shaped dimer structure...

  19. airborne viruses feasibility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Websites Summary: Modelling the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus F Moutou B Durand CNEVA, Laboratoire Central-and-mouth disease is an economically important viral...

  20. animal virus diseases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Websites Summary: Modelling the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus F Moutou B Durand CNEVA, Laboratoire Central-and-mouth disease is an economically important viral...

  1. african horse sickness virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vectors may carry the virus into AHS-free regions. Some authors speculate that global warming could increase the risk for spread of arthropod-borne diseases such as African horse...

  2. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  3. Is it a Cold or the Flu? -Know the Difference Signs & Symptoms Cold Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Rare Usual; high (100.40 F to 1020 F) is typical; lasts 3-4 days Cough Hacking: mild Dry; can become discomfort Mild to moderate; hacking cough Common Treatment Antihistamines Decongestants Advil® (ibuprofen. Avoid close contact with anyone with a cold. Vaccination. Wash your hands. Cover your cough. Stay

  4. Avoid the Flu Healthy habits and simple actions will help reduce your risk of flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    illnesses. Wash your hands. Use soap and water often, especially after coughing or sneezing. Carry alcohol getting sick. Cover your cough. Use a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It can prevent the spread of germs. If you don't have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your arm above your hand. Don't contaminate. Try

  5. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, Jeffery; Tang, Xiaolin; Landesman, Michael B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States) [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Ruedas, John B. [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States)] [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Ghimire, Anil [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States)] [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Gudheti, Manasa V. [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States) [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Perrault, Jacques [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States)] [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Jorgensen, Erik M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States) [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Gerton, Jordan M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States) [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Utah (United States); Saffarian, Saveez, E-mail: saffarian@physics.utah.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States) [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States)

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter.

  6. Visualization of the African swine fever virus infection in living cells by incorporation into the virus particle of green fluorescent protein-p54 membrane protein chimera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernaez, Bruno [Departamento de Biotecnologia, INIA, Carretera de la Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: hernaez@inia.es; Escribano, Jose M. [Departamento de Biotecnologia, INIA, Carretera de la Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: escriban@inia.es; Alonso, Covadonga [Departamento de Biotecnologia, INIA, Carretera de la Coruna Km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: calonso@inia.es

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Many stages of African swine fever virus infection have not yet been studied in detail. To track the behavior of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the infected cells in real time, we produced an infectious recombinant ASFV (B54GFP-2) that expresses and incorporates into the virus particle a chimera of the p54 envelope protein fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The incorporation of the fusion protein into the virus particle was confirmed immunologically and it was determined that p54-EGFP was fully functional by confirmation that the recombinant virus made normal-sized plaques and presented similar growth curves to the wild-type virus. The tagged virus was visualized as individual fluorescent particles during the first stages of infection and allowed to visualize the infection progression in living cells through the viral life cycle by confocal microscopy. In this work, diverse potential applications of B54GFP-2 to study different aspects of ASFV infection are shown. By using this recombinant virus it was possible to determine the trajectory and speed of intracellular virus movement. Additionally, we have been able to visualize for first time the ASFV factory formation dynamics and the cytophatic effect of the virus in live infected cells. Finally, we have analyzed virus progression along the infection cycle and infected cell death as time-lapse animations.

  7. The role of feline syncytium forming virus in feline immunodeficiency virus-mediated acquired immunodeficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zenger, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and feline syncytium-forming virus (FeSFV) alone and in combination were studied to help define the role of FeSFV as a potentiating cofactor in FIV-mediated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Healthy specific pathogen free (SPF) cats age 9 months... were divided into 2 groups for the first phase of the experiment: 13 cats were experimentally infected with FeSFV and 12 cats served as uninfected controls. Four months following FeSFV inoculation, 7 FeSFV positive and 7 FeSFV negative cats were...

  8. acute neurological symptoms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the common cold or flu, the mumps virus spreads in the air from an infected persons cough or sneeze. A child also can get infected with mumps by coming in contact with an...

  9. ameliorates arthritis symptoms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the common cold or flu, the mumps virus spreads in the air from an infected persons cough or sneeze. A child also can get infected with mumps by coming in contact with an...

  10. affective symptoms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the common cold or flu, the mumps virus spreads in the air from an infected persons cough or sneeze. A child also can get infected with mumps by coming in contact with an...

  11. Platforms for exploring host-pathogen interactions in hepatitis C virus infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trehan, Kartik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Afflicting almost 200 million worldwide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) mounts a chronic infection of liver hepatocytes that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. An understanding of host-virus interactions will drive the ...

  12. The effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different corn hybrids (Zea mays L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lammoglia Villagomez, Agustin

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) on different agronomic and grain quality characteristics of 106 corn hybrids. A randomized split-plot design with 3 replications was used. The virus isolate obtained...

  13. anti-virus papiloma humano: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    writers and anti-virus defenders. The simple computer virus has evolved into more complex stealth Bishop, Matt 70 Guide to Accessing the Osher Online Video Library 1) Visit the...

  14. active epstein-barr virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M2 Proton Channel from Influenza A Virus and a Structural Model for Channel Activation Materials Science Websites Summary: The M2 Proton Channel from Influenza A Virus and a...

  15. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  16. Extensive investigation of reticuloendotheliosis virus in the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohls, Ryan Lanier

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and viral assembly at the plasma membrane of the host cell. It is classified in the gammaretrovirus genera, previously considered the mammalian type C viruses, and includes such viruses as murine leukemia virus (MuLV) and feline leukemia virus (Fe... to be affected (Witter, 2003). Neoplasias induced by REV infection can arise as either acute or chronic manifestations. These two types of neoplasias differ greatly in cause of tumor development, incubation times and tissue types affected (Witter, 2003...

  17. Longitudinal study of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection using viral dynamic modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blower, Sally

    HSV Longitudinal study of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection using viral dynamic modelling of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) change over time and these changes affect transmission and clinical infection that cannot be obtained by other methods. H erpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause

  18. Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Herpes simplex virus MicroRNAs Latency Gene regulation Several herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs are encoded within or near the latency associated transcript (LAT) locus

  19. Architecture of the Herpes Simplex Virus Major Capsid Protein Derived from Structural Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wen

    Architecture of the Herpes Simplex Virus Major Capsid Protein Derived from Structural b sheets in the major capsid protein (VP5, 149 kDa) of herpes simplex virus type 1 were identified 1(A)) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the proto- typical member of the Herpesviridae. Visual

  20. Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Cohort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract Background: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection has) Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Cohort

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B sorting in hippocampal neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danglot, Lydia - Institut Jacques Monod, Université Paris 7

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B sorting in hippocampal neurons Corinne Potel,1 34 Karin´rieure, 75005 Paris, France Received 8 April 2003 Accepted 2 July 2003 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 neurons. INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic and neuroinvasive human

  2. Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular disease Allison L. van Lint, Ernesto Torres-Lopez 1 27 August 2007 Abstract Ocular infections with herpes simplex virus 1 can lead to corneal scarring

  3. Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels Catherine Fe´art1, University of Lille 2, Lille, France, 8 INSERM, U837, Lille, France Abstract Objective: Herpes simplex virus, et al. (2011) Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels. PLo

  4. P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A DIFFICULT DIAGNOSIS Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France Key words: Acute liver failure, Herpes simplex virus:philippe.ichai@pbr.ap-hop-paris.fr Abbreviations: HSV : herpes simplex virus; LT: Liver transplantation; ICU : Intensive Care Unit; APOLT

  5. Final report [FASEB Summer Research Conference ''Virus Assembly''--agenda and attendee list

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feiss, Michael

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The conference brought together researchers working on virus structure and virus assembly in diverse systems. Information was integrated from many viral systems, including plant bacterial and eukaryotic viruses, and many techniques such as biophysical approaches of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and spectroscopy, along with molecular biological and molecular genetic analysis.

  6. Phosphoprotein of Rinderpest Virus Forms a Tetramer Through Coiled Coil Region Important for Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    1 Phosphoprotein of Rinderpest Virus Forms a Tetramer Through Coiled Coil Region Important exists as a tetramer. The tetramer is formed by coiled coil interaction as shown by circular dichroism: Paramyxoviridae, Rinderpest virus, Phosphoprotein, coiled coil, tetramer. INTRODUCTION Rinderpest virus (RPV

  7. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States) [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)] [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States)] [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  8. Reverse Genetics System for Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Kristen

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    the virus has entered the target cell, it begins to translate viral replication proteins and then to copy the genome in order to access the structural genes needed to make progeny virus. The entire replication cycle takes place in the cytoplasm of the host... to the 3? UTR of MHV, it does not provide access to genes upstream of the S gene, leaving only 1/3 of the genome available for analysis (50). The other two thirds of the genome consists of ORF1a and ORF1b, which contain the replicase genes. These genes...

  9. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  10. Dihydropyridines Inhibit Translation and Early Replication of Hepatitis C Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klemashevich, Cory

    2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    sensing domain and it is critical for cellular absorption of cholesterol (98-100). Interestingly the related protein Niemann Pick disease type c1 (NPC1), which has similar function, was recently shown to be critical for both Ebola virus and other...

  11. The Evolution of Viruses and Worms Thomas M. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    1 The Evolution of Viruses and Worms Thomas M. Chen Dept. of Electrical Engineering SMU PO Box 750338 Dallas, TX 75275-0338 USA Tel: 214-768-8541 Fax: 214-768-3573 Email: tchen@engr.smu.edu Jean

  12. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group Photosynthesis genes in marine viruses yield proteins during host­6 probably influences the genetic and functional diversity of both. For example, photosynthesis genes period. We also show that the expression of host photosynthesis genes declines over the course

  13. Evolution of Mutational Robustness in an RNA Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froissart, Rémy

    Evolution of Mutational Robustness in an RNA Virus Rebecca Montville1[ , Remy Froissart1[¤a Evolution de Micro- Organismes, Henri Huchard, Paris, France Mutational (genetic) robustness is phenotypic of evolution because phenotypically expressed genetic variation is the fuel of natural selection. Nonetheless

  14. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Eugene H. Spafford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somayaji, Anil

    withlifeas defined by some researchers inthe area of artificial lifeand self- organizing systems. The paper and experimentation. 1 Introduction There has been considerable interest in computer viruses during the last several can be damaging and malicious in nature. When that happens by accident, we call the code involved

  15. A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourez, Thomas [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France); APHP, GH Saint-Louis-Lariboisiere, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-Virologie, F-75010 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75010 Paris (France); Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France); Cayet, Nadege [Institut Pasteur, Plateforme de Microscopie Ultrastructurale, F-75015 Paris (France); Tangy, Frederic, E-mail: ftangy@pasteur.fr [Unite de Genomique Virale et Vaccination, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, F-75015 Paris (France)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  16. The stochastic entry of enveloped viruses: Fusion vs. endocytosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Chou

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Viral infection requires the binding of receptors on the target cell membrane to glycoproteins, or ``spikes,'' on the viral membrane. The initial entry is usually classified as fusogenic or endocytotic. However, binding of viral spikes to cell surface receptors not only initiates the viral adhesion and the wrapping process necessary for internalization, but can simultaneously initiate direct fusion with the cell membrane. Both fusion and internalization have been observed to be viable pathways for many viruses. We develop a stochastic model for viral entry that incorporates a competition between receptor mediated fusion and endocytosis. The relative probabilities of fusion and endocytosis of a virus particle initially nonspecifically adsorbed on the host cell membrane are computed as functions of receptor concentration, binding strength, and number of spikes. We find different parameter regimes where the entry pathway probabilities can be analytically expressed. Experimental tests of our mechanistic hypotheses are proposed and discussed.

  17. Development of simulation tools for virus shell assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Bonnie

    2001-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Prof. Berger's major areas of research have been in applying computational and mathematical techniques to problems in biology, and more specifically to problems in protein folding and genomics. Significant progress has been made in the following areas relating to virus shell assembly: development has been progressing on a second-generation self-assembly simulator which provides a more versatile and physically realistic model of assembly; simulations are being developed and applied to a variety of problems in virus assembly; and collaborative efforts have continued with experimental biologists to verify and inspire the local rules theory and the simulator. The group has also worked on applications of the techniques developed here to other self-assembling structures in the material and biological sciences. Some of this work has been conducted in conjunction with Dr. Sorin Istrail when he was at Sandia National Labs.

  18. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  19. tchen@engr.smu.edu Viruses and Worms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    Tom Chen SMU tchen@engr.smu.edu Viruses and Worms #12;TC/BUPT/8-7-04 SMU Engineering p. 2 Issues Outline #12;Introduction #12;TC/BUPT/8-7-04 SMU Engineering p. 4 Can one IP packet cripple the Internet in 10 minutes? Many worry it is possible #12;TC/BUPT/8-7-04 SMU Engineering p. 5 one packet - More

  20. Natural and experimental host range of the Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leisy, Ralph Herbert

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in. adjacent to, or in the vicinity of virus infected f'elds were collected for virus assay and for experimental susceptibility studies. Virus assays were (sade by mechanically inoculating suscep- tible host plants with the extracted sap of each... with MDMV, the grasses wh'ch were collected for determination of natural susceptibility and which proved to be free of the virus were grown in isolation and mechanically inocu- lated with the extracted sap of MDfliV (isolate Tx66-BBJg-I) infected AKS 614...

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  2. Attachment and survival of viruses on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.): role of physicochemical and biotic factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega, Everardo

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Enteric viruses are responsible for a significant amount of foodborne disease in the United States. Foodborne disease associated with enteric viruses has been increasing within the last few years due to technological ...

  3. Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Wing-Sham; Fu, Shih-Feng; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie; Carr, John P

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    constitutively expressing a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (MtRDR1). Unexpectedly, Aox-transgenic plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) showed markedly increased susceptibility to systemic disease induction and virus accumulation in inoculated...

  4. IMPRINTED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR BIOIN-SPIRED DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUNZA VIRUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPRINTED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR BIOIN- SPIRED DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUNZA VIRUS USING NANOWIRES for the detection of avian influenza virus. A roll-to-roll im- printed microfluidic device suitable for simple process were integrated to the designed microfluidic chip (Figure 1). Using this system, we developed

  5. VISUALIZING THE SPREAD OF WEST NILE VIRUS Jurgen Symanzik , Utah State University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Symanzik, Jürgen

    was rst recognized in the United States in 1999 as the cause of severe and fatal human illness, there were only a few states in the Western United States where the virus had not been observed. However, indications are that the virus will be observed in every state of the contiguous United States by the end

  6. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Fleming, Elisa H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Davey, Robert A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)]. E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP27 Is Required for Transcription of Two Viral Late ( 2) Genes in Infected Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP27 Is Required for Transcription of Two Viral Late ( 2) Genes in Infected January 18, 2001; accepted March 1, 2001 The herpes simplex virus infected cell protein 27 (ICP27 expression during productive infection by herpes simplex virus 1 is well doc- umented (Clements et al., 1977

  8. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Travis J Taylor, Mark A. Brockman, Elizabeth E. McNamee, and David M. Knipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    D752 HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Travis J Taylor, Mark A. Brockman, Elizabeth E. McNamee, and David M 12. References 1. ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) commonly causes human infections of the infection cycle. 2. INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen, causing infections

  9. Biological Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Replication-Defective Mutant Strains in a Murine Nasal Infection Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Biological Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Replication-Defective Mutant Strains in a Murine; accepted August 22, 2000 We used a mouse nasal model of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection to examine with human genital infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and the uncommon but devastating

  10. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  11. Studies of the restriction of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, David Scott

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1tial infect1on w1th the virus. The peracute form of EIA, in wh1ch a fulminating infection results in death w1thin a few days of 1nfection, is essentially limited to very young animals and will not be further considered here. The acute form... of the disease, wh1ch may have a fatality rate as high as 80%. The subacute form resembles the acute form 1n the rapid develop- ment of pyrexia, but after an initial febrile peak, body temperature returns to normal and remains normal for several days...

  12. Feline Urological Syndrome: is a virus responsible for the disease?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swansn, Cynthia Louise

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    her pesvir us have been demonstrated in kidney tissue. Canine her pesvirus causes an acute systemic infection in neonatal puppies. Focal neer otizing lesions can be seen in several or qans, with hemor r hagic foci appear ing mainly in the 14... cortical regions of the kidneys (38) . Viruses that can produce persistent infections pr ovide a continuous sour ce of antigen resulting in the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which may be deposited in the glomer uli. An acute episode of viremia...

  13. Mutation, purification and chemical studies on the tobacco necrosis virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockaday, William Don

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after extraction from frozen infected cowpea leaves by centrifugation for 30 minutes at 16,000 x G. in the Servall centrifuge. The clear, brownish supernatant was treated as outlined in the experiment below. Forty ml of a 0.16 M solution of sodium..., and the resulting lesions were examined* Effect of Environmental Factors on the Virus* Thermal inactivation points* The thermal inactivation point was determined for three strains: II, 1 1 ^ and IV in infectious juice clarified by centrifugation at 16,000 x G...

  14. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE NUCLEOPROTEIN GENE OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. SKOURIKHINE; T. BURR

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied linguistic analysis approach, specifically N-grams, to classify nucleotide and amino acids sequences of nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the Influenza A virus isolated from a range of hosts and geographic regions. We considered letter frequency (1-grams), letter pairs frequency (2-grams) and triplets' frequency (3-grams). Classification trees based on 1,2,3-grams variables were constructed for the same NP nucleotide and amino acids strains and their classification efficiency were compared with the clustering obtained using phylogenetic analysis. The results have shown that disregarding positional information for a NP gene can provide the same level of recognition accuracy like alternative more complex classification techniques.

  15. Swine Flu and Common Infections to Prepare For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    particles can travel up to 12 feet through the air when someone with a cold coughs or sneezes http symptoms: ­ Headache or pressure on the face ­ Cough ­ Stuffy nose Nose drainage ("snots") or phlegm (rest do not require antibiotics) ­ Fever, swollen lymph nodes, no cough, white spots on tonsils

  16. BACTERIAL MENINGITIS AND SWINE FLU THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SYMPTOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    bright lights stiff neck cough sore throat body aches runny nose congestion fatigue If you think you have

  17. Aerosolization of a sneeze What are the Symptoms of Flu?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Chills Cough Runny Nose Sore Throat Fatigue Lack of Appetite Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea often Cover cough/sneeze with tissue and dispose Stay home at least 24 hours after being fever

  18. Die Dynamik magnetischer Flu rohren im Sonnen eck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf

    with the photosphere, moves inward towards the umbra. In the upper part of the convection zone an up ow along the tube to 14km/s. The hot, hence bright footpoint, which moves radially inwards towards the umbra, can

  19. Preventing the Flu Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    mouth and nose. When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your inside elbow

  20. Point-of-Care Flu Diagnosis | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996)representative ofPlantand InDevR

  1. Cold and Flu Prevention - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoachIndustrial Technologies0

  2. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengtheningFunctions |StructureStructure and

  3. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengtheningFunctions |StructureStructure

  4. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengtheningFunctions |StructureStructureStructure

  5. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengtheningFunctions

  6. ORISE: Pandemic Flu Toolkits | How ORISE is Making a Difference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOENurse Triage Lines Support ORISE contributesMaking

  7. FLU5A425 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-lFederal ColumbiaASCR2FOR THE

  8. Fast pandemic detection tool ready to fight flu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FY 2014FacilitiesSheet2 C STEC

  9. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening a solidRadiationStructure Illuminatesand

  10. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)] [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  11. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  12. UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICES | FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What college students need to know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    to know Q. What is norovirus (aka stomach flu)? A. Norovirus is a very contagious virus that causes with the virus) Q. How long are people contagious? A. People infected with norovirus are contagious from the moment they begin feeling ill to at least three days after recovery. Some people may be contagious

  13. Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Bolduc; Daniel P. Shaughnessy; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin; Francisco F. Roberto; Mark Young

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments of these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.

  14. Engineering and targeting glycan receptor binding of influenza A virus hemagglutinin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaraman, Akila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical first step in the host infection by influenza A virus is the binding of the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) to the sialylated glycan receptors terminated by N-acetyineuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) ...

  15. Infected Lives: A Heideggerian Phenomenological Study of Young African American Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltzer, Jill Nicole

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant health concern for African American women, as they comprise 64% of HIV-positive women in the US. The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological ...

  16. Mathematical modelling and analysis of replicated viruses for glioma cell control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - veloped, with oncolytic viruses emerging as an innovative therapeutic tool 1 UMR 077 Plant Pathology on model parameters which guarantee the permanence of the system and the existence of periodic solutions

  17. Viruses 2013, 5, 1292-1324; doi:10.3390/v5051292 ISSN 1999-4915

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Liver Disease Daniel J. Felmlee 1,2 , Mohamed Lamine Hafirassou 1,2 , Mathieu Lefevre 1,2 , Thomas F: Hepatitis C virus; lipoproteins; apolipoproteins; apoE; apoB; cholesterol; triglyceride; viral attachment

  18. Identification and analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase inhibitors using nucleic acid binding assays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alica M.; Shadrick, William R.; Ndjomou, Jean; Sweeney, Noreena L.; Hernadez, John J.; Bartczak, Diana; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Heck, Julie A.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Schoenen, Frank; Frick, David N,

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical assays used to discover and analyze small molecules that inhibit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase yield few hits and are often confounded by compound interference. Oligonucleotide binding assays are examined ...

  19. The grapefruit flavonoid naringenin as a Hepatitis C virus therapy : efficacy, mechanism and delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Jonathan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for approximately 40% of chronic liver disease in the United States and results in an estimated 8,000-10,000 deaths annually. Simulations suggest that in the next decade morbidity ...

  20. Multiplication of soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) in wheat roots infected by a soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Fortuna, Moulitt, Pernel, Sabre, Tarasque. Sabre and Avalon showed the same virus concentration as Hardi 33 cultivars étudiés, 9 d'entre eux : « Capitole, Cargo, Fortuna, Moulin, Rescler, Albatros, Fidel

  1. Evaluation of Sindbis-M2e Virus Vector as a Universal Influenza A Vaccine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuong, Christine

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Although avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in domestic poultry are uncommon, transmission of avian influenza from wild waterfowl reservoirs does occur. Depopulation of the infected flock is the typical response to AIV outbreaks in domestic...

  2. Virus constructed iron phosphate lithium ion batteries in unmanned aircraft systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolesnikov-Lindsey, Rachel

    FePO? lithium ion batteries that have cathodes constructed by viruses are scaled up in size to examine potential for use as an auxiliary battery in the Raven to power the payload equipment. These batteries are assembled ...

  3. The role of mast cells in Theiler's virus-induced demyelination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Dana D

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mast cells within the peripheral and central nervous systems of CBA and SJL mice during Theiler's virus-induced demyelination (TVID) have been investigated. CBA mice are intermediately susceptible and SJL mice are highly susceptible to TVIID...

  4. ECOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY OF AVIAN VIRUSES USING NICHE MODELS AND WILD BIRD SURVEILLANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard A. J.

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 (hereafter "H5N1"), and other bird-associated viruses, have raised serious concerns about impacts on human, livestock, and wildlife populations. Ecological ...

  5. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirci, Utkan

    Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care ...

  6. Di#erential equation models for Aujeszky's Disease Virus (ADV) in Irish pig herds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Abstract Aujeszky's Disease virus, (ADV) is a contagious viral Aladar Aujeszky, when he distinguished psuedorabies from rabies [23]. Aujeszky's Disease is a contagious

  7. Climate Change Influences on Global Distributions of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Lindsay P.; Luther, Caylor; Moo-Llanes, David; Ramsey, Janine M.; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This packet presents raster data files that accompany a manuscript submitted for publication to Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, titled “Climate Change Influences on Global Vector Distributions for Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses...

  8. Spatiotemporal quantification of cell dynamics in the lung following influenza virus infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Lu

    Lung injury caused by influenza virus infection is widespread. Understanding lung damage and repair progression post infection requires quantitative spatiotemporal information on various cell types mapping into the tissue ...

  9. Dose response effects of feline immunodeficiency virus PPR strain infection in cats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokanson, Regina Marie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performed 15 weeks post-inoculation. . . 16 3 Summary of clinical aspects of acute FIV-PPR infection in SPF cats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4 Detection of first antibody response to FIV p24. . . . . 23 5 Results of PCR to detect proviral DNA.... . . . . 26 6 Summary of virological and immunological parameters of acute FIV-PPR infection in SPF cats. . 27 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lymphotropic retrovirus, is a member...

  10. Effects of method of wheat streak mosaic virus transmission on the resistance of selected hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Han Yong

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these hybrids, which showed resistance to infection, were frequently reclassified as a susceptible host after reinoculation. The efficiency of transmission of WSMV to wheat by the mite, artist's airbrush, and carborundum rub inoculations were 49. 2, and 41... OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE III GENERAL MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Materials Virus and Vector Virus Mite Transmission Carborundum rub Artist's airbrush Mite transmission 10 10 11 11 11 1. 2 12 12 13...

  11. Studies of two cucumber mosaic virus isolates from spinach in the winter garden area of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Alphus Dan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Cucumoviruses Diagnosis and Critical Comparison of Cucumoviruses Host Range of Cucumber Mosaic Virus 10 Mechanical Transmission and Stability in Extracted Sap . 13 Vector Relations and Epidemiology Strains and Serology Biochemistry MATERIALS AND METHODS... Page Gel-diffusion test of spinach virus isolates 'C' and 'N' and CMV-Commelina antigens against CMV-S antiserum. The center well contains antisera (As) to CNV-S ATCC PVAS 242a. The peripheral wells were loaded with sap extracted from tobacco...

  12. The serological detection of tobacco ringspot virus reservoirs in the Lower Rio Grande Valley 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Leon Russell

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and of the "pijcples" disease of watermelon reported by' Rosberg (19) in %exes -end by Shepherd. and Struble (20) in Gislahossu Valleau (25) in Kentucky inoculated tobacco with expressed sap. free eggplants showing the yellows disease and obtained typical TRSV... to determine potential v1rus carriers - mschani- csl inoculation of expressed sap to susceptible test plants, snd sero- logical techniques . utilisisg the reaction. of ths virus antigen with antiserum homologous to the virus. Xost oi' the known hosts of TRSV...

  13. Isolation methods and electron microscopy of the Internal Cork Virus of sweet potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickens, Edgar Eugene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis By Edgar Eugene Pickens Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject Biochemistry ISOLATION METHODS AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE INTERNAL CORK VIRUS OF SWEET POTATOES A Thesis Edgar Eugene Pickens Approved as to style and content by: (Cnairman of Committee) (Head wf...

  14. Field distribution and genetic variability of Panicum mosaic virus satellite RNAs in St. Augustine decline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Perez, Over

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Introduction . . Materials and Methods. . . Results. . . . . . . . . . Discussion. . . . 20 . 21 . 24 . 29 111 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF PANICUM MOSAIC VIRUS SATELLITE RNAs IN ST. AUGUSTINEGRASS. . 32 Introduction . . Materials and Methods...RNA is found associated with Australian isolates of BYDV-RPV. This non- coding satRNA is undetectable in the field and becomes perceptible only following greenhouse propagation. This satRNA attenuates the symptoms induced by the helper virus (BYDV-RPV) alone...

  15. Evaluation of Sindbis-M2e Virus Vector as a Universal Influenza A Vaccine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuong, Christine

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Blanca M. Lupiani Committee Members, Sanjay M. Reddy Michael Criscitiello Head of Department, Linda Logan August 2012 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences iii ABSTRACT Evaluation... of Sindbis-M2e Virus Vector as a Universal Influenza A Vaccine. (August 2012) Christine Nguyen Vuong, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Blanca M. Lupiani Although avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in domestic poultry...

  16. Production of glycoprotein-deleted rabies viruses for monosynaptic tracing and high-level gene expression in neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickersham, Ian R.

    Recombinant rabies viruses rendered replication-deficient by the deletion of their envelope glycoprotein gene are useful tools for neuroscientists, permitting (1) extraordinarily high transgene expression levels within ...

  17. Differential cytokine mRNA expression induced by binding of virulent and avirulent molecularly cloned equine infectious anemia viruses to equine macrophages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Wah-Seng

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) causes rapid development of acute disease followed by recurring episodes of fever, thrombocytopenia and viremia, termed chronic EIA. Most infected horses control the virus by immune mechanisms and become...

  18. Genetic analysis of equine 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OASI) and ribonculclease L (RNASEL) polymorphims and association to severe West Nile Virus disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Jonathan Joseph

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses, was first introduced to the United States in 1999 with rapid transmission across a variety of hosts throughout the continental states. Genetic ...

  19. Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimstra, William B. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Williams, Jacqueline C. [Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, San Antonio, TX 78249-0662 (United States); Ryman, Kate D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Heidner, Hans W. [Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, San Antonio, TX 78249-0662 (United States)]. E-mail: hans.heidner@utsa.edu

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Some viruses display enhanced infection for Fc receptor (FcR)-positive cell types when complexed with virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig). This process has been termed antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). We reasoned that the mechanism of ADE could be exploited and adapted to target alphavirus-based vectors to FcR-positive cell types. Towards this goal, recombinant Sindbis viruses were constructed that express 1 to 4 immunoglobulin-binding domains of protein L (PpL) as N-terminal extensions of the E2 glycoprotein. PpL is a bacterial protein that binds the variable region of antibody kappa light chains from a range of mammalian species. The recombinant viruses incorporated PpL/E2 fusion proteins into the virion structure and recapitulated the species-specific Ig-binding phenotypes of native PpL. Virions reacted with non-immune serum or purified IgG displayed enhanced binding and ADE for several species-matched FcR-positive murine and human cell lines. ADE required virus expression of a functional PpL Ig-binding domain, and appeared to be Fc{gamma}R-mediated. Specifically, ADE did not occur with Fc{gamma}R-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on Fc{gamma}R-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab'){sub 2} fragments.

  20. The effects of Moloney Sarcoma Virus infection and subsequent thymosin administration on the functional thymus-dependent lymphocyte populations of BALB/C and congenitally athymic nude mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Gailen Daughterty

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Congenitally athymic nude mice were kindly suppli. ed by Dr Gary B. Thurman, Galveston, Texas. BALB/c and Swiss?Webster mice were maintained on laboratory chow and water ad libitum until use. Virus. The virus used was Moloney Sarcoma Virus, originally...THE EFFECTS OF MOLONEY SARCOMA VIRUS INFECTION AND SUBSEQUENT THYMOSIN ADMINISTRATION ON THE FUNCTIONAL THYMUS-DEPENDENT LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF BALB/C AND CONGENITALLY ATHYMIC NUDE MICE A Thesis by GAILEN DAUGHERTY MARSHALL, JR. Submitted...

  1. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J. (Abbott)

    2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  2. Previous Immunization of Mice with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-l Strain MP Protects against Secondary Cornea1 Infection'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Previous Immunization of Mice with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-l Strain MP Protects against Secondary Cornea1 Infection' Herpes simplex virus tHSV)-induced ocular disease i\\ occurring in epidemic propor countries. We have found. in a mouar model of herpes simplex keratitih (HSK). that products encoded

  3. Virus-Like Particles of a Fish Nodavirus Display a Capsid Subunit Domain Organization Different from That of Insect Nodaviruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Liang; Lin, Chan-Shing; Krishna, Neel K.; Yeager, Mark; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dimensional reconstruction at 23-Å resolution. The cryoEM structure, sequence comparison, and protein fold recognition analysis indicate that the coat protein of MGNNV has two domains resembling those of tomato bushy stunt virus and Norwalk virus, rather than the expected...

  4. Comparison of Different Forms of Herpes Simplex Replication-Defective Mutant Viruses as Vaccines in a Mouse Model of HSV-2 Genital Infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Comparison of Different Forms of Herpes Simplex Replication-Defective Mutant Viruses as Vaccines for revision June 6, 2001; accepted July 11, 2001 Some subunit vaccines composed of herpes simplex virus (HSV against HSV-2. © 2001 Academic Press INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the principal etio

  5. Structural Studies of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Tetramer in Complex with Its Receptor, Sialyllactose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Ping; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wurzburg, Beth A.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functions in virus attachment to cells, cleavage of sialic acid from oligosaccharides, and stimulating membrane fusion during virus entry into cells. The structural basis for these diverse functions remains to be fully understood. We report the crystal structures of the parainfluenza virus 5 (SV5) HN and its complexes with sialic acid, the inhibitor DANA, and the receptor sialyllactose. SV5 HN shares common structural features with HN of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPIV3), but unlike the previously determined HN structures, the SV5 HN forms a tetramer in solution, which is thought to be the physiological oligomer. The sialyllactose complex reveals intact receptor within the active site, but no major conformational changes in the protein. The SV5 HN structures do not support previously proposed models for HN action in membrane fusion and suggest alternative mechanisms by which HN may promote virus entry into cells.

  6. Stochastic dynamics of virus capsid formation: direct versus hierarchical self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johanna E. Baschek; Heinrich C. R. Klein; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to replicate within their cellular host, many viruses have developed self-assembly strategies for their capsids which are sufficiently robust as to be reconstituted in vitro. Mathematical models for virus self-assembly usually assume that the bonds leading to cluster formation have constant reactivity over the time course of assembly (direct assembly). In some cases, however, binding sites between the capsomers have been reported to be activated during the self-assembly process (hierarchical assembly). In order to study possible advantages of such hierarchical schemes for icosahedral virus capsid assembly, we use Brownian dynamics simulations of a patchy particle model that allows us to switch binding sites on and off during assembly. For T1 viruses, we implement a hierarchical assembly scheme where inter-capsomer bonds become active only if a complete pentamer has been assembled. We find direct assembly to be favorable for reversible bonds allowing for repeated structural reorganizations, while hierarchical assembly is favorable for strong bonds with small dissociation rate, as this situation is less prone to kinetic trapping. However, at the same time it is more vulnerable to monomer starvation during the final phase. Increasing the number of initial monomers does have only a weak effect on these general features. The differences between the two assembly schemes become more pronounced for more complex virus geometries, as shown here for T3 viruses, which assemble through homogeneous pentamers and heterogeneous hexamers in the hierarchical scheme. In order to complement the simulations for this more complicated case, we introduce a master equation approach that agrees well with the simulation results.

  7. Evidence for ADAR-induced hypermutation of the Drosophila sigma virus (Rhabdoviridae).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Jennifer A; Keegan, Liam; Wilfert, Lena; O'Connell, Mary A; Jiggins, Francis M

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    , Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK Email: Jennifer A Carpenter* - jenny@jennycarpenter.com; Liam P Keegan - Liam.Keegan@hgu.mrc.ac.uk; Lena Wilfert - lb445@cam.ac.uk; Mary A O'Connell - m.oconnell@hgu.mrc.ac.uk; Francis M Jiggins - f... of RNA editing identified by comparative genomics. Science 2003, 301(5634):832-836. 24. Weber F, Wagner V, Rasmussen SB, Hartmann R, Paludan SR: Dou- ble-Stranded RNA Is Produced by Positive-Strand RNA Viruses and DNA Viruses but Not in Detectable Amounts...

  8. Ratings of Commercial Grain Sorghum Hybrids to the Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, C. Wendell; Frederiksen, Richard A.; Toler, Robert W.; Trampota, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Cargill 5665 Intermediate 57. Horizon H -840 Tolerant 14. Cargill 6658 Tolerant 58. Horizon H-850 Intermediate 15. Cargill C 55 Susceptible 59. Horizon H -940 Susceptible 16. Cargill C 60 Tolerant 60. Horizon H-95G Tolerant 17. Cargill 0 70... Susceptible 81. Northrup King 2670 Susceptible 44. OeKalb M-565 Intermediate 82. Richardson Y-100 A Tolerant Maize dwarf Maize dwarf Number / company /hybrid mosaic virus Number/company /hybrid mosaic virus 83. Richardson Y-300 D Tolerant 116. Taylor...

  9. The effect of the time of inoculation with Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus on grain sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batte, Robert Dan

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of the time of inoculation with Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus on some agronomic charac- teristics of a tolerant and a susceptible grain sorghum hybrid. A completely randomized block design with three replications was util- ized, Mass inoculation... of the plants was accomplished through use of' t' he artist's air'brush procedure. The virus was found to cause reductior: in yield, delay in ma- turity, stunting snd. lowering of test weights of hot'n hybrids. Additional effects on the susceptible hyb. . d...

  10. The relationship of arthropods to the transmission of the virus of cotton mosaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Michael Frank

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~oasntt Glover, 85-100 pec cent; A~hia laburni Klatenback, 5. 1-15. 5 Per cent; H~aus Herslcaa (Zulzar), 15. 5 to 'J5. 0 ~tQ~i (L. )), 7. 7-10. 0 per cent, The virus is also seed transmitted in 0 7-3. 9 per cent of the seed. Other virus diseases... cent shading effect and reduced wind velocity, Growth, as a result, proceeded rapidly and the planta required topping once or twice a year, Routine insecticide application was not practiced although three applications of calcium ar- senate were made...

  11. Interplay Between Viral and Cellular Factors Determines the Fate of Herpes Simplex Virus type I Infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mabrouk-Mostafa, Heba

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    are Attenuated for Viral Replication and Impaired for Explant- Induced Reactivation 2.1 Abstract 2.2 Materials and Methods 2.3 Results 2.4 Discussion 2.5 Figures and Figure legends Chapter 3: N-terminal phosphorylation sites of herpes simplex virus 1 ICP0... differentially regulate its activities and enhance viral replication. 3.1 Abstract 3.2 Materials and Methods 3.3 Results 3.4 Discussion 3.5 Tables 3.6 Figures and Figure legends Chapter 4: Two Amino Acid Substitutions in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP6 Impair...

  12. A Patterned 3D Silicon Anode Fabricated by Electrodeposition on a Virus-Structured Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical methods were developed for the deposition of nanosilicon onto a 3D virus-structured nickel current collector. This nickel current collector is composed of self-assembled nanowire-like rods of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), chemically coated in nickel to create a complex high surface area conductive substrate. The electrochemically depo­sited 3D silicon anodes demonstrate outstanding rate performance, cycling stability, and rate capability. Electrodeposition thus provides a unique means of fabricating silicon anode materials on complex substrates at low cost.

  13. Influenza A/H7N9 virus emergence in poultry and humans in Guangdong China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Changwen; Lu, Jing; Wu, Jie; Guan, Dawei; Zou, Lirong; Song, Tie; Yi, Lina; Zeng, Xianqiao; Liang, Lijun; Ni, Hanzhong; Kang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Smith, Derek; Burke, David; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Koopmans, Marion; Zhang, Yonghui

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    2034 Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 12, December 2014 Influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in eastern China in February 2013 and continues to circulate in this region, but its ecology is poorly understood. In April... against previously published complete genome sequences of H7N9 and H9N2 Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 12, December 2014 2035 Reassortant Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses, China RESEARCH 2036 Emerging Infectious Diseases...

  14. Identification of full-length transmitted/founder viruses and their progeny in primary HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and their progeny by is a novel strategy for probing the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and for evaluating the genetic imprint of viral and host factors that act to constrain or facilitate virus replication. Here, we show in a cohort of twelve acutely infected subjects (9 clade B; 3 clade C), that complete genomic sequences of transmitted/founder viruses could be inferred using single genome amplification of plasma viral RNA, direct amplicon sequencing, and a model of random virus evolution. This allowed for the precise identification, chemical synthesis, molecular cloning, and biological analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection and for a comprehensive mapping of sequential viral genomes and proteomes for mutations that are necessary or incidental to the establishment of HIV-1 persistence. Transmitted/founder viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic, replicated preferentially in activated primary T-Iymphocytes but not monocyte-derived macrophages, and were effectively shielded from most heterologous or broadly neutralizing antibodies. By 3 months of infection, the evolving viral quasispecies in three subjects showed mutational fixation at only 2-5 discreet genomic loci. By 6-12 months, mutational fixation was evident at 18-27 genomic loci. Some, but not all, of these mutations were attributable to virus escape from cytotoxic Tlymphocytes or neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that other viral or host factors may influence early HIV -1 fitness.

  15. Encapsulation of a polymer by an icosahedral virus Oren M. Elrad and Michael F. Hagan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    , 15, 17, 18], charge-functionalized nanoparticles [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16], and nano-emulsions [20 viruses spontaneously form icosahedral capsids around nucleic acids or other polymers. Elucidating a phase diagram that predicts assembly outcomes as a function of experimental parameters. We anticipate

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid upon herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis outcome Julien Poissy1* , Karen Champenois2 , Anny Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually

  17. Viruses 2011, 3, 1757-1776; doi:10.3390/v3091757 ISSN 1999-4915

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    and minus end motor proteins. Kinesins and dynein are microtubule motors that mediate long range outward myosin motor proteins moving on actin filaments [2]. For viruses that enter the cytoplasm through fusion-associated motor proteins can be used for active transport of the genome to the nucleus for replication [3

  18. Nuclear import of hepatitis B virus capsids and release of the viral genome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panté, Nelly

    Nuclear import of hepatitis B virus capsids and release of the viral genome Birgit Rabe*, Angelika through the nuclear pore into the nuclear basket. Import depended on phosphorylation of the capsid protein from the inner face of the nuclear pore. Immature capsids that did not contain the mature viral genome

  19. Towards quantitative metagenomics of wild viruses and other ultra-low concentration DNA samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Matthew B.

    for challenging samples, developing a more efficient sizing step, inte- grating a `reconditioning PCR' step processes drive much of the biogeochemistry that fuels the planet (Falkowski et al., 2008), and viruses meddle with these microbial processes at the level of the single cell hosts they infect, resulting

  20. Towards quantitative metagenomics of wild viruses and other ultra-low concentration DNA samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Matthew B.

    efficient sizing step, inte- grating a `reconditioning PCR' step to increase yield and minimize late of the biogeochemistry that fuels the planet (Falkowski et al., 2008), and viruses meddle with these microbial processes at the level of the single cell hosts they infect, resulting in modulation of local- and global

  1. To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abat-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David

    To identify tickborne viruses circulating in Kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abat- toirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Species of ticks collected included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (56 the abundance of tick- borne arboviruses in Kenya and the surrounding region, we collected and tested ticks

  2. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Casey M. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)] [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Johnston, Carl J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States) [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Reed, Christina K. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Lawrence, B. Paige [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States) [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Finkelstein, Jacob N., E-mail: Jacob_Finkelstein@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  3. A Case Study of Chemical Organization Theory Applied to Virus Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittrich, Peter

    A Case Study of Chemical Organization Theory Applied to Virus Dynamics Naoki Matsumaru1 , Pietro, Venezia, Italia * corresponding author Abstract. Chemical organization theory has been proposed to provide and Horn [10]. Here, we introduce chemical organization theory [11, 12] as another method to analyse

  4. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Mark David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kaiser, Julia N. (Global Product Management, Hilden, Germany); Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  5. Structural analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus by optical super-resolution imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laine, Romain F.; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J.; Crump, Colin M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ARTICLE Received 30 Sep 2014 | Accepted 27 Nov 2014 | Published 22 Jan 2015 Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging Romain F. Laine1,*, Anna Albecka2,*, Sebastian van de Linde3, Eric J. Rees1, Colin M. Crump2...

  6. Protein-DNA Interactions Determine the Shapes of DNA Toroids Condensed in Virus Capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Protein-DNA Interactions Determine the Shapes of DNA Toroids Condensed in Virus Capsids Ame, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia ABSTRACT DNA toroids that form inside the bacteriophage capsid glycol to the bathing solution. Spermine-DNA toroids present a convex, faceted section with no or minor

  7. The Effects of Estrogen on Theiler’s Virus Infection of Endothelial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Steven M.

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    the effects of estrogen on Theiler’s virus infection of cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB): cerebral vascular endothelial (CVE) cells in vitro. The hypotheses to be tested were that (1) estrogen would have a protective effect on the CVE cells...

  8. Rapid emergence of hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor resistance is expected

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rong, Libin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Current therapy, consisting of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), leads to sustained viral elimination in only about 45% of patients treated. Telaprevir (VX-950), a novel HCV NS3-4A serine protease inhibitor, has demonstrated substantial antiviral activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection. However, some patients experience viral breakthrough during dosing, with drug resistant variants being 5%-20% of the virus population as early as day 2 after treatment initiation. Why viral variants appear such a short time after the start of dosing is unclear, especially since this has not been seen with monotherapy for either human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B virus. Here, using a viral dynamic model, we explain why such rapid emergence of drug resistant variants is expected when potent HCV protease inhibitors are used as monotherapy. Surprisingly, our model also shows that such rapid emergence need not be the case with some potent HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Examining the case of telaprevir therapy in detail, we show the model fits observed dynamics of both wild-type and drug-resistant variants during treatment, and supports combination therapy of direct antiviral drugs with PEG-IFN and/or RBV for hepatitis C.

  9. Viruses' Life History: Towards a Mechanistic Basis of a Trade-Off between Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Viruses' Life History: Towards a Mechanistic Basis of a Trade-Off between Survival and Reproduction Medicale, University of Paris 5, INSERM, Paris, France Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints

  10. Structural Basis for Suppression of a Host Antiviral Response by Influenza A Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das,K.; Ma, L.; Xiao, R.; Radvansky, B.; Aramini, J.; Zhao, L.; Marklund, J.; Kuo, R.; Twu, K.; Arnold, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Influenza A viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics and high mortality pandemics. A major function of the viral NS1A protein, a virulence factor, is the inhibition of the production of IFN-{beta}{beta} mRNA and other antiviral mRNAs. The NS1A protein of the human influenza A/Udorn/72 (Ud) virus inhibits the production of these antiviral mRNAs by binding the cellular 30-kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30), which is required for the 3' end processing of all cellular pre-mRNAs. Here we report the 1.95- Angstroms resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex formed between the second and third zinc finger domain (F2F3) of CPSF30 and the C-terminal domain of the Ud NS1A protein. The complex is a tetramer, in which each of two F2F3 molecules wraps around two NS1A effector domains that interact with each other head-to-head. This structure identifies a CPSF30 binding pocket on NS1A comprised of amino acid residues that are highly conserved among human influenza A viruses. Single amino acid changes within this binding pocket eliminate CPSF30 binding, and a recombinant Ud virus expressing an NS1A protein with such a substitution is attenuated and does not inhibit IFN-{beta} pre-mRNA processing. This binding pocket is a potential target for antiviral drug development. The crystal structure also reveals that two amino acids outside of this pocket, F103 and M106, which are highly conserved (>99%) among influenza A viruses isolated from humans, participate in key hydrophobic interactions with F2F3 that stabilize the complex.

  11. Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Ebola Virus Genomic Drift on the Efficacy of Sequence-Based Candidate Therapeutics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.

    Until recently, Ebola virus (EBOV) was a rarely encountered human pathogen that caused disease among small populations with extraordinarily high lethality. At the end of 2013, EBOV initiated an unprecedented disease outbreak ...

  12. Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Caroline Mary

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important graft-transmissible pathogen of citrus, causes major global declines in citrus production. In the commercial citrus of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), where red grapefruit...

  13. Ocean Viruses: Tiny entities with Global Impacts ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Matt Sullivan from the University of Arizona on "Ocean Viruses: Tiny Entities with Global Impacts" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  14. A cell based high-throughput screening approach for the discovery of new inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Moore, Blake P.; Matharu, Daljit S.; Golden, Jennifer E.; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sosa, Melinda I.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; White, E. Lucile; Jia, Fuli; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Severson, William E.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a highly contagious pathogen and is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia for infants and children under one year of age. Worldwide, greater than 33 ...

  15. CD8+ T cell antiviral activity: mechanism of induction and the suppression of emerging feline immunodeficiency virus strains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Anagha

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present studies, the essential role of inducer cells for the induction of soluble anti-viral activity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was investigated. Induction of suppression of FIV replication was ...

  16. Dengue Virus Type 3 Adaptive Changes during Epidemics in Sao Jose de Rio Preto, Brazil, 2006–2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian

    Global dengue virus spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions has become a major international public health concern. It is evident that DENV genetic diversity plays a significant role in the immunopathology of the disease ...

  17. Ocean Viruses: Tiny entities with Global Impacts ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Matt Sullivan from the University of Arizona on "Ocean Viruses: Tiny Entities with Global Impacts" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  18. Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, Claudia

    Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin ...

  19. Circulation of Different Lineages of Dengue Virus 2, Genotype American/Asian in Brazil: Dynamics and Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drumond, Betânia Paiva

    The American/Asian genotype of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) was introduced into the Americas in the 80?s. Although there is no data showing when this genotype was first introduced into Brazil, it was first detected in ...

  20. Integrated analysis of microRNA expression and mRNA transcriptome in lungs of avian influenza virus infected broilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expressed miRNAs in chicken lung and trachea with avianagainst Ventilator-induced Lung Injury. Am J Resp Crit Careand mRNA transcriptome in lungs of avian influenza virus

  1. A R T I C L E S Many viruses infect their host cells through endocytosis. The endocytic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    to the terminal sialic acid of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface18, little is known about how these viruses are tar- geted to cellular endocytic structures after binding. The exact endocytic pathway

  2. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  3. Genomics Approaches to Study Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Host Response to Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ying

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    tropism and the pathogenesis of viral diseases (Cullen, 2006a). On the other hand, viruses encode viral miRNAs to protect themselves against cellular antiviral responses (Gupta, et al., 2006). Host miRNAs play important roles in antiviral... direct negative effect on the replication of retrovirus primate foamy virus type 1 (PFV-1), which is mediated through the down- regulation of replication-essential viral proteins encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) ( Lecellier, et al., 2005; Cullen...

  4. Some physical and biological properties of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacFarlane, Johnny James

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Directed by: Dr. L. L. Keeley Laboratory investi ations were conducted into so ie of the physical and biological properties of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus ("!PV) of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and Peiiothi s virescens (Fabricius). information... the ranges of shapes and. sizes reported f' or other insect nuclear viruses. In contrast, the strength of alkali and dis- solving period necessary to dissolve Heliothis nuclear polyhedra are somewhat higher than those reported for other insect polyhedra...

  5. Post-exposure prophylaxis of dogs experimentally exposed to rabies street virus using an inactivated tissue-culture vaccine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layton, Randal Cleo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of structures rather than one molecular structure, making it difficult to evaluate the mechanism of 15 plasma membrane fusion. Iwaski studied the early events 13 of rabies virus invasion of BHK-21 cells and found that within 5 to 30 minutes, the virus...-infected dogs were submitted to Monoclonal Antibody testing for strain identification. Serum samples from all 3 groups were tested by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) for detection of serum neutralizing antibody levels. The results...

  6. The Structure of the Herpes Simplex Virus DNA-Packaging Terminase pUL15 Nuclease Domain Suggests an Evolutionary Lineage among Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigamani, Sundaresan Selvarajan; Zhao, Haiyan; Kamau, Yvonne N.; Baines, Joel D.; Tang, Liang

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. doi:10.1128/JVI.00311-13 7140 jvi.asm.org Journal of Virology p. 7140–7148 June 2013 Volume 87 Number 12 o n June 30, 2014 by University of Kansas http://jvi.asm.org/ D ow nloaded from tron of 3... Virus Terminase June 2013 Volume 87 Number 12 jvi.asm.org 7141 o n June 30, 2014 by University of Kansas http://jvi.asm.org/ D ow nloaded from RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Overall structure of pUL15C. The pUL15C crystallizes with three molecules per...

  7. Genetic analysis of equine 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OASI) and ribonculclease L (RNASEL) polymorphims and association to severe West Nile Virus disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Jonathan Joseph

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    dog displaying a low titer viremia [7]. Figure 1.2 Biochemical functions of some IFN-inducible proteins (Source: Samuel, 2002). Interferon activates expression of many antiviral pathways. The OAS/RNASEL and EIF2AK2 (PKR) pathways... of IFN system evasion (Source: Grandvaux, 2002) Virus Viral Protein Mechanism of IFN system inhibition Molluscum contagiosum virus MC159L Blocks EIF2AK2-mediated apoptosis[8] African swine fever virus - Inhibits NF-#1;B: encodes an NFKBIA...

  8. Identification of two distinct strains of watermelon mosaic virus-2 affecting cucurbits in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chala, Victor Hugo

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    maintained at 25 + 5 C in the greenhouse. Seedlings were inoculated by dusting the cotyledons with 600 mesh carborundum and rubbing them with the inoculum. Seedlings as controls were inoculated healthy sap, Host range Certain plant species exhibit... buffer and 600 mesh carborundum and then rubbed on squash cotyledons. The same procedure was repeated w1th healthy pollen. b. Pollen from 1nfected plants was examined for virus presence by serolog1cal test. Pollen was prepared as follows: 0. 2 g...

  9. Induction of mutations resistant to maize dwarf mosaic virus in Sorghum bicolor using gamma radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pye, Quentin Niel

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mesh carborundum was added to the filtrate as an abrasive. Inoculation of seedlings was accomplished by means of a compressor powered artist's airbrush. The seedlings were sprayed with the virus inoculum for 5 seconds at a 1 cm orifice- to-. leaf... described, except that the carborundum was omitted. The 600 mesh carborundum was dusted onto the upper surface of the leaves and then the crude inoculum was gently rubbed into the upper surface of the leaves with inoculum soaked fingers, Samples of leaf...

  10. CONSERVED VIRUS PROTEIN FAMILIES IN BACTERIOPHAGE GENOMES AND IN METAGENOMES OF HUMANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xixu

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    people that have helped me during my graduate study at Stowers Institute for Medical Research and Kansas University Medical Center. I am especially thankful to my advisor, Dr. Arcady Mushegian for his guidance, support, advice and encouragement... of Appendices Page Appendix A: the annotation of POGs-2007……………………………………………………..52 Appendix B: parameters for Roche 454 Newbler……………………………………...……….100 Appendix C: the virus protein orthologs identified in Metagenomics data…………………….102 1...

  11. Role of the Leucine Zipper of Marek's Disease Virus Oncoprotein Meq in Pathogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suchodolski, Paulette F.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to the Ofice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degre of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Commite, Sanjay Reddy Commite Members, Blanca Lupiani Elen Collison Weston Porter Yanan..., and is * Reprinted with permision from ?Homodimerization of Marek?s Disease Virus-Encoded Meq Protein Is Not Sufficient for Transformation of Lymphocytes in Chickens? by Paulete F. Suchodolski, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Blanca Lupiani, Dharani K. Ajithdos, Oren Gilad...

  12. First Characterization of Avian Memory T Lymphocyte Responses to Avian Influenza Virus Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Shailbala

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Ellen W. Collisson Blanca Lupiani Committee Members, Julian...) Shailbala Singh, B.S., G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ellen W. Collisson Dr. Blanca Lupiani Although wild birds are natural hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs...

  13. Ecological and Molecular Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Obtained from Waterfowl on the Texas Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferro, Pamela Joyce

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    -Chairs of Committee, Blanca Lupiani Markus J. Peterson Committee Members, John El-Attrache Thomas L. Lester Head of Department, John August August 2010 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology iii ABSTRACT Ecological and Molecular... Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Obtained from Waterfowl on the Texas Coast. (August 2010) Pamela Joyce Bloomer Ferro B.S.; M.S., Texas A&M University; Co-Chairs of Committee: Dr. Blanca Lupiani Dr. Markus J. Peterson We collected 6...

  14. Evaluation of Performance in Yearling Crossbred Steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runyan, Chase Anthony

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Diarrhea virus has a dual nature for infection; BVDV itself serves as an infectious agent itself, but it also serves as an immune- suppressor of health defenses (Baker, 1995). With defense mechanisms suppressed, secondary bacterial colonization occurs... York, calves infected with BVDV NY-1 were reported to respond with symptoms of pyrexia, reduction in white blood cells, diarrhea, reduced appetite, depression, and reddening of the gums (Baker et al., 1954). Ridpath et al. (2007) summarized two...

  15. An immunofluorescent and histopathologic study of chicken embryos infected with blue-tongue virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairchild, David George

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that 52 morbidity and mortality estimates are too low. The disease in susceptible young deer appears to be uniformly fatal under experi- mental conditions. Attenuated bluetongue virus (BTV) also has been 87 responsible for death and congenital... was fixed in Zenker's fluid for 6 to 8 hours, washed in running tap water for 12 to 18 hours, and stored in 702 ethanol until embed- ded in paraffin. All choriosllantoic membranes were harvested, spread on glass slides and then were examined...

  16. Characterization of the Meq oncoproteins of Marek's disease virus vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajithdoss, Dharani K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the condition in four adult male chickens in 1907 (Biggs, 1961; Marek, 1907). He described the disease as a "polyneuritis" or a ?neuritis interstitialis?, characterized by paralysis of the legs and wings. Grossly, the sacral plexuses and spinal cords were... leukosis virus (Biggs, 1961; Campbel, 1961; Elermann, 1922). Based on susceptibility, organs afected, and histopathogenesis, the disease can be distinguished from lymphoid leucosis and a new name, Marek?s disease, was proposed (Biggs, 1961). Later...

  17. Spatial analysis of West Nile Virus and predictors of hyperendemicity in the Texas equine industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittich, Courtney Anne

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    that were validated using virus positive mosquito sample sites in those same areas (5). In another study of human WN cases Theophilides used interpolation methods, specifically kriging, to identify high rate areas through GIS technologies. Many analyses... risk areas can be predicted through spatial analysis then preventative measures can be implemented including mosquito control and education to decrease impact of the disease. Methods Case reports of equine West Nile disease occurring in Texas...

  18. Programming Self-assembly of Virus-like Shells via Colloidal Bond Hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris H. J. Evers; Jurriaan A. Luiken; Peter G. Bolhuis; Willem K. Kegel

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloids with directional interactions are promising building blocks for new functional materials and models for biological structures[1-3]. Using rigid patches, for example, particles have been programmed to self-assemble into kagome lattices and colloidal equivalents of molecules and micelles[4-6]. Self-assembly into more complex structures such as virus-like shells, however, requires more complex patch geometries [7], which$-$to the best of our knowledge$-$have not been experimentally realized yet. Protein building blocks of real viruses, on the other hand, can undergo conformational changes upon self-assembly[8-9]. Here we demonstrate, by combining experiments and simulations, that conformationally changeable colloids self-assemble into complex structures such as virus-like shells. These floppy colloids contain both mutually attractive and repulsive surface groups that are mobile. Analogous to the simplest chemical bond, where two isotropic orbitals hybridize into the molecular orbital of H$_24, these mobile groups redistribute upon binding. By introducing bond hybridization in the colloidal domain, we programmed relatively simple flexible building blocks to self-assemble into dramatically more complex structures than would have been anticipated based on their rigid geometry.

  19. Acute Hendra virus infection: Analysis of the pathogenesis and passive antibody protection in the hamster model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillaume, Vanessa [Inserm U758, Human Virology, F-69365 (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007 (France); IFR128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon 1, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Wong, K. Thong; Looi, R.Y. [Department of Pathology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Barrot, Laura [Laboratory P4-Jean Merieux, INSERM, Lyon (France); Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian [Inserm U758, Human Virology, F-69365 (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007 (France); IFR128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon 1, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Horvat, Branka, E-mail: branka.horvat@inserm.f [Inserm U758, Human Virology, F-69365 (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007 (France); IFR128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon 1, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are recently-emerged, closely related and highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses. We have analysed here the pathogenesis of the acute HeV infection using the new animal model, golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), which is highly susceptible to HeV infection. HeV-specific RNA and viral antigens were found in multiple organs and virus was isolated from different tissues. Dual pathogenic mechanism was observed: parenchymal infection in various organs, including the brain, with vasculitis and multinucleated syncytia in many blood vessels. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies specific for the NiV fusion protein neutralized HeV in vitro and efficiently protected hamsters from HeV if given before infection. These results reveal the similarities between HeV and NiV pathogenesis, particularly in affecting both respiratory and neuronal system. They demonstrate that hamster presents a convenient novel animal model to study HeV infection, opening new perspectives to evaluate vaccine and therapeutic approaches against this emergent infectious disease.

  20. Screening for resistance to cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, gummy stem blight, and monosporascus root rot and detection of RAPD markers associated with QLT for soluble solids, sugars, and vitamin C in melon (Cucumis melo l.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Jonathan Walker

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a relatively new virus affecting cantaloupe production in South Texas and worldwide. No resistant commercial cultivars are available. A cross of ?Dulce? (susceptible) x ...

  1. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.; Reynard, Olivier; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Reid, St. Patrick; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Basler, Christopher F. (CNRS-INSERM); (Mount Sinai Hospital); (LB-Ecuador); (Iowa State)

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that loss of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.

  2. Contributions of Antibody and T Cell Subsets to Protection Elicited by Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    with a Replication-Defective Mutant of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Lynda A. Morrison1 and David M. Knipe Department Replication-defective mutants of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) elicit immune responses in mice that reduce in regulating the immunopathologic activity of CD4 T cells. © 1997 Academic Press INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex

  3. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Liu X, et al. Genetic engineering of a modified herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine vector. Vaccine (2009),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a modified herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine vector. Vaccine (2009), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.003 ARTICLEUNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Liu X, et al. Genetic engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/vaccine Genetic engineering of a modified herpes simplex virus 1

  4. Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington. L. J. du Toit, Washington State University of the NP gene. In August 2003, symptoms of IYSV infection were observed in two onion bulb crops, each

  5. Surface localization of the nuclear receptor CAR in influenza A virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Tadanobu [Department of Pharmaco-Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, and COE Program in the 21st Century, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, CREST, JST, and COE Program in the 21st Century, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Moriyama, Yusuke; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko [Department of Pharmaco-Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, and COE Program in the 21st Century, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Suzuki, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, CREST, JST, and COE Program in the 21st Century, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Miwa, Masao [Department of Pharmaco-Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, and COE Program in the 21st Century, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: miwa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor CAR is a member of the nuclear receptors which regulate transcription of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. CAR is usually localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Here, we found that CAR was localized at the cell surface of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of a viral envelope glycoprotein, either hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), but not viral nucleoprotein (NP), was responsible for this localization. This report is the first demonstration of CAR at the surface of tissue culture cells, and suggests that CAR may exert the IAV infection mechanism.

  6. Reaction of single-cross hybrid corn to sorghum yellow banding virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pe, Aye

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    leaving the large solid materials behind. Carborundum (Silicon carbide), 600 mesh, was added to 1 percent (weight/volume), or 10 gram per liter. The SYBV suspension was kept at a cold temperature to maintain infectivity of the virus, and it was used..., from a distance of 2-5 cm, with an inoculum flow rate of 20 ml/minute, approximately. 10 Sprayers were shaken frequently during inoculation to keep carborundum in suspension. The following characters were studied in the experiment. ant hei h...

  7. The impact of social stress on acute Theiler's murine encephalitis virus infection.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robin Ranee

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of the same patience and brilliance. My undergraduate helpers were essential and my gratitude immeasurable; the list is long, but a few stood out: Larissa Husband, Gabby Oroza, Heath McCullough, and Patrick Bridegam- you guys are the best! Heath... the divergent effects of stress on disease course. Theiler?s virus infection in mice has been used for many decades to study MS. Using this model, the many possible aspects of stress- immune interactions can be explored in a controlled manner. Theiler...

  8. Corticosterone mediates the effects of chronic stress on Theiler's virus in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satterlee, Danielle Marie

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    have shown chronic stress increases susceptibility to herpes simplex and influenza viruses in mice and that this effect is mediated by the stress hormone corticosterone (DeLano, 8 Mallery, 1998; Sheridan, Dobbs, Jung, Chu, Konstantinos, Padgett... Scores: Experiment 1 I o O V) rii O C O lA L I/R I/O N/R Condition N/C Fig. 3. The mean worst clinical scores are compared for each group: infected-restrained (I/R), infected-control (I/C), noninfected-restrained (N/R), and noninfected...

  9. Host genetics of Epstein-Barr virus infection, latency and disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Dean M, Carrington M, Winkler C, et al. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to 511 AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study, 512 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter... Therapy 2014; 25: A9-A9. 531 19. Cohen JI, Mocarski ES, Raab-Traub N, Corey L, Nabel GJ. The need and challenges for 532 development of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine. Vaccine 2013; 31 Suppl 2: B194-196. DOI: S0264-533 410X(12)01361-8 [pii] 534 10...

  10. A decrease of circulating CD4? T cells in Attwater's prairie chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferro, Pamela Joyce Bloomer

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to the OAice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by Ellen W. Collisson (Co-chair of Committee) Thomas L. Lester (Co... Infected with Reticulodendotheliosis Virus. (May 2001) Pamela Joyce Bloomer Ferro, B. S. , Texas AkM University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ellen W. Collisson Dr. Thomas L. Lester A problem encountered by captive breeding facilities attempting...

  11. Characterization of a virus associated with head and lateral line erosion syndrome (HLLE) in marine angelfish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varner, Patricia Wilcox

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model L-2 ultracentrifuge for 1. 5 hr using a swing-bucket type rotor (SW41 or SW28). The virus pellet was resuspended in 1 ml TNE buffer (0. 025 M Tris [Mallinckrodt, Paris, KY, USA], 0. 1 M NaCl, 1mM EDTA [Sigma Chemical Co. , St. Louis, MO, USA], p..., Buffalo, NY, USA). Determination of nucleic acid type. FUDR (5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine; Sigma Chemical Co. , St. Louis, MO, USA), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, was utilized to determine the nucleic acid type of the viral isolate. Maintenance media from...

  12. Electron microscopic investigations and indexing studies of psorosis and citrus ringspot virus of citrus / by Margaret Atchison Barkley 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkley, Margaret Atchison

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -253. In W. C. Price, (ed. ) Pro- ceedings 3rd Conf. Intern. Organ. Citrus Virol. Univ. of Florida Press, Gainesville. 1968. Purification of citrus crinkly-leaf virus. p. 255-263. In J. F. L Childs, (ed. ) Proceedings 4th Conf. Intern. Organ. Citrus...:519-520. 19. 1961. Mechanical transmission of infectious variega- tion virus in citrus and non-citrus hosts. p. 197-204. In W. C. Price, (ed. ) Proc. 2nd Conf. Intern. Organ. Citrus Virol. Univ. of Florida Press, Gainesville. 20. Greenwood, A. P, , R. M...

  13. Measles virus attachment proteins with impaired ability to bind CD46 interact more efficiently with the homologous fusion protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, Elizabeth A. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Iorio, Ronald M. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.iorio@umassmed.edu

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion promotion by measles virus (MV) depends on an interaction between the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Amino acid substitutions in MV H that drastically reduce hemagglutinating activity result in an increase in the amount of H (primarily the 74 kDa isoform) detectable in a complex with F at the cell surface. This is in direct contrast to the loss of the ability to detect a complex between the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus and most attachment proteins that lack receptor binding activity. These opposing results provide support for the existence of different mechanisms for the regulation of fusion by these two paramyxoviruses.

  14. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  15. Solution structure and functional analysis of a frameshift-stimulating RNA pseudoknot from sugarcane yellow leaf virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornish, Peter Verle

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant luteoviral RNA viruses employ -1 frameshifting for the production of P1 and P1-P2 fusion proteins important for viral replication. Luteoviral pseudoknots are characterized by three adenosines in the 3' side of loop L2 known to be important...

  16. Multistage adsorption of diffusing macromolecules and viruses Department of Biomathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1766

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Orsogna, Maria Rita

    Multistage adsorption of diffusing macromolecules and viruses Tom Chou Department of Biomathematics that describe adsorption of diffusing particles onto a surface followed by additional surface kinetic steps.1063/1.2764053 I. INTRODUCTION The kinetics of surface particle adsorption and of trans- port through interfaces

  17. Enhancement of CD8+ T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus NF-?B inhibitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J.; de Motes, Carlos Maluquer; Sumner, Rebecca P.; Harman, Laura; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    induction of NF-kappaB activation via an ERK2 pathway in virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells. J Virol 2006;80(17):8676-85. 63. Harte MT, Haga IR, Maloney G, et al. The poxvirus protein A52R targets Toll-like receptor signaling complexes...

  18. The Role of Climatic and Environmental Variability on West Nile Virus in Harris County, Texas, 2006-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhane, Stephen

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Between the years 2006-2007, Harris County, located at the heart of the Houston metropolitan area, experienced a nearly 90% decline in the number of female mosquitoes which tested positive for the West Nile virus. Different theories exist as to why...

  19. Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with cells in organised lymphoid tissue influence innate and adaptive immune responses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juleff, Nicholas Dylan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to that in the controls, including rapid isotype switching to IgG antibody. These data suggest that antibody responses to sites on the surface of the virus capsid are T cell-independent whereas those directed against the non-structural proteins are T cell-dependent. CD4...

  20. Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Caroline Mary

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Karen-Beth G. Scholthof, who together with Herman, gave me early laboratory experience and the best plant virology course ever. I will always be indebted to Dr. Gary McBride, former interim assistant director of the Citrus Center for sorting out a... CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS-INFECTED MEXICAN LIME PLANT WITH SIMILARITIES TO MARAFIVIRUSES.............................................. 182 6.1 Summary............................................................................ 182 6...

  1. Development and characterization of a Rift Valley fever virus cell-cell fusion assay using alphavirus replicon vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filone, Claire Marie [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 301 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Heise, Mark [Departments of Genetics and Microbiology and Immunology, The Carolina Vaccine Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Doms, Robert W. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 301 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: doms@mail.med.upenn.edu; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea [Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 301 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: aciarlet@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, is transmitted by mosquitoes and infects both humans and domestic animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Since primary RVFV strains must be handled in BSL-3+ or BSL-4 facilities, a RVFV cell-cell fusion assay will facilitate the investigation of RVFV glycoprotein function under BSL-2 conditions. As for other members of the Bunyaviridae family, RVFV glycoproteins are targeted to the Golgi, where the virus buds, and are not efficiently delivered to the cell surface. However, overexpression of RVFV glycoproteins using an alphavirus replicon vector resulted in the expression of the glycoproteins on the surface of multiple cell types. Brief treatment of RVFV glycoprotein expressing cells with mildly acidic media (pH 6.2 and below) resulted in rapid and efficient syncytia formation, which we quantified by {beta}-galactosidase {alpha}-complementation. Fusion was observed with several cell types, suggesting that the receptor(s) for RVFV is widely expressed or that this acid-dependent virus does not require a specific receptor to mediate cell-cell fusion. Fusion occurred over a broad temperature range, as expected for a virus with both mosquito and mammalian hosts. In contrast to cell fusion mediated by the VSV-G glycoprotein, RVFV glycoprotein-dependent cell fusion could be prevented by treating target cells with trypsin, indicating that one or more proteins (or protein-associated carbohydrate) on the host cell surface are needed to support membrane fusion. The cell-cell fusion assay reported here will make it possible to study the membrane fusion activity of RVFV glycoproteins in a high-throughput format and to screen small molecule inhibitors for the ability to block virus-specific membrane fusion.

  2. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR independently and interactively altered immunity to WNv in chickens. Further characterization of how variations in SR-exposure to and CORT levels in chickens and wild birds relate to laboratory WNv-infection trials is warranted in order to place these findings into an epidemiological context.

  3. Impact of Charge Variation on the Encapsulation of Nanoparticles by Virus Coat Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiang-Ku; Zandi, Roya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic interaction is the driving force for the encapsulation by virus coat proteins of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, gold particles and magnetic beads for, e.g., imaging and therapeutic purposes. In recent experimental work, Daniel et al. [ACS Nano 4 (2010), 3853-3860] found the encapsulation efficiency to sensitively depend on the interplay between the surface charge density of negatively charged gold nanoparticles and the number of positive charges on the RNA binding domains of the proteins. Surprisingly, these experiments reveal that despite the highly cooperative nature of the co-assembly at low pH, the efficiency of encapsulation is a gradual function of their surface charge density. We present a simple all-or-nothing mass action law combined with an electrostatic interaction model to explain the experiments. We find quantitative agreement with experimental observations, supporting the existence of a natural statistical charge distribution between nanoparticles.

  4. Impact of Charge Variation on the Encapsulation of Nanoparticles by Virus Coat Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiang-Ku Lin; Paul van der Schoot; Roya Zandi

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic interaction is the driving force for the encapsulation by virus coat proteins of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, gold particles and magnetic beads for, e.g., imaging and therapeutic purposes. In recent experimental work, Daniel et al. [ACS Nano 4 (2010), 3853-3860] found the encapsulation efficiency to sensitively depend on the interplay between the surface charge density of negatively charged gold nanoparticles and the number of positive charges on the RNA binding domains of the proteins. Surprisingly, these experiments reveal that despite the highly cooperative nature of the co-assembly at low pH, the efficiency of encapsulation is a gradual function of their surface charge density. We present a simple all-or-nothing mass action law combined with an electrostatic interaction model to explain the experiments. We find quantitative agreement with experimental observations, supporting the existence of a natural statistical charge distribution between nanoparticles.

  5. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on tobacco tissue and tobacco mosaic virus multiplication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Lester Lynn

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?mb i of virus lesions i&roducod by l0 half leaf r pli! Siiors with treatments applied dirr ct Ly to & elean NN! 7 eaves. 32 Number cf de i's post i"1ocuLat'ion w71en samp7es from 7eaves oi' Sar sun plants pret" sated with DNSO first produced local... with in ;: f'e, days after the inif iation of the experj ment. cssav of tis, u ~ f?oa: this shoot . :as made on the iw. clith day post inoc:la' ior an ! the viru- was detected. The same plant beg:n to fiowe. o? Ll, fo '. teenth day of tl"e exp riment. ). 11...

  6. Phylogenomic analysis of 11 complete African swine fever virus genome sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villiers, Etienne P. de, E-mail: e.villiers@cgiar.or [International Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709, Nairobi 00100 (Kenya); Gallardo, Carmina; Arias, Marisa [EU reference Laboratory for ASF, CISA-INIA, Crta Algete el Cesar s/n 28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid (Spain); Silva, Melissa da; Upton, Chris [Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P6 (Canada); Martin, Raquel [EU reference Laboratory for ASF, CISA-INIA, Crta Algete el Cesar s/n 28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid (Spain); Bishop, Richard P. [International Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709, Nairobi 00100 (Kenya)

    2010-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Viral molecular epidemiology has traditionally analyzed variation in single genes. Whole genome phylogenetic analysis of 123 concatenated genes from 11 ASFV genomes, including E75, a newly sequenced virulent isolate from Spain, identified two clusters. One contained South African isolates from ticks and warthog, suggesting derivation from a sylvatic transmission cycle. The second contained isolates from West Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. Two isolates, from Kenya and Malawi, were outliers. Of the nine genomes within the clusters, seven were within p72 genotype 1. The 11 genomes sequenced comprised only 5 of the 22 p72 genotypes. Comparison of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations at the genome level identified 20 genes subject to selection pressure for diversification. A novel gene of the E75 virus evolved by the fusion of two genes within the 360 multicopy family. Comparative genomics reveals high diversity within a limited sample of the ASFV viral gene pool.

  7. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

  8. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on tobacco tissue and tobacco mosaic virus multiplication 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Lester Lynn

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?mb i of virus lesions i&roducod by l0 half leaf r pli! Siiors with treatments applied dirr ct Ly to & elean NN! 7 eaves. 32 Number cf de i's post i"1ocuLat'ion w71en samp7es from 7eaves oi' Sar sun plants pret" sated with DNSO first produced local... with in ;: f'e, days after the inif iation of the experj ment. cssav of tis, u ~ f?oa: this shoot . :as made on the iw. clith day post inoc:la' ior an ! the viru- was detected. The same plant beg:n to fiowe. o? Ll, fo '. teenth day of tl"e exp riment. ). 11...

  9. Evolving T-cell vaccine strategies for HIV, the virus with a thousand faces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIV's rapid global spread and the human suffering it has left in its wake have made AIDS a global heath priority for the 25 years since its discovery. Yet its capacity to rapidly evolve has made combating this virus a tremendous challenge. The obstacles to creating an effective HIV vaccine are formidable, but there are advances in the field on many fronts, in terms of novel vectors, adjuvants, and antigen design strategies. SIV live attenuated vaccine models are able to confer protection against heterologous challenge, and this continues to provide opportunities to explore the biological underpinnings of a protective effect (9). More indirect, but equally important, is new understanding regarding the biology of acute infection (43), the role of immune response in long-term non-progression (6,62, 81), and defining characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies (4). In this review we will focus on summarizing strategies directed towards a single issue, that of contending with HIV variation in terms of designing aT-cell vaccine. The strategies that prove most effective in this area can ultimately be combined with the best strategies under development in other areas, with the hope of ultimately converging on a viable vaccine candidate. Only two large HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been completed and both have failed to prevent infection or confer a benefit to infected individual (23,34), but there is ample reason to continue our efforts. A historic breakthrough came in 1996, when it was realized that although the virus could escape from a single antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, it could be thwarted by a combination of medications that simultaneously targeted different parts of the virus (HAART) (38). This revelation came after 15 years of research, thought, and clinical testing; to enable that vital progress the research and clinical communities had to first define and understand, then develop a strategy to counter, the remarkable evolutionary potential of the virus. HAART, for the first time, provided an effective treatment to help those with living with HIV stay healthy. Nonetheless, the treatment has limitations. People with HIV face a lifetime of expensive daily multi-drug regimens, often with side effects; drug resistance at the individual and population level are issues (56); and universal access, despite substantial progress, is a dream not yet realized for many of the millions of the world's poor who are living with HIV (68). These issues, combined with the growing numbers of people infected globally and impact of HIV on society, make the development of an HIV vaccine or a prophylactic prevention strategy a crucial if elusive goal. In some ways, the history of HIV vaccine deVelopment has paralleled the early stages of designing effective therapy. We had to test the simple strategies first, but meanwhile the story of the impact of diversity from an immunological perspective is still unfolding, and novel ideas countermeasures are being explored.

  10. Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a unique clade in South Asia.

  11. Common Cold Self Care The "common cold" is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused a variety of different viruses. Antibiotics do not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for 3 to 4 weeks. Cold viruses are spread from person to person through coughs, sneezes, and mucus symptoms, facial pressure, and cough are no better or worse after 1 ­ 2 weeks, consider contacting

  12. Versatile Three-Dimensional Virus-Based Template for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Improved Electron Transport and Light Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po-Yen

    By genetically encoding affinity for inorganic materials into the capsid proteins of the M13 bacteriophage, the virus can act as a template for the synthesis of nanomaterial composites for use in various device applications. ...

  13. Antigenic Variation of Clade 2.1 H5N1 Virus Is Determined by a Few Amino Acid Substitutions Immediately Adjacent to the Receptor Binding Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koel, Björn F.; van der Vliet, Stefan; Burke, David F.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Bharoto, Eny E.; Yasa, I. Wayan W.; Herliana, Inna; Laksono, Brigitta; Xu, Kemin; Skepner, Eugene; Russell, Colin A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Perez, Daniel R.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smith, Derek J.; Prajitno, Teguh Y.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Infectious Diseases, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdomc; JAPFA Comfeed, Indonesiad; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, and Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, College Park, Maryland... as 2005. After a series of HPAI H5N1 virus outbreaks from 2006 to 2008 and as a result of monitoring of avian influenza virus variants by the Indo- nesian OFFLU project (9), the poultry vaccine recommendation was updated to contain an A/Chicken/West Java...

  14. An assay of duck hepatitis virus induced interferon, produced in duck embryo fibro-blasts which have experienced short term treatment with DDT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauder, Richard Burgess

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ASSAY OP DUCK HEPATITIS VIRUS INDUCED INTERFERON, PRODUCED IN DUCK EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS WHICH HAVE EXPERIENCED SHORT TERM TREATMENT WITH DDT A Thesis by BURGESS BAUDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial... WITH DDT A Thesi. s by /'. ". " . "i BURGESS BAUDER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Member) (Member) (Member) August 1973 ABSTRACT An Assay of Duck Hepatitis Virus Induced Interferon, Produced...

  15. NATURE|Vol 435|26 May 2005 AVIAN FLU COMMENTARY IsChinapreparedformicrobialthreats?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    ? The Chinese epidemic surveillance system seems appropriate on paper, with its extensive net- work of disease, such as those at the Epidemio- logic Intelligence Service of the US Centers for Disease Control or at the World infectious diseases worldwide could serve as a model. Once the information is received centrally

  16. 1.11.13 "Oh no--I think I have the flu! Now what?!"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective. Cough or sneeze into your elbow, or use a tissue. Avoid touching your eyes, nose

  17. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and INSTRUCTORS Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    to person when germs released from coughing and sneezing enter the nose and / or throat. Germs can also rest) or higher, a cough and one or more of the following: sore throat, muscle aches, joint pain, headaches (MHHL) recommends the following precautions: · Cover your cough by coughing into your elbow or sleeve

  18. Flu is a serious contagious disease. Each year in the United States, on average, more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    include: fever (usually high) headache extreme tiredness dry cough runny or stuffy nose muscle aches with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective

  19. H1N1 INFLUENZA (FLU) and YOU Version: 2.0 Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    to person when germs released from coughing and sneezing enter the nose and / or throat. Germs can also rest: Sudden Fever (100.4ºF / 38ºC); Cough; Runny nose; Sore throat; Body aches; Fatigue / physical Living (MHHL) recommends the following precautions: Cover your cough by coughing into your elbow

  20. Decision ChartProtecting Yourself, Protecting Others IF YOU HAVE FLU SYMPTOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures to avoid contamination: > Wash your hands frequently. > Cough or sneeze into the crook of your these symptoms: > Sore throat > Stuffy nose > Runny nose > Cough SITUATION FOR AN ADULT OR CHILD The person has a fever over 38°C (100.4°F). The fever came on suddenly and is accompanied by these symptoms: > Cough

  1. Real-Time Digital Flu Surveillance using Twitter Data Ankit Agrawal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    place people turn for health information. People most often search for a specific disease or medical- 0938000, CCF-1043085, CCF-1029166, and OCI-1144061, and in part by DOE grants DE-FG02-08ER25848, DE-SC0001283, DE- SC0005309, DE-SC0005340, and DE-SC0007456. there is usually 1-2 weeks time lag before

  2. FLU ALERT SPRING 2014 WHAT CAN I DO TO STAY HEALTHY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    . When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your inside elbow. It may prevent

  3. Managing in the Home How to protect yourself and care for your family with the flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    with a waterproof dressing. 2. Cover your coughs & sneezes If you or members of your family are coughing or sneezing when you cough or sneeze and always put your used tissue into a rubbish tin. If you don't have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve, not your hands. Don't spit, and cover your mouth

  4. This factsheet gives advice about what to do if you think you have swine flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    F) or above, and some of the following: cough, sore throat, headache, tiredness, aching muscles, aching joints

  5. Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S M; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Vitalis, B; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed candidate multiplexed assays that may potentially be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the ability to improve our nation's capability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect food and agricultural resources with a diagnostic test which could enhance the nation's capabilities for early detection of a foreign animal disease. In FY2005 with funding from the DHS, LLNL developed the first version (Version 1.0) of a multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based RT-PCR assay that included signatures for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases (FADs) of swine, Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus [BPSV], Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). In FY06, LLNL has developed Bovine and Porcine species-specific panel which included existing signatures from Version 1.0 panel as well as new signatures. The MUX RT-PCR porcine assay for detection of FMDV includes the FADs, VESV and SVD in addition to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). LLNL has also developed a MUX RT-PCR bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine FADs malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox viruses (which are of two bovine types) bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). A timeline for this development is presented in Table 1. The development of the Version 1.0 panel for FMDV rule-out and the most current efforts aimed to designed species specific panels has spanned over 2 1/2 years with multiple collaborative partnerships. This document provides a summary of the development, testing and performance data at OIE Stage 1 Feasibility into Stage 2 Assay Development and Standardization1 (see Table 2), gathered as of June 30th, 2007 for the porcine and bovine MUX assay panels. We present an overview of the identification and selection of candidate genetic signatures, the assay development process, and preliminary performance data for each of the individual signatures as characterized in the multiplexed format for the porcine and bovine panels. The Stage 1 Feasibility data of the multiplexed panels is presented in this report also includes relevant data acquired from the Version 1.0 panel as supporting information where appropriate. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must precede efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available. As a summary report, this document does not provide the details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, nor does it provide spec

  6. Towards understanding of Nipah virus attachment protein assembly and the role of protein affinity and crowding for membrane curvature events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Hayden, Carl C.; Negrete, Oscar A.; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pathogenic viruses are a primary threat to our national security and to the health and economy of our world. Effective defense strategies to combat viral infection and spread require the development of understanding of the mechanisms that these pathogens use to invade the host cell. We present in this report results of our research into viral particle recognition and fusion to cell membranes and the role that protein affinity and confinement in lipid domains plays in membrane curvature in cellular fusion and fission events. Herein, we describe 1) the assembly of the G attachment protein of Nipah virus using point mutation studies to define its role in viral particle fusion to the cell membrane, 2) how lateral pressure of membrane bound proteins induce curvature in model membrane systems, and 3) the role of membrane curvature in the selective partitioning of molecular receptors and specific affinity of associated proteins.

  7. The role of quail bronchitis virus as a possible precipitating factor in "air sac syndrome" of chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Jerry Bob

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is caused by a filterable virus which is contagious and spreads rapidly throughout a flock. Age does not confer immunity. In infected chickens under six weeks, respiratory signs include gasping, coughing, and sneezing. Nasal discharges are:commonly sean... having a respiratory infection with a high mortality rate. Losses in some pens were 70% to 809o' and respiratory signs ranged from slight rales to coughing. There was no nasal discharge. Nervous signs were seen in a few of the infected quail...

  8. The Chlorella variabilis NC64A Genome Reveals Adaptation to Photosymbiosis, Coevolution with Viruses, and Cryptic Sex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Guillaume; Duncan, Garry A.; Agarakova, Irina; Borodovsky, Mark; Gurnon, James; Kuo, Alan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangailinan, Jasmyn; Polle, Juergen; Salamov, Asaf; Terry, Astrid; Yamada, Takashi; Dunigan, David D.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Etten, James L. Van

    2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorella variabilis NC64A, a unicellular photosynthetic green alga (Trebouxiophyceae), is an intracellular photobiont of Paramecium bursaria and a model system for studying virus/algal interactions. We sequenced its 46-Mb nuclear genome, revealing an expansion of protein families that could have participated in adaptation to symbiosis. NC64A exhibits variations in GC content across its genome that correlate with global expression level, average intron size, and codon usage bias. Although Chlorella species have been assumed to be asexual and nonmotile, the NC64A genome encodes all the known meiosis-specific proteins and a subset of proteins found in flagella. We hypothesize that Chlorella might have retained a flagella-derived structure that could be involved in sexual reproduction. Furthermore, a survey of phytohormone pathways in chlorophyte algae identified algal orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting that these functions were established prior to the evolution of land plants. We show that the ability of Chlorella to produce chitinous cell walls likely resulted from the capture of metabolic genes by horizontal gene transfer from algal viruses, prokaryotes, or fungi. Analysis of the NC64A genome substantially advances our understanding of the green lineage evolution, including the genomic interplay with viruses and symbiosis between eukaryotes.

  9. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T. [Panacos Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 209 Perry Parkway, Suite 7, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 (United States); Salzwedel, Karl, E-mail: salzwedelkd@niaid.nih.go [Panacos Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 209 Perry Parkway, Suite 7, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 (United States)

    2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of RSV F-mediated membrane fusion and have important implications for the identification of therapeutic strategies and vaccines targeting RSV F protein conformational changes.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polani, Sagi, E-mail: sagi.polani@gmail.co [Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Roca, Alfred L., E-mail: roca@illinois.ed [Department of Animal Sciences and Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rosensteel, Bryan B., E-mail: bryanr1@umbc.ed [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis, E-mail: koloko@amnh.or [Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila, E-mail: bargal@agri.huji.ac.i [Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  11. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan)] [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan) [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan)] [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan)] [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  12. The cowpox virus fusion regulator proteins SPI-3 and hemagglutinin interact in infected and uninfected cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Peter C. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 100266/1600 SW Archer Road, ARB R2-231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0266 (United States)]. E-mail: pturner@mgm.ufl.edu; Moyer, Richard W. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 100266/1600 SW Archer Road, ARB R2-231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0266 (United States)]. E-mail: rmoyer@ufl.edu

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The serpin SPI-3 and the hemagglutinin (HA) encoded by cowpox virus (CPV) block cell-cell fusion, and colocalize at the cell surface. wtCPV does not fuse cells, but inactivation of either gene leads to fusion. SPI-3 mAb added to wtCPV-infected cells caused fusion, confirming that SPI-3 protein at the cell surface prevents fusion. The SPI-3 mAb epitope mapped to an 85-amino acid region at the C-terminus. Removal of either 44 residues from the SPI-3 C-terminus or 48 residues following the N-terminal signal sequence resulted in fusion. Interaction between SPI-3 and HA proteins in infected cells was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. SPI-3/HA was not associated with the A27L 'fusion' protein. SPI-3 and HA were able to associate in uninfected cells in the absence of other viral proteins. The HA-binding domain in SPI-3 resided in the C-terminal 229 residues, and did not include helix D, which mediates cofactor interaction in many other serpins.

  13. Dying for Good: Virus-Bacterium Biofilm Co-evolution Enhances Environmental Fitness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hongjun; Squier, Thomas C.; Long, Philip E.

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Commonly used in biotechnology applications, filamentous M13 phage are non-lytic viruses that infect E. coli and other bacteria, with the potential to promote horizontal gene transfer in natural populations with synthetic biology implications for engineering community systems. Using the E. coli strain TG1, we have investigated how a selective pressure involving elevated levels of toxic chromate, mimicking that found in some superfund sites, alters population dynamics following infection with either wild-type M13 phage or an M13-phage encoding a chromate reductase (Gh-ChrR) capable of the reductive immobilization of chromate (ie, M13-phageGh-ChrR). In the absence of a selective pressure, M13-phage infection results in a reduction in bacterial growth rate; in comparison, in the presence of chromate there are substantial increases in both cellular killing and biomass formation following infection of E. coli strain TG1with M13-phageGh-ChrR that is dependent on chromate-reductase activity. These results are discussed in terms of community structures that facilitate lateral gene transfer of beneficial traits that enhance phage replication, infectivity, and stability against environmental change.

  14. The role of packaging sites in efficient and specific virus assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Perlmutter; M. F. Hagan

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the lifecycle of many single-stranded RNA viruses, including many human pathogens, a protein shell called the capsid spontaneously assembles around the viral genome. Understanding the mechanisms by which capsid proteins selectively assemble around the viral RNA amidst diverse host RNAs is a key question in virology. In one proposed mechanism, sequence elements (packaging sites) within the genomic RNA promote rapid and efficient assembly through specific interactions with the capsid proteins. In this work we develop a coarse-grained particle-based computational model for capsid proteins and RNA which represents protein-RNA interactions arising both from non-specific electrostatics and specific packaging sites interactions. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore how the efficiency and specificity of assembly depend on solution conditions (which control protein-protein and nonspecific protein-RNA interactions) as well as the strength and number of packaging sites. We identify distinct regions in parameter space in which packaging sites lead to highly specific assembly via different mechanisms, and others in which packaging sites lead to kinetic traps. We relate these computational predictions to in vitro assays for specificity in which cognate viral RNAs are compete against non-cognate RNAs for assembly by capsid proteins.

  15. Terminal structures of West Nile virus genomic RNA and their interactions with viral NS5 protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Hongping; Zhang Bo [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States); Shi Peiyong [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)], E-mail: pei_yong.shi@novartis.com

    2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome cyclization is essential for flavivirus replication. We used RNases to probe the structures formed by the 5'-terminal 190 nucleotides and the 3'-terminal 111 nucleotides of the West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA. When analyzed individually, the two RNAs adopt stem-loop structures as predicted by the thermodynamic-folding program. However, when mixed together, the two RNAs form a duplex that is mediated through base-pairings of two sets of RNA elements (5'CS/3'CSI and 5'UAR/3'UAR). Formation of the RNA duplex facilitates a conformational change that leaves the 3'-terminal nucleotides of the genome (position - 8 to - 16) to be single-stranded. Viral NS5 binds specifically to the 5'-terminal stem-loop (SL1) of the genomic RNA. The 5'SL1 RNA structure is essential for WNV replication. The study has provided further evidence to suggest that flavivirus genome cyclization and NS5/5'SL1 RNA interaction facilitate NS5 binding to the 3' end of the genome for the initiation of viral minus-strand RNA synthesis.

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies to West Nile virus identify epitopes on the prM protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvert, Amanda E., E-mail: zpz0@cdc.go [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Kalantarov, Gavreel F. [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Chang, Gwong-Jen J. [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States); Trakht, Ilya [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blair, Carol D. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, For Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Roehrig, John T. [Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521 (United States)

    2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybridoma cell lines (2E8, 8G8 and 5G12) producing fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) specific for the pre-membrane (prM) protein of West Nile virus (WNV) were prepared using a human fusion partner cell line, MFP-2, and human peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor diagnosed with WNV fever in 2004. Using site-directed mutagenesis of a WNV-like particle (VLP) we identified 4 amino acid residues in the prM protein unique to WNV and important in the binding of these hMAbs to the VLP. Residues V19 and L33 are important epitopes for the binding of all three hMAbs. Mutations at residue, T20 and T24 affected the binding of hMAbs, 8G8 and 5G12 only. These hMAbs did not significantly protect AG129 interferon-deficient mice or Swiss Webster outbred mice from WNV infection.

  17. Structural Insight into the Mechanisms of Enveloped Virus Tethering by Tetherin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H Yang; J Wang; X Jia; M McNatt; T Zang; B Pan; W Meng; H Wang; P Bieniasz; Y Xiong

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Here we report three crystal structures of human tetherin, including the full-length ectodomain, a triple cysteine mutant and an ectodomain truncation. These structures show that tetherin forms a continuous alpha helix encompassing almost the entire ectodomain. Tetherin helices dimerize into parallel coiled coils via interactions throughout the C-terminal portion of the ectodomain. A comparison of the multiple structures of the tetherin dimer reveals inherent constrained flexibility at two hinges positioned at residues A88 and G109. In the crystals, two tetherin ectodomain dimers associate into a tetramer by forming an antiparallel four-helix bundle at their N termini. However, mutagenesis studies suggest that the tetrametric form of tetherin, although potentially contributing to, is not essential for its antiviral activity. Nonetheless, the structural and chemical properties of the N terminus of the ectodomain are important for optimal tethering function. This study provides detailed insight into the mechanisms by which this broad-spectrum antiviral restriction factor can function.

  18. Structural insight into the mechanisms of enveloped virus tethering by tetherin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Haitao; Wang, Jimin; Jia, Xiaofei; McNatt, Matthew W.; Zang, Trinity; Pan, Baocheng; Meng, Wuyi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Xiong, Yong (Yale); (Rockefeller)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetherin/BST2 is a type-II membrane protein that inhibits the release of a range of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Here we report three crystal structures of human tetherin, including the full-length ectodomain, a triple cysteine mutant and an ectodomain truncation. These structures show that tetherin forms a continuous alpha helix encompassing almost the entire ectodomain. Tetherin helices dimerize into parallel coiled coils via interactions throughout the C-terminal portion of the ectodomain. A comparison of the multiple structures of the tetherin dimer reveals inherent constrained flexibility at two hinges positioned at residues A88 and G109. In the crystals, two tetherin ectodomain dimers associate into a tetramer by forming an antiparallel four-helix bundle at their N termini. However, mutagenesis studies suggest that the tetrametric form of tetherin, although potentially contributing to, is not essential for its antiviral activity. Nonetheless, the structural and chemical properties of the N terminus of the ectodomain are important for optimal tethering function. This study provides detailed insight into the mechanisms by which this broad-spectrum antiviral restriction factor can function.

  19. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Mwangi, Waithaka [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Hernandez, Jesus, E-mail: jhdez@ciad.m [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  20. A laboratory screening technique for evaluating the reaction of selected maize cultivars (Zea mays L.) to maize rayado fino virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinner, Glenn Earl

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s L. ) to Maize Rayado Fino Virus. (December 1979) Glenn Earl Skinner, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Anton J. Bockholt Fifty inbred lines and 8 single-cross maize hybrids (Zea m~as L. ) were inoculated with maize... or newly developed varieties (7) . Th '. tt* th ill ' gp g 1 ll th tyl 1th l~l 'ourna l. Attempts have been made to gain information on the performance of U. S. maize germplasm in areas with a high incidence of MRFV, but these attempts have not been...

  1. Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Stosky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffery M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Noah4, Chad E. Schroeder5, Julie B. Sotsky2, Melinda I. Sosa4, Daniel E. Cramer2, Sara N. McKellip4, Lynn Rasmussen4, E. Lucile White4, Connie S. Schmaljohn6, Justin G. Julander7, Jeffrey M. Smith6, Claire Marie Filone8, John H. Connor8, Yasuteru... infection. Citation: Chung D-H, Jonsson CB, Tower NA, Chu Y-K, Sahin E, et al. (2014) Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2. PLoS Pathog 10(6): e1004213. doi:10...

  2. Structure of the Ulster Strain Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Reveals Auto-Inhibitory Interactions Associated with Low Virulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Ping; Paterson, Reay G.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) plays roles in viral entry and maturation, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activation of the F protein to drive membrane fusion, and enabling virion release during virus budding. HN can thereby directly influence virulence and in a subset of avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, such as NDV Ulster, HN must be proteolytically activated to remove a C-terminal extension not found in other NDV HN proteins. Ulster HN is 616 amino acids long and the 45 amino acid C-terminal extension present in its precursor (HN0) form has to be cleaved to render HN biologically active. Here we show that Ulster HN contains an inter-subunit disulfide bond within the C-terminal extension at residue 596, which regulates HN activities and neuraminidase (NA) domain dimerization. We determined the crystal structure of the dimerized NA domain containing the C-terminal extension, which extends along the outside of the sialidase {beta}-propeller domain and inserts C-terminal residues into the NA domain active site. The C-terminal extension also engages a secondary sialic acid binding site present in NDV HN proteins, which is located at the NA domain dimer interface, that most likely blocks its attachment function. These results clarify how the Ulster HN C-terminal residues lead to an auto-inhibited state of HN, the requirement for proteolytic activation of HN{sub 0} and associated reduced virulence.

  3. Varicella-Zoster Virus IE4 Protein Interacts with SR Proteins and Exports mRNAs through the TAP/NXF1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Varicella-Zoster Virus IE4 Protein Interacts with SR Proteins and Exports mRNAs through the TAP experiments the presence of RNA stabilizes complexes containing IE4 and the cellular export factors TAP/NXF1 the export of reporter mRNAs and clearly showed, by TAP/NXF1 knockdown, that VZV infection requires the TAP

  4. Influence of the host cell factors CK2, hTERT, and PML, on the antiviral response to herpes simplex virus type I infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Miles Christian

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    deploys a variety of defenses to limit the extent to which the virus can replicate. This thesis is the summation of projects that examined the impact of three host cell factors - those being CK2, hTERT, and PML - on HSV-1 replication. CK2 is a cellular...

  5. Principal maize viruses in Mediterranean countries D Ivanovi&jadnr; R Osler N Katis M Ivanovi&jadnr; D lgnjatovi&jadnr;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) (PAV- and RPV-like) were used in these tests. A higher disease incidence.7 and 11 % of individual Greek samples were positive for PAV- and RPV- respectively, while, 17.5 and 5% of Yugoslav samples were positive for PAV- and RPV- respectively. Phragmites sp, a perennial maize weed

  6. Professor Jotun Hein "Comparative Virus Annotation" Comparative Genomics has exploded in recent years and put the techniques of molecular evolution at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Professor Jotun Hein "Comparative Virus Annotation" Comparative Genomics has exploded in recent information from sequence data. Originally, sequences/genomes were obtained from a single species at a time, but as more genomes have been determined, it has become apparent that the true benefit of this enterprise lies

  7. Critical Role of the 36-nucleotide Insertion in Hepatitis B Virus Genotype G on Core Protein Expression, Genome Replication, and Virion Secretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Critical Role of the 36-nucleotide Insertion in Hepatitis B Virus Genotype G on Core Protein in the core protein due to a 36-nucleotide insertion near the core gene translation initiation codon transcription, genome replication, and virion secretion. Interestingly, the 36-nucleotide insertion markedly

  8. Development of an in vitro procedure to eradicate potato viruses X, Y, and S from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variety Russet Norko two of its strains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Carrero, Carmen Cecilia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tissue culture method was developed for the eradication of three of the most important potato viruses': PVX, PVY, and PVS from the Russet Norkotah variety and two of its strains (TXNS 278 and TXNS 112). The method combined the use of liquid medium...

  9. Environews Innovations A 468 VOLUME 113 | NUMBER 7 | July 2005 Environmental Health Perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environews Innovations A 468 VOLUME 113 | NUMBER 7 | July 2005 · Environmental Health Perspectives to existing treatments, such as chloroquine. Many experts believe that better repellents could help to control" with their antennae. Innovations | Outsmarting Olfaction #12;A 470 VOLUME 113 | NUMBER 7 | July 2005 · Environmental

  10. Separation of Yeast Cells from MS2 Viruses Using Acoustic Radiation Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K A; Mariella, Jr., R P

    2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a rapid and robust separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing in a microfluidic device. A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) generates acoustic standing waves in the microchannel. These standing waves induce acoustic radiation force fields that direct microparticles towards the nodes (i.e., pressure minima) or the anti-nodes (i.e., pressure maxima) of the standing waves depending on the relative compressidensity between the particle and the suspending liquid.[1] For particles larger than 2 {micro}m, the transverse velocities generated by these force fields enable continuous, high throughput separation. Extensive work in the last decade [2-4] has demonstrated acoustic focusing for manipulating microparticles or biological samples in microfluidic devices. This prior work has primarily focused on experimental realization of acoustic focusing without modeling or with limited one-dimensional modeling estimates. We recently developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices.[1] Here we compare results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. Figure 1 shows a typical experimental acoustic focusing result for microparticles (diameter = 2.0 {micro}m) in a 500 {micro}m wide by 200 {micro}m deep microchannel. In this case, the PZT driving frequency and voltage are, respectively, 1.459 MHz and 6.6 V. The microparticles tightly focus (full width half maximum (FWHM) {approx}30 {micro}m) less than 30 s after the initiation of the acoustic field. We simulated the same geometry and operating conditions for comparison. The surface plot in Figure 2 illustrates the two-dimensional pressure field orthogonal to the flow direction (x-direction) from the simulation. The superimposed vector plot shows the acoustic radiation force in this plane. The dark regions and the light regions respectively represent the nodes and anti-nodes of the acoustic pressure field. The corresponding force field predicts acoustic focusing at the center of the microchannel, which is confirmed by the experimental results shown in Figure 1. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (typical cell size of 4-6 {micro}m depending on the cell growth stage, measured using a Coulter counter) and MS2 bacteriophage (typical diameter {approx}30 nm [5]) using acoustic focusing (Figure 3). A mixture of S. cerevisiae and MS2 labeled with Ribogreen was prepared and injected into one inlet of the microchip (i.e., half of the microchannel was filled with the sample). We varied driving voltages from 1.96 to 4.76 V, while fixing the driving frequency at 1.459 MHz and flow rate at 20 {micro}l/min. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. Increased driving voltages enhanced the acoustic focusing of the yeast cells thereby achieving good separation. We are able to achieve yields of > 80% and sample purities of > 90% in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  11. An intrinsically disordered peptide from Ebola virus VP35 controls viral RNA synthesis by modulating nucleoprotein-RNA interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leung, Daisy  W.; Borek, Dominika; Luthra, Priya; Binning, Jennifer  M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Liu, Gai; Harvey, Ian B.; Su, Zhaoming; Endlich-Frazier, Ariel; Pan, Juanli; et al

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During viral RNA synthesis, Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) alternates between an RNA-template-bound form and a template-free form to provide the viral polymerase access to the RNA template. In addition, newly synthesized NP must be prevented from indiscriminately binding to noncognate RNAs. Here, we investigate the molecular bases for these critical processes. We identify an intrinsically disordered peptide derived from EBOV VP35 (NPBP, residues 20–48) that binds NP with high affinity and specificity, inhibits NP oligomerization, and releases RNA from NP-RNA complexes in vitro. The structure of the NPBP/?NPNTD complex, solved to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals how NPBP peptide occludesmore »a large surface area that is important for NP-NP and NP-RNA interactions and for viral RNA synthesis. Together, our results identify a highly conserved viral interface that is important for EBOV replication and can be targeted for therapeutic development.« less

  12. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  13. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  14. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  15. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yijun [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan (China); Pattnaik, Asit K. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States)] [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and the Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0900 (United States); Song, Cheng [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States) [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), indicating that the C-terminal domain of GP4 functions as a GPI anchor. Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. The residues T158 ({omega} - 2, where {omega} is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 ({omega} - 1), and M162 ({omega} + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. The complete removal of the peptide-anchor domain in GP4 resulted in a complete loss of virus infectivity. The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. Remarkably, GP4 was found to co-localize with CD163 in the lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus.

  16. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in collaboration with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has developed advanced rapid diagnostics that may be used within the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (Ames, Iowa) and the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC). This effort has the potential to improve our nation's ability to discriminate between foreign animal diseases and those that are endemic using a single assay, thereby increasing our ability to protect animal populations of high economic importance in the United States. Under 2005 DHS funding we have developed multiplexed (MUX) nucleic-acid-based PCR assays that combine foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) detection with rule-out tests for two other foreign animal diseases Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VESV) and Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD) and four other domestic viral diseases Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1 or Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitus IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Parapox virus complex (which includes Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus BPSV, Orf of sheep, and Pseudocowpox). Under 2006 funding we have developed a Multiplexed PCR [MUX] porcine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for VESV and SVD foreign animal diseases in addition to one other domestic vesicular animal disease vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and one domestic animal disease of swine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). We have also developed a MUX bovine assay for detection of FMDV with rule out tests for the two bovine foreign animal diseases malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest virus (RPV) and the domestic diseases vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitus virus (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV), and the Parapox viruses which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  17. Development of an in vitro procedure to eradicate potato viruses X, Y, and S from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variety Russet Norko two of its strains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Carrero, Carmen Cecilia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    members are readily transmitted by sap inoculation, and there are no confirmed vectors. Group members are cassava common mosaic, cymbidium mosaic, hydrangea ringspot, papaya mosaic, and pepino mosaic, (90). 12 Potato virus Y (PVY) belongs... range of plants, but most individual members have a relatively narrow host range. They are transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner and by sap inoculation. Some group members are seed transmitted. Group members include bean common mosaic...

  18. What are the symptoms of influenza? Influenza is also known as "the flu." The most common symptoms are fever with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    are fever with respiratory symptoms including cough, sore throat and body aches. Headaches, nausea, vomiting the clock;" frequency indicated on the product directions For cough: n Use a cough syrup cough n Breathing difficulty n Chest pain n Or other new severe symptoms Stay home from class and work

  19. INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS Avian Flu, measles, Mumps, SARs, and other infectious diseases can pose a threat to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    pose a threat to the University community as they do to communities worldwide. If there is an outbreak has extensive information on these and other health threats on their website (http are appropriate to the emerging threat and ready for implementation. Response team meets with increasing frequency

  20. To: Wesleyan student, staff, faculty and parents: This year's flu season has occurred early and is widespread. In order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    your hands with soap and water, especially after coughing or sneezing. Alcohol-based hand cleaners also and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. If you don't have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your (chills, night sweats) accompanied by cough, body aches, sore throat, runny nose, headache, or fatigue

  1. "When I have a cold or `flu' my mucus turns yellow. My mom always says that means I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    , thicken, and discolor overnight from sitting in the head - showing color in the morning when you "cough medications to lessen symptoms. Runny nose, posterior nasal drainage (PND), cough, sore throat, and symptoms. Often runny nose and intermittent cough are the last symptoms to resolve taking 2 weeks. Some students

  2. Rapid and reversible reduction of junctional permeability in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of avian sarcoma virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael M. Atkinson; A. S. Menko; Ross G. Johnson; J R Sheppard; Judson D. Sheridan

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The transformed or normal phenotype of cultured normal rat kidney cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of avian sarcoma virus is conditional on the temperature at which the cells are grown. Using dye injection techniques, we show that junction-mediated dye transfer is also temperature-sensitive. The extent and rate of transfer between infected cells grown at the transformation-permissive temperature (35 ° C) is significantly reduced when compared to infected cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature (40.5 ° C) or uninfected cells grown at either temperature. Infected cells subjected to reciprocal temperature shifts express rapid and reversible alterations of dye transfer capacities, with responses evident by 15 min and completed by 60 min for temperature shifts in either direction. These results suggest that altered junctional capacities may be fundamental to the expression of the ASV-induced, transformed phenotype. Most cells possess permeable junctions which connect the interiors of adjacent cells and allow the direct exchange oflow molecular weight substances (for review, see references 1-3). When present, such junctions provide the capacity for direct electrical communication between electrically excitable cells

  3. An integrated protein localization and interaction map for Potato yellow dwarf virus, type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindya; Kopperud, Kristin; Anderson, Gavin; Martin, Kathleen [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Goodin, Michael, E-mail: mgoodin@uky.ed [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The genome of Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV; Nucleorhabdovirus type species) was determined to be 12,875 nucleotides (nt). The antigenome is organized into seven open reading frames (ORFs) ordered 3'-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5', which likely encode the nucleocapsid, phospho, movement, matrix, glyco and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase proteins, respectively, except for X, which is of unknown function. The ORFs are flanked by a 3' leader RNA of 149 nt and a 5' trailer RNA of 97 nt, and are separated by conserved intergenic junctions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PYDV is closely related to other leafhopper-transmitted rhabdoviruses. Functional protein assays were used to determine the subcellular localization of PYDV proteins. Surprisingly, the M protein was able to induce the intranuclear accumulation of the inner nuclear membrane in the absence of any other viral protein. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation was used to generate the most comprehensive protein interaction map for a plant-adapted rhabdovirus to date.

  4. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States) [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); Pattnaik, Asit K., E-mail: apattnaik2@unl.edu [School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0900 (United States)

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene.

  5. Please cite this article in press as: White III, R.A., et al., Digital PCR provides absolute quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus. J. Virol. Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.09.017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    without need for a standard curve. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction20 Viral load testing quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus. J. Virol. Methods (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.elsevier.com/locate/jviromet Digital PCR provides absolute quantitation of viral load for an occult RNA virus1 Richard Allen White IIIa

  6. You give me fever : practical protection for metropolitan neuroses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Keith William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of Swine Flu in the past six months has once again heightened the world's fears of a coming flu pandemic. Although H1N1 is only slightly more pathogenic than the common seasonal flu, which kills approximately ...

  7. Structural Basis for the Sequence-specific Recognition of Human ISG15 by the NS1 Protein of Influenza B Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Guan; L Ma; P Leonard; B Amer; H Sridharan; C Zhao; R Krug; G Montelione

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Interferon-induced ISG15 conjugation plays an important antiviral role against several viruses, including influenza viruses. The NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B) specifically binds only human and nonhuman primate ISG15s and inhibits their conjugation. To elucidate the structural basis for the sequence-specific recognition of human ISG15, we determined the crystal structure of the complex formed between human ISG15 and the N-terminal region of NS1B (NS1B-NTR). The NS1B-NTR homodimer interacts with two ISG15 molecules in the crystal and also in solution. The two ISG15-binding sites on the NS1B-NTR dimer are composed of residues from both chains, namely residues in the RNA-binding domain (RBD) from one chain, and residues in the linker between the RBD and the effector domain from the other chain. The primary contact region of NS1B-NTR on ISG15 is composed of residues at the junction of the N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and the short linker region between the two Ubl domains, explaining why the sequence of the short linker in human and nonhuman primate ISG15s is essential for the species-specific binding of these ISG15s. In addition, the crystal structure identifies NS1B-NTR binding sites in the N-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15, and shows that there are essentially no contacts with the C-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15. Consequently, NS1B-NTR binding to ISG15 would not occlude access of the C-terminal Ubl domain of ISG15 to its conjugating enzymes. Nonetheless, transfection assays show that NS1B-NTR binding of ISG15 is responsible for the inhibition of interferon-induced ISG15 conjugation in cells.

  8. A study of the interaction between humoral canine distemper antibody and canine distemper virus-infected cells (monolayers of canine brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, William Dean

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the area which, under influence of the other factors, then initiate acute inflammation with resultant tissue damage. The Arthus reaction, serum s ickness snd Goodpasture's disease are examples of this class of immune disease. A similar response has been... were conducted using an in vitro system involving an acute viral in- fection. The time period between virus inoculation of the cells and exposure of the infected cells to humoral viral antibody was as short as 5 minutes and as long as 7Z hours...

  9. The effect of an experimental thymidine kinase negative bovine herpesvirus-I vaccine on virus shedding, antibody response, and latency in cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Peggy McCarver

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for use as potential vaccine strains. Recent experimentation with tk strains indicates that they may fulfill many of the requirements for an "ideal" vaccine. Thym idine kinase negative herpes simplex virus ~HSU h a 1o p th g cecity, d t ig 1 g g1... host resistence. (76) Herpesviruses are passed directly from cell to cell, thus avoiding exposure to extracellular antibody trunks o (68, 75) Herpesviruses travel along the n f sensory, motor and sympathetic nerves. (93 erve ) It travels along...

  10. The presence of tristeza virus in Satsuma oranges, Meyer lemons, and other citrus plants in the Gulf Coast areas in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malouf, Wajih D

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'TS I. !TOO/ 'JCT I "'I. EE Y I E OF L I TEA iT J RE ~ /nTE-I I/' r N YIETRJ" S. IES'J' T ' " '/' . ':I SC'J 'S I tnI Symptoms oF the isease in mexican Lime Seedlings. Citrus '/arieties Founc to Carry Tristeza "irus. = J / ?", RY ' N CC... on var i ous rootstocks may be symptomlsss carriers of tristsza virus (Glson ano Sleeth, 1/54) (7". ); (Olson and 'Jlacl onald, 1y54)(21). '!hi ls the major citrus area in Texas is the Lower Rio Grande Valley~ where the commor rootstock is sour...

  11. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyazaki, Masaya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Nishihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: hnishihara@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hideki [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tashiro, Masato [Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)] [Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wang, Lei [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Tsuda, Masumi [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Cancer Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Translational Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while the physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.

  12. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian Wild Birds: A phylogenetic and phylogeographic study of whole-genome sequence data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Russell, Colin A.; Lexmond, Pascal; Westgeest, Kim B.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Ransier, Amy; Fedorova, Nadia B.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Olsen, Björn; Smith, Gavin; Bahl, Justin; Wentworth, David E.; Waldenström, Jonas; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; de Graaf, Miranda

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    will illuminate furture host-focused studies by including the impact of ecological 241 factors like individual species diversity and lifecycle on AIV genetic diversity. 242 243 Materials and Methods 244 Dataset and genomic sequencing 245 11 Over a period... . & Berg, M. (2011). Alleles A and B of non-427 structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit beta interferon 428 production in human and mink lung cells. The Journal of general virology 92, 2111-2121. 429 Munster, V. J., Baas...

  13. Changes to sickness absence reason categories The sickness absence reasons within iTrent have been changed from 18 March

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    strain sprain or injury Cold, cough, Influenza Cold, Cough, Flu - Influenza Cold/Influenza Asthma Asthma problems - (exclude nose & throat problems, asthma, cold, cough, flu) Respiratory Infection Headache

  14. antigen vaccine protects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to successes with small O'Neil, Joe 10 Free Flu Vaccinations protect yourself and your family Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Free Flu Vaccinations protect...

  15. adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under the terms Plotkin, Joshua B. 4 Free Flu Vaccinations protect yourself and your family Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Free Flu Vaccinations protect...

  16. Overexpression of the human BCL-2 gene product results in growth enhancement of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihide (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological activity of the human BCL-2 gene product was analyzed in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human lymphoblastoid B-cell line transfected with BCL-2 sequences driven by the simian virus 40 promoter and enhancer. Overproduction of the BCL-2 protein conferred a selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as compared with control transfectants in low-serum medium and also after seeding at limiting dilution but did not render the cells tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. This growth enhancement was also seen in cells transfected with the BCL-2 gene with its own promoter juxtaposed to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, which represents the translocated form of the BCL-2 gene observed in follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells overproducing the BCL-2 protein is neither due to the enhanced growth factor production nor due to an enhanced sensitivity of the BCL-2 transfectants to interleukins 1 or 6, although both lymphokines are known to stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells by overproduction of the BCL-2 protein suggests the direct involvement of the BCL-2 gene product in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.

  17. Joint environmental assessment 1997--2001 of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Curly Top Virus Control Program for Bureau of Land Management and Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE, Naval Petroleum reserves in California (NPRC), proposes to sign an Amendment to the Cooperative Agreement and Supplement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) to extend the term of the Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) in California. This program involves Malathion spraying on NPRC lands to control the beet leafhopper, over a five year period from 1997 through 2001. It is expected that approximately 330 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) and approximately 9,603 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2) will be treated with Malathion annually by CDFA during the course of this program. The actual acreage subject to treatment can vary from year to year. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in a Joint Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1011) with the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acting as lead agency, in consultation with the CDFA, and the DOE acting as a cooperating agency. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the conduct of the Curly Top Virus Control Program in California is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is consequently issuing a FONSI.

  18. Hepatitis C virus E2 protein promotes human hepatoma cell proliferation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via cellular receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Lanjuan [Department of Microbiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang-Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Lu [Department of Microbiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang-Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ren Hao [Department of Microbiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang-Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao Jie [Department of Microbiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang-Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li Li [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Ke Jinshan [Department of Laboratory Diagnosis, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Qi Zhongtian [Department of Microbiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiang-Yin Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: qizt53@hotmail.com

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by various viruses has been shown to be responsible for viral pathogenicity. The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused human liver diseases has been investigated on the basis of abnormal intracellular signal events. Current data are very limited involved in transmembrane signal transduction triggered by HCV E2 protein. Here we explored regulation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway by E2 expressed in Chinese hamster oval cells. In human hepatoma Huh-7 cells, E2 specifically activated the MAPK/ERK pathway including downstream transcription factor ATF-2 and greatly promoted cell proliferation. CD81 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on the cell surface mediated binding of E2 to Huh-7 cells. The MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation driven by E2 were suppressed by blockage of CD81 as well as LDLR. Furthermore, pretreatment with an upstream kinase MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also impaired the MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by E2. Our results suggest that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway triggered by HCV E2 via its receptors maintains survival and growth of target cells.

  19. Crystal Structure of the VP4 Protease from Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Reveals the acyl-enzyme Complex for an Intermolecular Self-Cleavage Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee,J.; Feldman, A.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), an aquatic birnavirus that infects salmonid fish, encodes a large polyprotein (NH{sub 2}-pVP2-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease, VP4, to release the proteins pVP2 and VP3. pVP2 is further processed to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and three peptides that are incorporated into the virion. Reported here are two crystal structures of the IPNV VP4 protease solved from two different crystal symmetries. The electron density at the active site in the triclinic crystal form, refined to 2.2-{angstrom} resolution, reveals the acyl-enzyme complex formed with an internal VP4 cleavage site. The complex was generated using a truncated enzyme in which the general base lysine was substituted. Inside the complex, the nucleophilic Ser{sup 633}O{gamma} forms an ester bond with the main-chain carbonyl of the C-terminal residue, Ala{sup 716}, of a neighboring VP4. The structure of this substrate-VP4 complex allows us to identify the S1, S3, S5, and S6 substrate binding pockets as well as other substrate-VP4 interactions and therefore provides structural insights into the substrate specificity of this enzyme. The structure from the hexagonal crystal form, refined to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, reveals the free-binding site of the protease. Three-dimensional alignment with the VP4 of blotched snakehead virus, another birnavirus, shows that the overall structure of VP4 is conserved despite a low level of sequence identity ({approx}19%). The structure determinations of IPNV VP4, the first of an acyl-enzyme complex for a Ser/Lys dyad protease, provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and substrate recognition of this type of protease.

  20. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 1 High Specificity Binding of Lectins to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dagenais, Mario

    that affect mankind, including cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, infectious diseases, flu, Alzheimer

  1. April 8, 2010 MSU Community Music School launches donation drive for Gateway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    /children Children's books Medications Pepto-Bismol® Anti Diarrhea Cold Medicine Flu Medicine Cough Syrup Cough

  2. January 19, 2010 Volume 2, Issue 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Tiefeng

    /urinary tract infections, bruises, colds, coughs, runny noses, cold sores, ear aches and infections, flu

  3. A Probabilistic Network of Predicates Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Dekang

    of this is that Bob had a flu and, since flu is contagious, Arnold got it from Bob. The knowledge used to make this inference include that flu causes sneez­ ing and headache and that flu is contagious. This knowl­ edge

  4. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng-Wei [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Xian-Rui [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Sheng [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Shi-Juan, E-mail: maishj@sysucc.org.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Dan, E-mail: xied@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  5. The conserved glycine residues in the transmembrane domain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein are not required for assembly and fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao Maofu [Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Kielian, Margaret [Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: kielian@aecom.yu.edu

    2005-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. Both the E1 fusion peptide and transmembrane (TM) domain are essential for membrane fusion, but the functional requirements for the TM domain are poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the five TM domain glycine residues, including the highly conserved glycine pair at E1 residues 415/416. SFV mutants with alanine substitutions for individual or all five glycine residues (5G/A) showed growth kinetics and fusion pH dependence similar to those of wild-type SFV. Mutants with increasing substitution of glycine residues showed an increasingly more stringent requirement for cholesterol during fusion. The 5G/A mutant showed decreased fusion kinetics and extent in fluorescent lipid mixing assays. TM domain glycine residues thus are not required for efficient SFV fusion or assembly but can cause subtle effects on the properties of membrane fusion.

  6. HoxD10 gene delivery using adenovirus/adeno-associate hybrid virus inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Mi Ae [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Dong Rae Bong Seng Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yashar, Parham [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California - Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Suk Kyoung; Noh, Taewoong [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gillam, Mary P. [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lee, Eun Jig [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: EJLEE423@yuhs.ac; Jameson, J. Larry [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Prolactinoma is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. It has been reported that a variety of growth factors and cytokines regulating cell growth and angiogenesis play an important role in the growth of prolactinoma. HoxD10 has been shown to impair endothelial cell migration, block angiogenesis, and maintain a differentiated phenotype of cells. We investigated whether HoxD10 gene delivery could inhibit the growth of prolactinoma. Rat GH4 lactotrope tumor cells were infected with adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) hybrid vectors carrying the mouse HoxD10 gene (Hyb-HoxD10) or the {beta}-galactosidase gene (Hyb-Gal). Hyb-HoxD10 expression inhibited GH4 cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of FGF-2 and cyclin D2 was inhibited in GH4 cells infected with Hyb-HoxD10. GH4 cells transduced with Hyb-HoxD10 did not form tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that the delivery of HoxD10 could potentially inhibit the growth of PRL-secreting tumors. This approach may be a useful tool for targeted therapy of prolactinoma and other neoplasms.

  7. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), UPV-CSIC, Avda. de los Naranjos, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus-Angel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), UPV-CSIC, Avda. de los Naranjos, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Sauri, Ana [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Mingarro, Ismael [Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Pallas, Vicente [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), UPV-CSIC, Avda. de los Naranjos, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: vpallas@ibmcp.upv.es

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed.

  8. Mutational analysis of three predicted 5'-proximal stem-loop structures in the genome of tick-borne encephalitis virus indicates different roles in RNA replication and translation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouha, Harald; Hoenninger, Verena M.; Thurner, Caroline; Mandl, Christian W., E-mail: christian.mandl@meduniwien.ac.at

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Flavivirus gene expression is modulated by RNA secondary structure elements at the terminal ends of the viral RNA molecule. For tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), four stem-loop (SL) elements have been predicted in the first 180 nucleotides of the viral genome: 5'-SL1, 5'-SL2, 5'-SL3 and 5'-SL4. The last three of these appear to be unique to tick-borne flaviviruses. Here, we report their characterization by mutagenesis in a TBEV luciferase reporter system. By manipulating their thermodynamic properties, we found that an optimal stability of the 5'-SL2 is required for efficient RNA replication. 5'-SL3 formation is also important for viral RNA replication, but although it contains the viral start codon, its formation is dispensable for RNA translation. 5'-SL4 appears to facilitate both RNA translation and replication. Our data suggest that maintenance of the balanced thermodynamic stability of these SL elements is important for temporal regulation of its different functions.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei [Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Department of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC (United States)] [Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Department of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC (United States); Clouse, Kathleen A. [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wahl, Larry M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Development Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Cell and Development Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Viral Immunology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Viral Immunology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1? and MIP1?. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1? and MIP1?) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1?, MIP1?, and LD78? chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM.

  10. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tully, Damien C. [Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: dtully@tcd.ie; Fares, Mario A. [Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: faresm@tcd.ie

    2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  11. Structure and Mutagenesis of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Stalk Domain Reveals a Four-Helix Bundle and the Role of the Stalk in Fusion Promotion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Sayantan; Welch, Brett D.; Kors, Christopher A.; Yuan, Ping; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A. (NWU); (Stanford-MED)

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Paramyxovirus entry into cells requires the fusion protein (F) and a receptor binding protein (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN], H, or G). The multifunctional HN protein of some paramyxoviruses, besides functioning as the receptor (sialic acid) binding protein (hemagglutinin activity) and the receptor-destroying protein (neuraminidase activity), enhances F activity, presumably by lowering the activation energy required for F to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Before or upon receptor binding by the HN globular head, F is believed to interact with the HN stalk. Unfortunately, until recently none of the receptor binding protein crystal structures have shown electron density for the stalk domain. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) HN exists as a noncovalent dimer-of-dimers on the surface of cells, linked by a single disulfide bond in the stalk. Here we present the crystal structure of the PIV5-HN stalk domain at a resolution of 2.65 {angstrom}, revealing a four-helix bundle (4HB) with an upper (N-terminal) straight region and a lower (C-terminal) supercoiled part. The hydrophobic core residues are a mix of an 11-mer repeat and a 3- to 4-heptad repeat. To functionally characterize the role of the HN stalk in F interactions and fusion, we designed mutants along the PIV5-HN stalk that are N-glycosylated to physically disrupt F-HN interactions. By extensive study of receptor binding, neuraminidase activity, oligomerization, and fusion-promoting functions of the mutant proteins, we found a correlation between the position of the N-glycosylation mutants on the stalk structure and their neuraminidase activities as well as their abilities to promote fusion.

  12. arXiv:0902.3733v1[physics.flu-dyn]21Feb2009 APS/123-QED Rotating electrohydrodynamic flow in a suspended liquid film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    film motor, emphasizing that it represents a new type of engine. They also proposed that it could be ex of the liquid film motor [1, 2]. PACS numbers: 47.32.Ef, 68.15.+e, 47.57.jd Keywords: electrohydrodynamic flow), but it can not exist for very thin films. An important general result of our paper is the demonstration

  13. arXiv:0806.3050v1[physics.flu-dyn]18Jun2008 Rayleigh-Plateau instability causes the crown splash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    , cooling, and combustion. In the crown splash parameter regime, the splash pattern is highly regular. We the air-sea interface [1], cooling [2], coatings [3], and combus- tion [4]. The spatial pattern and size in Edgerton's iconic photograph Milk Coronet [9], and show that number of secondary droplets is governed

  14. The Office of Human Resources is pleased to announce that free seasonal flu vaccines will again be available for active, benefits-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of germs by covering your coughs and sneezes, washing your hands, and staying home if you are sick. · Take

  15. arXiv:0904.0799v1[physics.flu-dyn]5Apr2009 Bistability and hysteresis of dipolar dynamos generated by turbu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Matthias

    and it is believed to be responsible for the mag- netic fields of cosmic objects including the sun and most planets distribution TS = T0 - d2 r2 /2 and a gravity field in the form g = -dr, where rd is the length of the posi- tion vector with respect to the center of the sphere. This form of temperature profile alludes

  16. arXiv:1301.0752v1[physics.flu-dyn]4Jan2013 Fluid-particle flow modelling and validation using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    -way-coupled mesoscale SPH-DEM Martin Robinsona, , Stefan Ludinga , Marco Ramaiolib aMultiscale Mechanics, University required to resolve the pore-scale is too great. It then becomes necessary to use unresolved, or mesoscale, fluid simulations. This mesoscale is the focus of this paper and the domain of applicability for the SPH

  17. arXiv:1210.3223v1[physics.flu-dyn]11Oct2012 Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    of this hydrodynamical approximation. When using a more reliable hydrodynamical model, the dispersion relation does. (Received October 12, 2012) The river bar instability is revisited, using a hydrodynamical model based not present any maximum of the growth rate when the sediment transport is assumed to be locally saturated

  18. Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    years, the increase in the worldwide transportation network, as well as uncontrolled population growth of the French West Indies in northern South America between Suriname and Brazil. DENV is endemic in French

  19. Dr. Jianlin Cheng Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianlin Jack

    ;Applications of a posterior belief #12;An Example Flu Fever High Temperature Cough #12;An Example ­ Combining Evidences Flu Fever High Temperature Cough #12;Inferential query 3: most probable assignment #12;Inferential

  20. PHYSICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, Robert W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    October 1977. AND OF flU The HEMP User's Manual Lawrenceprocess of implementation of the new HEMP was substantially

  1. Airport baggage scanning technology makes flying safer for Americans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Harry

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Each time you step on a commercial flight, you can feel safer because of a researcher you've probably never heard of. His name is Harry Martz. He's a veteran scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) who wakes up every day thinking how his research can advance X-ray imaging technology to thwart the next terrorist attack. "My job is to improve national security," Martz said. "That's why my research team exists. We have to outsmart the terrorists. It's a constant battle."

  2. Genetic resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Virus infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzielawa, Jennifer Ann

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An IBV infectivity study was conducted using inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens homozygous at the B-complex, or MHC genes. One heterozygous haplotype was also included. Of the groups examined, based on clinical illness, the B5/B5 haplotype...

  3. Original article Virus association with lymphocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    endothelial cells (Sierra et al, 1989; G6mez- Villamandos et al, 1995a,b,c), hepatocytes (Sierra et al, 1987; G6mez-Villamandos et al, 1995d), renal tubular epithelial cells (G6mez-Villamandos et al, 1995a), fibro- blasts and smooth muscle cells (G6mez- Villamandos et al, 1995c) and neutrophils (Carrasco et al

  4. Molecular studies of avian leukosis virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozisek, Blayne Myron

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It was nearly a century ago that the viral etiology of sarcomas and leukemia (leukosis) in the domestic fowl was first described by Ellerman and Bang, working in Copenhagen, and Rous in New York. Through the following decades, in an attempt...

  5. Oncolytic measles virus and mesenchymal stromal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) ­ a disseminated haematological malignancy. Anti MV antibody titres lymphoblastic leukemia in the presence of humoral immunity. Blood. 2014 Feb 27;123(9):1327-35. doi: 10 AK. Human mesenchymal stromal cells efficiently deliver systemic oncolytic MV to treat acute

  6. Genetic resistance to Infectious Bronchitis Virus infection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzielawa, Jennifer Ann

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An IBV infectivity study was conducted using inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens homozygous at the B-complex, or MHC genes. One heterozygous haplotype was also included. Of the groups examined, based on clinical ...

  7. Cryo-electron tomography of bacterial viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C. [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)] [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wright, Elizabeth R., E-mail: erwrigh@emory.edu [Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2013-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteriophage particles contain both simple and complex macromolecular assemblages and machines that enable them to regulate the infection process under diverse environmental conditions with a broad range of bacterial hosts. Recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) make it possible to observe the interactions of bacteriophages with their host cells under native-state conditions at unprecedented resolution and in three-dimensions. This review describes the application of cryo-ET to studies of bacteriophage attachment, genome ejection, assembly and egress. Current topics of investigation and future directions in the field are also discussed.

  8. Bioterrorism Preparedness: Smallpox and Related Pox Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    , Indonesia. In recent years, concerns over dis- eases such as Ebola have drastically restricted the importation of mon- keys. However, large populations exist in research facilities and zoos across the United States. Conse- quently, human and sub...

  9. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David

    , kidney, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. All yielded minimal growth of Escherichia coli. The final in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile marine mammals, WNV infection has been reported in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) (1). We describe WNV

  10. Clinical correlates and epidemiology of respiratory viruses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaunt, Eleanor

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) into the diagnostic setting has provided unprecedented opportunities in the field of respiratory medicine, not only because pathogens need no longer be cultivable ...

  11. Serology of a cotton virus in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darling, Dale Robert

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dopertaent or Student dvioor) The anth' wiahss ts sxyrssa hia grstitsds ts Qr. 1. Q. Inshore for hia gnidsncs ehrouihoue eho cceras of chia stodge. hpprociation ia alan oneondod to otlaer nanboro of tha abradant'a connittss fsL thsir hslpfsinsaa cnd ts SL.... lL J. 1Alcofsr st the Qaitod Seatoa Isaoarch Cantor at &cwnavfllo, conan for hia holp in collocting ths diaoaaod plant natsriala uaod in chic study. NROWCTXQI ~ ~ ~ i ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ RKN OR L ITKRA fDRK ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e...

  12. Selected Studies on Avian RNA Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villanueva, Itamar D.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 Western Blot of Infected Macaw................................................................ 23 2 Western Blot of Infected Macaw, Secondary Antibody Control ............... 24 3 Western Blot and Coomassie Stain of Infected Macaw... et al., 1994; Schneider et al., 1994; Tomonaga et al., 2000). The BV genome codes for at least six proteins of which the function has been at least partly characterized. These include the L-polymerase (L, 190 kDa), the glycoprotein (G, 57 kDa) two...

  13. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and vice versa. Adapted from: 1. American Social Health Association , penis and head-and-neck. 7. HPV testing for women is now available and may be performed along with a pap. Screening is only recommended over age 30 because the prevalence is too high in younger population. 8. Women

  14. Capsid and Infectivity in Virus Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cliver, Dean O.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irradiation is often used to decontaminate water, waste- water, and surfaces, although it cannot penetrate foods

  15. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  16. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  17. November 30, 2010 OSHA Mandate for Tdap Vaccine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Tetanus (Lockjaw), Diptheria and Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Employee Health's roving flu clinic cart present as a mild, but chronic infectious cough. It's when an infected adult unsuspectingly infects

  18. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control, based on mean plant heights. Treatment Day C M S M+S StM MS M*S 1 1.00 0.91 0.94 0.91 0.92 0.91 0.86 5 1.00 0.51 0.72 0.52 0.73 0.53 0.37 9 1.00 0.85 0.73 0.87 0.75 0.44 0.62 12 1.00 0.58 0.67 0.60 0.69 0.25 0.39 17 1.00 0.56 0.63 0.53 0....52 0.73 0.53 0.68 9 1.00 0.85 0.74 0.87 0.75 0.44 0.63 12 1.00 0.58 0.69 O. 60 0.69 0.25 0.40 17 1.00 0.57 0.69 0.53 0.60 0.00 0.39 C = Control, M.= MDMV-A, S = SYBV; M+S = MDMV-A and SYBV m~xed sap appli~d at.the same time; S+M = SYBV inoculated 3...

  19. Cross protection among some strains of sugarcane mosaic virus and maize dwarf mosaic virus (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ), were maintained on young sweet corn seedlings. #12;All inoculations, using carborundum as an aid, were

  20. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mesh) was added (1 % w/v) and the sap inoculated onto healthy sor ghum cultivar Hegari (6). Plant height of green tissue was recorded from day 0 to 17 after inoculation, The root length was also measured over the same period. ANOVA was conducted...). This observation was true for both root lengths and plant heights. The synergistic effect was observed on the 5th day after inoculation .with SYBV-infected sap in 1IIIiiiliiifili A1.4838 291.878 Table 1. Proportionate effects for all treatments with reference...

  1. H1N1 Influenza: What You Need to Know if You Live in Residence Welcome to residence at the University of Toronto. We're delighted that you'll be living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    flu have been similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu: a temperature of more than 38°C, cough, sore your hands often. · Cough or sneeze into your sleeve or a tissue. · Stay at home or in your residence-the-counter medication to reduce aches and fever (e.g., acetaminophen or ibuprofen) · Cough medicine and throat lozenges

  2. H1N1 Influenza: Protecting Yourself and Others Welcome to the University of Toronto! We're delighted that you're here,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    , coughing/sore throat, fatigue, nausea/vomiting and diarrhea. The University is prepared to manage H1N1 flu of flu: · Wash and/or sanitize your hands frequently. · Cough and sneeze into a tissue or your sleeve

  3. &('0)21436587@9 ACBED6BEDGFH5I36PRQTSU'036VW5XFH1`Yacb0'edea fhgi0prqtstuvgwxsyrHCqpwprwywIstgXgw0gIdegfheCpujiIqkXgEdmlonpXq2rs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenenbaum, Josh

    Coughing Fever Headache Working In Factory Smoking Stressful Lifestyle High Fat Diet Flu Bronchitis Lung Cancer Heart Disease Chest Pain Coughing Fever Headache ï ú ù ï©ù Working In Factory Smoking Stressful Lifestyle High Fat Diet Flu Bronchitis Lung Cancer Heart Disease Chest Pain Coughing Fever Headache Working

  4. Computational studies of H5N1 hemagglutinin binding with SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Minyong [Department of Chemistry and Center for Biotechnology and Drug Design, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4098 (United States); Wang Binghe [Department of Chemistry and Center for Biotechnology and Drug Design, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4098 (United States)]. E-mail: wang@gsu.edu

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin, a switch from SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal to SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal receptor specificity is a critical step leading to the conversion from avian-to-human to human-to-human infection. Therefore, the understanding of the binding modes of SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal to H5N1 hemagglutinin will be very important for the examination of possible mutations needed for going from an avian to a human flu virus. Based on the available H5N1 hemagglutinin crystal structure, the binding profiles between H5N1 hemagglutinin and two saccharide ligands, SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal and SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal, were investigated by ab initio quantum mechanics, molecular docking, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that SA-{alpha}-2, 3-Gal has strong multiple hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions in its trans conformation with H5N1 hemagglutinin, whereas the SA-{alpha}-2, 6-Gal only shows weak interactions in a different conformation (cis type)

  5. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  6. Original article In vivo replication of African swine fever virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (Sierra et al, 1989; G6mez-Villamandos et al, 1995a, b, c), renal tubular epithelial cells (G6mez-Villamandos et al, 1995a), fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (G6mez-Villamandos et al, 1995c) fol- lowing

  7. Contact with dogs, canine distemper virus, and multiple sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutka, Marcus Dietrich

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blood. The questionnaire assessed exposure to dogs and other animals that can become infected with CDV. The questionnaire also obtained demographic information, residential, occupational, reproductive, and medical history, family history of disease...

  8. animal viruses nsv: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    species of birds (local and exotic) and mammals (goats, cattle, swine, donkeys, and horses) living at the farm showed any of the above-mentioned symptoms. Because mice and...

  9. Real-Time Virus Trapping and Fluorescent Imaging in Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    particles; however, this method requires the samples to be dried, fixed, coated, and laboriously prepared time, the images were collected with a computer running a video image capture

  10. ankara mva virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE AIAC-2009-034 17-19 August 2009 -METU, Ankara TURKEY Engineering Websites Summary: 5. ANKARA INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE...

  11. Immunity to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Viruses Infections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ashkar, Ali A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Article ID 732546, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2012/732546 Editorial Immunity to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex

  12. Studies on Immune Regulation of Epstein-Barr Virus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAulay, Karen A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high degree of donor/recipient HLA-allele matching suggesting that further refinement of the matching procedure may be important. In study 1 we investigated the epitope specificity and T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality of the infused CTL to identify...

  13. Identification and evaluation of an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorda de Messina, Laura Maria

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (KPB), pH 7. 0, and containing 0. 5/ activated charcoal and 14 carborundum, between fingers. Mortar and pestle and Waring blender was used for grinding tissue. When liquid nitrogen was employed, KPB and charcoal were added after pulverizing... and uninoculated half- rows). Inoculum Rio Hondo isolate and SCMV-H were increased on Trudan-5. These plants were harvested about one month after inoculation and homogenized in a Haring blender with 0. 1 M KPB, pH 7. 0 (1:4 w/v). Carborundum to 1% (w/v) and 2...

  14. The identification and distribution of viruses infecting cucurbits in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harveson, Robert M

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stage, before the first true leaves appeared. Cotyledons were dusted with 300 mesh carborundum followed by rubbing with buffered infectious plant sap using 0. 05 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 7. 0. Symptoms normally appeared with 12-14 days...

  15. Sophos Anti-Virus for Windows, version 7 user manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................................25 11 Logging as part of your company policy devices that are blocked as part of your company policy on your computer and PUAs from running on your computer clean adware and PUAs from your computer keep a log of its

  16. Phylogenetic assessment of filoviruses: how many lineages of Marburg virus?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Holder, Mark T.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Filoviridae: using coalescent simulations, we ascertain that two Marburg isolates (termed the “RAVN” strain) represent a quite-distinct lineage that should be considered in studies of biogeography and host associations, and may merit recognition at the level...

  17. alimentos por virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mungu-aAgust-n Lpez Mungu-a descubrir-amos Arroyo Rodr-guez, V-ctor 8 Ciencia y Tecnologa de Alimentos Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1 1 4 7...

  18. aids virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tax applies to the sale of manufacturing aids such as dies, patterns, jigs and tooling used in the manufacturing process notwithstanding the fact that the property used in...

  19. Original article The Marek's disease virus (MDV) protein encoded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for its propagation in cell culture. As MDV-1 shows an impaired nuclear egress in cell culture, we wished protein fusion and HA tagged proteins expressed under the cytomegalovirus IE gene enhancer/promoter (PCMV IE), we showed that MDV-1 pUL17 nuclear distribution in infected cells is not an intrinsic property

  20. An Epidemiological View of Worms and Viruses Thomas M. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    -768-3573 Email: tchen@engr.smu.edu Web: www.engr.smu.edu/~tchen 1. Introduction The communal nature

  1. argentinas del virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Multiplicador del gasto pblico en Argentina. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Este trabajo proporciona por...

  2. On the Spread of Viruses on the Internet Noam Berger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saberi, Amin

    Saberi Abstract We analyze the contact process on random graphs generated according to the preferen- tial}@microsoft.com. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. E-mail: saberi@cc.gatech.edu. 1 #12;In our context

  3. On the Spread of Viruses on the Internet Noam Berger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Saberi Abstract We analyze the contact process on random graphs generated according to the preferen- tial of Technology, Atlanta, GA. E-mail: saberi@cc.gatech.edu. 1 #12;status of its neighbors. A healthy vertex

  4. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Rolles, A. Rudenko, C. Schmidt, L. Foucar, N. Kimmel, P. Holl, B. Rudek, B. Erk, A. Homke, C. Reich, D

  5. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were capable of steam reforming ethanol into carbon dioxideethanol steam as potential electron storage reservoirs reforming.

  6. affects virus transmission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants Websites Summary: ) establishes a framework for markets based on locational marginal pricing (LMP). The NOPR envisions a critical incentives. G iven the shortcomings of...

  7. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when illuminated by an LED lamp with peak emission aroundSystems A and C using an LED lamp with peak emission at 415commercially available blue LED lamp from www.acnelamp.com (

  8. A comparison of assay techniques of corn and sorghum viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huebner, Rae Allison

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, eds. Methods in enzymology. Vol. I. Academic Press, New York. 31. NAKANE, P. K. and A. KAWAOI. 1974. Peroxidase- labelled antibody ? a new method of conjugation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22:1084-1091. 32. NIKOLIC, V. and D..., was also studied. Immunosorbent plates were coated rv with gamma globulin specific for NDMV. Two enzymes, horse- radish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase, were each conjugated to NDMV specific antisera. Each worked well being as sensitive as 50 pg...

  9. TUMOUR IMMUNOLOGY Keeping virus-driven lymphomas in check

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    ,acombinationofthetumour-targetingantibody trastuzumab(whichisspecificforhumanepidermalgrowthfactor receptor 2(HER2))andanaturalkiller(NK)cell vasculature. Leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells lining the tumour-associated vasculature is impaired and cleared by the immune system, but it can persist in some cells for life. Under conditions

  10. abelson virus transformation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that allows to specify binary relations on graphs Drewes, Frank 27 Constructors transformers Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Proc. AGTIVE'99,...

  11. al virus del: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Sciences Websites Summary: Roma. Alan Turing's legacy | L'eredit di Alan Turing Roma 12 e 13 Ottobre 2012 Accoglienza dei Numerico Giuseppe Longo h. 16.45-17.30...

  12. Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villalon, Benigno

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sent about a $200-million industry at the manufacturer level. Total pro duction area of these peppers in Texas is unknown because these fig ures are not gathered by the Texas Department of Agriculture. Because of strong competition and high value... fruit exhibit a few fine epi dermal cuticular cracks to indicate full maturity and strong jalapeno . flavor and aroma associated with jalapeno peppers. The ripe yellow fruit are well suited either for fresh market consumption or for pro cessed...

  13. acute friend virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the great majority the feasibility of our attack. The friend injection attack enables a stealth infiltra- tion of social networks Boyer, Edmond 209 Immunofluorescent studies of...

  14. REGULAR ARTICLE Proteomic analysis of hepatitis B virus-associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Weidong

    .proteomics-journal.de DOI 10.1002/pmic.200401141 #12;1126 C. Li et al. Proteomics 2005, 5, 1125­1139 and the United States of both underdeveloped and developing countries. The highest mor- tality rate is in China (34.7 cases per 105 people, the second leading cause of cancer deaths since 1990s) [1]. Its incidence in developed

  15. Ecology, diversity and comparative genomics of oceanic cyanobacterial viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Matthew Brian, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are numerically dominant primary producers in the oceans. Each genera consists of multiple physiologically and genetically distinct groups (termed "ecotypes" in ...

  16. ancient virus world: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    religion in the ancient Mediterranean permeated aspects of everyday life, including seafaring. Besides cargo, ships transported mariners' religious beliefs from port to port,...

  17. ATTEMPTS TOISOLATE BOVINE LEUKEMIA AND BOVINE SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES FROM BLOOD,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by embryo transfer (Mitchell and Betteridge, 1977 ; Betteridge, 1978 ; Bowen, 1979 ; Waters, 1981), which indicates that the probability of congenital transmission varies from one disease to ano- ther (reviewed

  18. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current coating in electroless plating solutions due to strong covalent-like interactions between the thiol groups particle) for the synthesis of nickel and cobalt nanowires. These struc- tures self-assemble vertically

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus gag and protease: partners in resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fun, Axel; Wensing, Annemarie MJ; Verheyen, Jens; Nijhuis, Monique

    2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    % of virologicalrebounders in an analysis of the combined POWER 1, 2 and 3 trials that evaluated virological response to DRV/r plus optimized background therapy in PI-experienced patients [66]. Mutation S373Q (codon 373 is highly polymorphic, 36% variability in subtype B... , with the exception of tipranavir, are competitive peptidomimetic inhibitors, mimicking the natural substrate of the viral PR. The peptidomimetic inhibitors contain a hydro- xyethylene core which prohibits cleavage by the viral PR [18-25]. Instead of a hydroxyethylene...

  20. What college students should know about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    . Hepatitis B vaccine is the best protection against HBV and is recommended by leading medical and public to get the vaccine is before arriving on campus in the fall.The vaccine is available from your family recover from the infection, some may develop lifelong infection that can lead to cirrhosis (scarring

  1. anticuerpos contra virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Contra Costa County, Martinez, CA WETLAND RESTORATION OPPORTUNITIES 3 Design and cavitation performance of contra-rotating propellers MIT - DSpace Summary: Improvement of the...

  2. adn del virus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    riego (more) Calgua de Len, Byron Tomas 2013-01-01 27 Prdiction du grade d'un cancer du sein par la dcouverte de motifs squentiels contextuels dans des puces ADN...

  3. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were able to bind to origami tiles bearing complementary DNAprobes. The tiles could then be used to arrange the capsidstiles

  4. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. Inof MS2-based photocatalysis. Sensitizing chromophores on thewavelengths can be used for photocatalysis. then be able to

  5. The Convergence of Internet Security (Spam, Viruses, Trojans, Phishing)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutmann, Peter

    huge amounts of spam costs very little -- BBC News #12;Spam Technical Mechanisms Bulletproof hosting numbers of spam servers are located in China · Highly advanced telecom infrastructure · Cheaper bandwidth than in the West · China has 30 ­ 50,000 Internet police in 700 cities... ... who carefully investigate

  6. Immobilization and One-Dimensional Arrangement of Virus Capsids with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuildingNanoscale Precision Using

  7. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3Depth Profilefrom TwoDesigner

  8. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3Depth Profilefrom

  9. Virus-based Piezoelectric Energy Generation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 - USAFofEmail Mr.VirginiaInformation

  10. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76) (See the EnergyTAMANG,ALS BeamlinesALS

  11. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76) (See the EnergyTAMANG,ALS BeamlinesALSALS Capabilities

  12. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76) (See the EnergyTAMANG,ALS BeamlinesALSALS

  13. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76) (See the EnergyTAMANG,ALS BeamlinesALSALSALS

  14. Structural Rearrangement in Ebola Virus Protein VP40 Creates Multiple

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengtheningFunctions | Stanford Synchrotron

  15. Multidisciplinary team aids understanding of Hepatitis C virus and possible

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.SolarUS Dept ofActingMultidimensional

  16. This is a paper model of the MS2 virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (Next Release on5,9,9,33,37 Please notepaper

  17. ALS Capabilities Reveal Multiple Functions of Ebola Virus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced1 TEMPERATUREiiO EALSALSALSALSALS

  18. HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonic EngineHIV and evolution studied through computer

  19. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortalToDepthand Immobilization

  20. Designer Proteins Target Epstein-Barr-Virus-Associated Cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortalToDepthand ImmobilizationDesigner Proteins Target