National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for output growth rates

  1. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth U.S. crude oil production reached 7 million barrels per day at the end of 2012 for the first time in two decades and is well on its way to topping 8 million barrels per day by 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects daily oil output will average 7.3 million barrels this year and then increase to 8.1 million barrels next year. The increase in U.S. and other North American oil production will account

  2. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Charles S.; Piotrowski, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  3. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

  4. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  5. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid; Joudi, Khalid A.

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  6. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  7. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? ? ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at kmorerelation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10Mh?, compared to the dark matter at z 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k LT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.less

  8. Nonlinear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a nonlinear, stochastic relation between ? ? ?(x,t)/aH and ?. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean (???), together with the fluctuations of ? around this mean. We measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10% at k<0.2hMpc? to 25% at k ~ 0.45hMpc? at z 0. Both the stochastic relation and nonlinearity are more pronounced for halos, M ? 5 x 10Mh?, compared to the dark matter at z 0 and 1. Nonlinear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean (???) away from the linear theory prediction fLT?, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) for k < 0.1 hMpc?. The stochasticity in the ? ? relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two point statistics in redshift space. Given that the relationship between ? and ? is stochastic and nonlinear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.

  9. Non-linear stochastic growth rates and redshift space distortions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David

    2015-04-09

    The linear growth rate is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear growth effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear growth rate. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less

  10. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 mol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Industrial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas ...

  13. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  14. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  15. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  16. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  17. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  18. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Wood Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  19. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  20. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  1. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  2. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  3. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  4. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  5. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  6. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  7. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mile. Some structures were designed and then built to carry future transmission circuits in order to handle expected growth in new capability requirements. Lines are taken...

  9. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, η, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, η{sub c}, (η > η{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for η < η{sub c}, the thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, γ > 2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing η by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,158 0 415 5 738 2005 994 0 519 212 263 2006 1,034 0 267 549 218 2007 985 0 226 532 228 2008 552 0 271 211 70 2009 440 0 313 91 37 2010 847 0 643 174 30 2011 1,635 0 1,422 165 48 2012 1,630 0 1,441 156 32 2013 414 0 132 206 76 2014 852 88 266 326 173

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 351,871 80,824 16,659 654,242 126,157 667,341 45,456 1,942,550 2005 341,806 79,362 13,021 624,008 138,469 664,691 41,400 1,902,757 2006 332,548 54,224 24,009 603,288 126,049 689,549 49,308 1,878,973 2007 326,803 50,882 25,373 554,394 116,313 651,230 46,822 1,771,816

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 39,014 5,731 2,486 239,416 18,200 17,347 3,822 326,017 2005 39,652 5,571 2,238 239,324 36,694 18,240 3,884 345,605 2006 38,133 4,812 2,253 207,095 22,567 17,284 4,435 296,579 2007 38,260 5,294 1,862 212,705 20,473 19,166 4,459 302,219 2008 37,220 5,479 1,353 204,167

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commercial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 22,450 4,118 165 21,851 0 8,936 6,350 63,871 2005 22,601 3,518 166 20,227 0 8,647 5,921 61,081 2006 22,186 2,092 172 19,370 0.22 9,359 6,242 59,422 2007 22,595 1,640 221 20,040 0 6,651 3,983 55,131 2008 22,991 1,822 177 20,183 0 8,863 6,054 60,091 2009 20,057 1,095 155

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 24,275 0 3,809 1,540 18,926 2005 23,833 0 3,918 1,544 18,371 2006 23,227 0 3,834 1,539 17,854 2007 22,810 0 3,795 1,566 17,449 2008 22,168 0 3,689 1,652 16,827 2009 20,507 0 3,935 1,481 15,091 2010 21,727 0 3,808 1,406 16,513 2011 21,532 0 3,628 1,321 16,584

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 564,497 0 87,981 34,538 441,978 2005 548,666 0 88,364 34,616 425,685 2006 532,561 0 84,335 34,086 414,140 2007 521,717 0 83,838 34,690 403,189 2008 503,096 0 81,416 36,163 385,517 2009 462,674 0 90,867 32,651 339,156 2010 490,931 0 90,184 30,725 370,022 2011

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 20,654 0 1,501 1,203 17,951 2005 20,494 0 1,392 1,004 18,097 2006 14,077 0 1,153 559 12,365 2007 13,462 0 1,303 441 11,718 2008 7,533 0 1,311 461 5,762 2009 8,128 0 1,301 293 6,534 2010 4,866 0 1,086 212 3,567 2011 3,826 0 1,004 168 2,654 2012

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 124,809 0 8,592 7,219 108,997 2005 125,689 0 8,134 6,145 111,410 2006 87,137 0 6,740 3,481 76,916 2007 82,768 0 7,602 2,754 72,412 2008 45,481 0 7,644 2,786 35,051 2009 48,912 0 7,557 1,802 39,552 2010 29,243 0 6,402 1,297 21,545 2011 22,799 0 5,927

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,043 0 237 8 798 2005 783 0 206 8 568 2006 1,259 0 195 9 1,055 2007 1,262 0 162 11 1,090 2008 897 0 119 9 769 2009 1,007 0 126 8 873 2010 1,059 0 98 11 950 2011 1,080 0 112 6 962 2012 1,346 0 113 11 1,222 2013 1,486 0 96 11 1,379 2014 1,283 3 90 16

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 29,342 0 6,768 226 22,347 2005 22,224 0 5,935 228 16,061 2006 38,169 0 5,672 236 32,262 2007 38,033 0 4,710 303 33,019 2008 27,100 0 3,441 243 23,416 2009 29,974 0 3,652 213 26,109 2010 31,303 0 2,855 296 28,152 2011 31,943 0 3,244 153 28,546 2012

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,052,100 0 388,424 39,233 624,443 2005 984,340 0 384,365 34,172 565,803 2006 942,817 0 330,878 33,112 578,828 2007 872,579 0 339,796 35,987 496,796 2008 793,537 0 326,048 32,813 434,676 2009 816,787 0 305,542 41,275 469,970 2010 821,775 0 301,769

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,085,191 0 398,476 40,122 646,593 2005 1,008,404 0 392,842 35,037 580,525 2006 968,574 0 339,047 33,928 595,599 2007 894,272 0 347,181 36,689 510,402 2008 813,794 0 333,197 33,434 447,163 2009 836,863 0 312,553 42,032 482,279 2010 841,521 0 308,246 47,001

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,016,124 0 14,968 1,493 999,663 2005 997,331 0 19,193 1,028 977,111 2006 1,049,161 0 18,814 1,045 1,029,303 2007 982,486 0 21,435 1,756 959,296 2008 923,889 0 18,075 1,123 904,690 2009 816,285 0 19,587 1,135 795,563 2010 876,041 0 18,357

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 2,174 0 735 10 1,429 2005 1,923 0 965 435 522 2006 2,051 0 525 1,094 433 2007 1,988 0 386 1,102 501 2008 1,025 0 454 433 138 2009 793 0 545 176 72 2010 1,623 0 1,195 370 58 2011 3,195 0 2,753 351 91 2012 3,189 0 2,788 340 61 2013 831 0 261 423 147

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 19,991 0 4,746 12,295 2,950 2005 20,296 0 4,551 11,991 3,754 2006 21,729 0 5,347 12,654 3,728 2007 16,174 0 5,683 8,350 2,141 2008 18,272 0 6,039 12,174 59 2009 18,785 0 6,229 11,535 1,021 2010 17,502 0 6,031 10,333 1,138 2011 16,766 0

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 30,228 0 12,055 2,627 15,547 2005 38,010 0 10,275 2,086 25,649 2006 36,966 0 8,561 2,318 26,087 2007 41,757 0 10,294 2,643 28,820 2008 41,851 0 9,674 1,542 30,635 2009 41,810 0 10,355 1,638 29,817 2010 47,153 0 8,436 1,648 37,070 2011 43,483 0

  6. Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.

  7. An Improved Reaction Rate Equation for Simulating the Ignition and Growth of Reaction in High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M J

    2010-03-08

    We describe an improved reaction rate equation for simulating ignition and growth of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction rate equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved rate equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction rate parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline rate equation. The improved rate equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the growth and completion terms. The improved rate equation is simpler with fewer parameters.

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.1. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, 2004 through 2014 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear 2004 10331 10571 8647 10428 2005 10373 10631 8551 10436 2006 10351 10809 8471 10435 2007 10375 10794 8403 10489 2008 10378 11015 8305 10452 2009 10414 10923 8160 10459 2010 10415 10984 8185 10452 2011 10444 10829 8152 10464 2012 10498 10991 8039 10479 2013 10459 10713 7948 10449 2014 10428 10814 7907 10459 Coal includes anthracite, bituminous,

  9. Primary water stress corrosion crack growth rates in Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, R.G.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Direct measurements of SCC crack growth rates have been used to determine the effects of changes in PWR primary water chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Reversing current DC potential measurement techniques have been adapted for use on thin walled tubing containing through-wall circumferential cracks. These techniques have been used to monitor crack rates in Alloy 600 tubing exposed to typical PWR primary water chemistries at 330{degrees}C. Crack growth rate studies, conducted under well defined stress intensity conditions, provide a sensitivity in the assessment of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility that is not possible using more traditional techniques. Preliminary studies have been conducted to determine the effects of B and Li concentrations on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of Alloy 600 tubing.

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Tested Heat Rates by Prime Mover and Energy Source, 2007 - 2014 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Prime Mover Coal Petroluem Natural Gas Nuclear 2007 Steam Generator 10,158 10,398 10,440 10,489 Gas Turbine -- 13,217 11,632 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,447 10,175 -- Combined Cycle W 10,970 7,577 -- 2008 Steam Generator 10,138 10,356 10,377 10,452 Gas Turbine -- 13,311 11,576 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,427 9,975 -- Combined Cycle W 10,985 7,642 -- 2009 Steam Generator 10,150 10,349 10,427 10,459

  11. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  12. Radiocarbon-Based Ages and Growth Rates of Bamboo Corals from the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Flood-Page, S; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L; Fallon, S J; McCulloch, M

    2004-12-12

    Deep-sea coral communities have long been recognized by fisherman as areas that support large populations of commercial fish. As a consequence, many deep-sea coral communities are threatened by bottom trawling. Successful management and conservation of this widespread deep-sea habitat requires knowledge of the age and growth rates of deep-sea corals. These organisms also contain important archives of intermediate and deep-water variability, and are thus of interest in the context of decadal to century-scale climate dynamics. Here, we present {Delta}{sup 14}C data that suggest that bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska are long-lived (75-126 years) and that they acquire skeletal carbon from two distinct sources. Independent verification of our growth rate estimates and coral ages is obtained by counting seasonal Sr/Ca cycles and probable lunar cycle growth bands.

  13. Effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2015-04-15

    The present paper examines the effect of different carrier gases and their flow rates on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A theoretical model is developed incorporating the charging rate of the carbon nanotube, kinetics of all the plasma species, and the growth rate of the CNTs because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle. The three different carrier gases, i.e., argon (Ar), ammonia, and nitrogen, are considered in the present investigation, and flow rates of all the three carrier gases are varied individually (keeping the flow rates of hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas constant) to investigate the variations in the number densities of hydrocarbon and hydrogen ions in the plasma and their consequent effects on the height and radius of CNT. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that Ar favors the formation of CNTs with larger height and radius whereas ammonia contributes to better height of CNT but decreases the radius of CNT, and nitrogen impedes both the height and radius of CNT. The present work can serve to the better understanding of process parameters during growth of CNTs by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

  14. Effect of cold work on the growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in structural materials of nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    The growth rates of stress corrosion cracks in austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloy 600 exposed to simulated boiling water reactor coolant were measured by fracture mechanics testing techniques. Cold work may increase the crack growth rates up to one hundred times. In both, the annealed condition and the cold worked condition, the stress corrosion crack growth rates are independent of stress intensity over a wide K-range and crack growth rates correlate well with yield strength and hardness. In the annealed condition the fracture path is intergranular, but higher degrees of cold work introduce higher proportions of transgranular stress corrosion cracking.

  15. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  16. Magnesite Step Growth Rates as a Function of the Aqueous Magnesium:Carbonate Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N.; Stack, Andrew G.; Higgins, Steven R.

    2014-10-01

    Step velocities of monolayer-height steps on the (101⁻4) magnesite surface have been measured as functions of the aqueous magnesium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index (SI) using a hydrothermal atomic force microscope (HAFM). At SI ≤ 1.9 and 80-90 °C, step velocities were found to be invariant with changes in the magnesium-to-carbonate ratio, an observation in contrast with standard models for growth and dissolution of ionically-bonded, multi-component crystals. However, at high saturation indices (SI = 2.15), step velocities displayed a ratio dependence, maximized at magnesium-to-carbonate ratios slightly greater than 1:1. Traditional affinity-based models were unable to describe growth rates at the highermore » saturation index. Step velocities also could not be modeled solely through nucleation of kink sites, in contrast to other minerals whose bonding between constituent ions is also dominantly ionic in nature, such as calcite and barite. Instead, they could be described only by a model that incorporates both kink nucleation and propagation. Based on observed step morphological changes at these higher saturation indices, the step velocity maximum at SI = 2.15 is likely due to the rate of attachment to propagating kink sites overcoming the rate of detachment from kink sites as the latter becomes less significant under far from equilibrium conditions.« less

  17. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  18. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  19. Effects of ion abundances on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave growth rate in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, F. D. Mace, R. L.

    2014-04-15

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.

  20. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  1. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  2. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  3. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  4. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as anmore » all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.« less

  5. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e⁻aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e⁻aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pdmore » deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e⁻aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e⁻aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.« less

  6. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. In addition, by comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  7. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-02-22

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  8. Growth rates of upper Permian carbonate platform, Capitan margin of northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.M.; Grover, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface and outcrop studies of the Capitan margin (late Guadalupian, Capitanian) in the northern Delaware basin have revealed that over 80% of the total progradation of the margin, over half the total aggradation of the platform (150 of 290 m), and over two-thirds of the basin fill (190 of 280 m) occurred during an early phase of development equating with Seven Rivers beds on the platform. The amount of progradation varied from 6 km from outcrop data in the Guadalupe Mountains to 19 km along trend to the east from subsurface information. The later phase of Capitan margin development was coincident with Yates and Tansill deposition on the platform and was dominated by aggradation and steepening of the margin. Corresponding to this two-phase model, two third-order cycles of relative sea level occur within the Capitanian on the eustasy curve of Ross and Ross: a Seven Rivers cycle lasting 1.5 m.y. and a Yates-Tansill cycle of 1.0 m.y. Progradation rates for the Capitan range from 2.6 to 8.3 m/1000 years. Similar rates are calculated from high-resolution seismic lines across the Cenozoic margin of northwestern great Bahama Bank. Accumulation rates for the Capitan, uncorrected for compaction, average 125 ..mu..m/year and 335 ..mu..m/year for the early phase shelf and shelf margin, respectively, and 160 ..mu..m/year and 430..mu..m/year for the later phase shelf and shelf margin. These accumulation rates are similar to those of other ancient, prograding platforms.

  9. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  10. Impact of Pretreatment Tumor Growth Rate on Outcome of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, Soha; Cho, B.C. John; Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Giuliani, Meredith; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of pretreatment tumor growth rate on outcomes in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A review was conducted on 160 patients with T1-T2N0M0 NSCLC treated with SBRT at single institution. The patient's demographic and clinical data, time interval (t) between diagnostic and planning computed tomography (CT), vital status, disease status, and cause of death were extracted from a prospectively kept database. Differences in gross tumor volume between diagnostic CT (GTV1) and planning CT (GTV2) were recorded, and growth rate was calculated by use of specific growth rate (SGR). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for overall survival (OS). Differences between groups were compared with a log-rank test. Multivariate analyses were performed by use of the Cox proportional hazard model with SGR and other relevant clinical factors. Cumulative incidence was calculated for local, regional, and distant failures by use of the competing risk approach and was compared with Gray's test. Results: The median time interval between diagnostic and planning CT was 82 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups, and the median SGR was used as a cut-off. The median survival times were 38.6 and 27.7 months for the low and high SGR groups, respectively (P=.03). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P=.01), sex (P=.04), SGR (P=.03), and GTV2 (P=.002) were predictive for OS in multivariable Cox regression analysis and, except sex, were similarly predictive for failure-free survival (FFS). The 3-year cumulative incidences of regional failure were 19.2% and 6.0% for the high and low SGR groups, respectively (P=.047). Conclusion: High SGR was correlated with both poorer OS and FFS in patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT. If validated, this measurement may be useful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant

  11. Exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology and its cosmological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Pengjie [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, China, 200030 (China)

    2011-03-15

    We derive the exact analytical solution of the linear structure growth rate in {Lambda}CDM cosmology with flat or curved geometry, under the Newtonian gauge. Unlike the well known solution under the Newtonian limit [D. J. Heath, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 179, 351 (1977)], our solution takes all general relativistic corrections into account and is hence valid at both the sub- and superhorizon scales. With this exact solution, we evaluate cosmological impacts induced by these relativistic corrections. (1) General relativistic corrections alter the density growth from z=100 to z=0 by 10% at k=0.01 h/Mpc and the impact becomes stronger toward larger scales. We caution the readers that the overdensity is not gauge invariant and the above statement is restrained to the Newtonian gauge. (2) Relativistic corrections introduce a k{sup -2} scale dependence in the density fluctuation. It mimics a primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with f{sub NL}{sup local{approx}}1. This systematical error may become non-negligible for future all sky deep galaxy surveys. (3) Cosmological simulations with box size greater than 1 Gpc are also affected by these relativistic corrections. We provide a postprocessing recipe to correct for these effects. (4) These relativistic corrections affect the redshift distortion. However, at redshifts and scales relevant to redshift distortion measurements, such effect is negligible.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  13. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  14. Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

  15. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498).

  16. Difference in C3–C4 metabolism underlies tradeoff between growth rate and biomass yield in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fu, Yanfen; Beck, David A. C.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2016-07-19

    In this study, two variants of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 demonstrated a trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield. In addition, growth rate and biomass yield were also affected by supplementation of growth medium with different amounts of cobalt. The metabolism changes relating to these growth phenomena as well as the trade-off were investigated in this study. 13C metabolic flux analysis was used to generate a detailed central carbon metabolic flux map with both absolute and normalized flux values. As a result, the major differences between the two variants occurred at the formate node as well as within C3-C4 inter-conversion pathways.more » Higher relative fluxes through formyltetrahydrofolate ligase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malic enzyme led to higher biomass yield, while higher relative fluxes through pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase led to higher growth rate. These results were then tested by phenotypic studies on three mutants (null pyk, null pck mutant and null dme mutant) in both variants, which agreed with the model prediction. In this study, 13C metabolic flux analysis for two strain variants of M. extorquens AM1 successfully identified metabolic pathways contributing to the trade-off between cell growth and biomass yield. Phenotypic analysis of mutants deficient in corresponding genes supported the conclusion that C3-C4 inter-conversion strategies were the major response to the trade-off.« less

  17. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  18. Igniter and actuator output testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Closed system mechanical work output measurements were made for five types of thermal battery igniters and one type of valve actuator. Each unit was fired into a high-precision fit piston/cylinder arrangement, and the work output was determined from measuring the rise of a known weight. The results showed that work output for an individual igniter type varied over a considerable range while the mean work output values of the various igniter types appeared to depend principally on the type of closure disc and the details of the charge mix. The large variability in igniter output was the principal inducement to build a second apparatus, with approximately 10 times the capacity of the first, to investigate the output actuators. Compared with igniters, the actuator work output was appropriately in scale, but the variability was considerably reduced (R=1.5), and was attributed to increase in scale. Motion picture photography at 8000 to 9000 frames per second was used to determine the motion of the rising weight and the associated output pressure, which exhibited three distinct phases. Initially, the average acceleration of the weight was of the order of 100 g during the first half-millisecond of weight rise and corresponded to average pressures of 15,000 to 37,000 psi, depending principally on the mass of the weight. This was followed by a significant weight rise at a constant pressure of approximately 150 to 450 psi. Finally, the weight decelerated to rest under gravity to reach the maximum recorded height. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of zinc additions on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of sensitized stainless steel, Alloy 600 and Alloy 182 weld metal in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    ZnO additions to boiling water reactor (BWR) water have been the focus of recent interest, primarily because of their beneficial influence in reducing buildup of radioactive species such as Co{sup 60} in the oxide film of structural components, e.g., stainless steel piping. The effect of ZnO additions on stress corrosion crack growth rates were studied using 1T CT fracture mechanics specimens of sensitized type 304 stainless steel, sensitized Alloy 600, and Alloy 182 weld metal exposed to {approx}288 C water containing various levels of dissolved oxygen and impurities. Zn levels of 5 to 100 ppb Zn{sup 2+} were evaluated and found to reduce crack growth rates for all materials and in all water chemistries. Many Zn tests involved long term exposure and were performed at somewhat reduced corrosion potential (e.g., from {approx}+200 to 0 {minus}+50 mV{sub she}); variations in corrosion potential from +200, to +50, to {minus}50 mV{sub she} clearly had an important effect. The benefit of Zn appeared to be most pronounced when the growth rate was decreased (e.g., by corrosion potential). This was consistent with the findings of mechanistic studies, which showed that Zn decreased the repassivation response at times >10{sup 4} s, which is associated with low crack tip strain rates, i.e., low growth rates. Reduced corrosion potentials are also expected to directly effect Zn, since high (crack mouth) corrosion potentials inhibit the transport of Zn{sup 2+} into the crack. Zn also increased the fracture strain of the oxide on stainless steel, and may also reduce crack growth rates by increasing the pH in the crack. Similar benefits are expected for other structural materials, such as nonsensitized or irradiated stainless steel, carbon steel, low alloy steel, and other nickel alloys.

  20. A cosmological exclusion plot: towards model-independent constraints on modified gravity from current and future growth rate data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taddei, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Most cosmological constraints on modified gravity are obtained assuming that the cosmic evolution was standard ΛCDM in the past and that the present matter density and power spectrum normalization are the same as in a ΛCDM model. Here we examine how the constraints change when these assumptions are lifted. We focus in particular on the parameter Y (also called G{sub eff}) that quantifies the deviation from the Poisson equation. This parameter can be estimated by comparing with the model-independent growth rate quantity fσ{sub 8}(z) obtained through redshift distortions. We reduce the model dependency in evaluating Y by marginalizing over σ{sub 8} and over the initial conditions, and by absorbing the degenerate parameter Ω{sub m,0} into Y. We use all currently available values of fσ{sub 8}(z). We find that the combination Y-circumflex =YΩ{sub m,0}, assumed constant in the observed redshift range, can be constrained only very weakly by current data, Y-circumflex =0.28{sub −0.23}{sup +0.35} at 68% c.l. We also forecast the precision of a future estimation of Y-circumflex in a Euclid-like redshift survey. We find that the future constraints will reduce substantially the uncertainty, Y-circumflex =0.30{sub −0.09}{sup +0.08} , at 68% c.l., but the relative error on Y-circumflex around the fiducial remains quite high, of the order of 30%. The main reason for these weak constraints is that Y-circumflex is strongly degenerate with the initial conditions, so that large or small values of Y-circumflex are compensated by choosing non-standard initial values of the derivative of the matter density contrast. Finally, we produce a forecast of a cosmological exclusion plot on the Yukawa strength and range parameters, which complements similar plots on laboratory scales but explores scales and epochs reachable only with large-scale galaxy surveys. We find that future data can constrain the Yukawa strength to within 3% of the Newtonian one if the range is around a few

  1. DEMONSTRATING SLOW GROWTH RATES IN OPAL FROM Y.M.,NV, USING MICRODIGESTION AND ION-PROBE URANIUM-SERIES DATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. PACES; L. NEYMARK; H. PERSING; J. WOODEN

    2000-07-25

    Thinly laminated (<0.01 mm) opal sheets and globules associated with calcite in fractures and cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have U concentrations of 50 to 300 ppm. Previous uranium-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of 0.2- to 1-mm-thick subsamples resulted in a model of slow mineral growth at rates of 0.5 to 5 mm/m.y. To test this growth model using finer sampling resolution, in situ microdigestions were performed by applying a drop of hydrofluoric acid directly to opal surfaces within a small area encircled by jeweler's wax. After several minutes, the liquid was removed, spiked with a tracer solution, and analyzed by TIMS for both U and Th using a single rhenium filament with colloidal graphite. Solutions contained about 0.5 nanograms of U, equivalent to opal weights of 1 to 10 micrograms and dissolved-layer thicknesses less than 0.003 mm. Microdigested opal surfaces have Th-230/U ages of 5 to 10 thousand years (ka) in contrast to much older ages of 150 to 250 ka obtained previously from whole-globule digestions. Additional tests of the growth model were made on cross sections of identical opal globules using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) with a 0.04-mm-diameter O-minus primary beam. Counting rates for Tho-246 and U-234 varied between 5 and 70 counts per second with Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios typically much greater than a million. The Th-230/U ages in the outer 0.3 mm of the globules ranged from about 30 ka at the outer edge to 400 ka at depth. Ages correlate with microstratigraphic depths and indicate average growth rates between 0.5 and 0.7 mm/m.y. Current U-series data do not resolve differential growth rates related to climate changes during this time period. However, both microdigestion and SHRIMP results confirm the previous TIMS-based model of slow, uniform rates of mineral growth in a hydrologically stable environment.

  2. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both µCSi and αSi-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products’ electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  3. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in-situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, Eli A.; Sutter, Peter W.

    2014-11-19

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments the hydrated electrons e?aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e?aq generated by the electron beam during in-situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e?aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e?aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zero-valent metal atoms in solution.

  4. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  5. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zweiacker, K.; McKeown, J. T.; Liu, C.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.

    2016-08-04

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of themore » metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ~1.3 m s–1 to ~2.5 m s–1 during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s–1 have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. As a result, using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.« less

  6. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  7. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  8. High natural gas output and inventories contribute to lower prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    High natural gas output and inventories contribute to lower prices High natural gas production and ample gas inventories are expected to keep natural gas prices relatively low for the rest of 2015. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says that while expected production growth is slowing from last year's torrid pace, domestic natural gas production in 2015 is still expected to be almost 6 percent above the 2014 level. Higher production has pushed U.S. natural

  9. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  10. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore » around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  11. Effects of pH and stress intensity on crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in lithiated + borated water at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; McIlree, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on Alloy 600. Constant load tests were conducted at 330 and 350{degrees}C in solutions containing dissolved hydrogen, boric acid (0 < B < 1200 ppm) and lithium hydroxide (0 < Li < 10 ppm). In the PWR working conditions range, that is, 6.9 < pH < 7.4 (or 0.5 ppm < Li < 3.5), there is little effect of the solution pH on the intergranular crack growth rate (IGSCC). However, there is a strong influence of the stress intensity on the IGSCC. K{sub ISCC} {approx} 5-10 MPa{radical}m. Dissolution plays an important role in the IGSCC process.

  12. Tracing the mass growth and star formation rate evolution of massive galaxies from Z ∼ 6 to Z ∼ 1 in the Hubble ultra-deep field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Labbe, Ivo; Bouwens, Rychard; Trenti, Michele; Gonzalez, Valentino; Illingworth, Garth; Magee, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of an H {sub 160}-selected photometric catalog of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, using imaging from the WFC3/IR camera on the Hubble Space Telescope in combination with archival ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared imaging. Using these data, we measure the spectral energy distributions of ∼1500 galaxies to a limiting H {sub 160} magnitude of 27.8, from which we fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range 1 < z < 6. By selecting samples of galaxies at a constant cumulative number density, we are able to explore the coevolution of stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for progenitor galaxies and their descendants from z ∼ 6. We find a steady increase in the SFRs of galaxies at constant number density from z ∼ 6 to z ∼ 3, accompanied by gradually declining specific star formation rates (sSFRs) during this same period. The peak epoch of star formation is also found to shift to later times for galaxies with increasing number densities, in agreement with the expectations from cosmic downsizing. The observed SFRs can fully account for the mass growth to z ∼ 2 among galaxies with cumulative number densities greater than 10{sup –3.5} Mpc{sup –3}. For galaxies with a lower constant number density (higher mean mass), we find the observed stellar masses are ∼three times greater than that which may be accounted for by the observed star formation alone at late times, implying that growth from mergers plays an important role at z < 2. We additionally observe a decreasing sSFR, equivalent to approximately one order of magnitude, from z ∼ 6 to z ∼ 2 among galaxies with number densities less than 10{sup –3.5} Mpc{sup –3}, along with significant evidence that at any redshift the sSFR is higher for galaxies at higher number density. The combination of these findings

  13. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  14. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  15. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  16. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  17. Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate Testing and Analytical Electron Microscopy of Alloy 600 as a Function of Pourbaix Space and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lewis; S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; G.A. Young

    2000-10-04

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rate tests and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) studies were performed over a broad range of environments and heat treatments of Alloy 600. This effort was conducted to correlate bulk environmental conditions such as pH and electrochemical potential (EcP) with the morphology of the SCC crack. Development of a library of AEM morphologies formed by SCC in different environments is an important step in identifying the conditions that lead to SCC in components. Additionally, AEM examination of stress corrosion cracks formed in different environments and microstructures lends insight into the mechanism(s) of stress corrosion cracking. Testing was conducted on compact tension specimens in three environments: a mildly acidic oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions, a caustic environment containing 10% NaOH, and hydrogenated near-neutral buffered water. Additionally, stress corrosion cracking testing of a smooth specimen was conducted in hydrogenated steam. The following heat treatments of Alloy 600 were examined: mill annealed at 980 C (near-neutral water), mill annealed at 1010 C (steam), sensitized (acid and caustic), and mill annealed + healed to homogenize the grain boundary Cr concentration (caustic). Crack growth rate (CGR) testing showed that sensitized Alloy 600 tested in the mildly acidic, oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions produced the fastest cracking ({approx} 8.8 {micro}m/hr at 260 C), and AEM examination revealed evidence of sulfur segregation to the crack tip. The caustic environment produced slower cracking ({approx} 0.4 {micro}m/hr at 307 C) in the mill annealed + healed heat treatment but no observed cracking in the sensitized condition. In the caustic environment, fully oxidized carbides were present in the crack wake but not ahead of the crack tip. In near-neutral buffered water at 338 C, the CGR was a function of dissolved hydrogen in the water and exhibited a maximum (0.17 {micro}m/hr) near the

  18. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  19. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  20. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  1. Technique for enhancing the power output of an electrostatic generator employing parametric resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2016-02-23

    A circuit-based technique enhances the power output of electrostatic generators employing an array of axially oriented rods or tubes or azimuthal corrugated metal surfaces for their electrodes. During generator operation, the peak voltage across the electrodes occurs at an azimuthal position that is intermediate between the position of minimum gap and maximum gap. If this position is also close to the azimuthal angle where the rate of change of capacity is a maximum, then the highest rf power output possible for a given maximum allowable voltage at the minimum gap can be attained. This rf power output is then coupled to the generator load through a coupling condenser that prevents suppression of the dc charging potential by conduction through the load. Optimized circuit values produce phase shifts in the rf output voltage that allow higher power output to occur at the same voltage limit at the minimum gap position.

  2. The impact of monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate on the thermal stability of photoluminescence of coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dot hetero-structure with quaternary capping of InAlGaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, A.; Verma, U.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled InAs/GaAs MQDs with (In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As + GaAs) caps are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolayer coverage, barrier thickness and growth rate of the dots are the factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL peaks for the samples are within 1.1-1.3 {mu}m; significant for IBSCs and lasers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NPTP (non-resonant multi-phonon assisted tunneling process) effect on FWHM of PL. -- Abstract: The self-assembled InAs/GaAs MQDs are widely investigated for their potential application in optoelectronic devices like lasers and photovoltaics. We have explored the effect of QD growth rate and structural parameters like capping layer thickness on the morphology and optical properties of the MQD heterostructures overgrown with a combination capping of InAlGaAs and GaAs. The growth rate of the seed layers in the MQD samples is also varied to investigate its effect in the vertical stacking of the islands. The change in the morphology and the optical properties of the samples due to variation in growth and structural parameters are explained by the presence of strain in the QD structures, which arises due to lattice mismatch.

  3. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given ...

  4. Neutron light output and detector efficiency (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron light output and detector efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron light output and detector efficiency You are accessing a document from the ...

  5. Neutron light output and detector efficiency (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron light output and detector efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron light output and detector efficiency Authors: Taddeucci, Terry N 1 + Show Author ...

  6. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error estimates for fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error estimates for fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from the...

  7. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  8. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  9. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  10. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  11. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from...

  12. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  13. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  14. Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.; Durand, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T/sub w/, using commercially available, fast response (10 /mu/sec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T/sub w/ and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T/sub w/ and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  16. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  17. Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Lesson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Grade Level(s): IB 2 (Senior - 3 ... C.8 Photovoltaic cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) Understandings: * Solar ...

  18. Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeller, Charles P. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

  19. Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification Isaac M. Asher and Krzysztof J. Fidkowski University of Michigan US National Congress on Computational...

  20. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  1. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  3. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  4. Experimental investigation of a relativistic magnetron with diffraction output on a repetitive short pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Sun, Xiao-liang; Liu, Yong-gui

    2014-04-15

    An experimental investigation of a relativistic Magnetron with Diffraction Output (MDO) on a short voltage pulse generator, which has maximum repetition rate of 100?Hz and plateau of 2.5?ns, is detailed in this paper. Compared to the conversional solid cathode, a direct Density Modulation Cathode is capable for desired microwave radiation. When applied voltage is 200?kV and axial magnetic field is ?0.12?T, the MDO radiates 120?MW of microwave with 2.3?GHz of central frequency. Power conversion efficiency reaches 22%. Pulse duration is 3?ns. At repetition rates of 50?Hz and 100?Hz, output microwave powers range from 90?MW to 120?MW. Life time is up to 10{sup 4} shots.

  5. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Countrys Nuclear Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-07-15

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nations efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a countrys or regions economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industrys output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  6. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  7. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, James R.; Bemis, Jr., Curtis E.

    1986-01-01

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  8. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  9. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  10. New runners to boost peak output at Niagara Falls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrofitted Francis turbines will improve the value of power generated from Niagara Falls by increasing the peak output of the hydroturbine units at the Robert Moses hydroelectric plant. The computer-designed runners are expected to add 330 MW to the peak capacity of the 28-yr-old plant and significantly increase the efficiency at high flow rates. Next year, the first new runner will be retrofit to the highly instrumented Unit 4. If the retrofit unit meets it increased-performance expectations, the other 12 units will be upgraded between 1993 and 1998. The work is part of an overall expansion of the Niagara Power Project designed to made better use of the power value of Niagara river water, within the constraints of a treaty with Canada and the scenic value of the falls. These constraints, together with varying flows and heads, introduced enormous complexities into the selection and design of the new runners. The alterations being made to Unit 4, in addition to replacing the turbine runner, include modifying the draft tube-liners, increasing the wicket-gate stroke, replacing the turbine discharge ring (to accommodate longer blades), making various electrical modifications to the generator, and replacing the transformer. But the key to the retrofit is the computer-designed runner. Charles Grose, senior project manager, New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY, emphasizes that such computer design techniques were not available a few years ago; neither were the computer-controlled machining techniques necessary to manufacture the new runners. Other aspects of the upgrading that were analyzed include runner stability, resonance, shaft torsional stress, and runaway speed.

  11. Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    observations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical observations Authors: Higdon, David M [1] ; Lawrence, Earl [1] ; Heitmann, Katrin [2] ; Habib, Salman [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory ANL Publication Date: 2011-07-25 OSTI Identifier: 1084581 Report Number(s):

  12. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given during the DOE SunShot Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012. ssgrandchallenge_finance_schrag.pdf (63.07 KB) More Documents & Publications The SunShot Vision Study SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Higher temperatures of photovoltaic (PV) modules are causing lower than projected module performance. For example, a free-standing Si PV module has 0.4% decrease in efficiency per degree Celsius. Reducing the module temperature to near ambient levels will increase yearly energy output by 8%. This project will enable lower operating temperatures for modules, resulting in higher module power output and lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).

  14. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  15. Method for separating FEL output beams from long wavelength radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D.; Gubeli, Joseph

    2016-04-26

    A method for improving the output beam quality of a free electron laser (FEL) by reducing the amount of emission at wavelengths longer than the electron pulse length and reducing the amount of edge radiation. A mirror constructed of thermally conductive material and having an aperture therein is placed at an oblique angle with respect to the beam downstream of the bending magnet but before any sensitive use of the FEL beam. The aperture in the mirror is sized to deflect emission longer than the wavelength of the FEL output while having a minor impact on the FEL output beam. A properly sized aperture will enable the FEL radiation, which is coherent and generally at a much shorter wavelength than the bending radiations, to pass through the aperture mirror. The much higher divergence bending radiations will subsequently strike the aperture mirror and be reflected safely out of the way.

  16. Motor vehicle output and GDP, 1968-2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Poyer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of the BEA series 'value of motor vehicle output' as an indicator of the business cycle over the period 1968-2007. We statistically assess the causal relationship between real motor vehicle output (RMVO) and real gross domestic product (RGDP). This is accomplished by standard estimation and statistical methods used to assess vector autoregressive models. This assessment represents the initial results of a more encompassing research project, the intent of which is to determine the dynamic interaction of the transport sector with the overall economy. It's a start to a more comprehensive assessment of how transport and economic activity interrelate.

  17. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  18. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally

  19. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  20. Ota City : characterizing output variability from 553 homes with residential PV systems on a distribution feeder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakashima, Eichi; Lave, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    This report describes in-depth analysis of photovoltaic (PV) output variability in a high-penetration residential PV installation in the Pal Town neighborhood of Ota City, Japan. Pal Town is a unique test bed of high-penetration PV deployment. A total of 553 homes (approximately 80% of the neighborhood) have grid-connected PV totaling over 2 MW, and all are on a common distribution line. Power output at each house and irradiance at several locations were measured once per second in 2006 and 2007. Analysis of the Ota City data allowed for detailed characterization of distributed PV output variability and a better understanding of how variability scales spatially and temporally. For a highly variable test day, extreme power ramp rates (defined as the 99th percentile) were found to initially decrease with an increase in the number of houses at all timescales, but the reduction became negligible after a certain number of houses. Wavelet analysis resolved the variability reduction due to geographic diversity at various timescales, and the effect of geographic smoothing was found to be much more significant at shorter timescales.

  1. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Handbook providing practical information to help regulators decide if they want to use output-based regulations and explains how to develop an output-based emission standard

  2. Calculation of output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers with account for both electrons and holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolova, Z N; Tarasov, I S; Asryan, L V

    2014-09-30

    Using an extended theoretical model, which includes the rate equations for both electrons and holes, we have studied the output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers. We have found non-trivial dependences of electron and hole concentrations in the waveguide region of the laser on the capture velocities of both types of carriers from the waveguide region into the quantum well. We have obtained the dependences of the internal differential quantum efficiency and optical output power of the laser on the capture velocities of electrons and holes. An increase in the capture velocities has been shown to result in suppression of parasitic recombination in the waveguide region and therefore in a substantial increase in the quantum efficiency and output power. (lasers)

  3. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  4. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  5. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  6. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Marc L.; McNeilly, David R.

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  7. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  8. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  9. Development of output user interface software to support analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahanani, Nursinta Adi Natsir, Khairina Hartini, Entin

    2014-09-30

    Data processing software packages such as VSOP and MCNPX are softwares that has been scientifically proven and complete. The result of VSOP and MCNPX are huge and complex text files. In the analyze process, user need additional processing like Microsoft Excel to show informative result. This research develop an user interface software for output of VSOP and MCNPX. VSOP program output is used to support neutronic analysis and MCNPX program output is used to support burn-up analysis. Software development using iterative development methods which allow for revision and addition of features according to user needs. Processing time with this software 500 times faster than with conventional methods using Microsoft Excel. PYTHON is used as a programming language, because Python is available for all major operating systems: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, among others. Values that support neutronic analysis are k-eff, burn-up and mass Pu{sup 239} and Pu{sup 241}. Burn-up analysis used the mass inventory values of actinide (Thorium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Uranium). Values are visualized in graphical shape to support analysis.

  10. Ring laser having an output at a single frequency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackell, Lloyd A.

    1991-01-01

    A ring laser is disclosed that produces a single frequency of laser radiation in either the pulsed mode of operation or the continuous waveform (cw) mode of operation. The laser comprises a ring laser in a bowtie configuration, a birefringent gain material such as Nd:YLF, an improved optical diode that supports laser oscillation having a desired direction of travel and linear polarization, and a Q-switch. An output coupler (mirror) having a high reflectivity, such as 94%, is disclosed. Also disclosed is a self-seeded method of operation in which the laser can provide a pulse or a series of pulses of high power laser radiation at a consistent single frequency with a high degree of amplitude stability and temporal stability. In operation, the laser is operated in continuous waveform (cw) at a low power output with the Q-switch introducing a loss into the resonating cavity. Pumping is continued at a high level, causing the gain material to store energy. When a pulse is desired, the Q-switch is actuated to substantially reduce the losses so that a pulse can build up based on the low level cw oscillation. The pulse quickly builds, using the stored energy in the gain medium to provide a high power output pulse. The process may be repeated to provide a series of high power pulses of a consistent single frequency.

  11. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  12. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  13. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-08-24

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  14. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2009-06-02

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  15. Regional Dialogue Guidebook: Background on Products, Rates, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Block Product 4. Renewable Energy Certificates (REC Program) Part 2: Tiered Rate Methodology (TRM) A. Tier 1 Rate Design B. Tier 2 Rate Alternatives 1. Load-Growth Service 2....

  16. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  17. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 The U.S. ...

  18. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  19. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  20. Sanov and central limit theorems for output statistics of quantum Markov chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horssen, Merlijn van; Gu??, M?d?lin

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we consider the statistics of repeated measurements on the output of a quantum Markov chain. We establish a large deviations result analogous to Sanovs theorem for the multi-site empirical measure associated to finite sequences of consecutive outcomes of a classical stochastic process. Our result relies on the construction of an extended quantum transition operator (which keeps track of previous outcomes) in terms of which we compute moment generating functions, and whose spectral radius is related to the large deviations rate function. As a corollary to this, we obtain a central limit theorem for the empirical measure. Such higher level statistics may be used to uncover critical behaviour such as dynamical phase transitions, which are not captured by lower level statistics such as the sample mean. As a step in this direction, we give an example of a finite system whose level-1 (empirical mean) rate function is independent of a model parameter while the level-2 (empirical measure) rate is not.

  1. Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1988-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

  2. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

  3. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-01-19

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

  4. Method for optimizing the mechanical output of a fluid pressure free piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibrell, E.W.; Schaich, W.A.

    1988-07-05

    The method is described for minimizing rotational speed variations of a centrifugal piston expander engine comprising the steps of: (1) supplying a pressured gas to a centrifugal piston expander engine having a rotatable output element and a discharge conduit for cooled exhaust gas; (2) expanding and cooling the pressured gas in the centrifugal piston expander engine to produce cyclically varying oppositely directed, positive and negative torques on the rotatable output shaft; (3) driving a rotary load in the positive torque direction by the rotatable output element through one rotatable element of a unidirectional clutch having two rotating elements relatively movable in only the negative torque direction; and (4) connecting a battery operated motor-generator unit to the rotatable output shaft to supplement the rotary speed of the output shaft during periods of negative torque output by the centrifugal piston expander engine and to recharge the battery during periods of maximum positive torque output of the centrifugal expander engine.

  5. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  6. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  7. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  8. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  9. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  10. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van; Schram, D. C.

    2008-09-15

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  11. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  12. Method And Aparatus For Improving Resolution In Spectrometers Processing Output Steps From Non-Ideal Signal Sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K.; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-07-01

    A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals generated by non-ideal, nominally single-pole ("N-1P") devices responding to possibly time-varying, pulse-like input signals of finite duration, wherein the goal is to recover the integrated areas of the input signals. Particular applications include processing step-like signals generated by detector systems in response to absorbed radiation or particles and, more particularly, to digitally processing such step-like signals in high resolution, high rate gamma ray (.gamma.-ray) spectrometers with resistive feedback preamplifiers connected to large volume germanium detectors. Superconducting bolometers can be similarly treated. The method comprises attaching a set of one or more filters to the device's (e.g., preamplifier's) output, capturing a correlated multiple output sample from the filter set in response to a detected event, and forming a weighted sum of the sample values to accurately recover the total area (e.g., charge) of the detected event.

  13. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    -limited" experiment, in which emissions are assumed to be constrained, so that the concentration of carbon dioxide levels off at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) shortly after 2100. The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  14. Incorporating a Time Horizon in Rate-of-Return Estimations: Discounted Cash Flow Model in Electric Transmission Rate Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Bishu; Sharp, Peter A.

    2006-07-15

    Electric transmission and other rate cases use a form of the discounted cash flow model with a single long-term growth rate to estimate rates of return on equity. It cannot incorporate information about the appropriate time horizon for which analysts' estimates of earnings growth have predictive powers. Only a non-constant growth model can explicitly recognize the importance of the time horizon in an ROE calculation. (author)

  15. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  16. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and ...

  17. Double Power Output for GaAs Solar Cells Embedded in Luminescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Double power output of bifacial thin-film GaAs microscale solar cells is achieved by embedding in luminescent waveguides (LSCs) with light- trapping backside reflectors (BSRs). ...

  18. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  19. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  20. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Estimating Solar PV Output Using Modern Space/Time Geostatistics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. J.; George, R.; Bush, B.

    2009-04-29

    This presentation describes a project that uses mapping techniques to predict solar output at subhourly resolution at any spatial point, develop a methodology that is applicable to natural resources in general, and demonstrate capability of geostatistical techniques to predict the output of a potential solar plant.

  3. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  4. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    1996-11-08

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  5. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  6. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-03-16

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range. 3 figs.

  7. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

  8. System for adjusting frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, David B.

    2006-11-14

    A system for setting and adjusting a frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator in a network is disclosed. The system comprises an accumulator module configured to receive pulses from an oscillator and to output an accumulated value. An adjustor module is configured to store an adjustor value used to correct local oscillator drift. A digital adder adds values from the accumulator module to values stored in the adjustor module and outputs their sums to the accumulator module, where they are stored. The digital adder also outputs an electrical pulse to a logic module. The logic module is in electrical communication with the adjustor module and the network. The logic module may change the value stored in the adjustor module to compensate for local oscillator drift or change the frequency of output pulses. The logic module may also keep time and calculate drift.

  9. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  10. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  11. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  12. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett, John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  13. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  14. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  15. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  16. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  17. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  18. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  19. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  20. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  1. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  2. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 4e. Gross Output by Selected Industries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    e Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 4e. Gross Output1by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Billion 2000 Dollars 2) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998 2002...

  3. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 3e. Gross Output by Selected Industries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    e Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 3e. Gross Output1 by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Current Billion Dollars) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998...

  4. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research ... at a fraction of the cost of building new reactors, while providing continued ...

  5. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  6. Phasing surface emitting diode laser outputs into a coherent laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2006-10-10

    A system for generating a powerful laser beam includes a first laser element and at least one additional laser element having a rear laser mirror, an output mirror that is 100% reflective at normal incidence and <5% reflective at an input beam angle, and laser material between the rear laser mirror and the output mirror. The system includes an injector, a reference laser beam source, an amplifier and phase conjugater, and a combiner.

  7. Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vtpn04_lm_schutte_2012_o.pdf (461.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Materials Lightweight Materials Overview Overview of Lightweight Materials

  8. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Continuous2","Conventional and","Longwall4","Total" ,,"Other3" "Alabama",435,"-",12081,12516 "Arkansas",87,"-","-",87 "Colorado",971,10,17142,18123 "Illinois",16944,1634,34136,52713

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Average Sales Price of Coal by State, County, and Number of Mines, 2014" "Coal-Producing State and County","Number of Mines","Sales","Average Sales Price" ,,"(thousand short tons)","(dollars per short ton)" "Alabama",32,17359,87.17 " Bibb",1,"w","w" " Franklin",2,"w","w" " Jefferson",9,5764,103.31 " Shelby",2,"w","w"

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Sales Price of U.S. Coal by State and Disposition, 2014" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market1","Captive2","Total3" "Alabama",84.48,"-",87.17 "Alaska","w","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","w" "Arkansas","w","w","w" "Colorado",35.68,44.28,38.64

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal Thickness (inches)","Underground","Surface","Total" "Under 7","-",922,922 "7 - Under 13","-",2518,2518 "13 - Under 19",343,6236,6579 "19 - Under 25",197,11075,11273 "25 - Under 31",2693,10632,13324 "31 - Under 37",15604,14557,30161 "37 - Under 43",20075,13504,33580

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Union",,"Nonunion",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "State and Region1" "Alabama",12081,327,435,3486,12516,3813 "Alaska","-",1502,"-","-","-",1502

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Disposition by State, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market Sales1","Captive Sales / Transactions2","Exports3","Total" "Alabama",5310,"-",12049,17359 "Alaska",954,"-",554,1508 "Arizona",8182,"-","-",8182 "Arkansas",1,104,9,114 "Colorado",10602,11844,2089,24536 "Illinois",39533,6139,10170,55842

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2014" "Rank","Mine Name / Operating Company","Mine Type","State","Production (short tons)" 1,"North Antelope Rochelle Mine / Peabody Powder River Mining LLC","Surface","Wyoming",117965515 2,"Black Thunder / Thunder Basin Coal Company LLC","Surface","Wyoming",101016860 3,"Cordero Mine / Cordero Mining

  17. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. Revenue and Expense Statistics for U.S. Cooperative Borrower-Owned Electric Utilities, 2003 through 2013 (Million Dollars) Description 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Operating...

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State","Continuous1","Conventional and","Longwall3","Total" ,,"Other2" "Alabama","w","-","w",89.68 "Arkansas","w","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","-","w",37.28 "Illinois",44.23,"w",4...

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" ...

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 59.00 --...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2013 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2013 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts Voltage Region Type Operating...

  3. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... equal to Internal Demand less Direct Control Load Management and Interruptible Demand. ... Capacity Margin is the amount of unused available capability of an electric power system at ...

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nation",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",294.8,204.63,276.27,294.8,276.27,6...,355.59,611.72,791.78,611.72,29.4 "South America Total",501.14,"-",702.17,501.14,702.17,-2...

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nation",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",72167,239165,99293,72167,99293,-27... Other**",215,167,303,215,303,-29 "South America Total",21,"-",78,21,78,-73.1 " ...

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.00 1.00 Fire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- 2.00 -- -- -- 2.00 Failed AC Substation Equipment --...

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    28.00 2.00 2.00 23.00 89.00 Fire 1.00 -- 1.00 1.00 3.00 -- -- 50.00 56.00 Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- 7.00 -- -- -- 7.00 Failed AC Substation Equipment...

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems Electrostatic Precipitators Baghouses Select Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Reduction Systems Activated Carbon Injection Systems Direct Sorbent ...

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Demand-Side Management Program Incremental Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand ...

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Management Program Direct and Indirect Costs, 2004 through 2012 (Thousand Dollars) (Table Discontinued) Year Energy Efficiency Load Management Direct Cost Indirect Cost ...

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Demand-Side Management Program Annual Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand ...

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Energy Efficiency Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Incremental Annual Savings - Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 ...

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Energy Efficiency - Life Cycle Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Life Cycle Savings - Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 ...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2004 17,185 24,290 11,137 50 52,663 2005 18,894 28,073 11,986 47 ...

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2004 1,827 1,812 894 -- 4,532 2005 2,249 2,559 1,071 -- 5,879 2006 ...

  17. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Net ...

  18. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Circuit ...

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,2013,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production" "State and Region1" "Alabama",36,16363,39,18620,-7.7,-12.1 " Underground",7,12516,8,13515,-12.5,-7.4 "

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2014" "Rank","Controlling Company Name","Production (thousand short tons)","Percent of Total Production" 1,"Peabody Energy Corp",189531,19 2,"Arch Coal Inc",135801,13.6 3,"Cloud Peak Energy",85794,8.6 4,"Alpha Natural Resources",80153,8 5,"Murray Energy Corp",62815,6.3 6,"Alliance Resource Partners LP",40964,4.1 7,"Westmoreland Coal Company",35580,3.6

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Productive Capacity of Coal Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",13915,5530,19445,15121,7633,22754,-8,-27.6,-14.5

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Capacity Utilization of Coal Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(percent)" ,2014,,,2013 "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",89.95,68.96,83.98,89.38,66.73,81.78 "Alaska","-",50.06,50.06,"-",54.39,54.39 "Arizona","-",94.71,94.71,"-",89.44,89.44

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Productive Capacity and Capacity Utilization of Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity"

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(million short tons)" ,2014,,2013 "Coal-Producing","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Percent Change" "State","Reserves","Percentage","Reserves","Percentage","Recoverable Coal" ,,,,,"Reserves"

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground - Minable Coal",,,"Surface - Minable Coal",,,"Total"

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Mine Production Range","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery" "(thousand short

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Employees by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State and Region1" "Alabama",2852,842,3694,3077,1135,4212,-7.3,-25.8,-12.3

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2014" ,"Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State, Region1","Above 1,000","Above 500","Above 200","Above 100","Above 50","Above 10","Above 0","Zero2","Total Number" "and Mine Type",,"to 1,000","to 500","to 200","to

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production" "State and County" "Alabama",7,12516,29,3847,36,16363 " Bibb","-","-",1,72,1,72 "

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Union Status, 2014" ,"Union",,"Nonunion" "Coal-Producing State","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "and Region1" "Alabama",2653,57,199,743 "Alaska","-",120,"-","-" "Arizona","-",387,"-","-"

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" ,"Number of Mining Operations2",,,"Number of Employees3",,,"Average Production per Employee Hour" ,,,,,,,"(short tons)4" "Coal-Producing State, Region1",2014,2013,"Percent",2014,2013,"Percent",2014,2013,"Percent" "and Mine Type",,,"Change",,,"Change",,,"Change"

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Underground Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" "Coal-Producing State, Region1 and Mine Type","Continuous2","Conventional and","Longwall4","Total" ,,"Other3" "Alabama",0.92,"-",1.92,1.84 "Arkansas",0.49,"-","-",0.49 "Colorado",3.44,"-",6.49,6.19 "Illinois",4.43,6.73,7.6,6.16

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" ,"Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State,","Above 1,000","Above 500","Above 200","Above 100","Above 50","Above 10","10 or Under","Total2" "Region1 and Mine Type",,"to 1,000","to 500","to

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" ,"Union",,"Nonunion" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "Alabama",1.92,2.31,0.85,2 "Alaska","-",5.43,"-","-" "Arizona","-",8.06,"-","-"

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2014" "Company Name","Plant Location" "Top Ten Manufacturers" "American Crystal Sugar Co","MN, ND" "Archer Daniels Midland","IA, IL, MN, NE" "Carmeuse Lime Stone Inc","AL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, TN, WI" "Cemex Inc","AL, CA, CO, FL, GA, KY, OH, TN, TX" "Dakota Gasification Company","ND" "Eastman Chemical

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,,2013,,,,"Total" "Census Division","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial",2014,2013,"Percent" "and

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Year-End Coal Stocks by Sector, Census Division, and State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,,,2013,,,,,"Total" "Census Division","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Producer","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Producer",2014,2013,"Percent" "and

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" "(dollars per short ton)" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",89.68,79.42,87.17,88.19,88.24,88.2,1.7,-10,-1.2

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the former utility members joined RFC. Reliability First Corporation (RFC) came into existence on January 1, 2006. RFC submitted a consolidated filing covering the historical NERC...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.B. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",40.85,44.62,71.22,40.85,71.22,-42.6 " Canada*",85.43,69.79,74.16,85.43,74.16,15.2 " Dominican

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",586002,1478020,446185,586002,446185,31.3 " Canada*",440922,1341068,339057,440922,339057,30 "

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",91.86,102.82,92.36,91.86,92.36,-0.5 " Canada*",88.1,104.16,87.3,88.1,87.3,0.9 "

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",9472145,9165858,13595691,9472145,13595691,-30.3 " Baltimore, MD",3850539,2991709,4886468,3850539,4886468,-21.2 " Buffalo, NY",3381,570146,96786,3381,96786,-96.5 " New

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",7922195,7044057,10183046,7922195,10183046,-22.2 " Baltimore, MD",2990819,1811937,3344676,2990819,3344676,-10.6 " Buffalo, NY",196,566999,95591,196,95591,-99.8

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Imports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",240168,341205,171698,240168,171698,39.9 " Canada",239440,341189,171631,239440,171631,39.5 " Mexico",728,16,67,728,67,"NM" "South America

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price of U.S. Coal Imports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",71.92,104.33,107.02,71.92,107.02,-32.8 " Canada",71.93,104.32,107.01,71.93,107.01,-32.8 " Mexico",66.79,360.25,113.43,66.79,113.43,-41.1

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 2010 - 2016" "(thousand short tons)" "Year","January - March","April - June","July - September","October - December","Total" 2010,265702,264982,277505,276180,1084368 2011,273478,264291,275006,282853,1095628 2012,266865,241047,258956,249591,1016458 2013,244867,243211,257595,239169,984842 2014,245271,245844,255377,253557,1000049 2015,240189,211130,237263,207355,895936

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",312200,225584,520059,312200,520059,-40 " Baltimore, MD","-",10410,"-","-","-","-" " Boston,

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. U.S. Coke Imports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",2763,52115,2035,2763,2035,35.8 " Canada",2763,52115,2035,2763,2035,35.8 "Europe Total",1056,1156,14,1056,14,"NM" "

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",181.85,113.11,213.82,181.85,213.82,-15 " Canada",181.85,113.11,213.82,181.85,213.82,-15 "Europe

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Coal-Producing Region","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "and State",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Alabama",2446,2298,4022,2446,4022,-39.2 "Alaska",310,328,265,310,265,16.7 "Arizona",1335,1376,1755,1335,1755,-23.9 "Arkansas",11,18,21,11,21,-48

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2010 - 2016" "(thousand short tons)" ,"January - March",,"April - June",,"July - September",,"October - December",,"Total" "Year","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports" 2010,17807,4803,21965,5058,21074,4680,20870,4811,81716,19353

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2010 - 2016" "(dollars per short ton)" ,"January - March",,"April - June",,"July - September",,"October - December",,"Total" "Year","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports"

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016" "(short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2010,380404,1766896,14583950,1904040,52869,581700,82828,19352687 2011,61745,1680490,9500387,856038,22128,778887,187931,13087606

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",1373100,2359203,1865247,1373100,1865247,-26.4 " Canada*",608869,1671121,715703,608869,715703,-14.9 " Dominican Republic",19,"-",1745,19,1745,-98.9

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",62.62,81.09,76.28,62.62,76.28,-17.9 " Canada*",87.37,97.37,80.39,87.37,80.39,8.7 " Dominican

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",787098,881183,1419062,787098,1419062,-44.5 " Canada*",167947,330053,376646,167947,376646,-55.4 " Dominican

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 2004 through 2014 (From Chapter 2.) Supply (Million Megawatthours) Generation Year Electric Utilities IPP (Non-CHP) IPP (CHP) Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Total Imports Total Supply 2004 2,505 1,119 184 8 154 34 4,005 2005 2,475 1,247 180 8 145 44 4,099 2006 2,484 1,259 165 8 148 43 4,107 2007 2,504 1,324 177 8 143 51 4,208 2008 2,475 1,332 167 8 137 57 4,176 2009 2,373 1,278 159 8 132 52 4,003 2010 2,472 1,339 162 9 144 45 4,170 2011 2,461 1,331

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Number of Ultimate Customers Served by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 118,763,768 16,606,783 747,600 1,025 136,119,176 2005 120,760,839 16,871,940 733,862 518 138,367,159 2006 122,471,071 17,172,499 759,604 791 140,403,965 2007 123,949,916 17,377,219 793,767 750 142,121,652 2008 125,037,837 17,582,382 774,808 726 143,395,753 2009 125,208,829 17,562,235 757,537 704 143,529,305 2010 125,717,935

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Sales and Direct Use of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatthours) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Direct Use Total End Use Total Electric Industry 2004 1,291,981,578 1,230,424,731 1,017,849,532 7,223,642 3,547,479,483 168,470,002 3,715,949,485 2005 1,359,227,107 1,275,079,020 1,019,156,065 7,506,321 3,660,968,513 150,015,531 3,810,984,044 2006 1,351,520,036 1,299,743,695 1,011,297,566 7,357,543 3,669,918,840

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Revenue from Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 (Million Dollars) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 115,577 100,546 53,477 519 270,119 2005 128,393 110,522 58,445 643 298,003 2006 140,582 122,914 62,308 702 326,506 2007 148,295 128,903 65,712 792 343,703 2008 155,496 137,036 70,231 820 363,583 2009 157,044 132,747 62,670 828 353,289 2010 166,778 135,554 65,772 814 368,918 2011 166,714

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sectors 2004 through 2014 (Cents per kilowatthour) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 9.13 2008 11.26 10.26 6.96 10.71 9.74 2009 11.51 10.16 6.83 10.66 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.56 9.83 2011 11.72 10.24 6.82 10.46 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 9.84 2013 12.13

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 1,291,982 1,230,425 1,017,850 7,224 3,547,479 2005 1,359,227 1,275,079 1,019,156 7,506 3,660,969 2006 1,351,520 1,299,744 1,011,298 7,358 3,669,919 2007 1,392,241 1,336,315 1,027,832 8,173 3,764,561 2008 1,380,662 1,336,133 1,009,516 7,653 3,733,965 2009 1,364,758 1,306,853 917,416 7,768

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Revenue from Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Million Dollars) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 115,577 100,546 53,477 519 270,119 2005 128,393 110,522 58,445 643 298,003 2006 140,582 122,914 62,308 702 326,506 2007 148,295 128,903 65,712 792 343,703 2008 155,496 137,036 70,231 820 363,583 2009 157,044 132,747 62,670 828 353,289 2010 166,778 135,554 65,772 814 368,918 2011 166,714

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Cents per Kilowatthour) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 9.13 2008 11.26 10.26 6.96 10.71 9.74 2009 11.51 10.16 6.83 10.66 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.56 9.83 2011 11.72 10.24 6.82 10.46 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 9.84 2013

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Purchases, 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Year Electric Utilities Energy-Only Providers Independent Power Producers Combined Heat and Power U.S. Total 2005 2,760,043 3,250,298 12,201 69,744 6,092,285 2006 2,605,315 2,793,288 26,628 77,353 5,502,584 2007 2,504,002 2,805,833 24,942 76,646 5,411,422 2008 2,483,927 3,024,730 25,431 78,693 5,612,781 2009 2,364,648 2,564,407 27,922 71,669 5,028,647 2010 2,353,086 3,319,211 23,976 73,861 5,770,134

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Sales for Resale, 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Year Electric Utilities Energy-Only Providers Independent Power Producers Combined Heat and Power U.S. Total 2004 1,923,440 3,756,175 1,053,364 25,996 6,758,975 2005 1,925,710 2,867,048 1,252,796 26,105 6,071,659 2006 1,698,389 2,446,104 1,321,342 27,638 5,493,473 2007 1,603,179 2,476,740 1,368,310 31,165 5,479,394 2008 1,576,976 2,718,661 1,355,017 30,079 5,680,733 2009 1,495,636 2,240,399

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Electric Power Industry - U.S. Electricity Imports from and Electricity Exports to Canada and Mexico, 2004-2014 (Megawatthours) Canada Mexico U.S. Total Year Imports from Exports to Imports from Exports to Imports Exports 2004 33,007,487 22,482,109 1,202,576 415,754 34,210,063 22,897,863 2005 42,332,039 18,680,237 1,597,275 470,731 43,929,314 19,150,968 2006 41,544,052 23,405,387 1,147,258 865,948 42,691,310 24,271,335 2007 50,118,056 19,559,417 1,277,646 584,175 51,395,702 20,143,592 2008

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Total (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2004 1,513,641 62,196 11,498 199,662 374 475,682 245,546 6 3,686 -7,526 467 2,505,231 2005 1,484,855 58,572 11,150 238,204 10 436,296 245,553 16 4,930

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Net Generation by Energy Source: Residential Sector, 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Distributed Generation Period Estimated Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Generation Annual Totals 2014 4,243 Year 2014 January 226 February 238 March 328 April 361 May 402 June 410 July 431 August 431 September 404 October 382 November 319 December 311 See Glossary for definitions. Values are final. See Technical Notes for a discussion of the sample design for the Form EIA-923 and predecessor forms. Totals may

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Coal by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Petroleum Coke by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Natural Gas by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Other Gases by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Conventional) Power by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Other Energy Sources by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Wind by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Biomass by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Count of Electric Power Industry Power Plants, by Sector, by Predominant Energy Sources within Plant, 2004 through 2014 Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewables Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total (All Sectors) 2004 625 1,143 1,670 46 66 1,425 749 39 28 2005 619 1,133 1,664 44 66 1,422 781 39 29 2006 616 1,148 1,659 46 66 1,421 843 39 29 2007 606 1,163 1,659 46 66 1,424 929 39 25 2008 598 1,170 1,655 43 66 1,423 1,076

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Existing Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and Producer Type, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatts) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewable Sources Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total Total (All Sectors) 2004 313,020.0 59,119.0 371,011.0 2,296.0 99,628.0 77,641.0 18,717.0 20,764.0 746.0 962,942.0 2005 313,380.0 58,548.0 383,061.0 2,063.0 99,988.0 77,541.0 21,205.0 21,347.0 887.0 978,020.0 2006 312,956.0 58,097.0 388,294.0

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Existing Net Summer Capacity of Other Renewable Sources by Producer Type, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatts) Year Wind Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Geothermal Other Biomass Total (Other Renewable Sources) Total (All Sectors) 2004 6,456.0 398.0 6,182.0 2,152.0 3,529.0 18,717.0 2005 8,706.0 411.0 6,193.0 2,285.0 3,609.0 21,205.0 2006 11,329.0 411.0 6,372.0 2,274.0 3,727.0 24,113.0 2007 16,515.0 502.0 6,704.0 2,214.0 4,134.0 30,069.0 2008 24,651.0 536.0 6,864.0 2,229.0

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Existing Capacity by Energy Source, 2014 (Megawatts) Energy Source Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Coal 1,145 325,831.5 299,094.2 300,699.8 Petroleum 3,573 46,897.8 41,135.4 44,739.7 Natural Gas 5,727 495,120.2 432,150.3 464,784.7 Other Gases 93 2,227.6 1,914.3 1,889.9 Nuclear 99 103,860.4 98,569.3 100,610.3 Hydroelectric Conventional 4,029 78,792.9 79,677.3 79,090.6 Wind 1,032 65,300.1 64,231.5 64,325.1 Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Existing Capacity by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts) Producer Type Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities 9,510 675,675.4 616,631.5 637,857.0 Independent Power Producers, Non-Combined Heat and Power Plants 6,975 423,782.6 387,561.6 401,581.5 Independent Power Producers, Combined Heat and Power Plants 559 37,890.2 33,362.6 35,972.8 Total 17,044 1,137,348.2 1,037,555.7 1,075,411.3 Commercial and

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Planned Generating Capacity Changes, by Energy Source, 2015-2019 Generator Additions Generator Retirements Net Capacity Additions Energy Source Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Year 2015 U.S. Total 704 21,965.9 234 18,351.4 470 3,614.5 Coal 2 52.2 95 13,325.5 -93 -13,273.3 Petroleum 24 24.2 44 902.8 -20 -878.6 Natural Gas 76 6,192.8 61 3,964.2 15 2,228.6 Other Gases -- -- -- -- -- -- Nuclear 1 1,122.0 --

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Capacity Additions, Retirements and Changes by Energy Source, 2014 (Count, Megawatts) Generator Additions Generator Retirements Energy Source Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Coal 1 106.2 52.0 52.0 53 5,083.4 4,489.7 4,552.3 Petroleum 28 62.2 62.0 62.0 55 1,261.0 1,018.6 1,120.0 Natural Gas 92 9,275.2 8,300.8 8,849.5 87 4,184.5 3,834.4 3,918.8

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.A. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Renewable Sources Fossil Fuels Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Storage Nuclear All Other Sources All Sources Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 4,577.6 4,403.4 22,853.0 23,564.2 1,775.4 1,753.4 3.0 3.0 4,046.3 4,645.4 52.9 52.9 33,308.2 34,422.3

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Summer Capacity at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Capacity Summer Capacity From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Capacity Census Division and State Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Conventional Hydroelectric Biomass Sources Geothermal Total Renewable Sources Estimated Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Capacity Estimated Total Solar Photovoltaic Capacity Estimated Total Solar

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.C. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Fossil Fuels and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Other Natural Gas Coal Petroleum Coke Petroleum Liquids Other Gases Total Fossil Fuels Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 11,742.0 11,720.9 1,110.1

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Capacity Factors for Utility Scale Generators Primarily Using Fossil Fuels, January 2013-December 2014 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Period Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Steam Turbine Petroleum Liquids Fired Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Annual Factors 2013 59.7% 48.2% 4.9% 10.6% 6.1% 12.1% 0.8% 2.2% 2014 61.0% 48.3% 5.2% 10.4% 8.5% 12.5% 1.1% 1.4% Year 2013 January 61.2% 46.3% 3.6% 7.3% 4.6% 10.0%

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Total Capacity of Distributed and Dispersed Generators by Technology Type, 2005 through 2014 Capacity (MW) Year Internal Combustion Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Hydro Wind Photovoltaic Storage Other Wind and Other Total Number of Generators Distributed Generators 2005 4,025.0 1,917.0 1,830.0 999.0 -- -- -- -- 995.0 9,766.0 17,371 2006 3,646.0 1,298.0 2,582.0 806.0 -- -- -- -- 1,081.0 9,411.0 5,044 2007 4,624.0 1,990.0 3,596.0 1,051.0 -- -- -- -- 1,441.0 12,702.0 7,103 2008 5,112.0 1,949.0

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Net Metering Customers and Capacity by Technology Type, by End Use Sector, 2004 through 2014 Capacity (MW) Customers Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Historical Data 2004 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,114 1,494 215 3 15,826 2005 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 19,244 1,565 337 -- 21,146 2006 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30,689 2,553 376 -- 33,618 2007 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 44,450 3,513 391 -- 48,354 2008 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64,400 5,305 304

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Petroleum Liquids-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Natural Gas Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Natural Gas Electric

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Type of Prime Mover, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Prime Mover Type Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Steam Generator 178

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Year of Initial Commercial Operation, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Year of Initial Commercial Operation Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,020,523 772,224 240,235 377 7,687 2005 1,041,448 761,349 272,218 377 7,504 2006 1,030,556 753,390 269,412 347 7,408 2007 1,046,795 764,765 276,581 361 5,089 2008 1,042,335 760,326 276,565 369 5,075 2009 934,683 695,615 234,077 317 4,674 2010 979,684 721,431

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 20,375,751 15,610,335 4,606,584 8,251 150,581 2005 20,801,716 15,397,688 5,250,824 8,314 144,889 2006 20,527,410 15,211,077 5,166,001 7,526 142,807 2007 20,841,871 15,436,110 5,287,202 7,833 110,727 2008 20,548,610 15,189,050 5,242,194 8,070 109,296 2009

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 165,107 103,793 56,342 760 4,212 2005 165,137 98,223 62,154 580 4,180 2006 73,821 53,529 17,179 327 2,786 2007 82,433 56,910 22,793 250 2,480 2008 53,846 38,995 13,152 160 1,538 2009 43,562 31,847 9,880 184 1,652 2010 40,103 30,806 8,278 164 855

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,031,954 651,712 350,093 4,544 25,606 2005 1,035,045 618,811 387,355 3,469 25,410 2006 459,392 335,130 105,312 1,963 16,987 2007 512,423 355,999 139,977 1,505 14,942 2008 332,367 242,379 79,816 957 9,215 2009 266,508 196,346 59,277 1,101 9,784 2010

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 7,677 4,150 2,985 1 541 2005 8,330 4,130 3,746 1 452 2006 7,363 3,619 3,286 1 456 2007 6,036 2,808 2,715 2 512 2008 5,417 2,296 2,704 1 416 2009 4,821 2,761 1,724 1 335 2010 4,994 3,325 1,354 2 313 2011 5,012 3,449 1,277 1 286 2012 3,675 2,105 756 1

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 216,047 116,086 83,979 33 15,949 2005 234,217 115,727 105,163 33 13,295 2006 208,518 102,117 92,643 33 13,726 2007 170,166 77,941 77,135 45 15,045 2008 152,933 64,843 76,416 37 11,638 2009 136,474 77,919 48,776 32 9,747 2010 141,774 94,331 38,235 44

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 5,674,580 1,809,443 3,265,896 32,839 566,401 2005 6,036,370 2,134,859 3,349,921 33,785 517,805 2006 6,461,615 2,478,396 3,412,826 34,623 535,770 2007 7,089,342 2,736,418 3,765,194 34,087 553,643 2008 6,895,843 2,730,134 3,612,197 33,403 520,109 2009

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 5,827,470 1,857,247 3,351,469 33,623 585,132 2005 6,212,116 2,198,098 3,444,875 34,645 534,498 2006 6,643,926 2,546,169 3,508,597 35,473 553,687 2007 7,287,714 2,808,500 3,872,646 34,872 571,697 2008 7,087,191 2,803,283 3,712,872 34,138 536,899 2009

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 344,134 19,973 130,248 168 193,745 2005 355,250 27,373 138,407 207 189,263 2006 350,074 27,455 135,546 269 186,803 2007 353,025 31,568 132,953 284 188,220 2008 338,786 29,150 130,122 287 179,227 2009 320,444 29,565 130,894 274 159,712 2010

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 143,844 11,250 125,848 4,081 2,665 2005 141,899 11,490 123,064 4,797 2,548 2006 160,033 16,617 136,108 6,644 664 2007 166,774 17,442 144,104 4,598 630 2008 195,777 20,465 169,547 5,235 530 2009 206,792 19,583 180,689 5,931 589 2010 218,331 19,975

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 69,331 5,373 60,514 2,093 1,351 2005 67,902 5,650 58,624 2,360 1,269 2006 75,970 8,287 63,950 3,388 345 2007 79,712 8,620 68,432 2,344 316 2008 94,215 10,242 81,029 2,668 276 2009 99,821 9,748 86,773 2,999 301 2010 105,835 10,029 92,763 2,837 205 2011

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 141,577 3,705 124,815 12,909 146 2005 144,339 4,724 126,529 12,923 164 2006 146,987 4,078 129,779 12,964 165 2007 146,308 4,557 127,826 13,043 881 2008 148,452 4,476 130,041 13,934 0 2009 146,971 3,989 126,649 16,333 0 2010 144,934

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 19,215 2,014 9,240 4,308 3,654 2005 17,852 2,485 7,365 4,677 3,325 2006 17,727 2,611 7,788 4,436 2,893 2007 19,083 2,992 8,861 4,049 3,181 2008 24,288 3,409 12,745 3,684 4,450 2009 24,847 3,679 13,231 3,760 4,177 2010 29,996 3,668 14,449 3,790

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Consumption of Petroleum Coke for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Consumption of Nautral Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 356,658 388,323 -8.2% 3,585 2,587 330,872 354,489 9,416 8,407 12,786 22,839 Connecticut 108,833 115,211 -5.5% 121

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Period Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) End of Year Stocks 2004 106,669 46,750 937 84,917 29,144 627

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, by Census Divison, 2014 and 2013 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Census Division December 2014 December 2013 Percentage Change December 2014 December 2013 December 2014 December 2013 Coal (Thousand Tons) New England 1,611 1,129 42.7% W W W W Middle Atlantic 8,079 5,973 35.3% W 0 W 5,973 East North Central 33,839 28,279 19.7% 23,394 22,076 10,446 6,203 West North Central 20,648

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Stocks of Coal by Coal Rank: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Period Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Coal Total End of Year Stocks 2004 49,022 53,618 4,029 106,669 2005 52,923 44,377 3,836 101,137 2006 67,760 68,408 4,797 140,964 2007 63,964 82,692 4,565 151,221 2008 65,818 91,214 4,556 161,589 2009 91,922 92,448 5,097 189,467 2010 81,108 86,915 6,894 174,917 2011 82,056 85,151 5,179 172,387 2012 86,437 93,833 4,846 185,116 2013 73,113 69,720 5,051 147,884

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Receipts (Thousand Barrels) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Receipts (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per MMBtu) 2004 1,002,032 0.97 1.36 27.42

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight 2004 470,619 1.52 10.4 445,603 0.36 6.0 78,268 1.05 14.2 2005 480,179 1.56 10.5 456,856 0.36 6.2 77,677

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Quality of Fossil Fuel Receipts for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Period Average Btu per Pound Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Gallon Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Cubic Foot 2004 10,074 0.97 9.0 147,286 1.66 0.2 1,027 2005 10,107 0.98 9.0 146,481 1.61 0.2 1,028 2006 10,063 0.97 9.0 143,883 2.31 0.2 1,027 2007 10,028 0.96 8.8 144,546 2.10 0.1

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks Period Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu)

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 15,440,681 758,557 1.34 27.30 0.91 98.2 592,478 93,034 4.80

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 107,985 3,817 0.89 25.15 5.10

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 4,410,775 227,700 1.41 27.27 1.13 93.3 337,011

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 73,745 2,609 0.72 20.30

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 10,682 451 2.08 49.32 2.48 23.5 3,066 527 6.19 35.96 0.20

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commerical Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 16,176 15,804

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 326,495 15,324 1.63 34.79 1.43 57.6 25,491 4,107 4.98 30.93

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 14,876 540 0.98 27.01 5.59 40.4

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Revenue and Expense Statistics for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2004 through 2014 (Million Dollars) Description 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Utility Operating Revenues 238,759 265,652 275,501 270,964 298,962 276,124 ......Electric Utility 213,012 234,909 246,736 240,864 266,124 249,303 ......Other Utility 25,747 30,743 28,765 30,100 32,838 26,822 Utility Operating Expenses 206,960 236,786 245,589 241,198 267,263 244,243 ......Electric Utility 183,121 207,830 218,445 213,076

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Power Plant Operating Expenses for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2004 through 2014 (Mills per Kilowatthour) Operation Maintenance Year Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale 2004 8.97 3.13 3.83 4.27 5.38 2.96 2.76 2.14 2005 8.26 3.21 3.95 3.69 5.27 2.98 2.73 1.89 2006 9.03 3.57 3.76 3.51 5.69 3.19 2.70 2.16 2007 9.54 3.63 5.44 3.26 5.79 3.37 3.87 2.42 2008 9.89 3.72 5.78 3.77 6.20

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Metric Tons) Year Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 2004 2,486,982 10,309 4,143 2005 2,543,838 10,340 3,961 2006 2,488,918 9,524 3,799 2007 2,547,032 9,042 3,650 2008 2,484,012 7,830 3,330 2009 2,269,508 5,970 2,395 2010 2,388,596 5,400 2,491 2011 2,287,071 4,845 2,406 2012 2,156,875 3,704 2,148 2013 2,172,355 3,609 2,188 2014 2,166,603

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Quantity and Net Summer Capacity of Operable Cooling Systems, by Energy Source and Cooling System Type, 2004 - 2014 Once-Through Cooling Systems Recirculating Cooling Systems Cooling Ponds Dry Cooling Systems Hybrid Wet and Dry Cooling Systems Other Cooling System Types Energy Source Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Costs of Existing Flue Gas Desulfurization Units Operating in Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Year Average Operation and Maintenance Costs (Dollars per Megawatthour) Average Installed Capital Costs (Dollars per Kilowatt) 2004 1.25 43.25 2005 1.37 142.67 2006 -- 149.62 2007 1.26 240.68 2008 1.44 265.83 2009 1.44 357.46 2010 1.52 360.69 2011 1.79 410.62 2012 1.87 275.49 2013 1.74 235.42 2014 1.84 227.29 Notes: Average Installed Capital Costs reflect units which began operating in the

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Demand Response - Yearly Energy and Demand Savings Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Number of Customers Enrolled 2013 8,419,233 611,826 155,893 398 9,187,350 2014 8,603,402 605,094 57,129 4 9,265,629 Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 799,743 486,348 115,895 1 1,401,987 2014 881,563 462,337 92,549 -- 1,436,449 Potential Peak Demand Savings (MW) 2013 7,003 5,124 14,800 168 27,095 2014 8,118 6,215 16,505 353 31,191 Actual Peak Demand

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Demand Response - Program Costs Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Customer Incentives (thousand dollars) 2013 398,598 286,057 421,208 6,919 1,112,782 2014 345,894 345,435 514,751 11,716 1,217,796 All Other Costs (thousand dollars) 2013 338,353 95,748 50,982 50 485,133 2014 301,389 101,127 45,028 115 447,659

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Advanced Metering Count by Technology Type, 2007 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Automated Meter Reading (AMR) 2007 25,785,782 2,322,329 44,015 109 28,152,235 2008 36,425,943 3,529,985 77,122 13 40,033,063 2009 41,462,111 4,239,531 107,033 11 45,808,686 2010 43,913,225 4,611,877 159,315 626 48,685,043 2011 41,451,888 4,341,105 172,692 77 45,965,762 2012 43,455,437 4,691,018 185,862 125 48,330,822 2013 42,491,242 4,632,744 196,132 1,202 47,321,320 2014

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Sulfur Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Tangential Firing Boiler All Other Boiler Types Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Distillate Fuel Oil* DFO Source: 2, Table 3.1-2a, 3.4-1 & 1.3-1 Lbs per MG

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Tangential Boiler All Other Boiler Types Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Factor (Kilograms of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Notes Bituminous Coal BIT 93.3 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO 73.16 Geothermal GEO 7.71 Jet Fuel JF 70.9 Kerosene KER 72.3 Lignite Coal LIG 97.7 Municipal Solid Waste MSW 41.69 Natural Gas NG 53.07 Petroleum Coke PC 102.1 Propane Gas PG 63.07 Residual Fuel Oil RFO 78.79 Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC 53.07 Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology Emissions Reduction Factors Reduction Factor Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology EIA Code Coal Residual Fuel Oil and Distallate Fuel Oil Natural Gas Wood Other Solids Other Liquids Other Gases Other Fuels Burner Out of Service BO 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Low Excess Air LA 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Biased Firing (Alternative Burners) BF 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Overfire Air OV 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Unit of Measure Equivalents Unit Equivalent Kilowatt (kW) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watts Megawatt (MW) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watts Gigawatt (GW) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watts Terawatt (TW) 1,000,000,000,000 (One Trillion) Watts Gigawatt 1,000,000 (One Million) Kilowatts Thousand Gigawatts 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Kilowatts Kilowatthours (kWh) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watthours Megawatthours (MWh) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watthours Gigawatthours (GWh) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watthours

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Projected data are updated annually. Net Energy for Load represents net Balancing...

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weeks Ended" "Coal-Producing Region & State","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","application...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per short ton)" "Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)","Underground","Surface","Total" "Over 1,000",53.25,18.86,30.21 "Over 500 to 1,000",71.1,54.14,63.75 "Over 200 ...

  16. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Generation by Energy Source: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand ... Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric ...

  17. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    from Renewable Sources: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand ... and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and ...

  18. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    15.1% 5.6% 65.4% 60.8% 75.5% Values are final. NA Not Available Notes: Solar Thermal Capacity Factors include generation from plants using concentrated solar power energy storage

  19. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages...

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...1,2730243,2501775,10875372,11870666,-8.4 " Charleston, SC",124,148,1030,563,2223,-74.7 " El Paso, TX",25988,44883,167,122862,7508,"NM" " Houston-Galveston, TX",113426,232428,225146...

  1. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 1,518 1,406 Massachusetts 3,491 3,282 3,827 2,521 1,014 2,169 32 47 8,364 8,020 New Hampshire 791 744 640 611 235 225 0 0 1,666 1,579 Rhode Island 527 481 533 474 114 109 4 3 ...

  2. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 2 2 -10.6% 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  3. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 526 2.29 7.8 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- ...

  4. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8,726 2 3 8 9 Maine 3,403 3,675 10 12 8 9 Massachusetts 12,917 14,735 6 11 13 14 New Hampshire 3,458 3,447 3 3 4 5 Rhode Island 2,566 2,838 0.09 1 1 1 Vermont 14 15 0.06 0.07 1 ...

  5. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- ...

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W W Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts 18.09 18.16 -0.4% 19.94 21.91 17.75 17.68 New Hampshire W W W 15.16 16.84 W W Rhode Island W W W -- -- W W Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 -- Maine 0 0 -- W W W 0 0 -- Massachusetts W 582 W 1,965 1,496 31.3% 0 0 -- New Hampshire W W W W W W 0 0 -- Rhode Island W 0 W W W W 0 0 -- Vermont 0 0 -- 57 NM NM 0 0 -- ...

  8. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  9. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    829 3.8% 0 0 860 829 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 4,233 4,087 3.6% 0 0 4,233 4,087 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 1,871 1,839 1.7% 0 0 1,195 1,128 676 711 0 0 Rhode Island 3,980 956 316% 0 0 3,980 ...

  10. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- Maine 85 0.85 8.2 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 1,225 0.72 11.3 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 526 2.29 7.8 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 254 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Vermont 0 ...

  11. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    14% 1 1 476 424 6 6 43 30 Massachusetts 1,646 713 131% 240 126 1,324 546 80 39 1 2 New Hampshire 454 187 143% 216 135 222 41 16 11 0.05 0.19 Rhode Island 113 75 50% 21 22 83 38 NM ...

  12. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 15 27% 0 0 10 7 0 0 9 8 Massachusetts 1,248 1,723 -28% 0 0 1,244 1,718 0 0 5 5 New Hampshire 544 616 -12% 544 616 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 ...

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- 0 -- -- Maine 32 0.94 8.4 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- ...

  14. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11.86 Massachusetts 17.39 15.83 14.68 14.23 12.74 13.18 8.76 13.06 15.35 14.51 New Hampshire 17.53 16.33 14.34 13.52 11.93 11.40 -- -- 15.22 14.30 Rhode Island 17.17 15.20 ...

  15. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Maine -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Massachusetts -- -- -- -- -- -- -- New Hampshire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Rhode Island -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W W Connecticut W W W -- -- W W Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts W W W -- -- W W New Hampshire 4.27 4.21 1.4% 4.27 4.21 -- -- Rhode Island W -- W -- -- W -- Vermont -- -- -- -- ...

  17. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    66 30% 0 0 53 38 0 0 32 28 Massachusetts 1,225 1,805 -32% 0 0 1,225 1,805 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 526 726 -28% 526 726 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 254 0 -- 0 0 254 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 ...

  18. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts -458 -368 24.5% 0 0 -458 -368 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  19. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- 6.65 6.06 Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts 6.46 5.75 12% 5.54 6.84 6.47 5.74 New Hampshire W W W 6.05 8.85 W W Rhode Island W 5.67 W -- -- W 5.67 Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  20. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 305 105 191.3% 11 4 289 100 5 1 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 10 2 388.5% 0 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 Vermont 24 17 ...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Massachusetts","w","w","-","-","w","w","-","-",-7.4,"s","-","-" " New Hampshire",108.29,"-","-","-",108.33,"-","-","-","s","-","-","-" " Rhode ...

  2. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27.6% 1 1 261 204 2 2 41 32 Massachusetts 1,005 390 157.4% 131 71 793 287 80 31 1 1 New Hampshire 287 105 175.0% 108 62 163 28 16 14 0.07 0.26 Rhode Island 88 51 74.9% 11 11 60 26 ...

  3. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5,409 14,249 Massachusetts 126,810 148,736 -15% 1,544 1,245 125,265 147,491 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 31,309 29,644 5.6% 424 355 30,885 29,289 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 44,839 46,035 -2.6% ...

  4. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- Maine 53 0.80 8.0 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 1,225 0.72 11.3 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 254 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- ...

  5. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11,855 Massachusetts 20,071 20,728 26,076 17,713 7,961 16,463 361 361 54,469 55,265 New Hampshire 4,510 4,554 4,465 4,517 1,969 1,973 0 0 10,944 11,043 Rhode Island 3,070 3,165 ...

  6. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 587 873 0 0 50 25 Massachusetts 1,867 1,300 44% 301 154 1,566 1,146 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 741 354 110% 455 268 287 86 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 217 31 594% 0 0 217 31 0 0 0 0 ...

  7. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.1% 0 0 112 115 200 196 0 0 Massachusetts 2,071 2,029 2.1% 0 0 2,071 2,029 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 125 156 -20% 0 0 125 156 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 ...

  8. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2004 - ... Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity ...

  9. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2004 - 2014, Actual ... Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity ...

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Receipts of coal include imported coal. NA Not available. ... Dual-fired capacity returned to respective fuel categories ... EIA-767, 'Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design ...

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In 2006 the single largest provider of green pricing services in the country discontinued ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power ...

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rosebud","-",12756,12756,250,186,276 "1787 Roland","-",12094,12094,464,384,495 "1701 Smith","-",12069,12069,912,912,912 "0280 Blue Creek",11738,190,11928,50,12,52 "1570 ...

  13. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Total Electric Power Industry Summary Statistics, 2014 and 2013 Net Generation and Consumption of Fuels for ... Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Utility Scale Facilities 17,691 ...

  14. Multiterawatt femtosecond laser system with kilohertz pulse repetition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, V V; Pestryakov, E V; Laptev, A V; Petrov, V A; Kuptsov, G V; Trunov, V I; Frolov, S A [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    The basic principles, layout and components are presented for a multiterawatt femtosecond laser system with a kilohertz pulse repetition rate f, based on their parametric amplification and laser amplification of picosecond radiation that pumps the stages of the parametric amplifier. The results of calculations for a step-by-step increase in the output power from the LBO crystal parametric amplifier channel up to the multiterawatt level are presented. By using the developed components in the pump channel of the laser system, the parameters of the regenerative amplifier with the output energy ?1 mJ at the wavelength 1030 nm and with f = 1 kHz are experimentally studied. The optical scheme of the diode-pumped multipass cryogenic Yb:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser ceramic amplifier is developed and its characteristics are determined that provide the output energy within the range 0.25 0.35 J. (lasers)

  15. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  16. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  17. System and method for cancelling the effects of stray magnetic fields from the output of a variable reluctance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chingchi; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-11-19

    A sensor system for sensing a rotation of a sensing wheel is disclosed. The sensor system has a sensing coil in juxtaposition with the sensing wheel. Moreover, the sensing coil has a sensing coil output signal indicative of the rotational speed of the sensing wheel. Further, a cancellation coil is located remotely from the sensing coil and connected in series therewith. Additionally, the cancellation coil has a cancellation coil output signal indicative of an environmental disturbance which is effecting the sensing coil output signal. The cancellation coil output signal operates to cancel the effects of the environmental disturbance on the sensing coil output signal.

  18. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outkin, Alexander V.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Vargas, Vanessa N

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  19. Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Tool Developed for USDOE | Department of Energy and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Where the Jobs Are: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Your Area, July 19, 2011. webinarjul19_mintz.pdf (213.56 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE

  20. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  1. Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Awardee: Illinois State University Location: Normal, IL ...

  2. Improving Entrainment Rate Parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entrainment Rate Parameterization For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Parameterization of entrainment rate is critical for improving representation of cloud- and convection-related processes in climate models; however, much remains unclear. This work seeks to improve understanding and parameterization of entrainment rate by use of aircraft observations and large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus clouds over

  3. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  4. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  5. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  6. Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.; Dallum, G.E.

    1998-09-08

    An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground. 5 figs.

  7. Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground.

  8. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  9. PHI.VCS.P8.01 VERAOUT - VERA HDF5 Output Specification Andrew...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HDFView shows the "C" ordering. CASL-U-2014-0043-001 Milestone L3:PHI.VCS.P8.01 8 H5Dump H5Dump produces output consistent with HDFView. H5Dump also uses "C" order when...

  10. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-15

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  11. Quartz crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  12. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  13. Best Practices: Escalation Rates

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible

  14. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.010.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  15. Using Weather Data and Climate Model Output in Economic Analyses of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Schlenker, Wolfram; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-06-28

    Economists are increasingly using weather data and climate model output in analyses of the economic impacts of climate change. This article introduces a set of weather data sets and climate models that are frequently used, discusses the most common mistakes economists make in using these products, and identifies ways to avoid these pitfalls. We first provide an introduction to weather data, including a summary of the types of datasets available, and then discuss five common pitfalls that empirical researchers should be aware of when using historical weather data as explanatory variables in econometric applications. We then provide a brief overview of climate models and discuss two common and significant errors often made by economists when climate model output is used to simulate the future impacts of climate change on an economic outcome of interest.

  16. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

    2012-05-09

    This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

  17. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Gong; Beale, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand.

  18. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, G.; Beale, W.T.

    1990-04-03

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand. 6 figs.

  19. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  20. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  1. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  2. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghave, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  3. METHOD OF MEASURING THE INTEGRATED ENERGY OUTPUT OF A NEUTRONIC CHAIN REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturm, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A method is presented for measuring the integrated energy output of a reactor conslsting of the steps of successively irradiating calibrated thin foils of an element, such as gold, which is rendered radioactive by exposure to neutron flux for periods of time not greater than one-fifth the mean life of the induced radioactlvity and producing an indication of the radioactivity induced in each foil, each foil belng introduced into the reactor immediately upon removal of its predecessor.

  4. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, R.A.

    1980-05-12

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  5. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  6. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  7. Controlling output pulse and prepulse in a resonant microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A.; Artemenko, S.; Chumerin, P.; Yushkov, Yu.

    2013-02-07

    A resonant microwave pulse compressor with a waveguide H-plane-tee-based energy extraction unit was studied in terms of its capability to produce output pulses that comprise a low-power long-duration (prepulse) and a high-power short-duration part. The application of such combined pulses with widely variable prepulse and high-power pulse power and energy ratios is of interest in the research area of electronic hardware vulnerability. The characteristics of output radiation pulses are controlled by the variation of the H-plane tee transition attenuation at the stage of microwave energy storage in the compressor cavity. Results of theoretical estimations of the parameters tuning range and experimental investigations of the prototype S-band compressor (1.5 MW, 12 ns output pulse; {approx}13.2 dB gain) are presented. The achievable maximum in the prepulse power is found to be about half the power of the primary microwave source. It has been shown that the energy of the prepulse becomes comparable with that of the short-duration (nanosecond) pulse, while the power of the latter decreases insignificantly. The possible range of variation of the prepulse power and energy can be as wide as 40 dB. In the experiments, the prepulse level control within the range of {approx}10 dB was demonstrated.

  8. Neutron light output response and resolution functions in EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Enqvist, Andreas; Lawrence, Christopher C.; Wieger, Brian M.; Pozzi, Sara A.; Massey, Thomas N.

    2013-03-26

    Here, the neutron light output response functions and detector resolution functions were measured at Ohio University's tandem Van de Graaff generator for three cylindrical EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells, having dimensions 12.7(circle divide)-by-12.7, 7.6-by-7.6, and 7.6-by-5.1 cm. A 7.44 MeV deuteron beam was used on an Al-27 target generating a continuous spectrum over the energy range from a few hundred keV to over 10 MeV. The light output response functions are determined using an exponential fit. Detector resolution functions are obtained for the 12.7-by-12.7 and 7.6-by-7.6 cm detectors. It is demonstrated that the dependence on detector size is important for themore » light output response functions, but not to the same extent for the resolution function, even when photomultiplier tubes, detector material, and other detector characteristics are carefully matched.« less

  9. Increasing output power of an 850 MHz tetrode with a floating-deck modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rees, D.; Friedrichs, C.

    1990-01-01

    Designers of high-power amplifiers generally regard the region above 300 MHz as a domain dominated by velocity-modulated (klystron/TWT) devices. However, as the power requirements diminish, there are attractive alternatives. The high-power 850-MHz requirements of the ground test accelerator (GTA) program can be filled by 1-MW klystrons, but it would be more efficient to use a lower-power device for a 50-kW requirement. To meet the 850-MHz medium-power requirements, Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing an 850-MHz tetrode amplifier. These amplifiers will provide rf power to the momentum compactor and bunch rotator cavities of the GTA. Available tubes provide only a limited safety margin for a low-risk design at the power levels and duty factor required for GTA cavities. At 850 MHz, the output power capability of available tubes is reduced because of transit time effects and limited anode voltage holdoff. Pulsing the anode of the output tetrode amplifier will allow higher output power with minimum design risk. A floating-deck modulator acts as a high-voltage/high-current switch, so voltage is applied to the anode of the gridded tube only during the rf pulse. The anode voltage holdoff capability of the tube is substantially enhanced by operating in this mode. This paper will describe the design of the floating deck modulator and its impact on the design risk of the 850-MHz tetrode amplifier.

  10. An accurate system for onsite calibration of electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Zhang; Li Hongbin

    2012-06-15

    Calibration systems with digital output are used to replace conventional calibration systems because of principle diversity and characteristics of digital output of electronic transformers. But precision and unpredictable stability limit their onsite application even development. So fully considering the factors influencing accuracy of calibration system and employing simple but reliable structure, an all-digital calibration system with digital output is proposed in this paper. In complicated calibration environments, precision and dynamic range are guaranteed by A/D converter with 24-bit resolution, synchronization error limit is nanosecond by using the novelty synchronization method. In addition, an error correction algorithm based on the differential method by using two-order Hanning convolution window has good inhibition of frequency fluctuation and inter-harmonics interference. To verify the effectiveness, error calibration was carried out in the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute of China and results show that the proposed system can reach the precision class up to 0.05. Actual onsite calibration shows that the system has high accuracy, and is easy to operate with satisfactory stability.

  11. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  12. Hydromechanical transmission with two planetary assemblies that are clutchable to both the input and output shafts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A power transmission having two planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the two sun gears, which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output shaft through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode, the first ring gear being rigidly connected to the output shaft. The input shaft also is clutchable to either the carrier or the ring gear of the second planetary assembly. The output shaft is also clutchable to the carrier of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and is clutchable to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the carrier thereof.

  13. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  14. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  15. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  16. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  17. Combining Multiple-Module Output Boundary Conditions to Produce a Single-Input-Module Boundary Condition in FRAMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.; Buck, John W.; Taira, Randal Y.; Gelston, Gariann M.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2006-10-03

    The Plus Operator thus provides a mechanism to group modules of similar output so that the output can be combined and supplied to downstream modules. This document provides requirements, the design, data-file specifications, the test plan, and the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocol for the Plus Operator.

  18. Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way When applied to plants, Take-Off(tm) speeds crop emergence, increases growth rates and yields, improves stress tolerance and nutrient value, and reduces need for nitrogen fertilizers. April 3, 2012 Farmer in wheat field inspecting wheat Biagro Western offers Take-Off(tm), a metabolic plant stimulant that will allow farmers to increase crop carbon fixation and thereby increase nitrate uptake and nitrogen

  19. Methods to Register Models and Input/Output Parameters for Integrated Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Whelan, Gene; Tryby, Michael E.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Taira, Randal Y.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2010-07-10

    Significant resources can be required when constructing integrated modeling systems. In a typical application, components (e.g., models and databases) created by different developers are assimilated, requiring the framework’s functionality to bridge the gap between the user’s knowledge of the components being linked. The framework, therefore, needs the capability to assimilate a wide range of model-specific input/output requirements as well as their associated assumptions and constraints. The process of assimilating such disparate components into an integrated modeling framework varies in complexity and difficulty. Several factors influence the relative ease of assimilating components, including, but not limited to, familiarity with the components being assimilated, familiarity with the framework and its tools that support the assimilation process, level of documentation associated with the components and the framework, and design structure of the components and framework. This initial effort reviews different approaches for assimilating models and their model-specific input/output requirements: 1) modifying component models to directly communicate with the framework (i.e., through an Application Programming Interface), 2) developing model-specific external wrappers such that no component model modifications are required, 3) using parsing tools to visually map pre-existing input/output files, and 4) describing and linking models as dynamic link libraries. Most of these approaches are illustrated using the widely distributed modeling system called Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES). The review concludes that each has its strengths and weakness, the factors that determine which approaches work best in a given application.

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  1. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rábago Rábago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff ‣ Fair to the utility and non-solar customers ‣ Fair compensation to the solar customer ‣ Decouple compensation from incentives ‣ Align public policy goals (decouple compensation from consumption) ‣ Intuitively sound and administratively simple 2 Historical Antecedents ‣ Externalities ‣ Price ≠ Cost ‣ Green Power ‣ Small Is Profitable (http://www.smallisprofitable.org/) ‣ Local

  2. Enhanced piezoelectric output voltage and Ohmic behavior in Cr-doped ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Godara, Sanjay; Gupta, Manoj K.; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized. • Enhancement in dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were observed. • A high output voltage was obtained in AFM. • Cr-doping resulted in enhanced conductivity and better Ohmic behavior in ZnO/Ag contact. - Abstract: Highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by solution technique. The size distribution was analyzed by high resolution tunneling electron microscope (HRTEM) and particle size analyzer. In atomic force microscope (AFM) studies, peak to peak 8 mV output voltage was obtained on the application of constant normal force of 25 nN. It showed high dielectric constant (980) with phase transition at 69 °C. Polarization vs. electric field (P–E) loops with remnant polarization (6.18 μC/cm{sup 2}) and coercive field (0.96 kV/cm) were obtained. In I–V studies, Cr-doping was found to reduce the rectifying behavior in the Ag/ZnO Schottky contact which is useful for field effect transistor (FET) and solar cell applications. With these excellent properties, Cr-doped ZnO NRs can be used in nanopiezoelectronics, charge storage and ferroelectric applications.

  3. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  4. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has ...

  5. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  6. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  7. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  8. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  9. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  10. Piggyback Tectonics- Long-Term Growth Of Kilauea On The South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (15-40,000 km3); lava-thickness accumulation rates appear to have remained nearly constant during edifice growth, as effusion rates increased from 25 106 m3yr at end of...

  11. Dramatic enhancement of xuv laser output using a multimode gas-filled capillary waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Vorontsov, V.; McKenna, C.M.; Spence, D.J.; Gonsavles, A.J.; Hooker, S.M.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report a significant increase of the output of a 41.8-nm Xe{sup 8+} laser achieved by means of multimode guiding of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in a gas-filled dielectric capillary tube. The optimized lasing signal from a 15-mm-long capillary was nearly an order of magnitude higher than that from a gas cell of the same length. Simulations of the propagation of the pump laser pulse in the capillary confirmed that this enhancement is due to reflections from the capillary wall, which increase the length of the Xe{sup 8+} plasma column generated. The influence of gas pressure and focusing position on the lasing is also presented.

  12. A 350 MHz, 200 kW CW, Multiple Beam Inductive Output Tube - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Lawrece Ives; George Collins; David Marsden Michael Read; Edward Eisen; Takuchi Kamura, Philipp Borchard

    2012-11-28

    This program developed a 200 kW CW, 350 MHz, multiple beam inductive output tube (MBIOT) for driving accelerator cavities. The MBIOT operates at 30 kV with a gain of 23 dB. The estimated efficiency is 70%. The device uses seven electron beams, each transmitting 1.4 A of current. The tube is approximately six feet long and weighs approximately 400 lbs. The prototype device will be evaluated as a potential RF source for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Because of issues related to delivery of the electron guns, it was not possible to complete assembly and test of the MBIOT during the Phase II program. The device is being completed with support from Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., Communications & Power Industries, LLC. and the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) in Dahlgren, VA. The MBIOT will be initially tested at NSWC before delivery to ANL. The testing at NSWC is scheduled for February 2013.

  13. A 30 MW, 200 MHz Inductive Output Tube for RF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read

    2008-06-19

    This program investigated development of a multiple beam inductive output tube (IOT) to produce 30 MW pulses at 200 MHz. The program was successful in demonstrating feasibility of developing the source to achieve the desired power in microsecond pulses with 70% efficiency. The predicted gain of the device is 24 dB. Consequently, a 200 kW driver would be required for the RF input. Estimated cost of this driver is approximately $1.25 M. Given the estimated development cost of the IOT of approximately $750K and the requirements for a test set that would significantly increase the cost, it was determined that development could not be achieved within the funding constraints of a Phase II program.

  14. Updated Eastern Interconnect Wind Power Output and Forecasts for ERGIS: July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennock, K.

    2012-10-01

    AWS Truepower, LLC (AWST) was retained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to update wind resource, plant output, and wind power forecasts originally produced by the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). The new data set was to incorporate AWST's updated 200-m wind speed map, additional tall towers that were not included in the original study, and new turbine power curves. Additionally, a primary objective of this new study was to employ new data synthesis techniques developed for the PJM Renewable Integration Study (PRIS) to eliminate diurnal discontinuities resulting from the assimilation of observations into mesoscale model runs. The updated data set covers the same geographic area, 10-minute time resolution, and 2004?2006 study period for the same onshore and offshore (Great Lakes and Atlantic coast) sites as the original EWITS data set.

  15. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  16. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  17. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  18. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  1. Microfabricated microengine with constant rotation rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Louis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into constant rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque at a constant rotation to a micromechanism. The output gear can have gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication.

  2. Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

  3. Light output measurements and computational models of microcolumnar CsI scintillators for x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nillius, Peter Klamra, Wlodek; Danielsson, Mats; Sibczynski, Pawel; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The authors report on measurements of light output and spatial resolution of microcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator detectors for x-ray imaging. In addition, the authors discuss the results of simulations aimed at analyzing the results of synchrotron and sealed-source exposures with respect to the contributions of light transport to the total light output. Methods: The authors measured light output from a 490-?m CsI:Tl scintillator screen using two setups. First, the authors used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the response of the scintillator to sealed-source exposures. Second, the authors performed imaging experiments with a 27-keV monoenergetic synchrotron beam and a slit to calculate the total signal generated in terms of optical photons per keV. The results of both methods are compared to simulations obtained with hybridMANTIS, a coupled x-ray, electron, and optical photon Monte Carlo transport package. The authors report line response (LR) and light output for a range of linear absorption coefficients and describe a model that fits at the same time the light output and the blur measurements. Comparing the experimental results with the simulations, the authors obtained an estimate of the absorption coefficient for the model that provides good agreement with the experimentally measured LR. Finally, the authors report light output simulation results and their dependence on scintillator thickness and reflectivity of the backing surface. Results: The slit images from the synchrotron were analyzed to obtain a total light output of 48 keV{sup ?1} while measurements using the fast PMT instrument setup and sealed-sources reported a light output of 28 keV{sup ?1}. The authors attribute the difference in light output estimates between the two methods to the difference in time constants between the camera and PMT measurements. Simulation structures were designed to match the light output measured with the camera while providing good agreement with the

  4. CO/sub 2/ gas dynamic laser with flow rate of 10 Kg/sec

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haitao, C.

    1982-08-01

    Using a supersonic technique in a 10 Kg/sec flow rate carbon dioxide gas dynamic laser unit to create a population inversion of the carbon dioxide particles, a 33,000 watt multiple mode continuous output was obtained. The power ratio reached 3000 watt sec/Kg. Single mode output was the P(20) branch with power of 11,200 watts and a beam diffuse angle of 4 seconds of radian. After eliminating the effect of stock wave, the diffuse angle can be reduced to 3 seconds of a radian. The results were below standards compared to those in foreign countries.

  5. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R. Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  6. SU-E-T-364: 6X FFF and 10X FFF Portal Dosimetry Output Factor Verification: Application for SRS/SBRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulam, M; Bellon, M; Gopal, A; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Hames, S; Schmidt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enhance portal dosimetry of high dose rate SRS/SBRT plan verifications with extensive imager measurement of output factors (OF). Methods: Electronic portal image dosimetry (EPID), implemented on the Varian Edge allows for acquisition of its two energies: 6X FFF and 10 FFF (1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively) at source to imager distance (SID) =100cm without imager saturation. Square and rectangular aSi OF following EPID calibration were obtained. Data taken was similar to that obtained during beam commissioning (of almost all field sizes from 11 to 1515 and 2020 cm{sup 2}, [Trilogy] and [Edge], respectively) to construct a table using the OF tool for use in the Portal Dosimetry Prediction Algorithm (PDIP v11). The Trilogy 6x SRS 1000 MU/min EPID data were taken at 140 SID. The large number of OF were obtained for comparison to that obtained with diode detectors and ion chambers (cc13 for >33 field size). As Edge PDIP verification is currently ongoing, EPID measurements of three SRS/SBRT plans for the Trilogy were taken and compared to results obtained prior to these measurements. Results: The relative difference output factors of field sizes 22 and higher compared to commissioning data were (mean+/-SD, [range]): Edge 6X (?1.9+/?2.9%, [?5.9%,3.1%]), Edge 10X (?0.7+/?1.2%, [? 3.3%,0.8%] and Trilogy (0.03+/?0.5%, [?1.4%,1.1%]) with EPID over predicting. The results for the 140 SID showed excellent agreement throughout except at the 11 to 115 and 151 field sizes where differences were: ?10.6%, ?6.0% and ?5.8%. The differences were also most pronounced for the 11 at 100 SID. They were ?7.4% and ?11.5% for 6X and 10X, respectively. The Gamma (3%, 1mm) for three clinical plans improved by 8.7+/?1.8%. Conclusion: Results indicate that imager output factor measurements at any SID of high dose rate SRS/SBRT are quite reliable for portal dosimetry plan verification except for the smallest fields. This work was not funded by Varian Oncology Systems. Some

  7. 1979 revenue growth belies utility industry problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincicome, R.

    1980-06-01

    Despite growth in revenues during 1979, electric utilities are greatly troubled by high inflation, restricted capital, and the lack of rate relief from utility commissions. The growth, although smaller than normal, will likely convince commissions to respond to rate increase requests by authorizing only the smallest possible increases. With inflationary pressures eroding utility companies' financial base, the benefits of rate increases are wiped out after a year or so, necessitating a return to the commissions for futher adjustments. This up-down cycling is reflected in the report of the performances of the top one hundred utility companies. Earning growth statistics, sales data, financial statistics, and company performances (electric sales, customers served, revenues, and after-tax net income) of top one hundred electric utilities are given in separate tables for 1979. Overall, kWh sales were up 2.9%; revenues were up 13.4%; net income was up 8.1%; and overall earnings performance was a weak increase of 9.4%. (SAC)

  8. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  9. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  10. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  11. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  12. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  13. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  14. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  15. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  16. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  17. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  18. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  19. WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...

  20. 2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...