National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for output ghi dni

  1. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  2. DNI-predictability_paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictable is DNI? An evaluation of hour ahead and day ahead DNI forecasts from four different providers Tobias Gerstmaier 1 , Michael Bührer 2 , Michael Röttger 2 , Andreas Gombert 2 , Clifford W. Hansen 3 , and Joshua S. Stein 3 1 Soitec Solar GmbH, Bötzinger Str. 31, D-79111 Freiburg, Germany, phone +4976121410842, e-mail tobias.gerstmaier@soitec.com 2 Soitec Solar GmbH, Freiburg, Germany 3 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract. Forecast DNI values in hourly

  3. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  4. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  5. Shock initiation of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of the pressed solid explosive 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) was determined using the embedded manganin pressure gauge technique. At an initial shock pressure of 2 GPa, several microseconds were required before any exothermic reaction was observed. At 4 GPa, 2,4-DNI reacted more rapidly but did not transition to detonation at the 12 mm deep gauge position. At 6 GPa, detonation occurred in less than 6 mm of shock propagation. Thus, 2,4-DNI is more shock sensitive than TATB-based explosives but is considerably less shock sensitive than HMX-based explosives. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for 2,4-DNI based on these gauge records showed that 2,4-DNI exhibits shock initiation characteristics similar to TATB but reacts faster. The chemical structure of 2,4-DNI suggests that it may exhibit thermal decomposition reactions similar to nitroguanine and explosives with similar ring structures, such as ANTA and NTO.

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Industrial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas ...

  8. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  9. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  10. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  11. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  12. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  13. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Wood Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  14. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  15. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  16. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  17. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  18. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  19. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  20. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  1. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,158 0 415 5 738 2005 994 0 519 212 263 2006 1,034 0 267 549 218 2007 985 0 226 532 228 2008 552 0 271 211 70 2009 440 0 313 91 37 2010 847 0 643 174 30 2011 1,635 0 1,422 165 48 2012 1,630 0 1,441 156 32 2013 414 0 132 206 76 2014 852 88 266 326 173

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 351,871 80,824 16,659 654,242 126,157 667,341 45,456 1,942,550 2005 341,806 79,362 13,021 624,008 138,469 664,691 41,400 1,902,757 2006 332,548 54,224 24,009 603,288 126,049 689,549 49,308 1,878,973 2007 326,803 50,882 25,373 554,394 116,313 651,230 46,822 1,771,816

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 39,014 5,731 2,486 239,416 18,200 17,347 3,822 326,017 2005 39,652 5,571 2,238 239,324 36,694 18,240 3,884 345,605 2006 38,133 4,812 2,253 207,095 22,567 17,284 4,435 296,579 2007 38,260 5,294 1,862 212,705 20,473 19,166 4,459 302,219 2008 37,220 5,479 1,353 204,167

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commercial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 22,450 4,118 165 21,851 0 8,936 6,350 63,871 2005 22,601 3,518 166 20,227 0 8,647 5,921 61,081 2006 22,186 2,092 172 19,370 0.22 9,359 6,242 59,422 2007 22,595 1,640 221 20,040 0 6,651 3,983 55,131 2008 22,991 1,822 177 20,183 0 8,863 6,054 60,091 2009 20,057 1,095 155

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 24,275 0 3,809 1,540 18,926 2005 23,833 0 3,918 1,544 18,371 2006 23,227 0 3,834 1,539 17,854 2007 22,810 0 3,795 1,566 17,449 2008 22,168 0 3,689 1,652 16,827 2009 20,507 0 3,935 1,481 15,091 2010 21,727 0 3,808 1,406 16,513 2011 21,532 0 3,628 1,321 16,584

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 564,497 0 87,981 34,538 441,978 2005 548,666 0 88,364 34,616 425,685 2006 532,561 0 84,335 34,086 414,140 2007 521,717 0 83,838 34,690 403,189 2008 503,096 0 81,416 36,163 385,517 2009 462,674 0 90,867 32,651 339,156 2010 490,931 0 90,184 30,725 370,022 2011

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 20,654 0 1,501 1,203 17,951 2005 20,494 0 1,392 1,004 18,097 2006 14,077 0 1,153 559 12,365 2007 13,462 0 1,303 441 11,718 2008 7,533 0 1,311 461 5,762 2009 8,128 0 1,301 293 6,534 2010 4,866 0 1,086 212 3,567 2011 3,826 0 1,004 168 2,654 2012

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 124,809 0 8,592 7,219 108,997 2005 125,689 0 8,134 6,145 111,410 2006 87,137 0 6,740 3,481 76,916 2007 82,768 0 7,602 2,754 72,412 2008 45,481 0 7,644 2,786 35,051 2009 48,912 0 7,557 1,802 39,552 2010 29,243 0 6,402 1,297 21,545 2011 22,799 0 5,927

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,043 0 237 8 798 2005 783 0 206 8 568 2006 1,259 0 195 9 1,055 2007 1,262 0 162 11 1,090 2008 897 0 119 9 769 2009 1,007 0 126 8 873 2010 1,059 0 98 11 950 2011 1,080 0 112 6 962 2012 1,346 0 113 11 1,222 2013 1,486 0 96 11 1,379 2014 1,283 3 90 16

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 29,342 0 6,768 226 22,347 2005 22,224 0 5,935 228 16,061 2006 38,169 0 5,672 236 32,262 2007 38,033 0 4,710 303 33,019 2008 27,100 0 3,441 243 23,416 2009 29,974 0 3,652 213 26,109 2010 31,303 0 2,855 296 28,152 2011 31,943 0 3,244 153 28,546 2012

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,052,100 0 388,424 39,233 624,443 2005 984,340 0 384,365 34,172 565,803 2006 942,817 0 330,878 33,112 578,828 2007 872,579 0 339,796 35,987 496,796 2008 793,537 0 326,048 32,813 434,676 2009 816,787 0 305,542 41,275 469,970 2010 821,775 0 301,769

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,085,191 0 398,476 40,122 646,593 2005 1,008,404 0 392,842 35,037 580,525 2006 968,574 0 339,047 33,928 595,599 2007 894,272 0 347,181 36,689 510,402 2008 813,794 0 333,197 33,434 447,163 2009 836,863 0 312,553 42,032 482,279 2010 841,521 0 308,246 47,001

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,016,124 0 14,968 1,493 999,663 2005 997,331 0 19,193 1,028 977,111 2006 1,049,161 0 18,814 1,045 1,029,303 2007 982,486 0 21,435 1,756 959,296 2008 923,889 0 18,075 1,123 904,690 2009 816,285 0 19,587 1,135 795,563 2010 876,041 0 18,357

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 2,174 0 735 10 1,429 2005 1,923 0 965 435 522 2006 2,051 0 525 1,094 433 2007 1,988 0 386 1,102 501 2008 1,025 0 454 433 138 2009 793 0 545 176 72 2010 1,623 0 1,195 370 58 2011 3,195 0 2,753 351 91 2012 3,189 0 2,788 340 61 2013 831 0 261 423 147

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 19,991 0 4,746 12,295 2,950 2005 20,296 0 4,551 11,991 3,754 2006 21,729 0 5,347 12,654 3,728 2007 16,174 0 5,683 8,350 2,141 2008 18,272 0 6,039 12,174 59 2009 18,785 0 6,229 11,535 1,021 2010 17,502 0 6,031 10,333 1,138 2011 16,766 0

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 30,228 0 12,055 2,627 15,547 2005 38,010 0 10,275 2,086 25,649 2006 36,966 0 8,561 2,318 26,087 2007 41,757 0 10,294 2,643 28,820 2008 41,851 0 9,674 1,542 30,635 2009 41,810 0 10,355 1,638 29,817 2010 47,153 0 8,436 1,648 37,070 2011 43,483 0

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    record (number of years of data) Spatial variability (e.g., 14% difference around Dallas) Need for methods using only GHI (estimate DNI and DHI) Advances in modeling ...

  19. Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up...

  20. Comparison of the thermal decompositions of HMX and 2,4-DNI for evaluation of slow cookoff response and long-term stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R.; Bulusu, S.

    1995-12-01

    Thermal decomposition of HMX between 175C and 200C was studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometer with focus on initial stages of the decomposition. Thermal decomposition products are the same as in previous higher temperature experiments. The initial stages of the decomposition have an induction period followed by two acceleratory periods. Arrhenius parameters for the induction and two acceleratory periods are (Log(A)= 18.2 {plus_minus} 0.8, Ea = 48.2 {plus_minus} 1.8 kcal/mole), (Log (A) = 17.15 {plus_minus} 1.5 and Ea = 48.9 {plus_minus} 3.2 kcal/mole), (Log (A) = 19.1 {plus_minus} 3.0 and Ea = 52.1 {plus_minus} 6.3 kcal/mole). This data can be used to calculate the time and temperature required to decompose a desired fraction of a test sample testing the effect of thermal degradation on sensitivity or bum rates. It can also be used to estimate the extent of decomposition expected under normal storage conditions for munitions containing HMX. This data, along with previous mechanistic studies conducted at higher temperatures, suggest that the process that controls the early stages of decomposition of HMX in the solid phase is scission of the N-NO{sub 2} bond, reaction of the N0{sub 2} within a lattice cage to form the mononitroso analogue of HMX and decomposition of the mononitroso HMX within the HMX lattice to form gaseous products that are retained in bubbles or diffuse into the surrounding lattice. These methods evaluating HMX can be used to evaluate new energetic materials such as 2,4-DNI. The early 2,4-DNI thermal decomposition is characterized by an initial decomposition, an apparent induction period, then an initial acceleratory period. The main gaseous products are NO, C0{sub 2}, HNCO, H{sub 2}0, N{sub 2}, CO, HCN and C{sub 2}N{sub 2}. The presence of adsorbed and occluded H{sub 2}0 is the major cause of the early decomposition.

  1. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as anmore » all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.« less

  2. NREL: International Activities - India Solar Resource Maps & Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Activities Printable Version A button that leads to NREL's National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) India Solar Resoource - Annual Average DNI Map Annual Average DNI Map JPG 12.5 MB India Annual Average GHI Map - Annual Average GHI Map Annual Average GHI Map JPG 13.3 MB The cover page of the India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet PDF 395 KB India Solar Resource Maps & Data (updated March 2016) This page provides solar resource maps and data

  3. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  4. Igniter and actuator output testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Closed system mechanical work output measurements were made for five types of thermal battery igniters and one type of valve actuator. Each unit was fired into a high-precision fit piston/cylinder arrangement, and the work output was determined from measuring the rise of a known weight. The results showed that work output for an individual igniter type varied over a considerable range while the mean work output values of the various igniter types appeared to depend principally on the type of closure disc and the details of the charge mix. The large variability in igniter output was the principal inducement to build a second apparatus, with approximately 10 times the capacity of the first, to investigate the output actuators. Compared with igniters, the actuator work output was appropriately in scale, but the variability was considerably reduced (R=1.5), and was attributed to increase in scale. Motion picture photography at 8000 to 9000 frames per second was used to determine the motion of the rising weight and the associated output pressure, which exhibited three distinct phases. Initially, the average acceleration of the weight was of the order of 100 g during the first half-millisecond of weight rise and corresponded to average pressures of 15,000 to 37,000 psi, depending principally on the mass of the weight. This was followed by a significant weight rise at a constant pressure of approximately 150 to 450 psi. Finally, the weight decelerated to rest under gravity to reach the maximum recorded height. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  6. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  7. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  8. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  9. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  10. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given ...

  11. Neutron light output and detector efficiency (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron light output and detector efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron light output and detector efficiency You are accessing a document from the ...

  12. Neutron light output and detector efficiency (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron light output and detector efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron light output and detector efficiency Authors: Taddeucci, Terry N 1 + Show Author ...

  13. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error estimates for fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error estimates for fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from the...

  14. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  15. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  16. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  17. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from...

  18. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  19. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  20. Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Lesson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Grade Level(s): IB 2 (Senior - 3 ... C.8 Photovoltaic cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) Understandings: * Solar ...

  1. Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeller, Charles P. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

  2. Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification Isaac M. Asher and Krzysztof J. Fidkowski University of Michigan US National Congress on Computational...

  3. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  4. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  5. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, James R.; Bemis, Jr., Curtis E.

    1986-01-01

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  6. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  7. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  8. Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    observations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output and physical observations Authors: Higdon, David M [1] ; Lawrence, Earl [1] ; Heitmann, Katrin [2] ; Habib, Salman [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory ANL Publication Date: 2011-07-25 OSTI Identifier: 1084581 Report Number(s):

  9. Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System Low Capital Photovoltaic Panel Electrical Output-Booster System This presentation summarizes the information given during the DOE SunShot Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012. ssgrandchallenge_finance_schrag.pdf (63.07 KB) More Documents & Publications The SunShot Vision Study SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: Advanced Thermal Management for Higher Module Power Output

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Higher temperatures of photovoltaic (PV) modules are causing lower than projected module performance. For example, a free-standing Si PV module has 0.4% decrease in efficiency per degree Celsius. Reducing the module temperature to near ambient levels will increase yearly energy output by 8%. This project will enable lower operating temperatures for modules, resulting in higher module power output and lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).

  11. Method for separating FEL output beams from long wavelength radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D.; Gubeli, Joseph

    2016-04-26

    A method for improving the output beam quality of a free electron laser (FEL) by reducing the amount of emission at wavelengths longer than the electron pulse length and reducing the amount of edge radiation. A mirror constructed of thermally conductive material and having an aperture therein is placed at an oblique angle with respect to the beam downstream of the bending magnet but before any sensitive use of the FEL beam. The aperture in the mirror is sized to deflect emission longer than the wavelength of the FEL output while having a minor impact on the FEL output beam. A properly sized aperture will enable the FEL radiation, which is coherent and generally at a much shorter wavelength than the bending radiations, to pass through the aperture mirror. The much higher divergence bending radiations will subsequently strike the aperture mirror and be reflected safely out of the way.

  12. Motor vehicle output and GDP, 1968-2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Poyer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of the BEA series 'value of motor vehicle output' as an indicator of the business cycle over the period 1968-2007. We statistically assess the causal relationship between real motor vehicle output (RMVO) and real gross domestic product (RGDP). This is accomplished by standard estimation and statistical methods used to assess vector autoregressive models. This assessment represents the initial results of a more encompassing research project, the intent of which is to determine the dynamic interaction of the transport sector with the overall economy. It's a start to a more comprehensive assessment of how transport and economic activity interrelate.

  13. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Handbook providing practical information to help regulators decide if they want to use output-based regulations and explains how to develop an output-based emission standard

  14. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  15. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  16. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  17. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Marc L.; McNeilly, David R.

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  18. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  19. High natural gas output and inventories contribute to lower prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    High natural gas output and inventories contribute to lower prices High natural gas production and ample gas inventories are expected to keep natural gas prices relatively low for the rest of 2015. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says that while expected production growth is slowing from last year's torrid pace, domestic natural gas production in 2015 is still expected to be almost 6 percent above the 2014 level. Higher production has pushed U.S. natural

  20. Development of output user interface software to support analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahanani, Nursinta Adi Natsir, Khairina Hartini, Entin

    2014-09-30

    Data processing software packages such as VSOP and MCNPX are softwares that has been scientifically proven and complete. The result of VSOP and MCNPX are huge and complex text files. In the analyze process, user need additional processing like Microsoft Excel to show informative result. This research develop an user interface software for output of VSOP and MCNPX. VSOP program output is used to support neutronic analysis and MCNPX program output is used to support burn-up analysis. Software development using iterative development methods which allow for revision and addition of features according to user needs. Processing time with this software 500 times faster than with conventional methods using Microsoft Excel. PYTHON is used as a programming language, because Python is available for all major operating systems: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, among others. Values that support neutronic analysis are k-eff, burn-up and mass Pu{sup 239} and Pu{sup 241}. Burn-up analysis used the mass inventory values of actinide (Thorium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Uranium). Values are visualized in graphical shape to support analysis.

  1. Ring laser having an output at a single frequency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackell, Lloyd A.

    1991-01-01

    A ring laser is disclosed that produces a single frequency of laser radiation in either the pulsed mode of operation or the continuous waveform (cw) mode of operation. The laser comprises a ring laser in a bowtie configuration, a birefringent gain material such as Nd:YLF, an improved optical diode that supports laser oscillation having a desired direction of travel and linear polarization, and a Q-switch. An output coupler (mirror) having a high reflectivity, such as 94%, is disclosed. Also disclosed is a self-seeded method of operation in which the laser can provide a pulse or a series of pulses of high power laser radiation at a consistent single frequency with a high degree of amplitude stability and temporal stability. In operation, the laser is operated in continuous waveform (cw) at a low power output with the Q-switch introducing a loss into the resonating cavity. Pumping is continued at a high level, causing the gain material to store energy. When a pulse is desired, the Q-switch is actuated to substantially reduce the losses so that a pulse can build up based on the low level cw oscillation. The pulse quickly builds, using the stored energy in the gain medium to provide a high power output pulse. The process may be repeated to provide a series of high power pulses of a consistent single frequency.

  2. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-08-24

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  3. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2009-06-02

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  4. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  5. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-ghi.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  6. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 The U.S. ...

  7. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  8. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  9. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

  10. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-01-19

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

  11. Method for optimizing the mechanical output of a fluid pressure free piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibrell, E.W.; Schaich, W.A.

    1988-07-05

    The method is described for minimizing rotational speed variations of a centrifugal piston expander engine comprising the steps of: (1) supplying a pressured gas to a centrifugal piston expander engine having a rotatable output element and a discharge conduit for cooled exhaust gas; (2) expanding and cooling the pressured gas in the centrifugal piston expander engine to produce cyclically varying oppositely directed, positive and negative torques on the rotatable output shaft; (3) driving a rotary load in the positive torque direction by the rotatable output element through one rotatable element of a unidirectional clutch having two rotating elements relatively movable in only the negative torque direction; and (4) connecting a battery operated motor-generator unit to the rotatable output shaft to supplement the rotary speed of the output shaft during periods of negative torque output by the centrifugal piston expander engine and to recharge the battery during periods of maximum positive torque output of the centrifugal expander engine.

  12. New runners to boost peak output at Niagara Falls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrofitted Francis turbines will improve the value of power generated from Niagara Falls by increasing the peak output of the hydroturbine units at the Robert Moses hydroelectric plant. The computer-designed runners are expected to add 330 MW to the peak capacity of the 28-yr-old plant and significantly increase the efficiency at high flow rates. Next year, the first new runner will be retrofit to the highly instrumented Unit 4. If the retrofit unit meets it increased-performance expectations, the other 12 units will be upgraded between 1993 and 1998. The work is part of an overall expansion of the Niagara Power Project designed to made better use of the power value of Niagara river water, within the constraints of a treaty with Canada and the scenic value of the falls. These constraints, together with varying flows and heads, introduced enormous complexities into the selection and design of the new runners. The alterations being made to Unit 4, in addition to replacing the turbine runner, include modifying the draft tube-liners, increasing the wicket-gate stroke, replacing the turbine discharge ring (to accommodate longer blades), making various electrical modifications to the generator, and replacing the transformer. But the key to the retrofit is the computer-designed runner. Charles Grose, senior project manager, New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY, emphasizes that such computer design techniques were not available a few years ago; neither were the computer-controlled machining techniques necessary to manufacture the new runners. Other aspects of the upgrading that were analyzed include runner stability, resonance, shaft torsional stress, and runaway speed.

  13. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    -limited" experiment, in which emissions are assumed to be constrained, so that the concentration of carbon dioxide levels off at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) shortly after 2100. The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  14. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and ...

  15. Double Power Output for GaAs Solar Cells Embedded in Luminescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Double power output of bifacial thin-film GaAs microscale solar cells is achieved by embedding in luminescent waveguides (LSCs) with light- trapping backside reflectors (BSRs). ...

  16. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and

  17. Estimating Solar PV Output Using Modern Space/Time Geostatistics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. J.; George, R.; Bush, B.

    2009-04-29

    This presentation describes a project that uses mapping techniques to predict solar output at subhourly resolution at any spatial point, develop a methodology that is applicable to natural resources in general, and demonstrate capability of geostatistical techniques to predict the output of a potential solar plant.

  18. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  19. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    1996-11-08

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  20. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-03-16

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range. 3 figs.

  1. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

  2. System for adjusting frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, David B.

    2006-11-14

    A system for setting and adjusting a frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator in a network is disclosed. The system comprises an accumulator module configured to receive pulses from an oscillator and to output an accumulated value. An adjustor module is configured to store an adjustor value used to correct local oscillator drift. A digital adder adds values from the accumulator module to values stored in the adjustor module and outputs their sums to the accumulator module, where they are stored. The digital adder also outputs an electrical pulse to a logic module. The logic module is in electrical communication with the adjustor module and the network. The logic module may change the value stored in the adjustor module to compensate for local oscillator drift or change the frequency of output pulses. The logic module may also keep time and calculate drift.

  3. Technique for enhancing the power output of an electrostatic generator employing parametric resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2016-02-23

    A circuit-based technique enhances the power output of electrostatic generators employing an array of axially oriented rods or tubes or azimuthal corrugated metal surfaces for their electrodes. During generator operation, the peak voltage across the electrodes occurs at an azimuthal position that is intermediate between the position of minimum gap and maximum gap. If this position is also close to the azimuthal angle where the rate of change of capacity is a maximum, then the highest rf power output possible for a given maximum allowable voltage at the minimum gap can be attained. This rf power output is then coupled to the generator load through a coupling condenser that prevents suppression of the dc charging potential by conduction through the load. Optimized circuit values produce phase shifts in the rf output voltage that allow higher power output to occur at the same voltage limit at the minimum gap position.

  4. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  5. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett, John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  6. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  7. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 4e. Gross Output by Selected Industries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    e Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 4e. Gross Output1by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Billion 2000 Dollars 2) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998 2002...

  8. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 3e. Gross Output by Selected Industries...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    e Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 3e. Gross Output1 by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Current Billion Dollars) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998...

  9. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research ... at a fraction of the cost of building new reactors, while providing continued ...

  10. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  11. Phasing surface emitting diode laser outputs into a coherent laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2006-10-10

    A system for generating a powerful laser beam includes a first laser element and at least one additional laser element having a rear laser mirror, an output mirror that is 100% reflective at normal incidence and <5% reflective at an input beam angle, and laser material between the rear laser mirror and the output mirror. The system includes an injector, a reference laser beam source, an amplifier and phase conjugater, and a combiner.

  12. Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vtpn04_lm_schutte_2012_o.pdf (461.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Materials Lightweight Materials Overview Overview of Lightweight Materials

  13. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Continuous2","Conventional and","Longwall4","Total" ,,"Other3" "Alabama",435,"-",12081,12516 "Arkansas",87,"-","-",87 "Colorado",971,10,17142,18123 "Illinois",16944,1634,34136,52713

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Average Sales Price of Coal by State, County, and Number of Mines, 2014" "Coal-Producing State and County","Number of Mines","Sales","Average Sales Price" ,,"(thousand short tons)","(dollars per short ton)" "Alabama",32,17359,87.17 " Bibb",1,"w","w" " Franklin",2,"w","w" " Jefferson",9,5764,103.31 " Shelby",2,"w","w"

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Sales Price of U.S. Coal by State and Disposition, 2014" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market1","Captive2","Total3" "Alabama",84.48,"-",87.17 "Alaska","w","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","w" "Arkansas","w","w","w" "Colorado",35.68,44.28,38.64

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal Thickness (inches)","Underground","Surface","Total" "Under 7","-",922,922 "7 - Under 13","-",2518,2518 "13 - Under 19",343,6236,6579 "19 - Under 25",197,11075,11273 "25 - Under 31",2693,10632,13324 "31 - Under 37",15604,14557,30161 "37 - Under 43",20075,13504,33580

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Union",,"Nonunion",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "State and Region1" "Alabama",12081,327,435,3486,12516,3813 "Alaska","-",1502,"-","-","-",1502

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Disposition by State, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market Sales1","Captive Sales / Transactions2","Exports3","Total" "Alabama",5310,"-",12049,17359 "Alaska",954,"-",554,1508 "Arizona",8182,"-","-",8182 "Arkansas",1,104,9,114 "Colorado",10602,11844,2089,24536 "Illinois",39533,6139,10170,55842

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2014" "Rank","Mine Name / Operating Company","Mine Type","State","Production (short tons)" 1,"North Antelope Rochelle Mine / Peabody Powder River Mining LLC","Surface","Wyoming",117965515 2,"Black Thunder / Thunder Basin Coal Company LLC","Surface","Wyoming",101016860 3,"Cordero Mine / Cordero Mining

  2. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. Revenue and Expense Statistics for U.S. Cooperative Borrower-Owned Electric Utilities, 2003 through 2013 (Million Dollars) Description 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Operating...

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State","Continuous1","Conventional and","Longwall3","Total" ,,"Other2" "Alabama","w","-","w",89.68 "Arkansas","w","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","-","w",37.28 "Illinois",44.23,"w",4...

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mile. Some structures were designed and then built to carry future transmission circuits in order to handle expected growth in new capability requirements. Lines are taken...

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2014" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" ...

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 59.00 --...

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2013 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern...

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2013 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts Voltage Region Type Operating...

  9. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... equal to Internal Demand less Direct Control Load Management and Interruptible Demand. ... Capacity Margin is the amount of unused available capability of an electric power system at ...

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nation",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",294.8,204.63,276.27,294.8,276.27,6...,355.59,611.72,791.78,611.72,29.4 "South America Total",501.14,"-",702.17,501.14,702.17,-2...

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...nation",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",72167,239165,99293,72167,99293,-27... Other**",215,167,303,215,303,-29 "South America Total",21,"-",78,21,78,-73.1 " ...

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.00 1.00 Fire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- 2.00 -- -- -- 2.00 Failed AC Substation Equipment --...

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    28.00 2.00 2.00 23.00 89.00 Fire 1.00 -- 1.00 1.00 3.00 -- -- 50.00 56.00 Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- 7.00 -- -- -- 7.00 Failed AC Substation Equipment...

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems Electrostatic Precipitators Baghouses Select Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Reduction Systems Activated Carbon Injection Systems Direct Sorbent ...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Demand-Side Management Program Incremental Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand ...

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Management Program Direct and Indirect Costs, 2004 through 2012 (Thousand Dollars) (Table Discontinued) Year Energy Efficiency Load Management Direct Cost Indirect Cost ...

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Demand-Side Management Program Annual Effects by Program Category, 2004 through 2012 (Table Discontinued) Energy Efficiency Load Management Total Year Energy Savings (Thousand ...

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Energy Efficiency Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Incremental Annual Savings - Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 ...

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Energy Efficiency - Life Cycle Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Life Cycle Savings - Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 ...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2004 17,185 24,290 11,137 50 52,663 2005 18,894 28,073 11,986 47 ...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2004 1,827 1,812 894 -- 4,532 2005 2,249 2,559 1,071 -- 5,879 2006 ...

  3. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Net ...

  4. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Circuit ...

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,2013,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production" "State and Region1" "Alabama",36,16363,39,18620,-7.7,-12.1 " Underground",7,12516,8,13515,-12.5,-7.4 "

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2014" "Rank","Controlling Company Name","Production (thousand short tons)","Percent of Total Production" 1,"Peabody Energy Corp",189531,19 2,"Arch Coal Inc",135801,13.6 3,"Cloud Peak Energy",85794,8.6 4,"Alpha Natural Resources",80153,8 5,"Murray Energy Corp",62815,6.3 6,"Alliance Resource Partners LP",40964,4.1 7,"Westmoreland Coal Company",35580,3.6

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Productive Capacity of Coal Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",13915,5530,19445,15121,7633,22754,-8,-27.6,-14.5

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Capacity Utilization of Coal Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(percent)" ,2014,,,2013 "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",89.95,68.96,83.98,89.38,66.73,81.78 "Alaska","-",50.06,50.06,"-",54.39,54.39 "Arizona","-",94.71,94.71,"-",89.44,89.44

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Productive Capacity and Capacity Utilization of Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity"

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2014 and 2013" "(million short tons)" ,2014,,2013 "Coal-Producing","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Percent Change" "State","Reserves","Percentage","Reserves","Percentage","Recoverable Coal" ,,,,,"Reserves"

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground - Minable Coal",,,"Surface - Minable Coal",,,"Total"

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2014" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Mine Production Range","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery" "(thousand short

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Employees by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State and Region1" "Alabama",2852,842,3694,3077,1135,4212,-7.3,-25.8,-12.3

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2014" ,"Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State, Region1","Above 1,000","Above 500","Above 200","Above 100","Above 50","Above 10","Above 0","Zero2","Total Number" "and Mine Type",,"to 1,000","to 500","to 200","to

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2014" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production" "State and County" "Alabama",7,12516,29,3847,36,16363 " Bibb","-","-",1,72,1,72 "

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Union Status, 2014" ,"Union",,"Nonunion" "Coal-Producing State","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "and Region1" "Alabama",2653,57,199,743 "Alaska","-",120,"-","-" "Arizona","-",387,"-","-"

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" ,"Number of Mining Operations2",,,"Number of Employees3",,,"Average Production per Employee Hour" ,,,,,,,"(short tons)4" "Coal-Producing State, Region1",2014,2013,"Percent",2014,2013,"Percent",2014,2013,"Percent" "and Mine Type",,,"Change",,,"Change",,,"Change"

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Underground Coal Mining Productivity by State and Mining Method, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" "Coal-Producing State, Region1 and Mine Type","Continuous2","Conventional and","Longwall4","Total" ,,"Other3" "Alabama",0.92,"-",1.92,1.84 "Arkansas",0.49,"-","-",0.49 "Colorado",3.44,"-",6.49,6.19 "Illinois",4.43,6.73,7.6,6.16

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" ,"Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State,","Above 1,000","Above 500","Above 200","Above 100","Above 50","Above 10","10 or Under","Total2" "Region1 and Mine Type",,"to 1,000","to 500","to

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2014" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" ,"Union",,"Nonunion" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "Alabama",1.92,2.31,0.85,2 "Alaska","-",5.43,"-","-" "Arizona","-",8.06,"-","-"

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2014" "Company Name","Plant Location" "Top Ten Manufacturers" "American Crystal Sugar Co","MN, ND" "Archer Daniels Midland","IA, IL, MN, NE" "Carmeuse Lime Stone Inc","AL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, TN, WI" "Cemex Inc","AL, CA, CO, FL, GA, KY, OH, TN, TX" "Dakota Gasification Company","ND" "Eastman Chemical

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,,2013,,,,"Total" "Census Division","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial",2014,2013,"Percent" "and

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Year-End Coal Stocks by Sector, Census Division, and State, 2014 and 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,2014,,,,,2013,,,,,"Total" "Census Division","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Producer","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Producer",2014,2013,"Percent" "and

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2014 and 2013" "(dollars per short ton)" ,2014,,,2013,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",89.68,79.42,87.17,88.19,88.24,88.2,1.7,-10,-1.2

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the former utility members joined RFC. Reliability First Corporation (RFC) came into existence on January 1, 2006. RFC submitted a consolidated filing covering the historical NERC...

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.B. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2013 Actual, 2014-2018 Projected Net...

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",40.85,44.62,71.22,40.85,71.22,-42.6 " Canada*",85.43,69.79,74.16,85.43,74.16,15.2 " Dominican

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",586002,1478020,446185,586002,446185,31.3 " Canada*",440922,1341068,339057,440922,339057,30 "

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",91.86,102.82,92.36,91.86,92.36,-0.5 " Canada*",88.1,104.16,87.3,88.1,87.3,0.9 "

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",9472145,9165858,13595691,9472145,13595691,-30.3 " Baltimore, MD",3850539,2991709,4886468,3850539,4886468,-21.2 " Buffalo, NY",3381,570146,96786,3381,96786,-96.5 " New

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",7922195,7044057,10183046,7922195,10183046,-22.2 " Baltimore, MD",2990819,1811937,3344676,2990819,3344676,-10.6 " Buffalo, NY",196,566999,95591,196,95591,-99.8

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Imports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",240168,341205,171698,240168,171698,39.9 " Canada",239440,341189,171631,239440,171631,39.5 " Mexico",728,16,67,728,67,"NM" "South America

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price of U.S. Coal Imports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",71.92,104.33,107.02,71.92,107.02,-32.8 " Canada",71.93,104.32,107.01,71.93,107.01,-32.8 " Mexico",66.79,360.25,113.43,66.79,113.43,-41.1

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 2010 - 2016" "(thousand short tons)" "Year","January - March","April - June","July - September","October - December","Total" 2010,265702,264982,277505,276180,1084368 2011,273478,264291,275006,282853,1095628 2012,266865,241047,258956,249591,1016458 2013,244867,243211,257595,239169,984842 2014,245271,245844,255377,253557,1000049 2015,240189,211130,237263,207355,895936

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" ,2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",312200,225584,520059,312200,520059,-40 " Baltimore, MD","-",10410,"-","-","-","-" " Boston,

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. U.S. Coke Imports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",2763,52115,2035,2763,2035,35.8 " Canada",2763,52115,2035,2763,2035,35.8 "Europe Total",1056,1156,14,1056,14,"NM" "

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Origin",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",181.85,113.11,213.82,181.85,213.82,-15 " Canada",181.85,113.11,213.82,181.85,213.82,-15 "Europe

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Coal-Producing Region","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "and State",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "Alabama",2446,2298,4022,2446,4022,-39.2 "Alaska",310,328,265,310,265,16.7 "Arizona",1335,1376,1755,1335,1755,-23.9 "Arkansas",11,18,21,11,21,-48

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2010 - 2016" "(thousand short tons)" ,"January - March",,"April - June",,"July - September",,"October - December",,"Total" "Year","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports" 2010,17807,4803,21965,5058,21074,4680,20870,4811,81716,19353

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2010 - 2016" "(dollars per short ton)" ,"January - March",,"April - June",,"July - September",,"October - December",,"Total" "Year","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports"

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016" "(short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2010,380404,1766896,14583950,1904040,52869,581700,82828,19352687 2011,61745,1680490,9500387,856038,22128,778887,187931,13087606

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",1373100,2359203,1865247,1373100,1865247,-26.4 " Canada*",608869,1671121,715703,608869,715703,-14.9 " Dominican Republic",19,"-",1745,19,1745,-98.9

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",62.62,81.09,76.28,62.62,76.28,-17.9 " Canada*",87.37,97.37,80.39,87.37,80.39,8.7 " Dominican

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","January - March","October - December","January - March",2016,2015,"Percent" "of Destination",2016,2015,2015,,,"Change" "North America Total",787098,881183,1419062,787098,1419062,-44.5 " Canada*",167947,330053,376646,167947,376646,-55.4 " Dominican

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Supply and Disposition of Electricity, 2004 through 2014 (From Chapter 2.) Supply (Million Megawatthours) Generation Year Electric Utilities IPP (Non-CHP) IPP (CHP) Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Total Imports Total Supply 2004 2,505 1,119 184 8 154 34 4,005 2005 2,475 1,247 180 8 145 44 4,099 2006 2,484 1,259 165 8 148 43 4,107 2007 2,504 1,324 177 8 143 51 4,208 2008 2,475 1,332 167 8 137 57 4,176 2009 2,373 1,278 159 8 132 52 4,003 2010 2,472 1,339 162 9 144 45 4,170 2011 2,461 1,331

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Number of Ultimate Customers Served by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 118,763,768 16,606,783 747,600 1,025 136,119,176 2005 120,760,839 16,871,940 733,862 518 138,367,159 2006 122,471,071 17,172,499 759,604 791 140,403,965 2007 123,949,916 17,377,219 793,767 750 142,121,652 2008 125,037,837 17,582,382 774,808 726 143,395,753 2009 125,208,829 17,562,235 757,537 704 143,529,305 2010 125,717,935

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Sales and Direct Use of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatthours) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Direct Use Total End Use Total Electric Industry 2004 1,291,981,578 1,230,424,731 1,017,849,532 7,223,642 3,547,479,483 168,470,002 3,715,949,485 2005 1,359,227,107 1,275,079,020 1,019,156,065 7,506,321 3,660,968,513 150,015,531 3,810,984,044 2006 1,351,520,036 1,299,743,695 1,011,297,566 7,357,543 3,669,918,840

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Revenue from Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2004 through 2014 (Million Dollars) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 115,577 100,546 53,477 519 270,119 2005 128,393 110,522 58,445 643 298,003 2006 140,582 122,914 62,308 702 326,506 2007 148,295 128,903 65,712 792 343,703 2008 155,496 137,036 70,231 820 363,583 2009 157,044 132,747 62,670 828 353,289 2010 166,778 135,554 65,772 814 368,918 2011 166,714

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sectors 2004 through 2014 (Cents per kilowatthour) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Total Electric Industry 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 9.13 2008 11.26 10.26 6.96 10.71 9.74 2009 11.51 10.16 6.83 10.66 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.56 9.83 2011 11.72 10.24 6.82 10.46 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 9.84 2013 12.13

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 1,291,982 1,230,425 1,017,850 7,224 3,547,479 2005 1,359,227 1,275,079 1,019,156 7,506 3,660,969 2006 1,351,520 1,299,744 1,011,298 7,358 3,669,919 2007 1,392,241 1,336,315 1,027,832 8,173 3,764,561 2008 1,380,662 1,336,133 1,009,516 7,653 3,733,965 2009 1,364,758 1,306,853 917,416 7,768

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Revenue from Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Million Dollars) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 115,577 100,546 53,477 519 270,119 2005 128,393 110,522 58,445 643 298,003 2006 140,582 122,914 62,308 702 326,506 2007 148,295 128,903 65,712 792 343,703 2008 155,496 137,036 70,231 820 363,583 2009 157,044 132,747 62,670 828 353,289 2010 166,778 135,554 65,772 814 368,918 2011 166,714

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Average Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2004 - December 2014 (Cents per Kilowatthour) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 9.13 2008 11.26 10.26 6.96 10.71 9.74 2009 11.51 10.16 6.83 10.66 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.56 9.83 2011 11.72 10.24 6.82 10.46 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 9.84 2013

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Purchases, 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Year Electric Utilities Energy-Only Providers Independent Power Producers Combined Heat and Power U.S. Total 2005 2,760,043 3,250,298 12,201 69,744 6,092,285 2006 2,605,315 2,793,288 26,628 77,353 5,502,584 2007 2,504,002 2,805,833 24,942 76,646 5,411,422 2008 2,483,927 3,024,730 25,431 78,693 5,612,781 2009 2,364,648 2,564,407 27,922 71,669 5,028,647 2010 2,353,086 3,319,211 23,976 73,861 5,770,134

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Sales for Resale, 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Year Electric Utilities Energy-Only Providers Independent Power Producers Combined Heat and Power U.S. Total 2004 1,923,440 3,756,175 1,053,364 25,996 6,758,975 2005 1,925,710 2,867,048 1,252,796 26,105 6,071,659 2006 1,698,389 2,446,104 1,321,342 27,638 5,493,473 2007 1,603,179 2,476,740 1,368,310 31,165 5,479,394 2008 1,576,976 2,718,661 1,355,017 30,079 5,680,733 2009 1,495,636 2,240,399

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Electric Power Industry - U.S. Electricity Imports from and Electricity Exports to Canada and Mexico, 2004-2014 (Megawatthours) Canada Mexico U.S. Total Year Imports from Exports to Imports from Exports to Imports Exports 2004 33,007,487 22,482,109 1,202,576 415,754 34,210,063 22,897,863 2005 42,332,039 18,680,237 1,597,275 470,731 43,929,314 19,150,968 2006 41,544,052 23,405,387 1,147,258 865,948 42,691,310 24,271,335 2007 50,118,056 19,559,417 1,277,646 584,175 51,395,702 20,143,592 2008

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Total (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2004 1,513,641 62,196 11,498 199,662 374 475,682 245,546 6 3,686 -7,526 467 2,505,231 2005 1,484,855 58,572 11,150 238,204 10 436,296 245,553 16 4,930

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric and Solar Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Net Generation by Energy Source: Residential Sector, 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Distributed Generation Period Estimated Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Generation Annual Totals 2014 4,243 Year 2014 January 226 February 238 March 328 April 361 May 402 June 410 July 431 August 431 September 404 October 382 November 319 December 311 See Glossary for definitions. Values are final. See Technical Notes for a discussion of the sample design for the Form EIA-923 and predecessor forms. Totals may

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Coal by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Petroleum Coke by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Natural Gas by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Other Gases by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Nuclear Energy by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Conventional) Power by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Other Energy Sources by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Wind by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Biomass by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Megawatthours) All Sectors Electric Power Sector Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Census Division and State Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Count of Electric Power Industry Power Plants, by Sector, by Predominant Energy Sources within Plant, 2004 through 2014 Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewables Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total (All Sectors) 2004 625 1,143 1,670 46 66 1,425 749 39 28 2005 619 1,133 1,664 44 66 1,422 781 39 29 2006 616 1,148 1,659 46 66 1,421 843 39 29 2007 606 1,163 1,659 46 66 1,424 929 39 25 2008 598 1,170 1,655 43 66 1,423 1,076

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Existing Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and Producer Type, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatts) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewable Sources Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total Total (All Sectors) 2004 313,020.0 59,119.0 371,011.0 2,296.0 99,628.0 77,641.0 18,717.0 20,764.0 746.0 962,942.0 2005 313,380.0 58,548.0 383,061.0 2,063.0 99,988.0 77,541.0 21,205.0 21,347.0 887.0 978,020.0 2006 312,956.0 58,097.0 388,294.0

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Existing Net Summer Capacity of Other Renewable Sources by Producer Type, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatts) Year Wind Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Geothermal Other Biomass Total (Other Renewable Sources) Total (All Sectors) 2004 6,456.0 398.0 6,182.0 2,152.0 3,529.0 18,717.0 2005 8,706.0 411.0 6,193.0 2,285.0 3,609.0 21,205.0 2006 11,329.0 411.0 6,372.0 2,274.0 3,727.0 24,113.0 2007 16,515.0 502.0 6,704.0 2,214.0 4,134.0 30,069.0 2008 24,651.0 536.0 6,864.0 2,229.0

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Existing Capacity by Energy Source, 2014 (Megawatts) Energy Source Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Coal 1,145 325,831.5 299,094.2 300,699.8 Petroleum 3,573 46,897.8 41,135.4 44,739.7 Natural Gas 5,727 495,120.2 432,150.3 464,784.7 Other Gases 93 2,227.6 1,914.3 1,889.9 Nuclear 99 103,860.4 98,569.3 100,610.3 Hydroelectric Conventional 4,029 78,792.9 79,677.3 79,090.6 Wind 1,032 65,300.1 64,231.5 64,325.1 Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Existing Capacity by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts) Producer Type Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities 9,510 675,675.4 616,631.5 637,857.0 Independent Power Producers, Non-Combined Heat and Power Plants 6,975 423,782.6 387,561.6 401,581.5 Independent Power Producers, Combined Heat and Power Plants 559 37,890.2 33,362.6 35,972.8 Total 17,044 1,137,348.2 1,037,555.7 1,075,411.3 Commercial and

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Planned Generating Capacity Changes, by Energy Source, 2015-2019 Generator Additions Generator Retirements Net Capacity Additions Energy Source Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Year 2015 U.S. Total 704 21,965.9 234 18,351.4 470 3,614.5 Coal 2 52.2 95 13,325.5 -93 -13,273.3 Petroleum 24 24.2 44 902.8 -20 -878.6 Natural Gas 76 6,192.8 61 3,964.2 15 2,228.6 Other Gases -- -- -- -- -- -- Nuclear 1 1,122.0 --

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Capacity Additions, Retirements and Changes by Energy Source, 2014 (Count, Megawatts) Generator Additions Generator Retirements Energy Source Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Coal 1 106.2 52.0 52.0 53 5,083.4 4,489.7 4,552.3 Petroleum 28 62.2 62.0 62.0 55 1,261.0 1,018.6 1,120.0 Natural Gas 92 9,275.2 8,300.8 8,849.5 87 4,184.5 3,834.4 3,918.8

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.A. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Renewable Sources Fossil Fuels Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Storage Nuclear All Other Sources All Sources Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 4,577.6 4,403.4 22,853.0 23,564.2 1,775.4 1,753.4 3.0 3.0 4,046.3 4,645.4 52.9 52.9 33,308.2 34,422.3

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Summer Capacity at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Capacity Summer Capacity From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Capacity Census Division and State Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Conventional Hydroelectric Biomass Sources Geothermal Total Renewable Sources Estimated Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Capacity Estimated Total Solar Photovoltaic Capacity Estimated Total Solar

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.C. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Fossil Fuels and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Other Natural Gas Coal Petroleum Coke Petroleum Liquids Other Gases Total Fossil Fuels Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 11,742.0 11,720.9 1,110.1

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Capacity Factors for Utility Scale Generators Primarily Using Fossil Fuels, January 2013-December 2014 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Period Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Steam Turbine Petroleum Liquids Fired Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Annual Factors 2013 59.7% 48.2% 4.9% 10.6% 6.1% 12.1% 0.8% 2.2% 2014 61.0% 48.3% 5.2% 10.4% 8.5% 12.5% 1.1% 1.4% Year 2013 January 61.2% 46.3% 3.6% 7.3% 4.6% 10.0%

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Total Capacity of Distributed and Dispersed Generators by Technology Type, 2005 through 2014 Capacity (MW) Year Internal Combustion Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Hydro Wind Photovoltaic Storage Other Wind and Other Total Number of Generators Distributed Generators 2005 4,025.0 1,917.0 1,830.0 999.0 -- -- -- -- 995.0 9,766.0 17,371 2006 3,646.0 1,298.0 2,582.0 806.0 -- -- -- -- 1,081.0 9,411.0 5,044 2007 4,624.0 1,990.0 3,596.0 1,051.0 -- -- -- -- 1,441.0 12,702.0 7,103 2008 5,112.0 1,949.0

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Net Metering Customers and Capacity by Technology Type, by End Use Sector, 2004 through 2014 Capacity (MW) Customers Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Historical Data 2004 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,114 1,494 215 3 15,826 2005 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 19,244 1,565 337 -- 21,146 2006 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30,689 2,553 376 -- 33,618 2007 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 44,450 3,513 391 -- 48,354 2008 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64,400 5,305 304

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Petroleum Liquids-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Natural Gas Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Natural Gas Electric

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Type of Prime Mover, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Prime Mover Type Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Steam Generator 178

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Year of Initial Commercial Operation, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Year of Initial Commercial Operation Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,020,523 772,224 240,235 377 7,687 2005 1,041,448 761,349 272,218 377 7,504 2006 1,030,556 753,390 269,412 347 7,408 2007 1,046,795 764,765 276,581 361 5,089 2008 1,042,335 760,326 276,565 369 5,075 2009 934,683 695,615 234,077 317 4,674 2010 979,684 721,431

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 20,375,751 15,610,335 4,606,584 8,251 150,581 2005 20,801,716 15,397,688 5,250,824 8,314 144,889 2006 20,527,410 15,211,077 5,166,001 7,526 142,807 2007 20,841,871 15,436,110 5,287,202 7,833 110,727 2008 20,548,610 15,189,050 5,242,194 8,070 109,296 2009

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 165,107 103,793 56,342 760 4,212 2005 165,137 98,223 62,154 580 4,180 2006 73,821 53,529 17,179 327 2,786 2007 82,433 56,910 22,793 250 2,480 2008 53,846 38,995 13,152 160 1,538 2009 43,562 31,847 9,880 184 1,652 2010 40,103 30,806 8,278 164 855

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,031,954 651,712 350,093 4,544 25,606 2005 1,035,045 618,811 387,355 3,469 25,410 2006 459,392 335,130 105,312 1,963 16,987 2007 512,423 355,999 139,977 1,505 14,942 2008 332,367 242,379 79,816 957 9,215 2009 266,508 196,346 59,277 1,101 9,784 2010

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 7,677 4,150 2,985 1 541 2005 8,330 4,130 3,746 1 452 2006 7,363 3,619 3,286 1 456 2007 6,036 2,808 2,715 2 512 2008 5,417 2,296 2,704 1 416 2009 4,821 2,761 1,724 1 335 2010 4,994 3,325 1,354 2 313 2011 5,012 3,449 1,277 1 286 2012 3,675 2,105 756 1

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 216,047 116,086 83,979 33 15,949 2005 234,217 115,727 105,163 33 13,295 2006 208,518 102,117 92,643 33 13,726 2007 170,166 77,941 77,135 45 15,045 2008 152,933 64,843 76,416 37 11,638 2009 136,474 77,919 48,776 32 9,747 2010 141,774 94,331 38,235 44

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 5,674,580 1,809,443 3,265,896 32,839 566,401 2005 6,036,370 2,134,859 3,349,921 33,785 517,805 2006 6,461,615 2,478,396 3,412,826 34,623 535,770 2007 7,089,342 2,736,418 3,765,194 34,087 553,643 2008 6,895,843 2,730,134 3,612,197 33,403 520,109 2009

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 5,827,470 1,857,247 3,351,469 33,623 585,132 2005 6,212,116 2,198,098 3,444,875 34,645 534,498 2006 6,643,926 2,546,169 3,508,597 35,473 553,687 2007 7,287,714 2,808,500 3,872,646 34,872 571,697 2008 7,087,191 2,803,283 3,712,872 34,138 536,899 2009

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 344,134 19,973 130,248 168 193,745 2005 355,250 27,373 138,407 207 189,263 2006 350,074 27,455 135,546 269 186,803 2007 353,025 31,568 132,953 284 188,220 2008 338,786 29,150 130,122 287 179,227 2009 320,444 29,565 130,894 274 159,712 2010

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 143,844 11,250 125,848 4,081 2,665 2005 141,899 11,490 123,064 4,797 2,548 2006 160,033 16,617 136,108 6,644 664 2007 166,774 17,442 144,104 4,598 630 2008 195,777 20,465 169,547 5,235 530 2009 206,792 19,583 180,689 5,931 589 2010 218,331 19,975

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 69,331 5,373 60,514 2,093 1,351 2005 67,902 5,650 58,624 2,360 1,269 2006 75,970 8,287 63,950 3,388 345 2007 79,712 8,620 68,432 2,344 316 2008 94,215 10,242 81,029 2,668 276 2009 99,821 9,748 86,773 2,999 301 2010 105,835 10,029 92,763 2,837 205 2011

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 141,577 3,705 124,815 12,909 146 2005 144,339 4,724 126,529 12,923 164 2006 146,987 4,078 129,779 12,964 165 2007 146,308 4,557 127,826 13,043 881 2008 148,452 4,476 130,041 13,934 0 2009 146,971 3,989 126,649 16,333 0 2010 144,934

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 19,215 2,014 9,240 4,308 3,654 2005 17,852 2,485 7,365 4,677 3,325 2006 17,727 2,611 7,788 4,436 2,893 2007 19,083 2,992 8,861 4,049 3,181 2008 24,288 3,409 12,745 3,684 4,450 2009 24,847 3,679 13,231 3,760 4,177 2010 29,996 3,668 14,449 3,790

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Consumption of Petroleum Coke for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Consumption of Nautral Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2014 and 2013 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 356,658 388,323 -8.2% 3,585 2,587 330,872 354,489 9,416 8,407 12,786 22,839 Connecticut 108,833 115,211 -5.5% 121

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Period Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) End of Year Stocks 2004 106,669 46,750 937 84,917 29,144 627

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, by Census Divison, 2014 and 2013 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Census Division December 2014 December 2013 Percentage Change December 2014 December 2013 December 2014 December 2013 Coal (Thousand Tons) New England 1,611 1,129 42.7% W W W W Middle Atlantic 8,079 5,973 35.3% W 0 W 5,973 East North Central 33,839 28,279 19.7% 23,394 22,076 10,446 6,203 West North Central 20,648

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Stocks of Coal by Coal Rank: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Period Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Coal Total End of Year Stocks 2004 49,022 53,618 4,029 106,669 2005 52,923 44,377 3,836 101,137 2006 67,760 68,408 4,797 140,964 2007 63,964 82,692 4,565 151,221 2008 65,818 91,214 4,556 161,589 2009 91,922 92,448 5,097 189,467 2010 81,108 86,915 6,894 174,917 2011 82,056 85,151 5,179 172,387 2012 86,437 93,833 4,846 185,116 2013 73,113 69,720 5,051 147,884

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Receipts (Thousand Barrels) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Receipts (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per MMBtu) 2004 1,002,032 0.97 1.36 27.42

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight 2004 470,619 1.52 10.4 445,603 0.36 6.0 78,268 1.05 14.2 2005 480,179 1.56 10.5 456,856 0.36 6.2 77,677

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Quality of Fossil Fuel Receipts for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Period Average Btu per Pound Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Gallon Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Cubic Foot 2004 10,074 0.97 9.0 147,286 1.66 0.2 1,027 2005 10,107 0.98 9.0 146,481 1.61 0.2 1,028 2006 10,063 0.97 9.0 143,883 2.31 0.2 1,027 2007 10,028 0.96 8.8 144,546 2.10 0.1

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks Period Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu)

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 15,440,681 758,557 1.34 27.30 0.91 98.2 592,478 93,034 4.80

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 107,985 3,817 0.89 25.15 5.10

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 4,410,775 227,700 1.41 27.27 1.13 93.3 337,011

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 73,745 2,609 0.72 20.30

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 10,682 451 2.08 49.32 2.48 23.5 3,066 527 6.19 35.96 0.20

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commerical Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 16,176 15,804

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 326,495 15,324 1.63 34.79 1.43 57.6 25,491 4,107 4.98 30.93

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 14,876 540 0.98 27.01 5.59 40.4

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2014 and 2013 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2014 Year 2013 Percentage Change Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.1. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, 2004 through 2014 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear 2004 10331 10571 8647 10428 2005 10373 10631 8551 10436 2006 10351 10809 8471 10435 2007 10375 10794 8403 10489 2008 10378 11015 8305 10452 2009 10414 10923 8160 10459 2010 10415 10984 8185 10452 2011 10444 10829 8152 10464 2012 10498 10991 8039 10479 2013 10459 10713 7948 10449 2014 10428 10814 7907 10459 Coal includes anthracite, bituminous,

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Tested Heat Rates by Prime Mover and Energy Source, 2007 - 2014 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Prime Mover Coal Petroluem Natural Gas Nuclear 2007 Steam Generator 10,158 10,398 10,440 10,489 Gas Turbine -- 13,217 11,632 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,447 10,175 -- Combined Cycle W 10,970 7,577 -- 2008 Steam Generator 10,138 10,356 10,377 10,452 Gas Turbine -- 13,311 11,576 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,427 9,975 -- Combined Cycle W 10,985 7,642 -- 2009 Steam Generator 10,150 10,349 10,427 10,459

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Revenue and Expense Statistics for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2004 through 2014 (Million Dollars) Description 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Utility Operating Revenues 238,759 265,652 275,501 270,964 298,962 276,124 ......Electric Utility 213,012 234,909 246,736 240,864 266,124 249,303 ......Other Utility 25,747 30,743 28,765 30,100 32,838 26,822 Utility Operating Expenses 206,960 236,786 245,589 241,198 267,263 244,243 ......Electric Utility 183,121 207,830 218,445 213,076

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Power Plant Operating Expenses for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2004 through 2014 (Mills per Kilowatthour) Operation Maintenance Year Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale 2004 8.97 3.13 3.83 4.27 5.38 2.96 2.76 2.14 2005 8.26 3.21 3.95 3.69 5.27 2.98 2.73 1.89 2006 9.03 3.57 3.76 3.51 5.69 3.19 2.70 2.16 2007 9.54 3.63 5.44 3.26 5.79 3.37 3.87 2.42 2008 9.89 3.72 5.78 3.77 6.20

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 2004 through 2014 (Thousand Metric Tons) Year Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 2004 2,486,982 10,309 4,143 2005 2,543,838 10,340 3,961 2006 2,488,918 9,524 3,799 2007 2,547,032 9,042 3,650 2008 2,484,012 7,830 3,330 2009 2,269,508 5,970 2,395 2010 2,388,596 5,400 2,491 2011 2,287,071 4,845 2,406 2012 2,156,875 3,704 2,148 2013 2,172,355 3,609 2,188 2014 2,166,603

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Quantity and Net Summer Capacity of Operable Cooling Systems, by Energy Source and Cooling System Type, 2004 - 2014 Once-Through Cooling Systems Recirculating Cooling Systems Cooling Ponds Dry Cooling Systems Hybrid Wet and Dry Cooling Systems Other Cooling System Types Energy Source Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net Summer

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Costs of Existing Flue Gas Desulfurization Units Operating in Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Year Average Operation and Maintenance Costs (Dollars per Megawatthour) Average Installed Capital Costs (Dollars per Kilowatt) 2004 1.25 43.25 2005 1.37 142.67 2006 -- 149.62 2007 1.26 240.68 2008 1.44 265.83 2009 1.44 357.46 2010 1.52 360.69 2011 1.79 410.62 2012 1.87 275.49 2013 1.74 235.42 2014 1.84 227.29 Notes: Average Installed Capital Costs reflect units which began operating in the

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Demand Response - Yearly Energy and Demand Savings Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Number of Customers Enrolled 2013 8,419,233 611,826 155,893 398 9,187,350 2014 8,603,402 605,094 57,129 4 9,265,629 Energy Savings (MWh) 2013 799,743 486,348 115,895 1 1,401,987 2014 881,563 462,337 92,549 -- 1,436,449 Potential Peak Demand Savings (MW) 2013 7,003 5,124 14,800 168 27,095 2014 8,118 6,215 16,505 353 31,191 Actual Peak Demand

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Demand Response - Program Costs Category, by Sector, 2013 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Customer Incentives (thousand dollars) 2013 398,598 286,057 421,208 6,919 1,112,782 2014 345,894 345,435 514,751 11,716 1,217,796 All Other Costs (thousand dollars) 2013 338,353 95,748 50,982 50 485,133 2014 301,389 101,127 45,028 115 447,659

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Advanced Metering Count by Technology Type, 2007 through 2014 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Automated Meter Reading (AMR) 2007 25,785,782 2,322,329 44,015 109 28,152,235 2008 36,425,943 3,529,985 77,122 13 40,033,063 2009 41,462,111 4,239,531 107,033 11 45,808,686 2010 43,913,225 4,611,877 159,315 626 48,685,043 2011 41,451,888 4,341,105 172,692 77 45,965,762 2012 43,455,437 4,691,018 185,862 125 48,330,822 2013 42,491,242 4,632,744 196,132 1,202 47,321,320 2014

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Sulfur Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Tangential Firing Boiler All Other Boiler Types Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Distillate Fuel Oil* DFO Source: 2, Table 3.1-2a, 3.4-1 & 1.3-1 Lbs per MG

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Tangential Boiler All Other Boiler Types Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Factor (Kilograms of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Notes Bituminous Coal BIT 93.3 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO 73.16 Geothermal GEO 7.71 Jet Fuel JF 70.9 Kerosene KER 72.3 Lignite Coal LIG 97.7 Municipal Solid Waste MSW 41.69 Natural Gas NG 53.07 Petroleum Coke PC 102.1 Propane Gas PG 63.07 Residual Fuel Oil RFO 78.79 Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC 53.07 Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology Emissions Reduction Factors Reduction Factor Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology EIA Code Coal Residual Fuel Oil and Distallate Fuel Oil Natural Gas Wood Other Solids Other Liquids Other Gases Other Fuels Burner Out of Service BO 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Low Excess Air LA 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Biased Firing (Alternative Burners) BF 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Overfire Air OV 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Unit of Measure Equivalents Unit Equivalent Kilowatt (kW) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watts Megawatt (MW) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watts Gigawatt (GW) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watts Terawatt (TW) 1,000,000,000,000 (One Trillion) Watts Gigawatt 1,000,000 (One Million) Kilowatts Thousand Gigawatts 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Kilowatts Kilowatthours (kWh) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watthours Megawatthours (MWh) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watthours Gigawatthours (GWh) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watthours

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reliability web page: http:www.eia.govcneafelectricitypageeia411eia411.html Projected data are updated annually. Net Energy for Load represents net Balancing...

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weeks Ended" "Coal-Producing Region & State","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","applicationvnd.ms-excel","application...

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per short ton)" "Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)","Underground","Surface","Total" "Over 1,000",53.25,18.86,30.21 "Over 500 to 1,000",71.1,54.14,63.75 "Over 200 ...

  4. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Generation by Energy Source: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand ... Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Solar Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric ...

  5. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    from Renewable Sources: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand ... and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and ...

  6. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    15.1% 5.6% 65.4% 60.8% 75.5% Values are final. NA Not Available Notes: Solar Thermal Capacity Factors include generation from plants using concentrated solar power energy storage

  7. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages...

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...1,2730243,2501775,10875372,11870666,-8.4 " Charleston, SC",124,148,1030,563,2223,-74.7 " El Paso, TX",25988,44883,167,122862,7508,"NM" " Houston-Galveston, TX",113426,232428,225146...

  9. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 1,518 1,406 Massachusetts 3,491 3,282 3,827 2,521 1,014 2,169 32 47 8,364 8,020 New Hampshire 791 744 640 611 235 225 0 0 1,666 1,579 Rhode Island 527 481 533 474 114 109 4 3 ...

  10. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 2 2 -10.6% 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  11. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 526 2.29 7.8 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- ...

  12. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8,726 2 3 8 9 Maine 3,403 3,675 10 12 8 9 Massachusetts 12,917 14,735 6 11 13 14 New Hampshire 3,458 3,447 3 3 4 5 Rhode Island 2,566 2,838 0.09 1 1 1 Vermont 14 15 0.06 0.07 1 ...

  13. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- ...

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W W Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts 18.09 18.16 -0.4% 19.94 21.91 17.75 17.68 New Hampshire W W W 15.16 16.84 W W Rhode Island W W W -- -- W W Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 -- Maine 0 0 -- W W W 0 0 -- Massachusetts W 582 W 1,965 1,496 31.3% 0 0 -- New Hampshire W W W W W W 0 0 -- Rhode Island W 0 W W W W 0 0 -- Vermont 0 0 -- 57 NM NM 0 0 -- ...

  16. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  17. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    829 3.8% 0 0 860 829 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 4,233 4,087 3.6% 0 0 4,233 4,087 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 1,871 1,839 1.7% 0 0 1,195 1,128 676 711 0 0 Rhode Island 3,980 956 316% 0 0 3,980 ...

  18. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- Maine 85 0.85 8.2 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 1,225 0.72 11.3 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 526 2.29 7.8 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 254 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Vermont 0 ...

  19. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    14% 1 1 476 424 6 6 43 30 Massachusetts 1,646 713 131% 240 126 1,324 546 80 39 1 2 New Hampshire 454 187 143% 216 135 222 41 16 11 0.05 0.19 Rhode Island 113 75 50% 21 22 83 38 NM ...

  20. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 15 27% 0 0 10 7 0 0 9 8 Massachusetts 1,248 1,723 -28% 0 0 1,244 1,718 0 0 5 5 New Hampshire 544 616 -12% 544 616 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 ...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -- 0 -- -- Maine 32 0.94 8.4 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- ...

  2. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11.86 Massachusetts 17.39 15.83 14.68 14.23 12.74 13.18 8.76 13.06 15.35 14.51 New Hampshire 17.53 16.33 14.34 13.52 11.93 11.40 -- -- 15.22 14.30 Rhode Island 17.17 15.20 ...

  3. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Maine -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Massachusetts -- -- -- -- -- -- -- New Hampshire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Rhode Island -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W W Connecticut W W W -- -- W W Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts W W W -- -- W W New Hampshire 4.27 4.21 1.4% 4.27 4.21 -- -- Rhode Island W -- W -- -- W -- Vermont -- -- -- -- ...

  5. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    66 30% 0 0 53 38 0 0 32 28 Massachusetts 1,225 1,805 -32% 0 0 1,225 1,805 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 526 726 -28% 526 726 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 254 0 -- 0 0 254 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 ...

  6. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts -458 -368 24.5% 0 0 -458 -368 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 ...

  7. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- 6.65 6.06 Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts 6.46 5.75 12% 5.54 6.84 6.47 5.74 New Hampshire W W W 6.05 8.85 W W Rhode Island W 5.67 W -- -- W 5.67 Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  8. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 305 105 191.3% 11 4 289 100 5 1 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 10 2 388.5% 0 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 Vermont 24 17 ...

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Massachusetts","w","w","-","-","w","w","-","-",-7.4,"s","-","-" " New Hampshire",108.29,"-","-","-",108.33,"-","-","-","s","-","-","-" " Rhode ...

  10. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27.6% 1 1 261 204 2 2 41 32 Massachusetts 1,005 390 157.4% 131 71 793 287 80 31 1 1 New Hampshire 287 105 175.0% 108 62 163 28 16 14 0.07 0.26 Rhode Island 88 51 74.9% 11 11 60 26 ...

  11. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5,409 14,249 Massachusetts 126,810 148,736 -15% 1,544 1,245 125,265 147,491 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 31,309 29,644 5.6% 424 355 30,885 29,289 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 44,839 46,035 -2.6% ...

  12. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -- Maine 53 0.80 8.0 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 1,225 0.72 11.3 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 254 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- ...

  13. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11,855 Massachusetts 20,071 20,728 26,076 17,713 7,961 16,463 361 361 54,469 55,265 New Hampshire 4,510 4,554 4,465 4,517 1,969 1,973 0 0 10,944 11,043 Rhode Island 3,070 3,165 ...

  14. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 0 587 873 0 0 50 25 Massachusetts 1,867 1,300 44% 301 154 1,566 1,146 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 741 354 110% 455 268 287 86 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 217 31 594% 0 0 217 31 0 0 0 0 ...

  15. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.1% 0 0 112 115 200 196 0 0 Massachusetts 2,071 2,029 2.1% 0 0 2,071 2,029 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 125 156 -20% 0 0 125 156 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 ...

  16. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2004 - ... Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity ...

  17. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2004 - 2014, Actual ... Notes: NERC region and reliability assessment area maps are provided on EIA's Electricity ...

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Receipts of coal include imported coal. NA Not available. ... Dual-fired capacity returned to respective fuel categories ... EIA-767, 'Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design ...

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In 2006 the single largest provider of green pricing services in the country discontinued ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power ...

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rosebud","-",12756,12756,250,186,276 "1787 Roland","-",12094,12094,464,384,495 "1701 Smith","-",12069,12069,912,912,912 "0280 Blue Creek",11738,190,11928,50,12,52 "1570 ...

  1. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Total Electric Power Industry Summary Statistics, 2014 and 2013 Net Generation and Consumption of Fuels for ... Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Utility Scale Facilities 17,691 ...

  2. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  3. System and method for cancelling the effects of stray magnetic fields from the output of a variable reluctance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chingchi; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-11-19

    A sensor system for sensing a rotation of a sensing wheel is disclosed. The sensor system has a sensing coil in juxtaposition with the sensing wheel. Moreover, the sensing coil has a sensing coil output signal indicative of the rotational speed of the sensing wheel. Further, a cancellation coil is located remotely from the sensing coil and connected in series therewith. Additionally, the cancellation coil has a cancellation coil output signal indicative of an environmental disturbance which is effecting the sensing coil output signal. The cancellation coil output signal operates to cancel the effects of the environmental disturbance on the sensing coil output signal.

  4. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outkin, Alexander V.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Vargas, Vanessa N

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  5. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Countrys Nuclear Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-07-15

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nations efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a countrys or regions economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industrys output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  6. Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Tool Developed for USDOE | Department of Energy and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Where the Jobs Are: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Your Area, July 19, 2011. webinarjul19_mintz.pdf (213.56 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE

  7. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth U.S. crude oil production reached 7 million barrels per day at the end of 2012 for the first time in two decades and is well on its way to topping 8 million barrels per day by 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects daily oil output will average 7.3 million barrels this year and then increase to 8.1 million barrels next year. The increase in U.S. and other North American oil production will account

  8. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  9. Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.; Dallum, G.E.

    1998-09-08

    An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground. 5 figs.

  10. Soliton quenching NLTL impulse circuit with a pulse forming network at the output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    An impulse forming circuit is disclosed which produces a clean impulse from a nonlinear transmission line compressed step function without customary soliton ringing by means of a localized pulse shaping and differentiating network which shunts the nonlinear transmission line output to ground.

  11. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  12. PHI.VCS.P8.01 VERAOUT - VERA HDF5 Output Specification Andrew...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HDFView shows the "C" ordering. CASL-U-2014-0043-001 Milestone L3:PHI.VCS.P8.01 8 H5Dump H5Dump produces output consistent with HDFView. H5Dump also uses "C" order when...

  13. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-15

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  14. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.010.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  15. Experimental investigation of a relativistic magnetron with diffraction output on a repetitive short pulse generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zi-cheng; Sun, Xiao-liang; Liu, Yong-gui

    2014-04-15

    An experimental investigation of a relativistic Magnetron with Diffraction Output (MDO) on a short voltage pulse generator, which has maximum repetition rate of 100?Hz and plateau of 2.5?ns, is detailed in this paper. Compared to the conversional solid cathode, a direct Density Modulation Cathode is capable for desired microwave radiation. When applied voltage is 200?kV and axial magnetic field is ?0.12?T, the MDO radiates 120?MW of microwave with 2.3?GHz of central frequency. Power conversion efficiency reaches 22%. Pulse duration is 3?ns. At repetition rates of 50?Hz and 100?Hz, output microwave powers range from 90?MW to 120?MW. Life time is up to 10{sup 4} shots.

  16. Using Weather Data and Climate Model Output in Economic Analyses of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Schlenker, Wolfram; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-06-28

    Economists are increasingly using weather data and climate model output in analyses of the economic impacts of climate change. This article introduces a set of weather data sets and climate models that are frequently used, discusses the most common mistakes economists make in using these products, and identifies ways to avoid these pitfalls. We first provide an introduction to weather data, including a summary of the types of datasets available, and then discuss five common pitfalls that empirical researchers should be aware of when using historical weather data as explanatory variables in econometric applications. We then provide a brief overview of climate models and discuss two common and significant errors often made by economists when climate model output is used to simulate the future impacts of climate change on an economic outcome of interest.

  17. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

    2012-05-09

    This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

  18. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Gong; Beale, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand.

  19. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, G.; Beale, W.T.

    1990-04-03

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand. 6 figs.

  20. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  1. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghave, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  2. METHOD OF MEASURING THE INTEGRATED ENERGY OUTPUT OF A NEUTRONIC CHAIN REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturm, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A method is presented for measuring the integrated energy output of a reactor conslsting of the steps of successively irradiating calibrated thin foils of an element, such as gold, which is rendered radioactive by exposure to neutron flux for periods of time not greater than one-fifth the mean life of the induced radioactlvity and producing an indication of the radioactivity induced in each foil, each foil belng introduced into the reactor immediately upon removal of its predecessor.

  3. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  4. Controlling output pulse and prepulse in a resonant microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A.; Artemenko, S.; Chumerin, P.; Yushkov, Yu.

    2013-02-07

    A resonant microwave pulse compressor with a waveguide H-plane-tee-based energy extraction unit was studied in terms of its capability to produce output pulses that comprise a low-power long-duration (prepulse) and a high-power short-duration part. The application of such combined pulses with widely variable prepulse and high-power pulse power and energy ratios is of interest in the research area of electronic hardware vulnerability. The characteristics of output radiation pulses are controlled by the variation of the H-plane tee transition attenuation at the stage of microwave energy storage in the compressor cavity. Results of theoretical estimations of the parameters tuning range and experimental investigations of the prototype S-band compressor (1.5 MW, 12 ns output pulse; {approx}13.2 dB gain) are presented. The achievable maximum in the prepulse power is found to be about half the power of the primary microwave source. It has been shown that the energy of the prepulse becomes comparable with that of the short-duration (nanosecond) pulse, while the power of the latter decreases insignificantly. The possible range of variation of the prepulse power and energy can be as wide as 40 dB. In the experiments, the prepulse level control within the range of {approx}10 dB was demonstrated.

  5. Neutron light output response and resolution functions in EJ-309 liquid scintillation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Enqvist, Andreas; Lawrence, Christopher C.; Wieger, Brian M.; Pozzi, Sara A.; Massey, Thomas N.

    2013-03-26

    Here, the neutron light output response functions and detector resolution functions were measured at Ohio University's tandem Van de Graaff generator for three cylindrical EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells, having dimensions 12.7(circle divide)-by-12.7, 7.6-by-7.6, and 7.6-by-5.1 cm. A 7.44 MeV deuteron beam was used on an Al-27 target generating a continuous spectrum over the energy range from a few hundred keV to over 10 MeV. The light output response functions are determined using an exponential fit. Detector resolution functions are obtained for the 12.7-by-12.7 and 7.6-by-7.6 cm detectors. It is demonstrated that the dependence on detector size is important for themore » light output response functions, but not to the same extent for the resolution function, even when photomultiplier tubes, detector material, and other detector characteristics are carefully matched.« less

  6. Increasing output power of an 850 MHz tetrode with a floating-deck modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rees, D.; Friedrichs, C.

    1990-01-01

    Designers of high-power amplifiers generally regard the region above 300 MHz as a domain dominated by velocity-modulated (klystron/TWT) devices. However, as the power requirements diminish, there are attractive alternatives. The high-power 850-MHz requirements of the ground test accelerator (GTA) program can be filled by 1-MW klystrons, but it would be more efficient to use a lower-power device for a 50-kW requirement. To meet the 850-MHz medium-power requirements, Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing an 850-MHz tetrode amplifier. These amplifiers will provide rf power to the momentum compactor and bunch rotator cavities of the GTA. Available tubes provide only a limited safety margin for a low-risk design at the power levels and duty factor required for GTA cavities. At 850 MHz, the output power capability of available tubes is reduced because of transit time effects and limited anode voltage holdoff. Pulsing the anode of the output tetrode amplifier will allow higher output power with minimum design risk. A floating-deck modulator acts as a high-voltage/high-current switch, so voltage is applied to the anode of the gridded tube only during the rf pulse. The anode voltage holdoff capability of the tube is substantially enhanced by operating in this mode. This paper will describe the design of the floating deck modulator and its impact on the design risk of the 850-MHz tetrode amplifier.

  7. An accurate system for onsite calibration of electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Zhang; Li Hongbin

    2012-06-15

    Calibration systems with digital output are used to replace conventional calibration systems because of principle diversity and characteristics of digital output of electronic transformers. But precision and unpredictable stability limit their onsite application even development. So fully considering the factors influencing accuracy of calibration system and employing simple but reliable structure, an all-digital calibration system with digital output is proposed in this paper. In complicated calibration environments, precision and dynamic range are guaranteed by A/D converter with 24-bit resolution, synchronization error limit is nanosecond by using the novelty synchronization method. In addition, an error correction algorithm based on the differential method by using two-order Hanning convolution window has good inhibition of frequency fluctuation and inter-harmonics interference. To verify the effectiveness, error calibration was carried out in the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute of China and results show that the proposed system can reach the precision class up to 0.05. Actual onsite calibration shows that the system has high accuracy, and is easy to operate with satisfactory stability.

  8. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  9. Hydromechanical transmission with two planetary assemblies that are clutchable to both the input and output shafts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A power transmission having two planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the two sun gears, which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output shaft through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode, the first ring gear being rigidly connected to the output shaft. The input shaft also is clutchable to either the carrier or the ring gear of the second planetary assembly. The output shaft is also clutchable to the carrier of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and is clutchable to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the carrier thereof.

  10. Ota City : characterizing output variability from 553 homes with residential PV systems on a distribution feeder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakashima, Eichi; Lave, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    This report describes in-depth analysis of photovoltaic (PV) output variability in a high-penetration residential PV installation in the Pal Town neighborhood of Ota City, Japan. Pal Town is a unique test bed of high-penetration PV deployment. A total of 553 homes (approximately 80% of the neighborhood) have grid-connected PV totaling over 2 MW, and all are on a common distribution line. Power output at each house and irradiance at several locations were measured once per second in 2006 and 2007. Analysis of the Ota City data allowed for detailed characterization of distributed PV output variability and a better understanding of how variability scales spatially and temporally. For a highly variable test day, extreme power ramp rates (defined as the 99th percentile) were found to initially decrease with an increase in the number of houses at all timescales, but the reduction became negligible after a certain number of houses. Wavelet analysis resolved the variability reduction due to geographic diversity at various timescales, and the effect of geographic smoothing was found to be much more significant at shorter timescales.

  11. Combining Multiple-Module Output Boundary Conditions to Produce a Single-Input-Module Boundary Condition in FRAMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.; Buck, John W.; Taira, Randal Y.; Gelston, Gariann M.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2006-10-03

    The Plus Operator thus provides a mechanism to group modules of similar output so that the output can be combined and supplied to downstream modules. This document provides requirements, the design, data-file specifications, the test plan, and the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocol for the Plus Operator.

  12. Methods to Register Models and Input/Output Parameters for Integrated Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Whelan, Gene; Tryby, Michael E.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Taira, Randal Y.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2010-07-10

    Significant resources can be required when constructing integrated modeling systems. In a typical application, components (e.g., models and databases) created by different developers are assimilated, requiring the framework’s functionality to bridge the gap between the user’s knowledge of the components being linked. The framework, therefore, needs the capability to assimilate a wide range of model-specific input/output requirements as well as their associated assumptions and constraints. The process of assimilating such disparate components into an integrated modeling framework varies in complexity and difficulty. Several factors influence the relative ease of assimilating components, including, but not limited to, familiarity with the components being assimilated, familiarity with the framework and its tools that support the assimilation process, level of documentation associated with the components and the framework, and design structure of the components and framework. This initial effort reviews different approaches for assimilating models and their model-specific input/output requirements: 1) modifying component models to directly communicate with the framework (i.e., through an Application Programming Interface), 2) developing model-specific external wrappers such that no component model modifications are required, 3) using parsing tools to visually map pre-existing input/output files, and 4) describing and linking models as dynamic link libraries. Most of these approaches are illustrated using the widely distributed modeling system called Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES). The review concludes that each has its strengths and weakness, the factors that determine which approaches work best in a given application.

  13. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulkerson, Regina K. Micka, John A.; DeWerd, Larry A.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and{sup 192}Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally

  14. Enhanced piezoelectric output voltage and Ohmic behavior in Cr-doped ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Godara, Sanjay; Gupta, Manoj K.; Kumar, Binay

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized. • Enhancement in dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were observed. • A high output voltage was obtained in AFM. • Cr-doping resulted in enhanced conductivity and better Ohmic behavior in ZnO/Ag contact. - Abstract: Highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by solution technique. The size distribution was analyzed by high resolution tunneling electron microscope (HRTEM) and particle size analyzer. In atomic force microscope (AFM) studies, peak to peak 8 mV output voltage was obtained on the application of constant normal force of 25 nN. It showed high dielectric constant (980) with phase transition at 69 °C. Polarization vs. electric field (P–E) loops with remnant polarization (6.18 μC/cm{sup 2}) and coercive field (0.96 kV/cm) were obtained. In I–V studies, Cr-doping was found to reduce the rectifying behavior in the Ag/ZnO Schottky contact which is useful for field effect transistor (FET) and solar cell applications. With these excellent properties, Cr-doped ZnO NRs can be used in nanopiezoelectronics, charge storage and ferroelectric applications.

  15. Dramatic enhancement of xuv laser output using a multimode gas-filled capillary waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Vorontsov, V.; McKenna, C.M.; Spence, D.J.; Gonsavles, A.J.; Hooker, S.M.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report a significant increase of the output of a 41.8-nm Xe{sup 8+} laser achieved by means of multimode guiding of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in a gas-filled dielectric capillary tube. The optimized lasing signal from a 15-mm-long capillary was nearly an order of magnitude higher than that from a gas cell of the same length. Simulations of the propagation of the pump laser pulse in the capillary confirmed that this enhancement is due to reflections from the capillary wall, which increase the length of the Xe{sup 8+} plasma column generated. The influence of gas pressure and focusing position on the lasing is also presented.

  16. A 350 MHz, 200 kW CW, Multiple Beam Inductive Output Tube - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Lawrece Ives; George Collins; David Marsden Michael Read; Edward Eisen; Takuchi Kamura, Philipp Borchard

    2012-11-28

    This program developed a 200 kW CW, 350 MHz, multiple beam inductive output tube (MBIOT) for driving accelerator cavities. The MBIOT operates at 30 kV with a gain of 23 dB. The estimated efficiency is 70%. The device uses seven electron beams, each transmitting 1.4 A of current. The tube is approximately six feet long and weighs approximately 400 lbs. The prototype device will be evaluated as a potential RF source for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Because of issues related to delivery of the electron guns, it was not possible to complete assembly and test of the MBIOT during the Phase II program. The device is being completed with support from Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., Communications & Power Industries, LLC. and the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) in Dahlgren, VA. The MBIOT will be initially tested at NSWC before delivery to ANL. The testing at NSWC is scheduled for February 2013.

  17. A 30 MW, 200 MHz Inductive Output Tube for RF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read

    2008-06-19

    This program investigated development of a multiple beam inductive output tube (IOT) to produce 30 MW pulses at 200 MHz. The program was successful in demonstrating feasibility of developing the source to achieve the desired power in microsecond pulses with 70% efficiency. The predicted gain of the device is 24 dB. Consequently, a 200 kW driver would be required for the RF input. Estimated cost of this driver is approximately $1.25 M. Given the estimated development cost of the IOT of approximately $750K and the requirements for a test set that would significantly increase the cost, it was determined that development could not be achieved within the funding constraints of a Phase II program.

  18. Updated Eastern Interconnect Wind Power Output and Forecasts for ERGIS: July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennock, K.

    2012-10-01

    AWS Truepower, LLC (AWST) was retained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to update wind resource, plant output, and wind power forecasts originally produced by the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). The new data set was to incorporate AWST's updated 200-m wind speed map, additional tall towers that were not included in the original study, and new turbine power curves. Additionally, a primary objective of this new study was to employ new data synthesis techniques developed for the PJM Renewable Integration Study (PRIS) to eliminate diurnal discontinuities resulting from the assimilation of observations into mesoscale model runs. The updated data set covers the same geographic area, 10-minute time resolution, and 2004?2006 study period for the same onshore and offshore (Great Lakes and Atlantic coast) sites as the original EWITS data set.

  19. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  20. Light output measurements and computational models of microcolumnar CsI scintillators for x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nillius, Peter Klamra, Wlodek; Danielsson, Mats; Sibczynski, Pawel; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The authors report on measurements of light output and spatial resolution of microcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator detectors for x-ray imaging. In addition, the authors discuss the results of simulations aimed at analyzing the results of synchrotron and sealed-source exposures with respect to the contributions of light transport to the total light output. Methods: The authors measured light output from a 490-?m CsI:Tl scintillator screen using two setups. First, the authors used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the response of the scintillator to sealed-source exposures. Second, the authors performed imaging experiments with a 27-keV monoenergetic synchrotron beam and a slit to calculate the total signal generated in terms of optical photons per keV. The results of both methods are compared to simulations obtained with hybridMANTIS, a coupled x-ray, electron, and optical photon Monte Carlo transport package. The authors report line response (LR) and light output for a range of linear absorption coefficients and describe a model that fits at the same time the light output and the blur measurements. Comparing the experimental results with the simulations, the authors obtained an estimate of the absorption coefficient for the model that provides good agreement with the experimentally measured LR. Finally, the authors report light output simulation results and their dependence on scintillator thickness and reflectivity of the backing surface. Results: The slit images from the synchrotron were analyzed to obtain a total light output of 48 keV{sup ?1} while measurements using the fast PMT instrument setup and sealed-sources reported a light output of 28 keV{sup ?1}. The authors attribute the difference in light output estimates between the two methods to the difference in time constants between the camera and PMT measurements. Simulation structures were designed to match the light output measured with the camera while providing good agreement with the

  1. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles, P. H. Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R. T.; Kenny, J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ?15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ?12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ?12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ?8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ?12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6 MV beams

  2. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-07

    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm{sup 3} under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  3. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van; Schram, D. C.

    2008-09-15

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  4. Output Performance and Payback Analysis of a Residential Photovoltaic System in Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, S.

    2012-06-01

    Cost of installation and ownership of a 9.66-kilowatt (kW) residential photovoltaic system is described, and the performance of this system over the past 3 years is shown. The system is located in Colorado at 40 degrees latitude and consists of arrays on two structures. Two arrays are installed on a detached garage, and these are each composed of 18 Kyocera 130-W modules strung in series facing south at an angle of 40 degrees above horizontal. Each 18-panel array feeds into a Xantrex/Schneider Electric 2.8-kW inverter. The other two arrays are installed on the house and face south at an angle of 30 degrees. One of these arrays has twelve 205-W Kyocera panels in series, and the other is made up of twelve 210-Kyocera panels. Each of these arrays feeds into Xantrex/Schneider Electric 3.3-kW inverters. Although there are various shading issues from trees and utility poles and lines, the overall output resembles that which is expected from PVWatts, a solar estimate program. The array cost, which was offset by rebates from the utility company and federal tax credits, was $1.17 per watt. Considering measured system performance, the estimated payback time of the system is 9 years.

  5. Sanov and central limit theorems for output statistics of quantum Markov chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horssen, Merlijn van; Gu??, M?d?lin

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we consider the statistics of repeated measurements on the output of a quantum Markov chain. We establish a large deviations result analogous to Sanovs theorem for the multi-site empirical measure associated to finite sequences of consecutive outcomes of a classical stochastic process. Our result relies on the construction of an extended quantum transition operator (which keeps track of previous outcomes) in terms of which we compute moment generating functions, and whose spectral radius is related to the large deviations rate function. As a corollary to this, we obtain a central limit theorem for the empirical measure. Such higher level statistics may be used to uncover critical behaviour such as dynamical phase transitions, which are not captured by lower level statistics such as the sample mean. As a step in this direction, we give an example of a finite system whose level-1 (empirical mean) rate function is independent of a model parameter while the level-2 (empirical measure) rate is not.

  6. Stirling converters for space dynamic power concepts with 2 to 130 W{sub e} output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    Three innovative Stirling converter concepts are described. Two concepts are based on Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission requirements, where two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules provide the thermal input. The first concept (PFF2) considers a power system with two opposed Stirling converters; the second concept (PFF4) considers four opposed Stirling converters. For both concepts the Stirling converters are designed to vary their power production capability to compensate for the failure of one Stirling converter. While the net thermal efficiency of PFF4 is a few percentage points lower than PFF2, the total Stirling converter mass of PFF4 is half that for PFF2. The third concept (ITTI) is designed to supply 2 watts of power for weather stations on the Martian surface. The predicted thermal performance of the ITTI is low compared to PFF2 and PFF4, yet the ITTI concept offers significant advantages compared to currently available power systems at the 2-watt power level. All three concepts are based on long-life technology demonstrated by an 11-watt output Stirling generator that as of March 1995 has accumulated over 15,000 operating hours without maintenance.

  7. Modifications to ORIGEN2 for generating N Reactor source terms. Volume 3: ORIGEN2 N-Reactor output files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This text is intended to be a brief outline of the ORIGEN2 computer code which is a revised and updated version of the ORIGEN documented in report ORNL-4628 (May 1973). Included here are: a brief description of the functions of ORIGEN2; a listing of the major data sources; a listing of the published documentation concerning ORIGEN2; and an outline of the ORIGEN2 output organization. ORIGEN2 is available from the ORNL Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Past experience has indicated that many users encounter considerable difficulty in finding the desired information in a ORIGEN2 output which is sometimes rather massive. This section is intended as a brief outline of the organization of ORIGEN2 output.

  8. Calculation of output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers with account for both electrons and holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolova, Z N; Tarasov, I S; Asryan, L V

    2014-09-30

    Using an extended theoretical model, which includes the rate equations for both electrons and holes, we have studied the output characteristics of semiconductor quantum-well lasers. We have found non-trivial dependences of electron and hole concentrations in the waveguide region of the laser on the capture velocities of both types of carriers from the waveguide region into the quantum well. We have obtained the dependences of the internal differential quantum efficiency and optical output power of the laser on the capture velocities of electrons and holes. An increase in the capture velocities has been shown to result in suppression of parasitic recombination in the waveguide region and therefore in a substantial increase in the quantum efficiency and output power. (lasers)

  9. Input-output relations at dispersing and absorbing planar multilayers for the quantized electromagnetic field containing evanescent components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel; Knoell, Ludwig; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar

    2003-06-01

    By using the Green-function concept of quantization of the electromagnetic field in dispersing and absorbing media, the quantized field in the presence of a dispersing and absorbing dielectric multilayer plate is studied. Three-dimensional input-output relations are derived for both amplitude operators in the k space and the field operators in the coordinate space. The conditions are discussed, under which the input-output relations can be expressed in terms of bosonic operators. The theory applies to both (effectively) free fields and fields, created by active atomic sources inside and/or outside the plate, including also evanescent-field components.

  10. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  11. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was <6 mJ, and the duration of the laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  12. Satellite-Based Solar Resource Data Sets for India 2002-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Perez, R.; Gueymard, C.; Anderberg, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2014-02-01

    A new 10-km hourly solar resource product was created for India. This product was created using satellite radiances from the Meteosat series of satellites. The product contains global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI) for the period from 2002 to 2011. An additional solar resource data set covering the period from January 2012 to June 2012 was created solely for validation because this period overlaps ground measurements that were made available from the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's (MNRE's) National Institute for Solar Energy for five stations that are part of MNRE's solar resource network. These measurements were quality checked using the SERI QC software and used to validate the satellite product. A comparison of the satellite product to the ground measurements for the five stations shows good agreement. This report also presents a comparison of the new version of solar resource data to the previous version, which covered the period from 2002 to 2008.

  13. US-CERT Control System Center Input/Output (I/O) Conceputal Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Center of the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs the federal departments to identify and prioritize critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the NCSD to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems; the I/O upgrade described in this document supports these goals. The vulnerability assessment Test Bed, located in the Information Operations Research Center (IORC) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), consists of a cyber test facility integrated with multiple test beds that simulate the nation's critical infrastructure. The fundamental mission of the Test Bed is to provide industry owner/operators, system vendors, and multi-agency partners of the INL National Security Division a platform for vulnerability assessments of control systems. The Input/Output (I/O) upgrade to the Test Bed (see Work Package 3.1 of the FY-05 Annual Work Plan) will provide for the expansion of assessment capabilities within the IORC facility. It will also provide capabilities to connect test beds within the Test Range and other Laboratory resources. This will allow real time I/O data input and communication channels for full replications of control systems (Process Control Systems [PCS], Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems [SCADA], and components

  14. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  15. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  16. Code System to Process WIMSD4 Interface Output Files and Generate Two-Group Data for Reactor Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-03

    Version 00 The code processes the WIMS-D/4 binary output files for producing two-group microscopic cross sections and macroscopic lattice cell constants (zone and cell macroscopic cross sections, D, M, and K-infinity) in a more flexible format needed for reactor burnup codes like CITATION, for reactor dynamics codes like NADYP-W and for other reactor codes. The purpose of the WIMSCORE-ENEA code is to facilitate the automation of data transfer between the cell calculation code WIMS andmore » the diffusion-burnup codes. Use is made of the VARY storage manipulation package. WIMSCORE generates output files to be used by the codes TDB, TRITON, CITATION.« less

  17. Phosphate single mode large mode area all-solid photonic crystal fiber with multi-watt output power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Longfei; He, Dongbing; Yu, Chunlei; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-03-31

    An index-depressed active core, single-mode phosphate all-solid large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is theoretically investigated using full-vectorial finite difference approach and experimentally realized. The PCF has a maximum output power of 5.4 W and 31% slope efficiency. Single-mode operation is realized through PCFs with core diameters of 30, 35, and 40 μm, respectively. The beam quality is not degraded even at maximum output power. Our simulations and experiments reveal that the laser performance is significantly affected by the center-to-center distance between the two nearest rods Λ, the rod diameter d, and their ratio d/Λ, implying that much attention should be given in employing optimal parameters to achieve excellent laser performance.

  18. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-03-16

    A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.

  19. Nd:YAG pulsed laser output at 1. 064, 1. 073, 1. 061 and 1. 052 micrometers singlet spectral lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Single spectral lines at 1.064, 1.073, 1.061, and 1.052 micron were obtained respectively by inserting into the cavity the uncoated (or coated) solid etalons of 0.1 mm or both 0.1 mm and 0.14 mm thickness and appropriately controlling the gain of Nd:YAG laser and tilted angles of the etalons. An output cavity mirror which has different reflectivities for different wavelengths was also developed.

  20. Method for optimizing output in ultrashort-pulse multipass laser amplifiers with selective use of a spectral filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2007-07-10

    A method for optimizing multipass laser amplifier output utilizes a spectral filter in early passes but not in later passes. The pulses shift position slightly for each pass through the amplifier, and the filter is placed such that early passes intersect the filter while later passes bypass it. The filter position may be adjust offline in order to adjust the number of passes in each category. The filter may be optimized for use in a cryogenic amplifier.

  1. Measurement of relative output factors for the 8 and 4 mm collimators of Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion by film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novotny, Josef Jr.; Bhatnagar, Jagdish P.; Quader, Mubina A.; Bednarz, Greg; Lunsford, L. Dade; Huq, M. Saiful

    2009-05-15

    Three types of films, Kodak EDR2, Gafchromic EBT, and Gafchromic MD-V2-55, were used to measure relative output factors of 4 and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The optical density to dose calibration curve for each of the film types was obtained by exposing the films to a range of known doses. Ten data points were acquired for each of the calibration curves in the dose ranges from 0 to 4 Gy, 0 to 8 Gy, and 0 to 80 Gy for Kodak EDR2, Gafchromic EBT, and Gafchromic MD-V2-55 films, respectively. For the measurement of relative output factors, five films of each film type were exposed to a known dose. All films were scanned using EPSON EXPRESSION 10000 XL scanner with 200 dpi resolution in 16 bit gray scale for EDR2 film and 48 bit color scale for Gafchromic films. The scanned images were imported in the red channel for both Gafchromic films. The background corrections from an unexposed film were applied to all films. The output factors obtained from film measurements were in a close agreement both with the Monte Carlo calculated values of 0.924 and 0.805 for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively. These values are provided by the vendor and used as default values in the vendor's treatment planning system. The largest differences were noted for the Kodak EDR 2 films (-2.1% and -4.5% for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively). The best agreement observed was for EBT Gafchromic film (-0.8% and +0.6% differences for 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively). Based on the present values, no changes in the default relative output factor values were made in the treatment planning system.

  2. Evaluation of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground Based Mea...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground-Based Measurements Over Nauru Island J. M. Comstock and J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington C. Jakob Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, Australia Introduction Identifying the mechanisms responsible for the formation of cirrus clouds is important in understanding the role of cirrus in the tropical atmosphere. Thin cirrus clouds near the tropical

  3. Method And Aparatus For Improving Resolution In Spectrometers Processing Output Steps From Non-Ideal Signal Sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K.; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-07-01

    A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals generated by non-ideal, nominally single-pole ("N-1P") devices responding to possibly time-varying, pulse-like input signals of finite duration, wherein the goal is to recover the integrated areas of the input signals. Particular applications include processing step-like signals generated by detector systems in response to absorbed radiation or particles and, more particularly, to digitally processing such step-like signals in high resolution, high rate gamma ray (.gamma.-ray) spectrometers with resistive feedback preamplifiers connected to large volume germanium detectors. Superconducting bolometers can be similarly treated. The method comprises attaching a set of one or more filters to the device's (e.g., preamplifier's) output, capturing a correlated multiple output sample from the filter set in response to a detected event, and forming a weighted sum of the sample values to accurately recover the total area (e.g., charge) of the detected event.

  4. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output powermore » density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.« less

  5. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-05-07

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  6. Enhancing photovoltaic output power by 3-band spectrum-splitting and concentration using a diffractive micro-optic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad, Nabil; Wang, Peng; Friedman, Daniel J.; Menon, Rajesh

    2014-09-17

    We report the enhancement of photovoltaic output power by separating the incident spectrum into 3 bands, and concentrating these bands onto 3 different photovoltaic cells. The spectrum-splitting and concentration is achieved via a thin, planar micro-optical element that demonstrates high optical efficiency over the entire spectrum of interest. The optic (which we call a polychromat) was designed using a modified version of the direct-binary-search algorithm. The polychromat was fabricated using grayscale lithography. Rigorous optical characterization demonstrates excellent agreement with simulation results. Electrical characterization of the solar cells made from GaInP, GaAs and Si indicate increase in the peak output power density of 43.63%, 30.84% and 30.86%, respectively when compared to normal operation without the polychromat. This represents an overall increase of 35.52% in output power density. As a result, the potential for cost-effective large-area manufacturing and for high system efficiencies makes our approach a strong candidate for low cost solar power.

  7. Waveguide CO{sub 2} laser with a quasi-homogeneous distribution of the output radiation intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlasenko, S A; Gurin, O V; Degtyarev, A V; Maslov, Vyacheslav A; Svich, V A; Topkov, A N

    2013-05-31

    An experimental sample of a waveguide CO{sub 2} laser with a quasi-uniform profile of the output radiation intensity is designed on the basis of a waveguide quasi-optical cavity of a new type comprising the generic confocal cavity with a nonuniform mirror and the hollow waveguide with the dimensions satisfying the conditions for self-imaging the quasi-uniform field. The surface of the mirror has the discrete large-scale absorbing nonuniformities. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of spatial-energy characteristics of the laser in using uniform or amplitude-stepped reflecting mirrors are presented. (lasers)

  8. ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H

    1980-09-01

    ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

  9. Enzymatic Filter for Improved Separation of Output Signals in Enzyme Logic Systems towards 'Sense and Treat' Medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailloux, Shay; Zavalov, Oleksandr; Guz, Nataliia; Katz, Evgeny; Bocharova, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge for application of autonomous medical sensing systems is the noise produced by non-zero physiological concentrations of the sensed target. If the level of noise is high, then a real signal indicating abnormal changes in the physiological levels of the analytes might be hindered. Inevitably, this could lead to wrong diagnostics and treatment, and would have a negative impact on human health. Here, we report the realization of a filter system implemented to improve both the fidelity of sensing and accuracy of consequent drug release. A new filtering method was tested in the sensing system for the diagnosis of liver injury. This sensing system used the enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) as the inputs. Furthermore, the output of the sensing system was designed to trigger drug release, and therefore, the role of the filter in drug release was also investigated. The drug release system consists of beads with an iron - cross-linked alginate core coated with different numbers of layers of poly-L-lysine. Dissolution of the beads by the output signals of the sensing system in the presence and absence of the filter was monitored by release of encapsulated in the beads rhodamine - 6G dye mimicking release of a real drug. The obtained results offer a new view on the problem of noise reduction for systems intended to be part of sense and treat medical devices.

  10. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haque, S; Frost, F Dion R.; Groulx, R; Holland, S E; Karcher, A; Kolbe, W F; Roe, N A; Wang, G; Yu, Y

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 μm × 2 μm are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup -} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  11. Method and apparatus for improving resolution in spectrometers processing output steps from non-ideal signal sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K.; Momayezi, Michael

    2006-06-20

    A method and apparatus for processing step-like output signals (primary signals) generated by non-ideal, for example, nominally single-pole ("N-1P ") devices. An exemplary method includes creating a set of secondary signals by directing the primary signal along a plurality of signal paths to a signal summation point, summing the secondary signals reaching the signal summation point after propagating along the signal paths to provide a summed signal, performing a filtering or delaying operation in at least one of said signal paths so that the secondary signals reaching said summing point have a defined time correlation with respect to one another, applying a set of weighting coefficients to the secondary signals propagating along said signal paths, and performing a capturing operation after any filtering or delaying operations so as to provide a weighted signal sum value as a measure of the integrated area QgT of the input signal.

  12. MICROCOMP output file

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    PUBLIC LAW 106-65-OCT. 5, 1999 NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 VerDate 12-OCT-99 23:18 Oct 28, 1999 Jkt 079139 PO 00065 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL065.106 APPS24 PsN: APPS24 113 STAT. 512 PUBLIC LAW 106-65-OCT. 5, 1999 Public Law 106-65 106th Congress An Act To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for military activities of the Depart- ment of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Depart- ment of Energy, to

  13. MICROCOMP output file

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    65-OCT. 5, 1999 NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000 VerDate 12-OCT-99 23:18 Oct 28, 1999 Jkt 079139 PO 00065 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL065.106 APPS24 PsN: APPS24 113 STAT. 512 PUBLIC LAW 106-65-OCT. 5, 1999 Public Law 106-65 106th Congress An Act To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for military activities of the Depart- ment of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Depart- ment of Energy, to prescribe personnel

  14. MICROCOMP output file

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... operated under the 11 terms provided therein. 12 ''(B) ... monitoring, and re- 8 search; 9 (7) maintain and ... Sec- 5 retary shall enter into cooperative agreements ...

  15. SAND2014-4277C © Copyright 2013, First...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... DHI, POA 12013 -122013 40 180 11 Central CA 200 Warm temperate; dry, hot summer (CSa) GHI, DHI 12013 -122013 NA NA 12 Central NM 1657 BSk GHI, GHI, POA 12011 - 122011 ...

  16. The Heat Output of the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa Geothermal Systems (NZ): Do Chloride Fluxes Provide an Accurate Measure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M.; Glover, R.B.; Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Waimangu, Waiotapu-Waikite and Reporoa geothermal systems find their way into three separate watersheds. The heat flow data from each of these drainage areas have been assessed making it possible to compare the heat outputs from two independent methods: direct heat measurements and the chloride flux method. For both the Waiotapu/Reporoa Valley drainage and the Waikite drainage a discrepancy exists between the two assessments, with the heat output observed at the surface (Waiotapu-540 {+-} 110 MW; Waikite-80 MW) nearly double of that calculated from the chloride flux (300 MW; 36 MW respectively). It appears that much of the throughput of chloride does not reach the surface within the area which was monitored and the basic assumption on which the method is based has been violated. For Waimangu the direct heat output is assessed as 510 {+-} 60 MW. However the ratio of enthalpy to chloride concentration of the source fluid is not well determined. Depending on the ratio chosen the heat output could lie between 360 and 800 MW. Although the chloride flux is accurately known, the heat output cannot be measured accurately without well determined data on the source fluid at depth.

  17. Characterization of the proton beam at the output of the 6.7MeV LEDA RFQ.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, C. K.; Colestock, P. L. ,; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Lysenko, W. P.; Rybarcyk, L. J.; Schneider, J. D.; Sheffield, R. L.; Smith, H. V.; Wangler, Thomas P.,; Crandall, K. R.; Chan, D.; Garnett, R. W.; Schulze, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    The present configuration of the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) consists of a 75-keV proton injector, a 6.7-MeV 350-MHz cw radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with associated high-power and lowlevel rf systems, a 52-magnet periodic lattice followed by a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and highpower (670-kW cw) beam stop. The rms beam emittance was measured prior to the installation of the 52-magnet lattice, based on wire-scanner measurements of the beam profile at a single location in the HEBT. New measurements with additional diagnostic hardware have been performed to determine the rms transverse beam properties of the beam at the output of the 6.7-MeV LEDA RFQ. The 52-magnet periodic lattice also includes ten beam position monitors (BPMs) evenly spaced in pairs of two. The BPMs provide a measure of the bunched beam current that exhibits nulls at different locations in the lattice. Model predictions of the locations of the nulls and the strength of the bunched beam current are made to determine what information this data can provide regarding the longitudinal beam emittance.

  18. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  19. SciFri AM: Mountain 01: Validation of a new formulism and the related correction factors on output factor determination for small photon fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yizhen; Younge, Kelly; Nielsen, Michelle; Mutanga, Theodore; Cui, Congwu; Das, Indra J.

    2014-08-15

    Small field dosimetry measurements including output factors are difficult due to lack of charged-particle equilibrium, occlusion of the radiation source, the finite size of detectors, and non-water equivalence of detector components. With available detectors significant variations could be measured that will lead to incorrect delivered dose to patients. IAEA/AAPM have provided a framework and formulation to correct the detector response in small photon fields. Monte Carlo derived correction factors for some commonly used small field detectors are now available, however validation has not been performed prior to this study. An Exradin A16 chamber, EDGE detector and SFD detector were used to perform the output factor measurement for a series of conical fields (530mm) on a Varian iX linear accelerator. Discrepancies up to 20%, 10% and 6% were observed for 5, 7.5 and 10 mm cones between the initial output factors measured by the EDGE detector and the A16 ion chamber, while the discrepancies for the conical fields larger than 10 mm were less than 4%. After the application of the correction, the output factors agree well with each other to within 1%. Caution is needed when determining the output factors for small photon fields, especially for fields 10 mm in diameter or smaller. More than one type of detector should be used, each with proper corrections applied to the measurement results. It is concluded that with the application of correction factors to appropriately chosen detectors, output can be measured accurately for small fields.

  20. SU-E-T-586: Field Size Dependence of Output Factor for Uniform Scanning Proton Beams: A Comparison of TPS Calculation, Measurement and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Y; Singh, H; Islam, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Output dependence on field size for uniform scanning beams, and the accuracy of treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are not well studied. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dependence of output on field size for uniform scanning beams and compare it among TPS calculation, measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Field size dependence was studied using various field sizes between 2.5 cm diameter to 10 cm diameter. The field size factor was studied for a number of proton range and modulation combinations based on output at the center of spread out Bragg peak normalized to a 10 cm diameter field. Three methods were used and compared in this study: 1) TPS calculation, 2) ionization chamber measurement, and 3) Monte Carlos simulation. The XiO TPS (Electa, St. Louis) was used to calculate the output factor using a pencil beam algorithm; a pinpoint ionization chamber was used for measurements; and the Fluka code was used for Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The field size factor varied with proton beam parameters, such as range, modulation, and calibration depth, and could decrease over 10% from a 10 cm to 3 cm diameter field for a large range proton beam. The XiO TPS predicted the field size factor relatively well at large field size, but could differ from measurements by 5% or more for small field and large range beams. Monte Carlo simulations predicted the field size factor within 1.5% of measurements. Conclusion: Output factor can vary largely with field size, and needs to be accounted for accurate proton beam delivery. This is especially important for small field beams such as in stereotactic proton therapy, where the field size dependence is large and TPS calculation is inaccurate. Measurements or Monte Carlo simulations are recommended for output determination for such cases.

  1. SU-E-T-175: Evaluation of the Relative Output Ratio for Collimator Jaw and MLC Defined Small Static 6MV Photon Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, G; Thwaites, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate relative output ratio of collimator jaw and MLC defined small photon fields. Methods: Relative output ratios were measured using Gafchromic EBT3 film for a 6 MV photon beam on a Novalis Tx with HD120 MLC. Beam collimation was achieved by the jaws for 1.0 cm and 3.0 cm and MLC defined square field sizes between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm with varying jaw settings between 2.0 and 4.0 cm. Film pieces were exposed to 4 Gy. Experiments were repeated with each session consisting of five consecutive exposures for the given MLC and/or jaw collimation and with the MLC and the jaws reset for each exposure. Films were scanned using EPSON 10000XL flatbed scanner approximately 24 hours after exposure in 48 bit RGB format at 150 dpi. Film calibration data were corrected for daily linac output variations. Doses were evaluated using the green channel with square ROI sizes of 0.1 – 0.6 cm. Converted doses were normalised for output ratio calculation using the 3.0 cm field as a machine specific reference field size. Mean output ratio and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each experimental session. Results: For the Novalis 6 MV photon beam the output ratios between 0.719 and 0.872 have been measured for the jaw/MLC combinations tested. For a jaw setting of 4.0 cm field, the mean CV of the output ratios increased from 0.77% to 1.48% with decreasing MLC field size from 1.0 cm to 0.5 cm. For a nominal MLC 1.0 cm field, the CV increased to 1.00% from 0.77% with reducing jaw field size from 4.0 cm to 2.0 cm. Conclusion: The relative output ratio and the associated CV were dependent on the collimator jaw and MLC settings. The field size dependent CV showed similar trends to those reported in the literature.

  2. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  3. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P.; Schueler, Beth A.; Balter, Stephen; Strauss, Keith J.; Wunderle, Kevin A.; LaFrance, M. Terry; Kim, Don-Soo; Behrman, Richard H.; Shepard, S. Jeff; Bercha, Ishtiaq H.

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  4. Prediction of Lumen Output and Chromaticity Shift in LEDs Using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter Based Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn

    2014-06-24

    Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have

  5. Relative output factor and beam profile measurements of small radiation fields with an L-alanine/K-Band EPR minidosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Abrego, Felipe; Calcina, Carmen Sandra Guzman; Almeida, Adelaide de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2007-05-15

    The performance of an L-alanine dosimeter with millimeter dimensions was evaluated for dosimetry in small radiation fields. Relative output factor (ROF) measurements were made for 0.5x0.5, 1x1, 3x3, 5x5, 10x10 cm{sup 2} square fields and for 5-, 10-, 20-, 40-mm-diam circular fields. In beam profile (BP) measurements, only 1x1, 3x3, 5x5 cm{sup 2} square fields and 10-, 20-, 40-mm-diam circular fields were used. For square and circular field irradiations, Varian/Clinac 2100, and a Siemens/Mevatron 6 MV linear accelerators were used, respectively. For a batch of 800 L-alanine minidosimeters (miniALAs) the average mass was 4.3{+-}0.5 (1{sigma}) mg, the diameter was 1.22{+-}0.07 (1{sigma}) mm, and the length was 3.5{+-}0.2 (1{sigma}) mm. A K-Band (24 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer was used for recording the spectrum of irradiated and nonirradiated miniALAs. To evaluate the performance of the miniALAs, their ROF and BP results were compared with those of other types of detectors, such as an ionization chamber (PTW 0.125 cc), a miniTLD (LiF: Mg,Cu,P), and Kodak/X-Omat V radiographic film. Compared to other dosimeters, the ROF results for miniALA show differences of up to 3% for the smallest fields and 7% for the largest ones. These differences were within the miniALA experimental uncertainty ({approx}5-6% at 1{sigma}). For BP measurements, the maximum penumbra width difference observed between miniALA and film (10%-90% width) was less than 1 mm for square fields and within 1-2 mm for circular fields. These penumbra width results indicate that the spatial resolution of the miniALA is comparable to that of radiographic film and its dimensions are adequate for the field sizes used in this experiment. The K-Band EPR spectrometer provided adequate sensitivity for assessment of miniALAs with doses of the order of tens of Grays, making this dosimetry system (K-Band/miniALA) a potential candidate for use in radiosurgery dosimetry.

  6. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  7. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation in NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys - a new actuation mechanism with large work output.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaca, H. E.; Karaman, I.; Basaran, B.; Ren, Y.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Maier, H. J.; X-Ray Science Division; Texsas A&M Univ.; Univ. of Kentucky; Siberian Physical-Technical Inst.; Univ. of Paderborn

    2009-04-09

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have recently been developed into a new class of functional materials that are capable of magnetic-field-induced actuation, mechanical sensing, magnetic refrigeration, and energy harvesting. In the present work, the magnetic field-induced martensitic phase transformation (FIPT) in Ni{sub 45}Mn{sub 36.5}Co{sub 5}In{sub 13.5} MSMA single crystals is characterized as a new actuation mechanism with potential to result in ultra-high actuation work outputs. The effects of the applied magnetic field on the transformation temperatures, magnetization, and superelastic response are investigated. The magnetic work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is determined to be more than 1 MJ m{sup -3} per Tesla, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of the most well-known MSMAs, i.e., NiMnGa alloys. In addition, the work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is orientation independent, potentially surpassing the need for single crystals, and not limited by a saturation magnetic field, as opposed to NiMnGa MSMAs. Experimental and theoretical transformation strains and magnetostress levels are determined as a function of crystal orientation. It is found that [111]-oriented crystals can demonstrate a magnetostress level of 140 MPa T{sup -1} with 1.2% axial strain under compression. These field-induced stress and strain levels are significantly higher than those from existing piezoelectric and magnetostrictive actuators. A thermodynamical framework is introduced to comprehend the magnetic energy contributions during FIPT. The present work reveals that the magnetic FIPT mechanism is promising for magnetic actuation applications and provides new opportunities for applications requiring high actuation work-outputs with relatively large actuation frequencies. One potential issue is the requirement for relatively high critical magnetic fields and field intervals (1.5-3 T) for the onset of FIPT and for reversible FIPT, respectively.

  8. Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS) documentation. Volume I. Methodology description and user's guide. Appendix A: model abstract; Appendix B: technical appendix; Appendix C: sample input and output. [Compustat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Revenue Requirements Modeling System (RRMS) is a utility specific financial modeling system used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to evaluate the impact on electric utilities of changes in the regulatory, economic, and tax environments. Included in the RRMS is a power plant life-cycle revenue requirements model designed to assess the comparative economic advantage of alternative generating plant. This report is Volume I of a 2-volume set and provides a methodology description and user's guide, a model abstract and technical appendix, and sample input and output for the models. Volume II provides an operator's manual and a program maintenance guide.

  9. SU-E-T-364: 6X FFF and 10X FFF Portal Dosimetry Output Factor Verification: Application for SRS/SBRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulam, M; Bellon, M; Gopal, A; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Hames, S; Schmidt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enhance portal dosimetry of high dose rate SRS/SBRT plan verifications with extensive imager measurement of output factors (OF). Methods: Electronic portal image dosimetry (EPID), implemented on the Varian Edge allows for acquisition of its two energies: 6X FFF and 10 FFF (1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively) at source to imager distance (SID) =100cm without imager saturation. Square and rectangular aSi OF following EPID calibration were obtained. Data taken was similar to that obtained during beam commissioning (of almost all field sizes from 11 to 1515 and 2020 cm{sup 2}, [Trilogy] and [Edge], respectively) to construct a table using the OF tool for use in the Portal Dosimetry Prediction Algorithm (PDIP v11). The Trilogy 6x SRS 1000 MU/min EPID data were taken at 140 SID. The large number of OF were obtained for comparison to that obtained with diode detectors and ion chambers (cc13 for >33 field size). As Edge PDIP verification is currently ongoing, EPID measurements of three SRS/SBRT plans for the Trilogy were taken and compared to results obtained prior to these measurements. Results: The relative difference output factors of field sizes 22 and higher compared to commissioning data were (mean+/-SD, [range]): Edge 6X (?1.9+/?2.9%, [?5.9%,3.1%]), Edge 10X (?0.7+/?1.2%, [? 3.3%,0.8%] and Trilogy (0.03+/?0.5%, [?1.4%,1.1%]) with EPID over predicting. The results for the 140 SID showed excellent agreement throughout except at the 11 to 115 and 151 field sizes where differences were: ?10.6%, ?6.0% and ?5.8%. The differences were also most pronounced for the 11 at 100 SID. They were ?7.4% and ?11.5% for 6X and 10X, respectively. The Gamma (3%, 1mm) for three clinical plans improved by 8.7+/?1.8%. Conclusion: Results indicate that imager output factor measurements at any SID of high dose rate SRS/SBRT are quite reliable for portal dosimetry plan verification except for the smallest fields. This work was not funded by Varian Oncology Systems. Some

  10. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  11. SU-E-T-07: A Comparison of SSD and Field Size Dependence of Output for Megavoltage Electron Beams for Different Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimofte, A; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electron beam in-air output factor (H) for Varian and Siemens accelerators. Methods: Measurements were performed among four accelerators: Varian CL2300ix, Varian TrueBeam, Siemens Oncor, and Siemens Primus. The nominal electron energy measured ranges from 6 to 21 MeV. Measurements were made in air using a diode detector for different square cone sizes (6 – 25cm) with circular field inserts with radius r between 1 cm and 8 cm and for different SSD (100 – 120 cm). H is defined asH(r,SSD){sup =} X(r,SSD)/X(open,SSD), where X is the charge measured by the diode detector without buildup cap in air. Results: For the same nominal energy, cone size, radius of circular cutout, and SSD, H agreed within a maximum deviation of 2.3% and standard deviation of 1% among Varian accelerators but can be as much as 8.7% different between the Varian and the Siemens accelerators. H is a function of electron energy and cutout radius only when the field radius for H measured at different SSD is renormalized as r = r0*5/(SSD-95), where r{sub 0} is the physical field radius at the end of the cone. The radius dependence of H for five cone sizes (6×6, 10×10, 15×15, 20×20 and 25×25cm{sup 2}) and three SSD(100, 110 and 120cm) for three energies was measured. Conclusion: The in air output factor (H) measured for the same manufacturer can be treated as identical to within 1.1% for Varian machines and to within 1.6% for Siemens machines, but the difference in H measured for the different manufacturers is large enough (>2%) to require machine specific data set.

  12. AEO2014: Preliminary Industrial Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Elizabeth Sendich, Analyst, and Kay Smith, Team Leader Macroeconomic Analysis Team ... Macro-Industrial Working Group, Sendich & Smith, 92613 DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUTE ...

  13. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  14. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  15. Design Modifications for Increasing the BOM and EOM Power Output and Reducing the Size and Mass of RTG for the Pluto Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth

    1994-06-01

    A companion paper analyzed the effect on source modules for three specific fuel options, and compared the predicted power output with JPL's latest goals for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission. The results showed that a 5-module RTG cannot fully meet JPL's goals with any of the available fuels; and that a 6-module RTG more than meets those goals with Russian fuel, almost meets them with U.S. (Cassini-type) fuel, but still falls far short of meeting them with the depleted fuel from the aged (1982) Galileo spare RTG. The inadequacy of the aged fuel was disappointing,because heat source modules made from it already exist, and their use in PFF could result in substantial cost savings. The present paper describes additional analyses which showed that a six-module RTG with the aged fuel can meet JPL's stipulated power margin with a relatively simple design modification, that a second design modification makes it possible to recover all of the mass and size penalty for going from five to six heat source modules, and that a third modification could raise the EOM power margin to 16%. There are four copies in the file. Cross Reference ESD Files FSC-ESD-217-94-531 (CID #8572)

  16. Design Modifications for Increasing the BOm and EOM Power Output and Reducing the Size and Mass of RTG for the Pluto Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. A companion paper analyzed the effect on source modules for three specific fuel options, and compared the predicted power output with JPL's latest goals for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission. The results showed that a 5-module RTG cannot fully meet JPL's goals with any of the available fuels; and that a 6-module RTG more than meets those goals with Russian fuel, almost meets them with U.S. (Cassini-type) fuel, but still falls far short of meeting them with the depleted fuel from the aged (1982) Galileo spare RTG. The inadequacy of the aged fuel was disappointing,because heat source modules made from it already exist, and their use in PFF could result in substantial cost savings. The present paper describes additional analyses which showed that a six-module RTG with the aged fuel can meet JPL's stipulated power margin with a relatively simple design modification, that a second design modification makes it possible to recover all of the mass and size penalty for going from five to six heat source modules, and that a third modification could raise the EOM power margin to 16%.

  17. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  18. Method and allocation device for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a packet switching device in successive time slots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abel, Francois; Iliadis, Ilias; Minkenberg, Cyriel J. A.

    2009-02-03

    A method for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a switching system in successive time slots, including a matching method including the steps of providing a first request information in a first time slot indicating data packets at the inputs requesting transmission to the outputs of the switching system, performing a first step in the first time slot depending on the first request information to obtain a first matching information, providing a last request information in a last time slot successive to the first time slot, performing a last step in the last time slot depending on the last request information and depending on the first matching information to obtain a final matching information, and assigning the pending data packets at the number of inputs to the number of outputs based on the final matching information.

  19. Clock-controlled output gene Dbp is a regulator of Arnt/Hif-1β gene expression in pancreatic islet β-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakabayashi, Hiroko; Ohta, Yasuharu Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Susuki, Yosuke; Taguchi, Akihiko; Tanabe, Katsuya; Kondo, Manabu; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Nagao, Yuko; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Arnt mRNA expressed in a circadian manner in mouse pancreatic islets. •Expressions of Dbp and Arnt damped in the islets of a diabetic model mouse. •DBP and E4BP4 regulate Arnt promoter activity by direct binding. •Arnt may have a role in connecting circadian rhythm and metabolism. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/hypoxia inducible factor-1β (HIF-1β) has emerged as a potential determinant of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes in humans. An 82% reduction in Arnt expression was observed in islets from type 2 diabetic donors as compared to non-diabetic donors. However, few regulators of Arnt expression have been identified. Meanwhile, disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 is known to result in hypoinsulinemia and diabetes, but the molecular details remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel molecular connection between Arnt and two clock-controlled output genes, albumin D-element binding protein (Dbp) and E4 binding protein 4 (E4bp4). By conducting gene expression studies using the islets of Wfs1{sup −/−} A{sup y}/a mice that develop severe diabetes due to β-cell apoptosis, we demonstrated clock-related gene expressions to be altered in the diabetic mice. Dbp mRNA decreased by 50%, E4bp4 mRNA increased by 50%, and Arnt mRNA decreased by 30% at Zeitgever Time (ZT) 12. Mouse pancreatic islets exhibited oscillations of clock gene expressions. E4BP4, a D-box negative regulator, oscillated anti-phase to DBP, a D-box positive regulator. We also found low-amplitude circadian expression of Arnt mRNA, which peaked at ZT4. Over-expression of DBP raised both mRNA and protein levels of ARNT in HEK293 and MIN6 cell lines. Arnt promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay in MIN6 cells revealed that DBP increased Arnt promoter activity by 2.5-fold and that E4BP4 competitively inhibited its activation. In addition, on ChIP assay, DBP and E4BP4 directly bound to D-box elements within the

  20. Hydromechanical transmission with three simple planetary assemblies, one sun gear being mounted on the output shaft and the other two on a common shaft connected to an input-driven hydraulic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three simple planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the sun gears of the first two planetary assemblies, these two sun gears being connected together on a common shaft. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft is also connected to drive the second ring gear and, furthermore is clutchable to the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the second planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the third planetary assembly, which is clutchable to the output shaft, and the sun gear of the third planetary assembly is mounted rigidly to the output shaft.

  1. TH-C-18A-12: Evaluation of the Impact of Body Size and Tube Output Limits in the Optimization of Fast Scanning with High-Pitch Dual Source CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez Giraldo, J; Mileto, A.; Hurwitz, L.; Marin, D.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of body size and tube power limits in the optimization of fast scanning with high-pitch dual source CT (DSCT). Methods: A previously validated MERCURY phantom, made of polyethylene, with circular cross-section of diameters 16, 23, 30 and 37cm, and connected through tapered sections, was scanned using a second generation DSCT system. The DSCT operates with two independently controlled x-ray tube generators offering up to 200 kW power reserve (100 kW per tube). The entire length of the phantom (42cm) was scanned with two protocols using: A)Standard single-source CT (SSCT) protocol with pitch of 0.8, and B) DSCT protocol with high-pitch values ranging from 1.6 to 3.2 (0.2 steps). All scans used 120 kVp with 150 quality reference mAs using automatic exposure control. Scanner radiation output (CTDIvol) and effective mAs values were extracted retrospectively from DICOM files for each slice. Image noise was recorded. All variables were assessed relative to phantom diameter. Results: With standard-pitch SSCT, the scanner radiation output (and tube-current) were progressively adapted with increasing size, from 6 mGy (120 mAs) up to 15 mGy (270 mAs) from the thinnest (16cm) to the thickest diameter (37 cm), respectively. By comparison, using high-pitch (3.2), the scanner output was bounded at about 8 mGy (140 mAs), independent of phantom diameter. Although relative to standard-pitch, the high-pitch led to lower radiation output for the same scan, the image noise was higher, particularly for larger diameters. To match the radiation output adaptation of standard-pitch, a high-pitch mode of 1.6 was needed, with the advantage of scanning twice as fast. Conclusion: To maximize the benefits of fast scanning with high-pitch DSCT, the body size and tube power limits of the system need to be considered such that a good balance between speed of acquisition and image quality are warranted. JCRG is an employee of Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.

  2. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  3. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  4. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  5. Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323,191 95,675 461,905 92,556 973,327 546,354 30,217 576,571 39,041 1,588,939 1990 362,524 127,183 538,063 140,695 1,168,465 650,572 36,433 687,005 40,149 1,895,619 1991 351,834 112,144 546,755 148,216 1,158,949 623,442 36,649

  6. Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 12,768 8,013 66,801 2,243 89,825 19,346 4,550 23,896 679 114,400 1990 20,793 9,029 79,905 3,822 113,549 18,091 6,418 24,509 28 138,086 1991 21,239 5,502 82,279 3,940 112,960 17,166 9,127 26,293 590 139,843 1992 27,545 6,123 101,923

  7. Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 13,517 3,896 9,920 102 27,435 145 10,305 10,450 – 37,885 1990 14,670 5,406 15,515 118 35,709 387 10,193 10,580 – 46,289 1991 15,967 3,684 20,809 118 40,578 169 8,980 9,149 1 49,728 1992

  8. Spectral output of Z-machine implosions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G. C.; Chrien, Robert E.; Peterson, D. L.; Watt, R. G.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Sanford, T. W. L.

    2001-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Z-machine has developed into a reproducible, high power (>200 TW), high temperature (>200 eV) driver for radiation physics experiments. Imploding cylindrical wire arrays on the Z-machine produce a radiation source with a bolometric temperature of about 200 eV. By surrounding the z-pinch implosion with a vacuum hohlraum a nearly Planckian source of about 140 eV temperature is created with peak radiation powers of about 200 terawatts and integrated energy of 2 megajoules or more. In this energy rich environment we can field a dozen experiments all being driven by an identical source. In addition to 'standard' vacuum hohlraums we also use dynamic hohlraums consisting of two nested wire arrays converging onto an axially centered foam cylinder. Radiation flowing from the ends on the cylinder indicates a Planckian source temperature well over 200 eV. Only two experiments can be fielded on a dynamic hohlraum (one on each end) but the higher source temperature justifies the added complexity of the set-up. We routinely use arrays of filtered silicon photodiodes (SiD) and filtered photocathode x-ray diodes (XRD) to determine the temperature of the source. Three different techniques for unfolding spectra from the XRD and SiD detector data are being used. They are: (1) Treat each detector independently and find the Planckian temperature for a given source size and solid angle that would give the measured detector signal, (2) Use all detector signals and detector spectral responses simultaneously and find a spectrum that best fits the observed data, (3) Use all detector signals and averaged detector spectral responses and find a histogram spectrum that best fits the observed data. When used as complementary set of analysis tools these techniques generate remarkably consistent results showing nearly Planckian behavior on our vacuum hohlraum experiments.

  9. Electroluminescent device having improved light output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyan; Yuan-Sheng; Preuss, Donald R.; Farruggia, Giuseppe; Kesel, Raymond A.; Cushman, Thomas R.

    2011-03-22

    An OLED device including a transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface, a transparent electrode layer disposed over the first surface of the substrate, a short reduction layer disposed over the transparent electrode layer, an organic light-emitting element disposed over the short reduction layer and including at least one light-emitting layer and a charge injection layer disposed over the light emitting layer, a reflective electrode layer disposed over the charge injection layer and a light extraction enhancement structure disposed over the first or second surface of the substrate; wherein the short reduction layer is a transparent film having a through-thickness resistivity of 10.sup.-9 to 10.sup.2 ohm-cm.sup.2; wherein the reflective electrode layer includes Ag or Ag alloy containing more than 80% of Ag; and the total device size is larger than 10 times the substrate thickness.

  10. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  11. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  12. Boosting America's Hydropower Output | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of ...

  13. Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  14. Bayesian approaches for combining computational model output...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Joint Statistical Meetings ; August 2, 2011 ; Miami, FL Research Org: Los Alamos ...

  15. PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.

    2010-11-01

    High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.

  16. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun -Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fields, Matthew W.; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-03-11

    In this study, much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution globalmore » measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.« less

  17. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  18. Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.; Durand, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T/sub w/, using commercially available, fast response (10 /mu/sec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T/sub w/ and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T/sub w/ and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. AEO2016 Preliminary Industrial Output Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    December 3, 2015 | Washington, DC By Kay Smith, Macro Team Leader, Elizabeth Sendich, ... OR DISTRIBUTE For more information Kay Smith | 6-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Elizabeth ...

  20. Halbach array generator/motor having an automatically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-02-22

    A motor/generator having its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along its axis of rotation. The rotor includes a Halbach array. The stator windings are switched or commutated to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor/generator. The voltage and power are automatically regulated by using centrifugal force to change the diameter of the rotor, and thereby vary the radial gap in between the stator and the rotating Halbach array, as a function of the angular velocity of the rotor.

  1. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes

  2. File:SWERA-247.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  3. Building America Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project Greenbelt, Maryland PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes Builder: Greenbelt Homes, Inc., ghi.coop Type: Single-family, ...

  4. File:SWERA-277.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 ...

  5. File:NREL-africa-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description Africa - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation (PDF) Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-GHI,...

  6. Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Materials 12,576K Materials for Internal Combustion Engines Solicitations SuperTruck (NETL) Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive Components Goal: Develop high ...

  7. Multiple scattering effects in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  8. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  9. OECD Input-Output Tables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    714271111,00.html Country: Sweden, Finland, Japan, South Korea, Argentina, Australia, China, Israel, United Kingdom, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Chile, India,...

  10. Permanent-magnet flowmeter having improved output-terminal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    August, C.; Myers, H.J.

    1981-10-26

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  11. Permanent magnet flowmeter having improved output terminal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    August, Charles; Myers, Harry J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved permanent magnet flowmeter capable of withstanding bending stresses in the direction of induced emf signals. The flowmeter includes a unique terminal arrangement integrally formed with the flowmeter by trepanning opposing wall sections of the flowmeter body. The terminal arrangement provides increased flowmeter sensitivity by increasing the strength of the induced emf signals.

  12. Government works with technology to boost gas output/usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicoll, H.

    1996-10-01

    Specially treated ethane gas from fields of the Moomba area in the Cooper basin of South Australia now flows freely through 870 mi of interstate gas pipeline to an end-user in Sydney, New South Wales. This unprecedented usage of ethane is the result of a long-term cooperative agreement. The producer sought to provide the end-user with ethane gas for usage as a petrochemical feedstock to manufacture ethylene and plastic goods. The end-user had strict specifications for a low-CO{sub 2}, very dry ethane product with a small percentage of methane. In order to meet these, the producer committed millions of dollars to construct a high-technology, state-of-the-art ethane treatment facility in the Moomba area, and lay an extensive pipeline. Santos also contracted with the amines supplier to provide a high-performance, deep CO{sub 2} removal solvent with good corrosion prevention characteristics. The paper discusses the Moomba field overflow, gas treatment, government cooperation, and project completion.

  13. Mapping biofuel field: A bibliometric evaluation of research output

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starbuck Downes, C. Meghan; Boeing, Wiebke; Deng, Shuguang; Ivey, Shanna; Khandan, Nirmal; Schaub, Tanner; Unc, Adrian; Van Voorhies, Wayne; Lammers, Pete

    2013-08-14

    Fundamental research as part of the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts for the advancement of technology for algal based biofuel products.

  14. Output-increasing, protective cover for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerbacher, Milfred D.

    1995-11-21

    A flexible cover (14) for a flexible solar cell (12) protects the cell from the ambient and increases the cell's efficiency. The cell(12)includes silicon spheres (16) held in a flexible aluminum sheet matrix (20,22). The cover (14) is a flexible, protective layer (60) of light-transparent material having a relatively flat upper, free surface (64) and an irregular opposed surface (66). The irregular surface (66) includes first portions (68) which conform to the polar regions (31R) of the spheres (16) and second convex (72) or concave (90) portions (72 or 90) which define spaces (78) in conjunction with the reflective surface (20T) of one aluminum sheet (20). Without the cover (14) light (50) falling on the surface (20T) between the spheres (16) is wasted, that is, it does not fall on a sphere (16). The surfaces of the second portions are non-parallel to the direction of the otherwise wasted light (50), which fact, together with a selected relationship between the refractive indices of the cover and the spaces, result in sufficient diffraction of the otherwise wasted light (50) so that about 25% of it is reflected from the surface (20T) onto a sphere (16).

  15. Multiple scattering effects in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-02-24 OSTI Identifier: 1053153 ... Resource Relation: Conference: Fission fprogram Review, ; February 28, 2011 ; Livermore, ...

  16. Quantum Dot Materials Can Reduce Heat, Boost Electrical Output...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Golden, Colo. - Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy ... dots," produce as many as three electrons from one high energy photon of sunlight. ...

  17. Improved input and output couplers for SC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Latina, A.; Lunin, A.; Poloubotko, V.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Different couplers are described that allow the reduction of both transverse wake potential and RF kick in the SC acceleration structure of ILC. A simple rotation of the couplers reducing the RF kick and transverse wake kick is discussed for both the main linac and bunch compressors, along with possible limitations of this method. Designs of a coupler unit are presented which preserve axial symmetry of the structure, and provide reduced both the RF kick and transverse wake field.

  18. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  19. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  20. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Terry N 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-03-07 OSTI Identifier: 1170659 Report Number(s): LA-UR-12-01235; LA-UR-12-1235...

  1. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-07-27 OSTI Identifier: 1084596 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04357; LA-UR-11-4357 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference...

  2. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 18 9. Solar Forecast Data ......Summary This is the Final Report for the project "Development of Regional Wind Resource ...

  3. Validation of Power Output for the WIND Toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Clifton, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Renewable energy integration studies require wind data sets of high quality with realistic representations of the variability, ramping characteristics, and forecast performance for current wind power plants. The Wind Integration National Data Set (WIND) Toolkit is meant to be an update for and expansion of the original data sets created for the weather years from 2004 through 2006 during the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and the Eastern Wind Integration Study. The WIND Toolkit expands these data sets to include the entire continental United States, increasing the total number of sites represented, and it includes the weather years from 2007 through 2012. In addition, the WIND Toolkit has a finer resolution for both the temporal and geographic dimensions. Three separate data sets will be created: a meteorological data set, a wind power data set, and a forecast data set. This report describes the validation of the wind power data set.

  4. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date:...

  5. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-25

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-raymore » multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.« less

  6. Electrical power converter method and system employing multiple output converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2007-05-01

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  7. File:SWERA-202.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  8. File:SWERA-253.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels....

  9. File:SWERA-212.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central America from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  10. West African Clean Energy Gateway-Resource Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a grid cell. It follows then that each grid cell would only have one value for solar resource, which represents the annual average solar resource (GHI, for PV analysis)...

  11. Renewable Energy Technical Potential Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cell would only have one value for solar resource, which represents the annual average solar resource (GHI, for PV analysis) for the entire area covered by the grid cell....

  12. File:SWERA-159.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: monthly average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  13. File:SWERA-214.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    usage Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  14. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  15. Memorandum, Interim Procedures During Temporary Suspension of Electronic Questionnaires for Investigations Processing System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On July 2, 2015, the Director of OPM and the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) jointly issued a memorandum outlining temporary equivalencies to facilitate hiring, credentialing and eligibility determinations during the period of e-QIP suspension.

  16. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  17. File:SWERA-213.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  18. Department of Energy to Host ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (R-TN) U.S. Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) U.S. Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) Rep. Steve Israel (D-NY) Find more information and register for the ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit. ...

  19. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.H.; Berliner, R.R.

    1994-09-13

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation. 2 figs.

  20. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.; Berliner, Ronald R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  1. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichmentprocess to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment processwas formulated to improve power densities. The designwas based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms fromthe Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300Wm?3 net anode volume (3220mWm?2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  2. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    accelerate the advancement of nuclear reactor technology. ... part of our energy mix moving forward," said ... and develop new materials for next-generation reactors. ...

  3. Calorimetric measurements of excess power output during the cathodic charging of deuterium into palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oriani, R.A.; Nelson, J.C.; Lee, S.K.; Broadhurst, J.H. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on a Seebeck-effect calorimeter that was used to establish that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input, can occur during the electrolysis of D{sub 2}O. The magnitude of the excess power is measured with respect t the electrolysis of H{sub 2}O as the baseline. The excess power levels of {gt}60 W/cm{sup 3} palladium and excess energies of 74 kJ cannot be understood in terms of recombination of D{sub 2} and O{sub 2} within the calorimeter, other chemical reactions, or a storage-and-relaxation mechanism.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

  6. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  7. Advanced Condenser Boosts Geothermal Power Plant Output (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.

  8. Method of and apparatus for enabling output power of solar panel to be maximized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    The D.C. Power supplied by a photovoltaic solar panel to a load is controlled by monitoring the slope of the panel voltage vs. Current characteristic and adjusting the current supplied by the panel to the load so that the slope is approximately unity. The slope is monitored by incrementally changing the panel load and indicating whether the resulting change in current derived from the panel is above or below a reference value, indicative of the panel voltage. In response to the change in the monitored current being above the reference value, the slope of a voltage vs. Current curve is greater than unity and the load is adjusted to decrease the current supplied by the panel to the load. Conversely, in response to the current being less than the reference value, the slope of the voltage vs. Current curve is less than unity and the load is adjusted to increase the current supplied by the panel to the load.

  9. Push-pull radio frequency circuit with integral transistion to waveguide output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Wilfred P.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency circuit for ICRF heating includes a resonant push-pull circuit, a double ridged rectangular waveguide, and a coupling transition which joins the waveguide to the resonant circuit. The resonant circuit includes two cylindrical conductors mounted side by side and two power vacuum tubes attached to respective ends of a cylindrical conductor. A conductive yoke is located at the other end of the cylindrical conductors to short circuit the two cylindrical conductors. The coupling transition includes two relatively flat rectangular conductors extending perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of a respective cylindrical conductor to which the flat conductor is attached intermediate the ends thereof. Conductive side covers and end covers are also provided for forming pockets in the waveguide into which the flat conductors extend when the waveguide is attached to a shielding enclosure surrounding the resonant circuit.

  10. Message Passage Interface Input/Output (MPI-IO Test) Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-08

    Although there a host of existing file system and I/O test programs available, most were not designed with parallel I/O in mind and are not useful at the scale of our clusters. Los Alamos National Lab's MPI-IO test was written with I/O and scale in mind. The MPI-IO test is built on top of MPI's I/O calls and is used to gather timing information for reading from and writing to file(s) using a variety ofmore » I/O profiles; N processes writing to N files, N processes writing to one file, N processes sending data to m processes writing to m files, or n processes sending data to m processes to one file. A data aggregation capability is available and the user can pass down MPI-IO, ROMIO and some file system specific MPI hints. By default, the MPI-IO Test will write and specific pattern to a file, close the file, open the file for read, read the data, check for data integrity and close the file. Timing information is reported for file open, close, read and write data rates, and effective bandwidths. The MPI-IO Test can be used for performance benchmarking and, in some cases, to diagnost problems with file systems or I/O networks.« less

  11. Method for reducing fuel cell output voltage to permit low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Landau, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is degraded by recycling a portion of the cathode exhaust through the cells and, if necessary, also reducing the total air flow to the cells for the purpose of permitting operation below a power level which would otherwise result in excessive voltage.

  12. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  13. Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-16

    The original plan for the project involved design modifications to an existing system to enhance its performance and increase the limit of power that was achieved by the original design and to apply the higher performance product to the full sized engine and test its performance. The new system would also be applied to a different engine model. The specific work would include the redesign of gas injectors, piston configurations and two types of igniters, engine instrumentation, monitoring and testing.

  14. dgtoexo2: A Distorted Grid Output File to Exodus II Finite Element Database Conversion Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, H.K.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes how to obtain publication-quality graphics from distorted grid electronic structure codes using the combination of the conversion utility, dgtoexo2, and mustafa, an AVS Express application. dgtoexo2 converts scalar function results from a format applicable to distorted grid codes into the Exodus II unstructured finite element data representation. nmstafa can read Exodus II files and use the AVS Express engine to visualize data on unix and Windows NT platforms. Though not designed for the purpose, the dgtoexo2/EXOdUS II/mustafa combination is sufficiently versatile to provide for the specialized graphics needs of electronic structure codes. The combination also scales well, producing robust performance for problems involving millions of grid points.

  15. Note: An improved calibration system with phase correction for electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Han-miao Li, Hong-bin

    2015-08-15

    The existing electronic transformer calibration systems employing data acquisition cards cannot satisfy some practical applications, because the calibration systems have phase measurement errors when they work in the mode of receiving external synchronization signals. This paper proposes an improved calibration system scheme with phase correction to improve the phase measurement accuracy. We employ NI PCI-4474 to design a calibration system, and the system has the potential to receive external synchronization signals and reach extremely high accuracy classes. Accuracy verification has been carried out in the China Electric Power Research Institute, and results demonstrate that the system surpasses the accuracy class 0.05. Furthermore, this system has been used to test the harmonics measurement accuracy of all-fiber optical current transformers. In the same process, we have used an existing calibration system, and a comparison of the test results is presented. The system after improvement is suitable for the intended applications.

  16. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  17. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  18. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  19. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  20. Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1996-09-01

    Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.