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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

2

Versatile and Rapid Plasma Heating Device for Steel and Aluminum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of the research was to enhance steel and aluminum manufacturing with the development of a new plasma RPD device. During the project (1) plasma devices were manufactured (2) testing for the two metals were carried out and (3) market development strategies were explored. Bayzi Corporation has invented a Rapid Plasma Device (RPD) which produces plasma, comprising of a mixture of ionized gas and free electrons. The ions, when they hit a conducting surface, deposit heat in addition to the convective heat. Two generic models called the RPD-Al and RPD-S have been developed for the aluminum market and the steel market. Aluminum melting rates increased to as high as 12.7 g/s compared to 3 g/s of the current industrial practice. The RPD melting furnace operated at higher energy efficiency of 65% unlike most industrial processes operating in the range of 13 to 50%. The RPD aluminum melting furnace produced environment friendly cleaner melts with less than 1% dross. Dross is the residue in the furnace after the melt is poured out. Cast ingots were extremely clean and shining. Current practices produce dross in the range of 3 to 12%. The RPD furnace uses very low power ~0.2 kWh/Lb to melt aluminum. RPDs operate in one atmosphere using ambient air to produce plasma while the conventional systems use expensive gases like argon, or helium in air-tight chambers. RPDs are easy to operate and do not need intensive capital investment. Narrow beam, as well as wide area plasma have been developed for different applications. An RPD was developed for thermal treatments of steels. Two different applications have been pursued. Industrial air hardening steel knife edges were subjected to plasma beam hardening. Hardness, as measured, indicated uniform distribution without any distortion. The biggest advantage with this method is that the whole part need not be heated in a furnace which will lead to oxidation and distortion. No conventional process will offer localized hardening. The RPD has a great potential for heat treating surgical knives and tools. Unavailability of the full amount of the DOE award prevented further development of this exciting technology. Significant progress was made during the 5th quarter, specially the invention of the wider-area plasma and the resultant benefits in terms of rapid melting of aluminum and thermal treatments of larger size steel parts. Coating of nickel base superalloys was demonstrated (an additional task over that proposed). Directed low cost surface enhancement of steel and the directed clean low dross energy efficient melting of aluminum are industrial needs that require new technologies. These are large volume markets which can benefit from energy savings. Estimated energy savings are very large, in the order of 1015 J/year when the equipment is universally used. Compact and directed heating technology/product market in these two sectors could potentially reach over $1B in sales. The results of the research, presented at the DOE annual Review meeting on Aluminum held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the 4-5 October 2005, were very well received by the delegates and panel reviewers. Insufficient DOE funds to fully fund the project at the end of the 5th quarter necessitated some key tasks being only partially completed.

Reddy, G.S.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

3

Aluminum nanocomposites having wear resistance better than stainless steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

An, Linan [University of Central Florida; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Luo, Jinsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fan, Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Ligong [University of Central Florida; Liu, Jinling [University of Central Florida; Xu, Chengying [University of Central Florida; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Developing an Integrated Information System in a Modern Aluminum Smelter" ... "The Energy Crisis and the Aluminum Industry: Can We Learn from History? ... "

6

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors; Analytical I/O and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal… (more)

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

High-Strain-Rate Forming of Aluminum and Steel Sheets for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

The formability of aluminum alloy AA5182-O and DP600 steel sheets at high-strain-rates was investigated using an electrohydraulic forming (EHF) setup. Test sheets, ~150 mm diameter x 1 mm thick, were clamped around their circumference and subjected to a pressure-pulse (several 100 ?s duration) generated by a high-energy (up to ~34 kJ) under-water electrical discharge. The real-time strain and strain-rate of the deforming sheets were quantified by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique using a pair of high-speed cameras (~15 ?s per frame). Strain-rate amplification was observed when the sheets were deformed into a conical die, with the maximum in-plane strain-rate and strain for aluminum measured as ~1200 /s and ~0.2, respectively. The deformation behavior of the sheets was modeled using ABAQUS/finite element explicit code and better correlation, between the predicted and the experimental sheet deformation behavior, was observed when an alternate pressure-profile was used instead of the one available from the literature.

Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Soulami, Ayoub; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Residual stress of diffusion bonded aluminum-to-stainless steel joins. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray method for determination of residual stress as a function of surface position on a metal sample is described. This method is capable of spatial resolution on the order of 0.040 inch (1 mm) and precision positioning of the sample along three orthogonal axes to better than 0.001 inch. A high precision sample holder was designed and fabricated for this purpose. Apparent residual stress was found to be a strong function of sample position with respect to the axis of rotation of the diffractometer circle. This relationship is on the order of 400 to 500 Kpsi/inch for aluminum. The high precision sample holder allowed careful centering of the sample providing true (rather than apparent) residual stress measurements in the range of low stresses (less than 10 Ksi). Comparison was made between applied stress values obtained with strain gage output and those obtained by x-ray diffraction. Correlation was good with the accuracy of stress measurements being approximately +-500 psi.

Stroud, R.D.; Shackelford, J.F.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Evaluation of Efficiency and Utilization Benefits from Trapezoidal Wire Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR/TW) Conductor for High Voltage Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trapezoidal wire (TW) aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR/TW) conductor consists of a stranded steel core with one or more layers of trapezoidal shaped aluminum wires. The use of compact trapezoidal strands for a line results in a resistance reduction of 15-20 compared to a round wire ACSR conductor of the same diameter. If some increase in conductor diameter over the original is possible with limited tower structural reinforcement, the resistance reduction can be in excess of 20; and the increas...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

10

Technology Innovation in Aluminum Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today's U.S. aluminum production includes roughly 5.6 million tonnes of .... to help make the cost of aluminum competitive with steel.12 Aluminum pull tabs were ...

11

In-Situ, Real-Time Measurement of Melt Constituents in the Aluminum, Glass, and Steel Industries  

SciTech Connect

Energy Research Company (ERCo), with support from DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program, Sensors and Automation has developed a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) probe to measure, in real time and in-situ, the composition of an aluminum melt in a furnace at an industrial plant. The compositional data is provided to the operator continuously allowing the operator to adjust the melt composition, saving energy, increasing production, and maintaining tighter compositional tolerances than has been previously possible. The overall objectives of this project were to: -- design, develop, fabricate, test and project future costs of the LIBS probe on bench-size experiments; - test the unit in a pilot-scaled aluminum furnace under varying operating conditions of temperature and melt constituents; -- determine the instruments needed for use in industrial environment; -- compare LIBS Probe data to readings traditionally taken on the furnace; -- get full-scale data to resolve if, and how, the LIBS Probe design should be modified for operator acceptance. Extensive laboratory tests have proven the concept feasibility. Elemental concentrations below 0.1% wt. have been accurately measured. Further, the LIBS system has now been installed and is operating at a Commonwealth Aluminum plant in Ohio. The technology is crosscutting as it can be used in a wide variety of applications. In the Sensors and Automation Program the application was for the secondary aluminum industry. However, this project spawned a number of other applications, which are also reported here for completeness. The project was effective in that two commercial systems are now operating; one at Commonwealth Aluminum and another at a PPG fiberglass plant. Other commercial installations are being negotiated as of this writing. This project led to the following conclusions: 1. The LIBS System has been developed for industrial applications. This is the first time this has been accomplished. In addition, two commercial installations have been completed; one at Commonwealth and another at PPG. 2. The system is easy to operate and requires no operator training. Calibration is not required. It is certified as eye safe. 3. The system is crosscutting and ERCo is evaluating seven applications, as reported in this report, and other applications to be reported later. 4. A business plan is being completed for each of the near term markets. ERCo is committed to achieving continued commercial success with the LIBS System. 5. A world wide patent has been issued. 6. The energy savings is substantial. The annual energy savings, by 2010, for each industry is estimated as follows: o Secondary Aluminum – 1.44 trillion Btu’s o Glass – 17 to 45 trillion Btu’s o Steel – Up to 26 trillion Btu’s

Robert De Saro

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy ...  

High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure aluminum strands with a stranded steel core (ACSR) or stranded aluminum ... Applications and Industries.

13

ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.  

SciTech Connect

Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of fuel and diluent plates allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/6F

Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

Yousef, Adel K. M. [Faculty of Engineering , University of Diyala, Diyala-Baqouba (Iraq); Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A. [Institute of laser for postgraduate studies, Baghdad University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloys ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of ... Abstract Scope, The usage of advanced high strength steels and Aluminum Alloys as ...

16

A-15: Combustion of Aluminum Powder Compacts due to Dynamic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal is to determine the meso-scale mechanisms of combustion of aluminum ... of High Nitrogen Duplex Stainless Steel by Multiscale in-situ Experiments.

17

Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport  

SciTech Connect

Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be likely to be encountered in actual packaging, transportation, and storage configurations. Modeling of realistic, as-built configurations is beyond the scope of this study.

Watson, T T

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 993 0 116 0 876 2004 2,174 0 735 10 1,429 2005 1,923 0 965 435 522 2006 2,051 0 525 1,094 433 2007 1,988 0 386 1,102 501 2008 1,025 0 454 433 138 2009 793 0 545 176 72 2010 1,623 0 1,195 370 58 2011 3,195 0 2,753 351 91 2012 3,189 0 2,788 340 61 2010 January 118 0 83 30 5 February 110 0 79 27 5 March 132 0 94 32 6 April 131 0 93 33 6 May 132 0 92 34 6 June 139 0 104 30 5 July 140 0 102 33 5 August 132 0 95 32 5 September 148 0 113 30 5

19

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 517 0 111 6 399 2003 763 0 80 9 675 2004 1,043 0 237 8 798 2005 783 0 206 8 568 2006 1,259 0 195 9 1,055 2007 1,262 0 162 11 1,090 2008 897 0 119 9 769 2009 1,007 0 126 8 873 2010 1,059 0 98 11 950 2011 1,080 0 112 6 962 2012 1,346 0 113 11 1,222 2010 January 92 0 10 1 81 February 93 0 10 1 82 March 84 0 12 1 71 April 76 0 9 1 66 May 84 0 10 0 75 June 93 0 8 0 86 July 89 0 8 0 80 August 87 0 2 1 84 September 82 0 2 1 79

20

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 193,120 57,296 105,416 227 30,182 2003 197,827 69,695 92,384 309 35,440 2004 245,389 116,086 90,747 259 38,297 2005 256,441 115,727 111,098 260 29,356 2006 246,687 102,117 98,314 269 45,987 2007 208,198 77,941 81,845 348 48,064 2008 180,034 64,843 79,856 280 35,055 2009 166,449 77,919 52,428 245 35,856 2010 173,078 94,331 41,090 340 37,317 2011 176,349 99,257 40,167 173 36,752 2012 144,266 60,862 24,925 353 58,126 2010 January 14,949 7,995 3,716 38 3,199

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 1,005,144 767,803 209,703 1,405 26,232 2003 1,031,778 757,384 247,732 1,816 24,846 2004 1,044,798 772,224 244,044 1,917 26,613 2005 1,065,281 761,349 276,135 1,922 25,875 2006 1,053,783 753,390 273,246 1,886 25,262 2007 1,069,606 764,765 280,377 1,927 22,537 2008 1,064,503 760,326 280,254 2,021 21,902 2009 955,190 695,615 238,012 1,798 19,766 2010 1,001,411 721,431 253,621 1,720 24,638 2011 956,470 689,316 243,168 1,668 22,319 2012 845,066 615,467 208,085 1,450 20,065

22

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 500 0 61 0 439 2004 1,158 0 415 5 738 2005 994 0 519 212 263 2006 1,034 0 267 549 218 2007 985 0 226 532 228 2008 552 0 271 211 70 2009 440 0 313 91 37 2010 847 0 643 174 30 2011 1,635 0 1,422 165 48 2012 1,630 0 1,441 156 32 2010 January 61 0 44 14 3 February 58 0 42 13 3 March 67 0 49 15 3 April 67 0 49 15 3 May 68 0 49 16 3 June 73 0 56 14 3 July 73 0 55 16 2 August 69 0 52 15 3 September 79 0 62 14 3 October 75 0 59 14 2

23

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 17,561 0 2,255 929 14,377 2003 17,720 0 2,080 1,234 14,406 2004 24,275 0 3,809 1,540 18,926 2005 23,833 0 3,918 1,544 18,371 2006 23,227 0 3,834 1,539 17,854 2007 22,810 0 3,795 1,566 17,449 2008 22,168 0 3,689 1,652 16,827 2009 20,507 0 3,935 1,481 15,091 2010 21,727 0 3,808 1,406 16,513 2011 21,532 0 3,628 1,321 16,584 2012 19,333 0 2,790 1,143 15,400 2010 January 1,972 0 371 160 1,440 February 1,820 0 347 139 1,334 March 1,839 0 338 123 1,378 April 2,142 0 284 95 1,764

24

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 29,854 0 10,655 757 18,442 2004 30,228 0 12,055 2,627 15,547 2005 38,010 0 10,275 2,086 25,649 2006 36,966 0 8,561 2,318 26,087 2007 41,757 0 10,294 2,643 28,820 2008 41,851 0 9,674 1,542 30,635 2009 41,810 0 10,355 1,638 29,817 2010 47,153 0 8,436 1,648 37,070 2011 43,483 0 6,460 1,566 35,458 2012 46,863 0 6,914 1,796 38,153 2010 January 4,885 0 1,088 137 3,661 February 4,105 0 943 137 3,025 March 4,398 0 845 136 3,417 April 4,224 0 399 138 3,688

25

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 14,395 0 3,192 179 11,024 2003 21,170 0 2,282 244 18,644 2004 29,342 0 6,768 226 22,347 2005 22,224 0 5,935 228 16,061 2006 38,169 0 5,672 236 32,262 2007 38,033 0 4,710 303 33,019 2008 27,100 0 3,441 243 23,416 2009 29,974 0 3,652 213 26,109 2010 31,303 0 2,855 296 28,152 2011 31,943 0 3,244 153 28,546 2012 38,777 0 3,281 315 35,181 2010 January 2,683 0 285 33 2,365 February 2,770 0 302 29 2,439 March 2,424 0 338 36 2,050 April 2,257 0 255 22 1,980

26

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 64,629 2,456 26,514 5,323 30,337 2004 49,443 2,014 21,294 6,935 19,201 2005 55,862 2,485 17,640 6,763 28,974 2006 54,693 2,611 16,348 6,755 28,980 2007 60,840 2,992 19,155 6,692 32,001 2008 66,139 3,409 22,419 5,227 35,085 2009 66,658 3,679 23,586 5,398 33,994 2010 77,150 3,668 22,884 5,438 45,159 2011 74,255 4,488 22,574 5,382 41,810 2012 77,205 4,191 22,654 5,812 44,548 2010 January 7,109 189 2,166 458 4,295 February 6,441 275 2,151 429 3,586

27

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 7,135,572 2,307,358 3,481,961 75,985 1,270,268 2003 6,498,549 1,809,003 3,450,177 60,662 1,178,707 2004 6,912,661 1,857,247 3,749,945 73,744 1,231,725 2005 7,220,520 2,198,098 3,837,717 69,682 1,115,023 2006 7,612,500 2,546,169 3,847,644 69,401 1,149,286 2007 8,181,986 2,808,500 4,219,827 71,560 1,082,099 2008 7,900,986 2,803,283 4,046,069 67,571 984,062 2009 8,138,385 2,981,285 4,062,633 77,077 1,017,390 2010 8,694,186 3,359,035 4,191,241 87,357 1,056,553

28

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 1,358 0 311 865 182 2004 2,743 0 651 1,628 464 2005 2,719 0 623 1,536 560 2006 2,840 0 725 1,595 520 2007 2,219 0 768 1,136 315 2008 2,328 0 806 1,514 8 2009 2,426 0 823 1,466 137 2010 2,287 0 819 1,316 152 2011 2,044 0 742 1,148 154 2012 1,986 0 522 1,273 190 2010 January 191 0 69 107 14 February 178 0 61 106 11 March 204 0 66 126 12 April 207 0 67 127 13 May 249 0 67 167 15 June 204 0 69 120 14 July 194 0 68 115 11

29

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 137,414 9,168 122,100 3,280 2,865 2004 146,018 11,250 126,584 4,091 4,093 2005 143,822 11,490 124,030 5,232 3,070 2006 162,084 16,617 136,632 7,738 1,096 2007 168,762 17,442 144,490 5,699 1,131 2008 196,802 20,465 170,001 5,668 668 2009 207,585 19,583 181,234 6,106 661 2010 219,954 19,975 193,623 5,905 451 2011 235,990 22,086 183,609 29,820 474 2012 259,564 25,193 204,753 27,012 2,606 2010 January 17,649 1,715 15,406 491 37 February 16,300 1,653 14,198 410 38

30

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 7,353 2,125 3,691 8 1,529 2003 7,067 2,554 3,245 11 1,257 2004 8,721 4,150 3,223 9 1,339 2005 9,113 4,130 3,953 9 1,020 2006 8,622 3,619 3,482 10 1,511 2007 7,299 2,808 2,877 12 1,602 2008 6,314 2,296 2,823 10 1,184 2009 5,828 2,761 1,850 9 1,209 2010 6,053 3,325 1,452 12 1,264 2011 6,092 3,449 1,388 6 1,248 2012 5,021 2,105 869 13 2,034 2010 January 525 283 130 1 110 February 497 258 131 1 106 March 522 308 119 1 94

31

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 13,694 0 3,118 8,858 1,718 2004 19,991 0 4,746 12,295 2,950 2005 20,296 0 4,551 11,991 3,754 2006 21,729 0 5,347 12,654 3,728 2007 16,174 0 5,683 8,350 2,141 2008 18,272 0 6,039 12,174 59 2009 18,785 0 6,229 11,535 1,021 2010 17,502 0 6,031 10,333 1,138 2011 16,766 0 5,807 9,731 1,227 2012 16,310 0 4,180 10,615 1,515 2010 January 1,476 0 518 851 107 February 1,365 0 444 835 86 March 1,572 0 486 992 93 April 1,598 0 495 1,003 100

32

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 12,228 0 286 384 11,558 2003 14,124 0 1,197 512 12,414 2004 20,654 0 1,501 1,203 17,951 2005 20,494 0 1,392 1,004 18,097 2006 14,077 0 1,153 559 12,365 2007 13,462 0 1,303 441 11,718 2008 7,533 0 1,311 461 5,762 2009 8,128 0 1,301 293 6,534 2010 4,866 0 1,086 212 3,567 2011 3,826 0 1,004 168 2,654 2012 3,097 0 992 122 1,984 2010 January 606 0 105 31 470 February 504 0 78 26 401 March 335 0 46 7 281 April 355 0 86 9 260 May 340 0 93 14 232

33

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 885,987 0 267,675 45,359 572,953 2003 762,779 0 250,120 21,238 491,421 2004 1,085,191 0 398,476 40,122 646,593 2005 1,008,404 0 392,842 35,037 580,525 2006 968,574 0 339,047 33,928 595,599 2007 894,272 0 347,181 36,689 510,402 2008 813,794 0 333,197 33,434 447,163 2009 836,863 0 312,553 42,032 482,279 2010 841,521 0 308,246 47,001 486,274 2011 861,006 0 315,411 40,976 504,619 2012 909,087 0 330,354 48,944 529,788 2010 January 74,586 0 27,368 4,148 43,070 February 65,539 0 24,180 3,786 37,573

34

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 2. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 40,020 1,319 2,550 214,137 5,961 12,550 4,732 281,269 2003 38,249 5,551 1,828 200,077 9,282 19,785 3,296 278,068 2004 39,014 5,731 2,486 239,416 18,200 17,347 3,822 326,017 2005 39,652 5,571 2,238 239,324 36,694 18,240 3,884 345,605 2006 38,133 4,812 2,253 207,095 22,567 17,284 4,435 296,579 2007 38,260 5,294 1,862 212,705 20,473 19,166 4,459 302,219 2008 37,220 5,479 1,353 204,167 22,109 17,052 4,854 292,234 2009 38,015 5,341 1,445 190,875 19,830 17,625 5,055 278,187

35

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 76,737 0 1,669 3,276 71,788 2003 85,488 0 6,963 3,176 75,349 2004 124,809 0 8,592 7,219 108,997 2005 125,689 0 8,134 6,145 111,410 2006 87,137 0 6,740 3,481 76,916 2007 82,768 0 7,602 2,754 72,412 2008 45,481 0 7,644 2,786 35,051 2009 48,912 0 7,557 1,802 39,552 2010 29,243 0 6,402 1,297 21,545 2011 22,799 0 5,927 1,039 15,833 2012 18,233 0 5,871 746 11,616 2010 January 3,648 0 614 190 2,843 February 3,027 0 422 157 2,447 March 2,015 0 272 43 1,699

36

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 146,643 88,595 39,320 1,210 17,517 2003 189,260 105,319 62,617 1,394 19,929 2004 185,761 103,793 57,843 1,963 22,162 2005 185,631 98,223 63,546 1,584 22,278 2006 87,898 53,529 18,332 886 15,150 2007 95,895 56,910 24,097 691 14,198 2008 61,379 38,995 14,463 621 7,300 2009 51,690 31,847 11,181 477 8,185 2010 44,968 30,806 9,364 376 4,422 2011 31,152 20,844 6,637 301 3,370 2012 25,702 17,521 5,102 394 2,685 2010 January 6,193 4,381 1,188 48 576

37

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 682,060 0 9,585 727 671,747 2003 746,375 0 10,893 762 734,720 2004 1,016,124 0 14,968 1,493 999,663 2005 997,331 0 19,193 1,028 977,111 2006 1,049,161 0 18,814 1,045 1,029,303 2007 982,486 0 21,435 1,756 959,296 2008 923,889 0 18,075 1,123 904,690 2009 816,285 0 19,587 1,135 795,563 2010 876,041 0 18,357 1,064 856,620 2011 893,314 0 16,577 1,022 875,716 2012 883,158 0 19,251 949 862,958 2010 January 73,418 0 1,677 91 71,651 February 67,994 0 1,689 81 66,224

38

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 66,270 3,930 59,149 1,753 1,438 2004 70,489 5,373 60,929 2,098 2,089 2005 68,897 5,650 59,144 2,571 1,532 2006 77,004 8,287 64,217 3,937 563 2007 80,697 8,620 68,657 2,875 544 2008 94,768 10,242 81,300 2,879 346 2009 100,261 9,748 87,086 3,089 337 2010 106,681 10,029 93,405 3,011 236 2011 114,173 11,146 91,279 11,497 251 2012 125,927 12,721 101,379 10,512 1,315 2010 January 8,502 853 7,379 251 19 February 7,882 830 6,823 209 20

39

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commerical Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commerical Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 18,477 2,600 143 36,265 0 6,902 4,801 69,188 2003 22,780 2,520 196 16,955 0 8,296 6,142 56,889 2004 22,450 4,118 165 21,851 0 8,936 6,350 63,871 2005 22,601 3,518 166 20,227 0 8,647 5,921 61,081 2006 22,186 2,092 172 19,370 0.22 9,359 6,242 59,422 2007 22,595 1,640 221 20,040 0 6,651 3,983 55,131 2008 22,991 1,822 177 20,183 0 8,863 6,054 60,091 2009 20,057 1,095 155 25,902 0 8,450 5,761 61,420 2010 19,216 845 216 29,791 13 7,917 5,333 63,330 2011 17,234 687 111 24,848 14 7,433 5,988 56,314

40

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 912,218 553,390 243,561 7,229 108,031 2003 1,174,795 658,868 387,341 8,534 120,051 2004 1,156,763 651,712 358,685 11,763 134,603 2005 1,160,733 618,811 395,489 9,614 136,820 2006 546,529 335,130 112,052 5,444 93,903 2007 595,191 355,999 147,579 4,259 87,354 2008 377,848 242,379 87,460 3,743 44,266 2009 315,420 196,346 66,834 2,903 49,336 2010 273,357 188,987 55,444 2,267 26,660 2011 186,753 125,755 39,093 1,840 20,066 2012 153,189 105,179 29,952 2,364 15,695

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 860,024 0 263,619 41,435 554,970 2003 721,267 0 225,967 19,973 475,327 2004 1,052,100 0 388,424 39,233 624,443 2005 984,340 0 384,365 34,172 565,803 2006 942,817 0 330,878 33,112 578,828 2007 872,579 0 339,796 35,987 496,796 2008 793,537 0 326,048 32,813 434,676 2009 816,787 0 305,542 41,275 469,970 2010 821,775 0 301,769 46,324 473,683 2011 839,681 0 308,669 39,856 491,155 2012 886,103 0 322,607 47,883 515,613 2010 January 72,867 0 26,791 4,086 41,990

42

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 421,084 0 50,041 23,099 347,944 2003 416,700 0 47,817 28,479 340,405 2004 564,497 0 87,981 34,538 441,978 2005 548,666 0 88,364 34,616 425,685 2006 532,561 0 84,335 34,086 414,140 2007 521,717 0 83,838 34,690 403,189 2008 503,096 0 81,416 36,163 385,517 2009 462,674 0 90,867 32,651 339,156 2010 490,931 0 90,184 30,725 370,022 2011 479,822 0 84,855 28,056 366,911 2012 420,923 0 58,275 23,673 338,975 2010 January 44,514 0 8,627 3,445 32,442 February 40,887 0 8,041 3,024 29,823

43

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 1,287,114 10,659 139,532 1,196 1,135,727 2003 1,265,669 16,545 150,745 1,199 1,097,180 2004 1,360,258 19,973 145,216 1,661 1,193,408 2005 1,352,582 27,373 157,600 1,235 1,166,373 2006 1,399,235 27,455 154,360 1,314 1,216,106 2007 1,335,511 31,568 154,388 2,040 1,147,516 2008 1,262,675 29,150 148,198 1,410 1,083,917 2009 1,136,729 29,565 150,481 1,408 955,276 2010 1,225,571 40,167 155,429 1,338 1,028,637 2011 1,240,937 35,474 146,684 1,504 1,057,275

44

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2012" Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2012" "Company Name","Plant Location" "Top Ten Manufacturers" "American Crystal Sugar Co","MN, ND" "Archer Daniels Midland","IA, IL, MN, ND, NE" "Carmeuse Lime Stone Inc","AL, IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, TN, VA, WI" "Cemex Inc","AL, CA, CO, FL, GA, KY, OH, TN, TX" "Dakota Gasification Company","ND" "Eastman Chemical Company","TN" "Georgia-Pacific LLC","AL, GA, OK, VA, WI" "Holcim (US) Inc","AL, CO, MD, MO, MT, OK, SC, TX, UT" "NewPage Corporation","MD, MI, WI" "U S Steel Corporation","AL, IN, MI, MN"

45

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 1. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 336,848 61,313 11,513 708,738 117,513 571,509 48,263 1,855,697 2003 333,361 68,329 16,934 610,122 110,263 632,366 54,960 1,826,335 2004 351,871 80,824 16,659 654,242 126,157 667,341 45,456 1,942,550 2005 341,806 79,362 13,021 624,008 138,469 664,691 41,400 1,902,757 2006 332,548 54,224 24,009 603,288 126,049 689,549 49,308 1,878,973 2007 326,803 50,882 25,373 554,394 116,313 651,230 46,822 1,771,816 2008 315,244 29,554 18,263 509,330 110,680 610,131 23,729 1,616,931 2009 281,557 32,591 20,308 513,002 99,556 546,974 33,287 1,527,276

46

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 161,803 5,766 132,065 21,953 2,020 2004 161,567 3,705 129,562 25,204 3,096 2005 164,635 4,724 131,080 24,914 3,918 2006 168,716 4,078 135,127 25,618 3,893 2007 162,482 4,557 133,509 21,393 3,022 2008 166,723 4,476 136,080 26,108 59 2009 165,755 3,989 132,877 27,868 1,021 2010 162,436 3,322 130,467 27,509 1,138 2011 152,007 3,433 121,648 25,664 1,262 2012 152,045 3,910 117,598 28,923 1,614 2010 January 13,015 244 10,405 2,260 107

47

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at 1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 2002 through 2012 (Thousand Metric Tons) Year Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 2002 2,423,963 10,881 5,194 2003 2,445,094 10,646 4,532 2004 2,486,982 10,309 4,143 2005 2,543,838 10,340 3,961 2006 2,488,918 9,524 3,799 2007 2,547,032 9,042 3,650 2008 2,484,012 7,830 3,330 2009 2,269,508 5,970 2,395 2010 2,388,596 5,400 2,491 2011 2,287,071 4,845 2,406 2012 2,156,875 3,704 2,148 Notes: The emissions data presented include total emissions from both electricity generation and the production of useful thermal output. See Appendix A, Technical Notes, for a description of the sources and methodology used to develop the emissions estimates.

48

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 22,554 695 18,611 2,952 296 2004 22,330 444 17,959 3,439 488 2005 22,089 560 17,655 3,289 584 2006 22,469 500 18,068 3,356 545 2007 21,796 553 17,885 2,921 437 2008 22,134 509 18,294 3,323 8 2009 22,095 465 17,872 3,622 137 2010 21,725 402 17,621 3,549 152 2011 19,016 388 15,367 3,103 158 2012 18,954 418 14,757 3,577 203 2010 January 1,737 30 1,402 291 14 February 1,562 25 1,276 250 11 March 1,854 36 1,500 306 12

49

aluminum processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refining of Potroom Metal Using the Hydro Ram Crucible Fluxing Process [pp. .... Approachgeneration of Aluminum Wrought Alloy Scrap of Old Cars [pp.

50

Aluminum I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Among them, automotive aluminum condensers are generally produced ... The brazing sheet used for the condenser is a three-layer composite ...

51

The young's modulus of 1018 steel and 67061-T6 aluminum measured from quasi-static to elastic precursor strain-rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assumption that Young's modulus is strain-rate invariant is tested for 6061-T6 aluminium alloy and 1018 steel over 10 decades of strain-rate. For the same billets of material, 3 quasi-static strain-rates are investigated with foil strain gauges at room temperature. The ultrasonic sound speeds are measured and used to calculate the moduli at approximately 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. Finally, ID plate impact is used to generate an elastic pre-cursor in the alloys at a strain-rate of approximately 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} from which the longitudinal sound speed may be obtained. It is found that indeed the Young's modulus is strain-rate independent within the experimental accuracy.

Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lovato, Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Nanostructured lithium-aluminum alloy electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrodeposited aluminum films and template-synthesized aluminum nanorods are examined as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-aluminum alloying reaction is observed electrochemically with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in lithium half-cells. The electrodeposition reaction is shown to have high faradaic efficiency, and electrodeposited aluminum films reach theoretical capacity for the formation of LiAl (1 Ah/g). The performance of electrodeposited aluminum films is dependent on film thickness, with thicker films exhibiting better cycling behavior. The same trend is shown for electron-beam deposited aluminum films, suggesting that aluminum film thickness is the major determinant in electrochemical performance regardless of deposition technique. Synthesis of aluminum nanorod arrays on stainless steel substrates is demonstrated using electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates followed by template dissolution. Unlike nanostructures of other lithium-alloying materials, the electrochemical performance of these aluminum nanorod arrays is worse than that of bulk aluminum.

Hudak, Nicholas S.; Huber, Dale L.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Aluminum in Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aluminum in Transportation: Case Study of the Development of a ... The unit was entirely redesigned using aluminum and based on the future

54

Recycling - Aluminum - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum Industry Document providing the life cycle information for the North American aluminum industry.

55

Locational analysis for the aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

A locational analysis for the aluminum industry suggests that its locational pattern is probably even more clear-cut than that of the steel industry. Because the smelting of alumina into aluminum requires a very large amount of electric power, aluminum has become an industry highly oriented to cheap-power locations. A quick analysis, taking into account present technological and economic conditions, reveals that the potential advantages of the minimum-transport-cost location for an aluminum plant are clearly outweighed by the large power cost savings accruing from locating the plant at a cheap-power location. This holds true even with a fairly small differential in power rates between the two locations.

Isard, W.; Parcels, L.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

test output enable Veto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to BIP/FSCC's RESET to (NIM) test output FSCC/COM (NIM) INPUT TRIGGER GLOBAL 0.08­19.5 usec adjustable

Berns, Hans-Gerd

57

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Aluminum Fluoride – A Users Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Aluminum Reduction Technology. Presentation Title, Aluminum Fluoride – A ...

59

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology · Initiatives To Reduction Of Aluminum Potline ...

60

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... GHG Measurement and Inventory for Aluminum Production · HEX Retrofit Enables Smelter Capacity Expansion · HF Emission Reduction from ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

Sadoway, D.R.

1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

63

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Associations Aluminum Association The Aluminum Association, Inc. is the trade association for producers of primary aluminum, recyclers and semi-fabricated aluminum...

64

Aluminum Plenary Session flier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Strategic Impact of Changing Energy Markets on the Aluminum Industry ... For complete technical program information, and registration/housing details.

65

Aluminum Extrusion Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Aluminum extrusion alloys by series...6063 (1944), 6066, 6070, 6082 (1972), 6101 (1954), 6105 (1965),

66

Aluminum Association: Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This webpage provides some historical information on aluminum recycling and describes the processes done by various recyclers: used ...

67

Aluminum Recycling, 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... The book details the collecting, sorting, and separating of scrap aluminum as well as the processing and upgrading equipment used.

68

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger · Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction ...

69

INNOVATIONS IN ALUMINUM: II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Likewise, to produce aluminum sheet and some other products, dissolved sodium and calcium must be fluxed by reaction with chlorine. Today, the combined ...

70

Steel Cermets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cermets Steel Cermets The documents below provide information about depleted uranium use in steel cermets for spent nuclear fuel. PDF Melted and Granulated Depleted Uranium Dioxide...

71

Recyclability of Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...It is resistant to corrosion, and a low ratio of energy is required to remelt aluminum compared with that required for its primary production. Also, the alloy versatility of aluminum has resulted in a large number of commercial compositions, many of which were designed to accommodate impurity...

72

Aluminum 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE/OIT PHAST Program Application in the Aluminum Industry [pp. 239-242] F.L. Beichner. Retrofitting Regenerative Burners on Aluminum Melting Furnaces ...

73

Effects of Ceric Oxide Coatings on Materials Performance of 430 Steel in Coal Synthetc Gas  

SciTech Connect

The surfaces of low silicon and aluminum 430 stainless steel (UNS 43000) coupons with and without ceria (CeO2) surface treatment were investigated after exposure to simulated coal syngas based fuel at 800 C. The results indicate a different mechanism of carburization for the ceria treated steel than that for the untreated steel.

Ziomek-Moroz, M. Jablonski, P

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

74

ALUMINUM CLADDING DISSOLUTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent shows a method of moderating the chemical reaction when aluminum is dissolved in 2 to 7 molar nitric acid with a mercury catalyst. Nickelous nitrate is added as a negative promoter. (AEC)

Schulz, W.W.

1964-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

Aluminum ION Battery  

•Lower cost because of abundant aluminum resources ... Li-ion battery (LiC 6 - Mn 2 O 4) 106 4.0 424 Al-ion battery (Al - Mn 2 O 4) 400 2.65 1,060

76

CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.

Cuenca, R.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

8.5. Adding New Outputs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... have fixed values in the Output definition will not ... are a few example Output definitions, extracted from ... an example, illustrating the Energy output and ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

79

Coded output support vector machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a coded output support vector machine (COSVM) by introducing the idea of information coding to solve multi-class classification problems for large-scale datasets. The COSVM is built based on the support vector regression (SVR) machine ... Keywords: coded output, multi-class classification, number system, parallel implementation, support vector machine (SVM)

Tao Ye; Xuefeng Zhu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

82

Bevill and the Aluminum Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... particularly the import, mining, refining and primary production of aluminum. ... Experience with Commissioning New Generation Gas Suspension Calciner.

83

rifsimp_output.html - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whenever DiffConstraint or UnSolve entries are present in the output, some parts of the algorithm have been disabled by options, and the resulting cases must ...

84

Aluminum battery alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

85

Aluminum battery alloys  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

AFA Steels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AFA Steels Home AFA Steels Home Contacts Goal Advanced Research Material Projects Related Links CF8C-Plus Steels MSTD Corrosion Science & Technology Group Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL Fossil Energy Program ORNL Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program Distributed Energy Program Comments AFA: Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels AFA stainless steels boast an increased upper-temperature oxidation, or corrosion, limit that is 100 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit higher than that of conventional stainless steels. These new alloys deliver this superior oxidation resistance with high-temperature strengths approaching that of

87

Superior Steel  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

which contains Mississippian to Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) Formations exhibiting coal resources. Superior Steel likely is underlain by the Conemaugh andor the Monogahela...

88

Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... During service, Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels harden as a result of the ... Research supported by ORNL's Shared Research Equipment ...

89

SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

Erickson, G.F.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

90

Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Loss in Cathode Life Resulting from the Shutdown and Restart of Potlines at Aluminum Smelters · Lower Aluminium Production Cost through Refractory Material ...

92

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer(s), Trond Furu, Hydro ... Review at Several US Aluminum Die Cast Manufacturers Using Unique, Non-Wetting, Micro-Porous Refractory Products.

93

Aluminum Alloys for Packaging III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1998... of aluminum can stock, lid stock, and tab stock alloys; coatings; and their related applications to can, lid, and tab making could be presented.

94

Molten Salts, Magnesium and Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Chloride 2011: Practice and Theory of Chloride-Based Metallurgy: Molten Salts, Magnesium and Aluminum Sponsored by: The Minerals, ...

95

Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 1, 1998 ... Print Book: Aluminium - Rolling (Process, Principle & Applications). Print Book: Hall-Héroult Centennial: First Century of Aluminum Process ...

96

Aluminum 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of Strain Induced Surface Topography of 6XXX Series Aluminum Sheet Under Balanced Biaxial Tension [pp. 83-90] S.W. Banovic and T. Foecke.

97

Laser welding of aluminum alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent interest in reducing the weight of automobiles to increase fuel mileage has focused attention on the use of aluminum and associated joining technologies. Laser beam welding is one of the more promising methods for high speed welding of aluminum. Consequently, substantial effort has been expended in attempting to develop a robust laser beam welding process. Early results have not been very consistent in the process requirements but more definitive data has been produced recently. This paper reviews the process parameters needed to obtain consistent laser welds on 5,000 series aluminum alloys and discusses the research necessary to make laser processing of aluminum a reality for automotive applications.

Leong, K.H.; Sabo, K.R.; Sanders, P.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Spawr, W.J.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Aluminum Alloys for Packaging II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1996 ... An update is provided of all aspects of can stock materials and the fundamentals of can making, including: the physical metallurgy of aluminum ...

99

Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Woodridge, IL); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Casting-chill interface heat transfer during solidification of an aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

Unidirectional solidification tests on an aluminum alloy were conducted with a computer-controlled instrumented rig. The alloys employed in this study were poured into isolated ingot molds (made of recrystallized alumina and covered with ceramic fiber) placed on top of a steel plate, coated either with a graphite- or ceramic-based paint in order to avoid sticking or the material. Thermal evolution during the test was captured by type-K thermocouples placed at different positions in both the ingot and the plate. The bottom surface of the plate was either cooled with water or left to cool in air. The heat-transfer coefficients across the aluminum-steel interface were evaluated by means of a finite-difference model. It was concluded that the heat-transfer rate depends on the conditions at the interface, such as the type of coating used to protect the plate, and the solidification reactions occurring on the aluminum during its solidification.

Velasco, E.; Cano, S.; Valtierra, S.; Mojica, J.F. [Corporativo Nemak, S.A. de C.V., Garcia (Mexico); Talamantes, J.; Colas, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and ...  

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of ...

103

Overload protection circuit for output driver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

Stewart, Roger G. (Neshanic Station, NJ)

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

104

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Aluminum: Industry of the future  

SciTech Connect

For over a century, the US aluminum industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, aluminum industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US aluminum industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Aluminum Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operations and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by The Aluminum Association, industry leaders began by developing a unified vision of future market, business, energy, and environmental goals. Their vision document, Partnerships for the Future, articulates a compelling vision for the next 20 years: to maintain and grow the aluminum industry through the manufacture and sale of competitively priced, socially desirable, and ecologically sustainable products. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. By developing a unified vision, the aluminum industry has provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate cooperative R and D.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Mold Fluxes for Continuous Casting of Steels with High Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical Modeling of Centrifugally Cast HSS Rolls · Numerical Simulation of Electro-magnetic Turbulent Inhibitor Technology in a Tundish · Optimizing the ...

107

Analytical Characterization of Aluminum, Steel, and Superalloys - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2006 ... Written as a companion guide to handbooks, textbooks, and monographs, this text provides the reader with general overviews of several ...

108

Bimetallic steel/aluminum wire for overhead telecommunication lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

for power transmission and overhead telecommunication lines and other .... " Method of manufacture of bimetallic wire for, e.g., trolley-bus cable or rods, n Inven-.

109

Optimal Filtering of AC Output Anemometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The output of pulsed and AC output anemometers suffer from discretization noise when such anemometers are sampled at fast rates (>1 Hz). This paper describes the construction of an optimal filter designed to reduce this noise. By comparing the ...

J. C. Barnard; L. L. Wendell; V. R. Morris

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing  

SciTech Connect

Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

It's Elemental - The Element Aluminum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Company of America, or Alcoa. When it opened, his company could produce about 25 kilograms of aluminum a day. By 1909, his company was producing about 41,000 kilograms of...

113

Melt Conditioned Casting of Aluminum Alloys - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capillary Tube Fabrication of A3003 Alloy for Air Condition · Cathodic Dissolution of Pure Aluminum, Aluminum Alloy AA6061 and Aluminum Particle Based ...

114

Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations;  

SciTech Connect

DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

Not Available

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mercury-Free Dissolution of Aluminum-Based Nuclear Material: From Basic Science to the Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditions were optimized for the first plant-scale dissolution of an aluminum-containing nuclear material without using mercury as a catalyst. This nuclear material was a homogeneous mixture of plutonium oxide and aluminum metal that had been compounded for use as the core matrix in Mark 42 nuclear fuel. Because this material had later failed plutonium distribution specifications, it was rejected for use in the fabrication of Mark 42 fuel tubes, and was stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) awaiting disposition. This powder-like material was composed of a mixture of approximately 80 percent aluminum and 11 percent plutonium. Historically, aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels [13] have been dissolved using a mercuric nitrate catalyst in a nitric acid (HNO3) solution to facilitate the dissolution of the bulk aluminum cladding. Developmental work at SRS indicated that the plutonium oxide/aluminum compounded matrix could be dissolved without mercury. Various mercury-free conditions were studied to evaluate the rate of dissolution of the Mark 42 compact material and to assess the corrosion rate to the stainless steel dissolver. The elimination of mercury from the dissolution process fit with waste minimization and industrial hygiene goals to reduce the use of mercury in the United States. The mercury-free dissolution technology was optimized for Mark 42 compact material in laboratory-scale tests, and successfully implemented at the plant.

Crooks, W.J. III

2003-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Energy Input Output Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Input Output Calculator Input Output Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Input-Output Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Website Website: www2.eere.energy.gov/analysis/iocalc/Default.aspx Web Application Link: www2.eere.energy.gov/analysis/iocalc/Default.aspx OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools Language: English References: EERE Energy Input-Output Calculator[1] The Energy Input-Output Calculator (IO Calculator) allows users to estimate the economic development impacts from investments in alternate electricity generating technologies. About the Calculator The Energy Input-Output Calculator (IO Calculator) allows users to estimate

117

Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Carbon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations...Vancouver Island, BC, Canada Rural marine 13 0.5 Detroit, MI Industrial 14.5 0.57 Fort Amidor Pier, CZ Marine 14.5 0.57 Morenci, MI Urban 19.5 0.77 Potter County, PA Rural 20 0.8 Waterbury, CT Industrial 22.8 0.89 State College, PA Rural 23 0.9 Montreal, QC, Canada Urban 23 0.9 Durham, NH Rural 28 1.1...

119

Tool Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Examples of ion implantation in metalforming and cutting applications...tool steel Machining 4140 N 80 3� life Taps HSS Tapping 4140 N 80 3� life HSS Tapping 4130 N 80 5� life HSS Tapping 4140 N 50 10� life M35 Tapping � N 2 200 4� life M7 Tapping � N 100 2� life Cutting blade M2 Cutting 1050 N 100 2� life M2 Cutting SAE 950 N 100 4� life Dies D2 Forming 321 SS N 80...

120

Aluminum-carbon composite electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

TMS 2012 Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course Schedule  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 9, 2012 ... Temperature and Aluminum Fluoride. Barry Welch. 11:00 - 12:00. 10: Aluminum Fluoride Variations and Control. Barry Welch. 12:00 - 13:00.

122

Current technologies and trends of aluminum design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A literature review of current aluminum technology in the building and construction industry was carried out. Aluminum is an ideal material for building in corrosive environments and for building structures where small ...

Chen, Michael, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Erosion of Ferrous Alloys by Liquid Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the degradation of ferrous alloys under the demands of liquid metal transfer conditions ... (by exposure to flowing aluminum) and response to thermal cycling (by cyclic exposure to static aluminum) ... 2008 Global Anode Effect Survey Results.

124

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electrolyte Compositions; Fluoride Emissions Control; Graphite Resistor and Gas ... the Variability and Control of Temperature and Aluminum Fluoride in Cells  ...

126

2013 TMS Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum Fluoride Variations and Control; Anode Cover; Anode Effect Mechanism and PFC Emission Rates; Anodes in Cells - Their Reactions and ...

127

TMS 2010 Networking Events: Aluminum Plenary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Home · Contact Us ... Technical Divisions Home .... Challenges and Opportunities Relative to Increased Usage of Aluminum within the Automotive Industry

128

Oxide Skin Strength Measurements on Molten Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, OXIDE SKIN STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS ON MOLTEN ALUMINUM – MANGANESE ALLOYS WITH AND WITHOUT SALT ON SURFACE

129

The China Factor: Aluminum Industry Impact  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... International Aluminium Institute, Japan Aluminium Association, South Korea Nonferrous Metals Association, and, for the first time, The Aluminum Association.

130

RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for recovertng aluminum values from aqueous solutions containing said values together with fission products. A mixture of Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ and MnO/sub 2/ is added to a solution containing aluminum and fission products. The resulting aluminum-containing supernatant is then separated from the fission product-bearing metal oxide precipitate and is contacted with a cation exchange resin. The aluminum sorbed on the resin is then eluted and recovered. (AEC)

Blanco, R.E.; Higgins, I.R.

1962-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Aluminum Alloys: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Program Organizers: Zhengdong (Steven) Long, Kaiser Aluminum; Subodh Das, Phinix LLC; Tongguang Zhai, University of Kentucky; William ...

132

Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum Foams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

133

Aluminum Production Paths in the New Millennium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical technologies face the same problems and challenges as present ... The driving force for developing new processes for aluminum smelting ...

134

Aluminum Alloys: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welding of Aluminum Wires for Cables Harnesses in the Automotive Industry ... Transmission Electron Microscopic Investigation of Sensitized Al-5083.

135

Fatigue Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fatigue Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum ... Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) and fracture mechanism of Al-CNT  ...

136

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lower energy consumption, improve metal quality and reduce environmental ... Formerly Kaiser Aluminum; Halvor Kvande, Hydro Aluminium Primary Metal, ...

137

The Role of Steel in the US Economy: Decomposing the 1982-1997 Forward and Backward Linkages of the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper queries the benchmark input-output tables of the United States for 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997 to examine both the industries that provide goods and services to the steel industry and the destination of steel products to other industries and final goods. This study provides a sense of how the industry changed from 1982 to 1997 and will aid in evaluation of new technology adoption by linking steel products to final consumers. The steel industry is one of the major producers of raw materials for industry and construction. Value of shipments in 2000 for the steel industry amounted to more than $70 billion. This paper highlights the interdependency of the various steel-using industries of the economy. It shows the downstream use by industry of steel as a commodity. It shows the response in the use of steel to industry-specific shocks to national final demand. It also documents the steel intensity of other industry sectors in the economy. The paper builds on the benchmark input-output tables to develop economic impact models. The effects both of industry final demand on steel and steel's final demand on industry are presented. The paper provides historical context to the observations and trends reflected in the examination of the data.

Anderson, Dave M.; Roop, Joseph M.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Light output simulation of LYSO single crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We used the Geant4 simulation toolkit to estimate the light collection in a LYSO crystal by using cosmic muons and E=105 MeV electrons. The light output as a function of the crystal length is studied. Significant influence of the crystal wrapping in the reflective paper and optical grease coupling to the photodetectors on the light output is demonstrated.

Usubov, Zafar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Commercial Aluminum-Lithium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Typical physical properties of selected aluminum-lithium alloys...-742 Elastic modulus, GPa (10 6 psi) 76 (11.0) 75 (10.9) 77 (11.2) Poisson's ratio 0.34 � � (a) Measured per ASTM G 60

140

Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below ...

Bing Xie; Jeffrey Chase; David Dillow; Oleg Drokin; Scott Klasky; Sarp Oral; Norbert Podhorszki

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dynamical Properties of Model Output Statistics Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical properties of forecasts corrected using model output statistics (MOS) schemes are explored, with emphasis on the respective role of model and initial condition uncertainties. Analytical and numerical investigations of low-order ...

S. Vannitsem; C. Nicolis

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ensemble Model Output Statistics for Wind Vectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bivariate ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) technique for the postprocessing of ensemble forecasts of two-dimensional wind vectors is proposed, where the postprocessed probabilistic forecast takes the form of a bivariate normal probability ...

Nina Schuhen; Thordis L. Thorarinsdottir; Tilmann Gneiting

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Role of Steel in the US Economy: Decomposing the 1982-1997 Forward and Backward Linkages of the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper queries the benchmark input-output tables of the United States for 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997 to examine both the industries that provide goods and services to the steel industry and the destination of steel products to other industries and final goods. This study provides a sense of how the industry changed over the 1982-1997 period and will aid in evaluation of new technology adoption by linking steel products to final consumers. Input-output analysis incorporates the ideas of interdependency, feedbacks, and general equilibrium into a single format. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the Department of Commerce prepares the official input-output tables for the United States every five years. The most recent table currently available is the 1997 table, released in 2002. It provides a snapshot of all transactions in 1997 at a given point in time, including sales of products to each industry (intermediate demand) as well as sales of products to final users (final demand). Fully disaggregated, the US input-output table specifies nearly 500 industries, and shows the distributions of inputs purchased from each and outputs sold to each. This makes a robust database for viewing detailed snapshots of the forward and backward linkages affecting the steel industry. The steel industry is one of the major producers of raw materials for industry and construction. Value of shipments in 2000 for the steel industry totaled over $70 billion. This paper highlights the interdependency of the various steel-using industries of the economy. It shows the downstream use by industry of steel as a commodity. It shows the response in the use of steel to industry-specific shocks to national final demand. It also documents the steel intensity of other industry sectors in the economy. The paper builds on the benchmark input-output tables to develop economic impact models. These models permit the examination of impacts on industrial output, employment, income, and other measures resulting from changes in steel final demand. Additionally, the paper explores the impacts on the steel industry of demand changes in all other industries taken individually.

Anderson, Dave M.; Roop, Joseph M.

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Analysis Briefs Industry Analysis Briefs The Energy Information Agency (EIA) is currently updating industry analysis briefs for the most energy-intensive industries in the United States, including aluminum, chemicals, forest products (such as paper and wood products), glass, metal casting, petroleum and coal products, and steel. As soon as the current briefs are available, we will provide the link. Industry Analysis Briefs will have the following content: Economic Profile and Trends Value of Shipments Annual Production Labor Productivity Energy Use Energy Use by Fuel Fuel Consumption by End Use Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Expenditures Onsite Generation (if applicable) Energy Intensity State-Level Information Technologies and Equipment Cogeneration Technologies (if applicable)

145

Inclusions and Clean Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Behavior of MgO?Al2O3 Based Inclusions in High-Pressure Boiler Steel during Refining Process · Control of Inclusions in Bottom Filled Steel Ingots · Control of ...

146

PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

Moore, R.H.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Boosting America's Hydropower Output | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boosting America's Hydropower Output Boosting America's Hydropower Output Boosting America's Hydropower Output October 9, 2012 - 2:10pm Addthis The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. City of Boulder employees celebrate the completion of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Modernization project. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. City of Boulder employees celebrate the completion of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Modernization project. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado.

148

PV output smoothing with energy storage.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Seamless Steel Tubular Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...). The tank also contained the search units.Fig. 6 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubular products were

150

Austenitic Stainless Steel Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Austenitic Stainless Steel Handbook is part of an ongoing series of metallurgical reports. It is devoted to iron-based alloys that are considered to be stainless steel but that will remain essentially austenitic at room temperatures and below (the definition of austenitic stainless steel). Because of its attractive cost, wide availability, and ease of fabrication and weldability, austenitic stainless steel is one of the most commonly used materials in the electric power generating, chemical processin...

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

Aluminum: Technology, Applications and Environment - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This volume is the 6th edition of Dr. Dietrich Altenpohl's book, originally titled Aluminum From Within (and still carrying that subtitle.) It is the ...

152

High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Associations FederalState Programs Technical Information Plant Assessments Training Calendar Software Tools Energy Management Expertise Auto Aluminum Usage Benefits Environment...

154

Primary Aluminum Processing in Quebec and Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Meso-scale Modelling of Aluminum-alloy Welding Processes for Prediction of ... Frequency Modulation Effect on the Solidification of Alloy 718 Fusion Zone.

155

Light Metals: Aluminum, Magnesium, and Titanium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production ... In this proposed, six-session symposium, papers addressing all aspects of cost reduction in titanium and its alloys will be ...

156

Aluminum—Meeting the Challengesof Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, the largest potential for emission reduction is through the use of aluminum products in energy-saving applications, such as lightweight vehicles, green ...

157

Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions ...  

Aluminum hydride is the best known alane and has been known for over 60 years. It is potentially a very attractive medium for onboard automotive hydrogen storage ...

158

Energy Opportunities in the Aluminum Processing Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As carbon management has grown in importance and project payback becomes ... overall energy within a plant and within the aluminum processing industry.

159

Aluminum Scrap Supply and Environmental Impact Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... It has been applied to the USA to forecast sources of aluminum scrap ... good balance between supply and demand on average over the years.

160

Aluminum and Energy--an International Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the effects of regional energy and trade issues on the global aluminium industry and its ... “Energy Policy Position of the Aluminum Association

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Aluminum: The ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... A complete review of today's successful automotive aluminum recycling infrastructure. Shows a car's journey through the entire recycling ...

162

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This volume is the 6th edition of Dr. Dietrich Altenpohl's book, originally titled Aluminum From Within (and still carrying that subtitle.) It is the ...

163

Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

Scanlan, Ronald M. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Distinguishing Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) in Aluminum and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Damage Tolerant Critical Aircraft Structures – an Aluminum Supplier Perspective .... P44 - X-ray Diffraction Study on Lattice Constant of Supersaturated Solid ...

165

Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams  

Hanford Tank Waste is High in Aluminum • Estimated Al inventory is 8750 MT • Problem: • Large fraction of Al is in the HLW solids • Greatly increases the ...

166

Cast Aluminum Housings in Electrical Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Cast aluminum and its alloys are often used as enclosures for electrical appliances and similar devices. Electrical faults can often be analyzed ...

167

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1980 he has worked with Hydro Aluminum Metals Products in Ardal, ... energy balance, dynamic process simulation and experimental evaluation of cells.

168

2013 TMS Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course - Tour  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Qatalum is an equal joint venture between Qatar Petroleum and Hydro Aluminum of Norway and produces 585,000 tons of high-quality primary aluminium ...

169

Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment (Sample ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because hydroelectric power is a relatively inexpensive and clean source of energy, aluminum smelters are mostly built in countries with readily avail-.

170

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Questions and Answers - What's the melting point of steel?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen,would your body instantly crystallize? If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen,<br>would your body instantly crystallize? Previous Question (If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What is a material with a freezing point above 0 degrees Celsius?) What is a material with a freezingpoint above 0 degrees Celsius? What's the melting point of steel? That depends on the alloy of steel you are talking about. The term alloy is almost always used incorrectly these days, especially amongst bicyclists. They use the term to mean aluminum. What the term alloy really means is a mixture of metals, any kind of metals. Almost all metal used today is a mixture and therefore an alloy. Most steel has other metals added to tune its properties, like strength,

172

Multiple output timing and trigger generator  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

System dynamics model of construction output in Kenya.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates fluctuations of construction output, and growth of the output in Kenya. Fluctuation and growth of construction activity are matters of concern in… (more)

Mbiti, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Add to Cart, Image, Click on Title to view details, Member (Student) Price, Non- member Price. Available at wiley.com, Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion ...

175

THE DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ALUMINUM  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion of lithium in aluminum was measured at various temperatures with diffusion couples of aluminum-LiAl. The activation energy, E, is 33.3 kcal/mol, and the diffusion factor, Do, is 4.5 cm{sup2}/sec. (auth)

Costas, L. P.

1963-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

176

Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA)

2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

177

SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

Storchhelm, S.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Light Metals 2007 Volume 2: Aluminum Reduction TABLE OF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

451-456] Mark Cooksey and William Yang. Further Results on the Application of Aluminum-Copper Bimetal Sheets in Aluminum Reduction Cells [pp. 457-460

179

Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues on Aluminum Sheet and Foil by Using Elemental Analysis and Fourier  ...

180

Energy Policy Position of the Aluminum Association - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy represents about one third of the total production cost of primary aluminum. Electricity is an essential ingredient in primary aluminum production.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Nano Assisted Low Temperature Diffusion Brazing of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys are ideal for many heat exchanger applications. However, joining of aluminum alloys is challenging due to tenacious native oxides on the base ...

182

High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat ... for the Phase Formation in a Wide Range of Commercial Aluminum Alloys.

183

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ALUMINUM BATTERY - Energy Innovation Portal  

Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery ...

184

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements Aluminum Association Logo The Aluminum Association and its members participating in the Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership (VAIP), representing 98% of primary aluminum production in the United States, have committed under the Climate VISION program to a direct carbon intensity reduction of emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and of emissions of CO2 from the consumption of the carbon anode from the primary aluminum reduction process. The Climate VISION target is a 53% total carbon equivalent reduction from these sources by 2010 from 1990 levels. The industry has been working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for over a decade and this new commitment equates to an additional direct carbon-intensity reduction of 65% since 2000. As a

185

Disposal criticality analysis for aluminum-based DOE fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the disposal criticality analysis for canisters containing aluminum-based Department of Energy fuels from research reactors. Different canisters were designed for disposal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel. In addition to the standard criticality concerns in storage and transportation, such as flooding, the disposal criticality analysis must consider the degradation of the fuel and components within the waste package. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) U-Al fuel with 93.5% enriched uranium and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) U-Si-Al fuel with 21% enriched uranium are representative of the HEU and MEU fuel inventories, respectively. Conceptual canister designs with 64 MIT assemblies (16/layer, 4 layers) or 40 ORR assemblies (10/layer, 4 layers) were developed for these fuel types. Borated stainless steel plates were incorporated into a stainless steel internal basket structure within a 439 mm OD, 15 mm thick XM-19 canister shell. The Codisposal waste package contains 5 HLW canisters (represented by 5 Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters from the Savannah River Site) with the fuel canister placed in the center. It is concluded that without the presence of a fairly insoluble neutron absorber, the long-term action of infiltrating water can lead to a small, but significant, probability of criticality for both the HEU and MEU fuels. The use of 1.5kg of Gd distributed throughout the MIT fuel and the use of carbon steels for the structural basket or 1.1 kg of Gd distributed in the ORR fuel will reduce the probability of criticality to virtually zero for both fuels.

Davis, J.W. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gottlieb, P. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan This work plan proposes to build a systematic knowledge base for the thermal aging behavior of cast stainless steels (CASSs) within a limited time of five years. The final output of execution of the plan is expected to provide conclusive predictions for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the extended service life up to and beyond 60 years. Mechanical and microstructural data obtained through accelerated aging experiment and computational simulation will be the key input for the prediction of CASS behaviors and for the integrity analyses for various CASS components. While the accelerated aging experiment and computational simulation results will comprise the main components of the knowledge base

187

Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below the peak. This paper characterizes the data absorption behavior of a center-wide shared Lustre parallel file system on the Jaguar supercomputer. We use a statistical methodology to address the challenges of accurately measuring a shared machine under production load and to obtain the distribution of bandwidth across samples of compute nodes, storage targets, and time intervals. We observe and quantify limitations from competing traffic, contention on storage servers and I/O routers, concurrency limitations in the client compute node operating systems, and the impact of variance (stragglers) on coupled output such as striping. We then examine the implications of our results for application performance and the design of I/O middleware systems on shared supercomputers.

Xie, Bing [Duke University; Chase, Jeffrey [Duke University; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [Intel Corporation; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Céline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Monitoring of Photovoltaic Plant Output and Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems, including variability characteristics, is of increasing interest to utilities as they integrate more solar energy onto the electric grid. This study is part of a multi-year research series to investigate influencing factors that affect PV plant output, variability, and approaches to system management. It explores PV variability both from a grid perspective and through examination of project design aspects that can affect annual power production. ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Single Inductor Dual Output Buck Converter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The portable electronics market is rapidly migrating towards more compact devices with multiple functionalities. Form factor, performance, cost and efficiency of these devices constitute the factors of merit of devices like cell phones, MP3 players and PDA's. With advancement in technology and more intelligent processors being used, there is a need for multiple high integrity voltage supplies for empowering the systems in portable electronic devices. Switched mode power supplies (SMPS's) are used to regulate the battery voltage. In an SMPS, maximum area is taken by the passive components such as the inductor and the capacitor. This work demonstrates a single inductor used in a buck converter with two output voltages from an input battery with voltage of value 3V. The main focus areas are low cross regulation between the outputs and supply of completely independent load current levels while maintaining desired values (1.2V,1.5V) within well controlled ripple levels. Dynamic hysteresis control is used for the single inductor dual output buck converter in this work. Results of schematic and post layout simulations performed in CADENCE prove the merits of this control method, such as nil cross regulation and excellent transient response.

Eachempatti, Haritha

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates  

SciTech Connect

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output  

SciTech Connect

In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Transformation Hardening of Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...relations for induction hardening and tempering Electrical and magnetic properties of steels Selection of induction frequency and power The effect of prior microstructure...

195

Specifications for Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 28   ASTM specifications that incorporate AISI-SAE designations...A 29 Carbon and alloy steel bars, hot rolled and cold

196

Sheet Steels II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... The Effect of Carbon Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Fe-22Mn TWIP Steel: Eileen Yang1; Hatem Zurob1; Joseph ...

197

Types of Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 10   ASTM specifications for structural quality steel plate...bolted, or welded construction of bridges, buildings,

198

Ferrous Alloys: Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Microstructure and Properties of Low Manganese API X70 Pipeline Steel ... the mean residual relative length change (MRRLC) is 0.13×10-5.

199

Laser Welding of Steel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

welding is particularly suited to the high-production rate requirements in the automobile industry. Some automotive exhaust components use 409 stainless steel and are currently arc...

200

Nonoriented Silicon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2 Silicon contents, mass densities, and applications of electrical steel sheet and strip...generally used in distribution transformers. Energy savings improve with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Steel Process Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2009 ... As the axel loads have been continuously increasing with time, so has the desire for premium rail steels with better wear, rolling contact fatigue ...

202

Quick Plastic Forming of Aluminum Sheet Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Motors' President North America, Gary Cowger, General Motors' President North America, Gary Cowger, reviews the 2004 Chevy Malibu Maxx after introducing it to the media at the New York Auto Show. (photo courtesy of General Motors) Quick Plastic Forming of Aluminum Sheet Metal Background Aluminum automotive components made using a hot blow forming process are reducing vehicle weight and increasing the fuel efficiency of today's cars. However, before General Motors (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research in this technol- ogy, blow forming of aluminum was not a viable process for automakers. The prior blow forming process,

203

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications  

SciTech Connect

Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Aluminum - Fly Ash Metal Matrix Composites as Advanced Automobile Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal matrix composites such as silicon carbide-aluminum, alumina-aluminum, and graphite-aluminum represent a class of emerging materials with significant potential for commercial use in the auto and aerospace industries. In industrial foundry trials, a joint industry and Department of Energy project demonstrated a promising new process for producing a low cost aluminum metal matrix composite containing fly ash particles.

2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

205

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Aluminum Alloys: Development, Characterization and Applications.

206

Pack Cementation Aluminizing of Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Partial list of commercial applications of pack cementation aluminizing...Carbon and stainless steels Steam power and cogeneration Waterwall tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Fluidized bed combustor tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Waste heat boiler tubes Carbon steel Economizer and air preheater tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Superheater tubes 2 % Cr-1% Mo steel Aerospace (a) Turbine blades...

207

Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.

Willit, J. L.

1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

208

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Energy conserving automatic light output system  

SciTech Connect

An energy conserving lighting system is provided wherein a plurality of fluorescent lamps are powered by a poorly regulated voltage source power supply which provides a decreasing supply voltage with increasing arc current so as to generally match the volt-ampere characteristics of the lamps. A transistor ballast and control circuit connected in the arc current path controls the arc current, and hence the light output, in accordance with the total ambient light, i.e., the light produced by the lamps together with whatever further light is produced by other sources such as daylight. In another embodiment, a transistor ballast is utilized in combination with an inductive ballast. The transistor ballast provides current control over a wide dynamic range up to a design current maximum at which maximum the transistor is saturated and the inductive ballast takes over the current limiting function. An operational amplifier is preferably connected in the base biassing circuit of the control transistor of the transistor ballast. In an embodiment wherein two sets of lamps with separate inductive ballasts are provided, the arc currents for the two ballasts are scaled or matched to provide the desired light output.

Widmayer, D.F.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ultra-High Strength Aluminum Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will present an overview of these research activities. ... Anisotropy of the Fracture Behaviour of Severly Deformed Iron and a Pearlitic Rail Steel.

212

LBA-ECO DECAF Model Output Data Set Published  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DECAF Model Output Data Set Published The ORNL DAAC announces the publication of the model output data product, Deforestation Carbon Flux (DECAF), from the LBA Land Use-Land Cover...

213

Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waveguide power divider comprises an input waveguide of rectangular cross-section coupled to multiple reduced height output waveguides of rectangular cross-section. The input is coupled to the output waveguides by axial slots. The length of the slots is selected such that the wave direction of the input waveguide is preserved in the output waveguides. The width of the output guide is equal to the width of the input waveguide so that the input and output guides have the same cutoff wavelength. Waves will then travel with the same phase velocity in the input and output guides. The unused ends of the input and output guides are terminated in matched loads. The load at the end of the input guide absorbs power that is not coupled to the output guides.

Moeller, C.P.

1986-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

214

Robust MPC with output feedback of integrating systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, it is presented a new contribution to the design of a robust MPC with output feedback, input constraints, and uncertain model. Multivariable predictive controllers have been used in industry to reduce the variability of the process output ...

J. M. Perez; D. Odloak; E. L. Lima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

Leigh, Richard W. (New York, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

C:\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Aluminum\November 2003\Eco-SSL for Aluminum .wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aluminum Aluminum Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-60 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 November 2003 This page intentionally left blank TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY ECO-SSLs FOR ALUMINUM 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2.0 ALUMINUM CHEMISTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 3.0 EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1 General Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 Essentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Effect on Phosphorus and Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.4 Differential Tolerance of Plants to Aluminum Toxicity

217

Dissolving uranium oxide--aluminum fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium oxide-aluminum fuel was studied to provide basic data for dissolving this type of enriched uranium fuel at the Savannah River Plant. The studies also included the dissolution of a similar material prepared from scrap uranium oxides that were to be recycled through the solvent extraction process. The dissolving behavior of uranium oxide-aluminum core material is similar to that of U-Al alloy. Dissolving rates are rapid in HNO/sub 3/-Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions. Irradiation reduce s the dissolving rate and increases mechanical strength. A dissolution model for use in nuclear safety analyses is developed, . based on the observed dissolving characteristics. (auth)

Perkins, W.C.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

Kaun, Thomas D. (Mokena, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Input--output capital coefficients for energy technologies. [Input-output model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Input-output capital coefficients are presented for five electric and seven non-electric energy technologies. They describe the durable goods and structures purchases (at a 110 sector level of detail) that are necessary to expand productive capacity in each of twelve energy source sectors. Coefficients are defined in terms of 1967 dollar purchases per 10/sup 6/ Btu of output from new capacity, and original data sources include Battelle Memorial Institute, the Harvard Economic Research Project, The Mitre Corp., and Bechtel Corp. The twelve energy sectors are coal, crude oil and gas, shale oil, methane from coal, solvent refined coal, refined oil products, pipeline gas, coal combined-cycle electric, fossil electric, LWR electric, HTGR electric, and hydroelectric.

Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Surface alloying of silicon into aluminum substrate.  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys that are easily castable tend to have lower silicon content and hence lower wear resistance. The use of laser surface alloying to improve the surface wear resistance of 319 and 320 aluminum alloys was examined. A silicon layer was painted onto the surface to be treated. A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiberoptic beam delivery was used to carry out the laser surface treatment to enhance the silicon content. Process parameters were varied to minimize the surface roughness from overlap of the laser beam treatment. The surface-alloyed layer was characterized and the silicon content was determined.

Xu, Z.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Strategies for aluminum recycling : insights from material system optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dramatic increase in aluminum consumption over the past decades necessitates a societal effort to recycle and reuse these materials to promote true sustainability and energy savings in aluminum production. However, the ...

Li, Preston Pui-Chuen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Version 2 -...

223

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

224

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 3003 Aluminum Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... reason of property improvement, especially high temperature performance. ... High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive ... predictions for the phase formation in a wide range of commercial aluminum alloys.

225

Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

Loutfy, Raouf O. (Naperville, IL); Keller, Rudolf (Naperville, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Safe and Efficient Traffic Flow for Aluminum Smelters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aluminum smelter design, construction and operation requires: ... and traffic scheduling for vehicles and pedestrians throughout the Smelter.

227

Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

13th International Conference on Aluminum Alloys (ICAA13)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 29, 2011... electrical power transmission, packaging, building and construction, .... Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate ...

229

Distribution of Calcium and Aluminum between Molten Silicon and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Distribution of Calcium and Aluminum between Molten ... Electrochemical deposition of high purity silicon from molten fluoride electrolytes.

230

Treatment and Minimization of Aluminum and Light Metals Industry ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... reverberatory and rotary aluminum furnaces, reverberatory and rotary lead furnaces, as well as rotary brass furnaces. Representative examples are presented ...

231

Aluminum Tailor-welded Blanks for High Volume Automotive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat Exchangers · High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast ...

232

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted ...  

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted Cathode Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Contact LBL About This Technology

233

Cold Water Model Simulation of Aluminum Liquid Fluctuations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production ... Cold Water Model Simulation of Aluminum Liquid Fluctuations Induced by Anodic Gas in New ...

234

Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Frontiers in Solidification Science. Presentation Title, Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites .

235

Prediction of Bake Hardenability of Aluminum Alloys Al6110 and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welding of Aluminum Wires for Cables Harnesses in the Automotive Industry ... Transmission Electron Microscopic Investigation of Sensitized Al-5083.

236

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Assessment of Crystallographic Deformation Behaviors in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

N11: Microbilogically Influenced Corrosion of Pipeline Steels used in Oil & Gas Industry ... N2: Fabrication of Uranium Dispersion Targets for Mo-99 Production ... Numerical Modelling for Characterising the Flammability of Natural Fibre ...

238

Qualification of aluminum for OTEC heat exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basis for qualification of aluminum as a material for use as tubing in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion heat exchangers is reviewed. Reference is made to compendia of data from tests of aluminum alloys in natural sea water and to applicable service records. Data from these sources were found to be inadequate to either qualify or disqualify aluminum. They serve only to identify the 5052 alloy and Alclad 3003 or 3004 as being worthy of additional testing under conditions more directly related to what will be encountered in OTEC heat exchangers. The principal deficiency of data from long-time tests in natural sea water is that in almost all of these tests the specimens were exposed under static conditions that caused the surfaces to be covered by marine fouling organisms that would not be present in heat exchanger tubes. The tests did not take into account possible effects of periodic mechanical or chemical treatments to remove fouling or chemical treatments (chlorination) to prevent fouling. A current testing program sponsored by the Department of Energy through Argonne National Laboratory is designed to provide the needed data. Limited tests in high velocity sea water have indicated that aluminum tubes would tolerate the velocities under 10 ft (3 m) per second likely to be used in OTEC heat exchangers.

LaQue, F.L.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

240

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Using the output file from a Gaussian frequency calculation to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... extract the essential data from a Gaussian output file and compute thermodynamic functions at several temperatures. The basic data are also ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

242

Today in Energy - Seasonal hydroelectric output drives down ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Increased hydroelectric output in the Pacific Northwest drove daily, on-peak prices of electricity below $10 per megawatthour in late April (see chart above) at the ...

243

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

244

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols GHG Inventory Protocols EPA/IAI PFC Measurement Protocol (PDF 243 KB) Download Acrobat Reader EPA and the International Aluminium Institute have collaborated with the global primary aluminium industry to develop a standard facility-specific PFC emissions measurement protocol. Use of the protocol will help ensure the consistency and accuracy of measurements. International Aluminum Institute's Aluminum Sector Greenhouse Gas Protocol (PDF 161 KB) Download Acrobat Reader The International Aluminum Institute (IAI) Aluminum Sector Addendum to the WBCSD/WRI Greenhouse Gas Protocol enhances and expands for the aluminum sector the World Business Council for Sustainable Development/World Resources Institute greenhouse gas corporate accounting and reporting protocol.

245

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

246

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Federal/State Programs Federal/State Programs DOE Aluminum Industry of the Future Collaborative R&D partnerships between DOE Industrial Technologies Program and industry to maximize technology investments. EPA Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership The Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an innovative pollution prevention program developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the primary aluminum industry. Participating companies (Partners) work with EPA to improve aluminum production efficiency while reducing perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions, potent greenhouse gases that may remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. See all Federal/State Programs DOE State Activities For information on activities, financial assistance, and solicitations

247

Mapping of Indian computer science research output, 1999---2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research output of India in computer science during 1999---2008 is analyzed in this paper on several parameters including total research output, its growth, rank and global publication share, citation impact, share of international collaborative ... Keywords: Computer science, Information technology, Mapping, Research priorities in computer

B. M. Gupta; Avinash Kshitij; Charu Verma

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

SLAC 16-channel differential TTL output module (Engineering Materials)  

SciTech Connect

The drawings listed on the Drawing List provide the data and specifications for constructing a SLAC 16-channel differential TTL output module as used in the SLAC PEP storage ring instrumentation and control system. It is a CAMAC module used as an output interface module from CAMAC signals.

Not Available

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

249

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Detector housing for the CCD camera lens, mirror, and scintillator. For more information, contact Instrument Scientist: Hassina Bilheux, bilheuxhn@ornl.gov, 865.384.9630 neutrons.ornl.gov/instruments/HFIR/factsheets/Instrument-cg1d.pdf The CG-1D beam is used for neutron imaging measurements using a white beam. Apertures (with different diameters D (pinhole geometry) are used at the entrance of the helium-filled flight path to allow L/D variation from 400 to 800. L is the distance between the aperture and the detector (where the image is produced). Samples sit on a translation/ rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for CG-1D include

250

Shock response of 5083-0 aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum alloy (5083-0) is used as lightweight armor in armored vehicles. Data on the shock response of this material is useful to simulate ballistic penetration of different nose-shaped penetrators. In this paper we present the dynamic response of 5083-0 aluminum to shock wave loading to 22 GPa. Manganin stress gauges were used to measure the stress wave profiles. Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and spall strength were 0.28 GPa and 1.6 GPa, respectively. Shock Hugoniot to stress levels of 10 GPa was determined by embedded in-material gauges and above 10 GPa by measuring shock velocities by embedding manganin gauges at the back surface of stepped targets.

Laber, M. W.; Brar, N. S.; Rosenberg, Z. [Impact Physics Laboratory, University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0182 (United States); RAFAEL, P.O. Box 2250 (24), Haifa (Israel)

1998-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

251

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Results  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Results Results The Aluminum Association and the federal government have document progress in the Climate Vision program. The results are measured by metrics developed by the industry, in partnership with the government, and reported. Progress will also be tracked under the umbrella of the Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership website. Please check back on this website and the Energy Information Agency website for updates. In 2005, the industry achieved the goal set for 2010. A 56 percent reduction in direct process emissions per ton of production, including combined reductions in PFC's and CO2, exceeds the 53 percent commitment for 2010. Further progress is expected in the industry, however complications from high power costs and potential curtailments make predictions for further reductions

253

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

254

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

255

Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

257

Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

Beene, James R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bemis, Jr., Curtis E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science September 7, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then covered in foil again. Heat tape is used to heat the metal chamber just enough to loosen any residues that could cause trouble. The aluminum foil helps spread the heat evenly. | Photo of SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then

259

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science September 7, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then covered in foil again. Heat tape is used to heat the metal chamber just enough to loosen any residues that could cause trouble. The aluminum foil helps spread the heat evenly. | Photo of SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then

260

Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

1975-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50-47676 March 2010 Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets Final Subcontract Report 15 October 2007 - 15 March 2009 3TIER Seattle, Washington National...

262

Generalized Exponential Markov and Model Output Statistics: A Comparative Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed a comparative verification of Model Output Statistics (MOS) against Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM), a single station forecasting technique which uses only the surface observation and climatology as input. The verification was ...

Thomas J. Perrone; Robert G. Miller

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Model-Inspired Predictors for Model Output Statistics (MOS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses the problem of the choice of the predictors for the multiple linear regression in model output statistics. Rather than devising a selection procedure directly aimed at the minimization of the final scores, it is examined ...

Piet Termonia; Alex Deckmyn

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

265

Cold Spray Processing of Bulk Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research demonstrates the ability to fabricate billet size samples of a nanocrystalline aluminum alloy (AA5083) via CSP in a relatively quick, low cost, and ...

266

Towards Industrial Aluminum Spent Pot Lining Treatment with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a conversion process for the fluorinated end-product would allow its reuse as a substitute to fluorspar mineral for aluminum fluoride ...

267

Simulation of Aluminum Shape Casting Processing: From Alloy - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 24, 2007 ... "The objective of the TMS Symposium on the "Simulation of Aluminum Shape Casting Processing" From Alloy Design to Mechanical Properties" ...

268

Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity by Yong Wang, Guang- chun Yao, and Bing Li. Publisher: TMS. Product Format: PDF.

269

Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Electricity Transmission Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Aluminum ...

270

Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon Constrained World: Observations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 15, 2010 ... per kg of primary aluminum production ( 35 million tonnes ) ... Excessive Product Differentiation Leads to Waste /Cost /Higher. Carbon ...

271

Carbon Fiber with Ni-Coated Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Matrix ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Carbon Fiber with Ni-Coated Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites by Bianhua Han, Tianjiao Luo, Chunlin Liang,Guangchun Yao, ...

272

SPG-19: Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoporous Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1 wt% aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO3) was used to selectively remove zinc ... Characterization of Nanoporous Aluminum via Selective Dissolution of Al-Zn ...

273

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

274

Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic ...

275

TMS2013 Keynote Session Looks at Impurities in the Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Impacts of Impurities Introduced into the Aluminum Reduction Cell"; "Changes in Global Oil Refining and Its Impact on Anode Quality Petroleum Coke"

276

Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces by P.E. King, J.J. Hatem, and B.M. Golchert ...

277

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Pollard, Richard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Localized corrosion of aluminum alloys for OTEC heat exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature on the rate of initiation and growth of pitting and crevice corrosion of aluminum alloy 5052 and pure aluminum have been determined. Variations in pH and temperature rather than dissolved oxygen are shown to account for increased corrosion rates of 5000 series aluminum alloys that have been reported for deep ocean exposures. The impact of these results on the use of aluminum for OTEC heat exchanger tubing and on possible approaches to corrosion control are discussed.

Dexter, S C

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Heat Recovery from the Exhaust Gas of Aluminum Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger · Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction ...

280

The ALCAN Compact Degasser: A through-Based Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 1, 1996 ... The ALCAN Compact Degasser: A through-Based Aluminum Treatment Process. Part I: Metallurgical Principles and Performance by P. Waite ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

TMS to Install Hydro Aluminum's Wolfgang Schneider as 2012 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Schneider is the head of the research and development center of Hydro Aluminum Rolled Products Business in Bonn, Germany and is also a professor of  ...

282

Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zinc, bauxite, and the hydroelectric power needed to smeltto stop the building of a hydroelectric project by the majorbuild the Afobaka hydroelectric dam to power an aluminum

Sheller, Mimi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fracture of welded aluminum thin-walled structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive methodology was developed in the thesis for damage prediction of welded aluminum thin-walled structures, which includes material modeling, calibration, numerical simulation and experimental verification. ...

Zheng, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Cell Voltage Noise Reduction Based on Wavelet in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cell Voltage Noise Reduction Based on Wavelet in Aluminum ... cell voltage signals collected in aluminium electrolysis process are with high ...

285

Dynamic Simulation of Cell Voltage Resonance Effect in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dubal Cell Voltage Drop Initiatives towards Low Energy High Amperage Cells · Dynamic Simulation of Cell Voltage Resonance Effect in Aluminum Electrolysis ...

286

Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates  

SciTech Connect

The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fabrication of Carbon Nano-Fiber / Aluminum Composites by Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the fabrication of carbon containing aluminum composites was attempted by using low-pressure infiltration method. At first, porous perform ...

288

Low Cost Video Emissions Monitoring Technique for Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aluminum smelting plants emit gaseous and particulate fluoride, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxides (CO and CO2), perfluorocarbons CF4 and ...

289

Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

Scanlan, R.M.

1984-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell ... Migration of Nanotechnology from Laboratory to Market Place: Arci Experience.

291

The GHG Emissions List Analysis of Aluminum Industry in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The GHG Emissions List Analysis of Aluminum Industry in China. Author(s), Yuanyuan Wang, Hao Bai, Guangwei Du, Yuhao Ding, Kang ...

292

Fabrication of Nanostructural Aluminum Alloy Powder with Ball ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to fabricate aluminum alloy powder with nanostructure using ball milling method. The commercial Al-Mg-Cu alloy powder was milled ...

293

Treatment and Minimization of Aluminum and Light Metals Industry ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3:15 pm. PRODUCTION OF VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS THROUGH PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF ALUMINUM INDUSTRY WASTE: Arun S. Wagh, Energy ...

294

Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications by Kevin R. Bray, Richard L.C. Wu, Sandra Fries-Carr, and ...

295

Hybrid Aluminum-Lithium Ion Battery having Enhanced Power Density  

Hybrid Aluminum-Lithium Ion Battery having Enhanced Power Density Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

296

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

297

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Advanced Compact Filter: ( ACF) An Efficient and Flexible Filtration Process · AlTi5B1 Grain Refiners on the Casting of DIN 226 Aluminum ...

298

Study on Compressive Properties of Aluminum Foams Reinforced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

299

Fabrication of Carbon Nano-Fiber (CNF) Reinforced Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

300

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Compressive Property of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

Scanlan, R.M.

1988-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

Processing of Aluminum Wires and Its Effect on Their Electrical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The treated specimens were mechanically tested and their electrical resistivity was measured and compared with pure aluminum wires. The highest electrical ...

303

Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal Reduction of Their Oxides with Concentrated Solar Energy. Author(s), Peter G.

304

A New Vacuum Degassing Process for Molten Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to maintain a low hydrogen content in molten aluminum, A porous refractory ... Metallurgical Performance of Salt and Chlorine Fluxing Technologies in ...

305

Recent Developments in Steel Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A New Technology of Shot Blasting and Pickling in S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel Plate and GR2 Titanium Plate · Analysis of Scale Deformation and Fracture in ...

306

Steel Processing and Production I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 8, 2013 ... A Study on the Reheat Crack Mechanism of High Strength Hydroelectricity Steel: Xi Zhang1; 1Shougang Research Institute of Technology

307

Physical Metallurgy of Linepipe Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... 8:00 AM Introductory Comments Shale resources have been described as a game ... Production of API HIC Steels for Sour Service Oil and Gas ...

308

Steel Product Metallurgy and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic Scale Investigation on Precipitates in High Carbon Bearing Steel 100Cr6 ... The Effects of Nb and V Microalloying on Hardenability and Age Hardening in ...

309

D. Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructures and Textures Comparison of Conventional and High Niobium API 5L X80 Line Pipe Steel Using EBSD · Molten Mold Flux Technology for ...

310

Process for dezincing galvanized steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

Morgan, William A. (Hamilton, CA); Dudek, Frederick J. (Arlington Heights, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Process for dezincing galvanized steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Magnetic Detection of Microstructure Change in Power Plant Steels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP IP/LP Figure 2.1: Schematic of a power plant steam cycle. After Cole, 2000. towards further increases (Masuyama, 2001). Steam turbines may be expected... . – 2 – Chapter 2 Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels 2.1 Power plant operation In power plant, heat energy from fuel combustion or nuclear fission is used to produce jets of steam. The kinetic energy of the steam is converted to electrical...

Yardley, Victoria Anne

2003-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

313

Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

Gilbert, Marian (Flossmoor, IL); Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dr. M. Raghavan of the Exxon Research Laboratories performedCourtesy, Dr. M. Raghavan, Exxon, N. J. appearance of new

Neill, Thomas John O'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

McHugh, K.M.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Gelcasting of aluminum titanate. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability of the gelcasting process for forming automotive exhaust port liner green bodies using Golden Technologies` proprietary aluminum titanate powder composition. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Golden Technologies` powder, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. Using appropriate milling and firing conditions, it was found that the gelcast material had properties which compared favorably with Golden Technologies` baseline material. Tubular gelcast samples simulating exhaust port liners were prepared and shipped to Golden Technologies for final process evaluation.

Nunn, S.D.; Stephan, J.E.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

NEW ALUMINUM OXIDE HUMIDITY ELEMENT. Second Report  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum oxide humidity sensing element is discussed. These elements, which were developed primarily for use in radiosonde weather measuring equipmeni, have a fast response over the entire humidity range and through a broad temperature range of -80 deg F to +l35 deg F. The elements are a marked improvement over previous humidity sensing devices, and their use in specially designed testers allows measurements to be made which were previously unobtainable. Among their other desirable features, these elements are small and lightweight, can be made inexpensively of readily available materials, and can be mass produced. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Corrosion Testing of Stainless Steel Fuel Cell Hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hardware is gaining increasing interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) development as a possible alternative to machined graphite hardware because of its potential for low-cost manufacturing combined with its intrinsic high conductivity, minimal permeability and advantageous mechanical properties. A major barrier to more widespread use of metal hardware has been the susceptibility of various metals to corrosion. Few pure metals can withstand the relatively aggressive environment of a fuel cell and thus the choices for hardware are quite limited. Precious metals such as platinum or gold are prohibitively expensive and so tend to be utilized as coatings on inexpensive substrates such as aluminum or stainless steel. The main challenge with coatings has been to achieve pin-hole free surfaces that will remain so after years of use. Titanium has been used to some extent and though it is very corrosion-resistant, it is also relatively expensive and often still requires some manner of surface coating to prevent the formation of a poorly conducting oxide layer. In contrast, metal alloys may hold promise as potentially low-cost, corrosion-resistant materials for bipolar plates. The dozens of commercially available stainless steel and nickel based alloys have been specifically formulated to offer a particular advantage depending upon their application. In the case of austenitic stainless steels, for example, 316 SS contains molybdenum and a higher chromium content than its more common counterpart, 304 SS, that makes it more noble and increases its corrosion resistance. Likewise, 316L SS contains less carbon than 316 SS to make it easier to weld. A number of promising corrosion-resistant, highly noble alloys such as Hastelloy{trademark} or Duplex{trademark} (a stainless steel developed for seawater service) are available commercially, but are expensive and difficult to obtain in various forms (i.e. wire screen, foil, etc.) or in small amounts for R and D purposes.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Economic and environmental evaluation of end-of-life aerospace aluminum options using optimization methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The benefits of recycling have long been understood and the conspicuous energy savings of secondary aluminum production have caused aluminum recycling to increase. Obsolete aircraft are a valuable source of aluminum scrap ...

Chen, Emily, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fabrication and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate film on aluminum substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC) films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum ...

Jin Liang, Yunchu Hu, Yiqiang Wu, Hong Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Industry Analysis Briefs The Energy Information Agency (EIA) is currently updating industry analysis briefs for the most energy-intensive industries in the United States, including aluminum, chemicals, forest products (such as paper and wood products), glass, metal casting, petroleum and coal products, and steel. As soon as the current briefs are available, we will provide the link. Industry Analysis Briefs will have the following content: Economic Profile and Trends Value of Shipments Annual Production Labor Productivity Energy Use Energy Use by Fuel Fuel Consumption by End Use Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Expenditures Onsite Generation (if applicable) Energy Intensity State-Level Information Technologies and Equipment Cogeneration Technologies (if applicable)

322

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Steel Recycling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... The Steel Recycling Institute is an industry association that promotes the recycling of steel products. The association website includes pages on ...

323

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Steel Recycling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... This video was created by the Steel Manufacturers Association to educate the public on the importance of recycling steel. Shredded cars ...

324

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Structural Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... This report is a series fo reprints covering steel's sustainability and how structural steel contributes towards obtaining a LEED rating.

325

Stainless and High Alloy Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cr ferritic-martensitic steels in steam power and chemical plants to ... steels have shown promise for a number of applications in power generation plants.

326

About The Iron and Steel Society  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IRON & STEEL SOCIETY (ISS) is a professional and technical society that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals ...

327

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Selected Iron and Steel Industries, 1994. Besides steel mills and blast furnaces, the primary metals industry also ...

328

Symposium A: Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 3, 2010 ... A37 Unconventional Method of Nitriding of 316l Austenitic Steel: ... low carbon bainitic steels (ULCB) which were developed for offshore oil ...

329

Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

D. D. Leon

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1 , S. T. Stewart2 , M. R. Furlanetto1, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138 Abstract. Post-shock temperature is an important experiments. Keywords: Pyrometry, infrared optics, post-shock temperatures, aluminum, equations of state PACS

Stewart, Sarah T.

331

Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass Hak Sung Lee1, * and Bohumil3A 2B2, Canada Abstract: Biomass of nonliving brown seaweed Sargassum fluitans pretreated.5. There are indications that the biomass hydroxyl groups were involved in sequestering the aluminum in the form

Volesky, Bohumil

332

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The world of quantum noise and the fundamental output process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A stationary theory of quantum stochastic processes of second order is outlined. It includes KMS processes in wide sense like the equilibrium finite temperature quantum noise given by the Planck's spectral formula. It is shown that for each stationary noise there exists a natural output process output process which is identical to the noise in the infinite temperature limit, and flipping with the noise if the time is reversed at finite temperature. A canonical Hilbert space representation of the quantum noise and the fundamental output process is established and a decomposition of their spectra is found. A brief explanation of quantum stochastic integration with respect to the input-output processes is given using only correlation functions. This provides a mathematical foundation for linear stationary filtering transformations of quantum stochastic processes. It is proved that the colored quantum stationary noise and its time-reversed version can be obtained in the second order theory by a linear nonadapted filtering of the standard vacuum noise uniquely defined by the canonical creation and annihilation operators on the spectrum of the input-output pair.

V. P. Belavkin; O. Hirota; R. Hudson

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled with dropping gas prices, has made gas turbines a popular choice of utilities to supply peaking as well as base load power in the form of combined cycle power plants. Today, because of the gas turbine's compactness, low maintenance, and high levels of availability, it is the major option for future power generation. One inherent disadvantage of gas turbines is the degradation of output as the ambient air temperature increases. This reduction in output during times of peak load create a reliability concern as more gas turbines are added to the electric system. A 10% reduction in gas turbine output, when it comprises only 10% of the electric system, does not cause reliability concerns. A 10% reduction in gas turbine output, when it comprises 50% of the electric system, could create reliability and operational problems. This paper explores the potential for maintaining constant, reliable outputs from gas turbines by cooling ambient air temperatures before the air is used in the compressor section of the gas turbine.

Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

337

TransForum v3n1 - Aluminum-Intensive Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARGONNE PREDICTS BENEFITS OF ALUMINUM-INTENSIVE VEHICLES Aluminum Car Frame At the Paris Exposition of 1855, as part of the rich and varied displays of France's evolving...

338

Wear debris characterization of Al-Si alloys sliding against steel under dry wear conditions  

SciTech Connect

The present work has characterized the debris generated during the dry sliding wear of Al-Si alloys sliding against M2 steel and has shown the formation of an intermetallic iron-aluminum compound in the wear debris of the Al-Si alloy using XRD analyses. It has also been shown that iron and/or more silicon dissolved into the {alpha}-Al as the lattice parameter of the {alpha}-Al decreased as the sliding load was increased. It is therefore suggested that the surface layer from which the debris was generated contained the intermetallic compound. The formation of the intermetallics has also been confirmed in the sliding wear of the high purity aluminum in an inert atmosphere.

Tandon, K.N.; Li, X.Y. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

339

REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Caiti Steele  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Caiti Steele #12;REMOTE SENSING ACTIVITIES Remote sensing of biomass al., 2010) Remote sensing for mapping Ecological States: Spatially-Explicit Representation of State and Steele, in preparation) #12;REMOTE SENSING OF BIOMASS Can reflectance indices derived from Landsat

340

Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

OECD Input-Output Tables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OECD Input-Output Tables OECD Input-Output Tables Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Input-Output Tables Agency/Company /Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.oecd.org/document/3/0,3343,en_2649_34445_38071427_1_1_1_1,00.html Country: Sweden, Finland, Japan, South Korea, Argentina, Australia, China, Israel, United Kingdom, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Chile, India, Canada, New Zealand, United States, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Austria, Italy, Netherlands, Ireland, France, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Mexico, Slovenia, South Africa, Turkey, Indonesia, Switzerland, Taiwan, Russia

342

Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Report Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website: cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/7326/carbo Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carbon-capture-transport-and-storage- Policies: Regulations Regulations: Emissions Mitigation Scheme The Scottish Government published this report to identify regulatory gaps or overlaps in the nation's framework for regulating carbon capture and storage (CCS). The report aims to streamline and better manage CCS regulation. It focuses on evaluating the risks, barriers, information gaps,

343

Maximal output purity and capacity for asymmetric unital qudit channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider generalizations of depolarizing channels to maps in which the identity channel is replaced by a convex combinations of unitary conjugations. We show that one can construct unital channels of this type for which the input which achieves maximal output purity is unique. We give conditions under which multiplicativity of the maximal p-norm and additivity of the minimal output entropy. We also show that the Holevo capacity need not equal log d - the minimal entropy as one might expect for a convex combination of unitary conjugations. Conversely, we give examples for which this condition holds, but the channel has no evident covariance properties.

Nilanjana Datta; Mary Beth Ruskai

2005-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Evaluation of Oxidation and Hydrogen Permeation of Al Containing Duplex Stainless Steels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings are typically applied to these steel to retard hydrogen ingress. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate the potential for intentional alloying of commercial 300-series stainless steels to promote hydrogen permeation resistant oxide scales. Previous research on the Cr- and Fe-oxide scales inherent to 300-series stainless steels has proven to be inconsistent in effecting permeation resistance. The approach undertaken in this research was to add aluminum to the 300-series stainless steels in an attempt to promote a pure Al-oxide or and Al-rich oxide scale. Aloxide had been previously demonstrated to be an effective hydrogen permeation barrier. Results for 304L and 347H alloys doped with Al in concentration from 0.5-3.0 wt% with respect to oxidation kinetic studies, cyclic oxidation and characterization of the oxide scale chemistry are reported herein. Gaseous hydrogen permeation testing of the Al-doped alloys in both the unoxidized and oxidized (600 C, 30 mins) conditions are reported. A critical finding from this work is that at concentration as low as 0.5 wt% Al, the Al stabilizes the ferrite phase in these steels thus producing duplex austenitic-ferritic microstructures. As the Al-content increases the amount of measured ferrite increases thus resulting in hydrogen permeabilities more closely resembling ferritic steels.

Adams, Thad M.; Korinko, Paul; Duncan, Andrew

2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

345

Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

_ _ of Energy Washington, DC 20565 Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America 100 Technical Drive Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069-0001 Dear Mr. Jackson: At,the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and with the consent of your company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a radiological survey of the former ALCOA Research Labo,ratory at 600 Freeport Road in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Three copies of the radiological survey report are enclosed for your information and use. An additional radiological survey was also performed at the former ALCOA New Kensington Works at Pine and Ninth Streets in New Kensington. This property was formerly owned and operated by ALCOA and was utilized at one time for uranium processing activities by DOE's predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer

346

Mircoalloyed and Bar Forging Steel Symposium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosponsoring Societies: Advanced Steel Processing & Products Research Center, Forging Industry Educational and Research Foundation, Forging Industry

347

Identification of Wiener systems with binary-valued output observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is concerned with identification of Wiener systems whose outputs are measured by binary-valued sensors. The system consists of a linear FIR (finite impulse response) subsystem of known order, followed by a nonlinear function with a known parametrization ... Keywords: Binary-valued observations, Identification, Joint identifiability, Parameter estimation, Periodic inputs, Sensor thresholds, Wiener systems

Yanlong Zhao; Le Yi Wang; G. George Yin; Ji-Feng Zhang

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The continuity of the output entropy of positive maps  

SciTech Connect

Global and local continuity conditions for the output von Neumann entropy for positive maps between Banach spaces of trace-class operators in separable Hilbert spaces are obtained. Special attention is paid to completely positive maps: infinite dimensional quantum channels and operations. It is shown that as a result of some specific properties of the von Neumann entropy (as a function on the set of density operators) several results on the output entropy of positive maps can be obtained, which cannot be derived from the general properties of entropy type functions. In particular, it is proved that global continuity of the output entropy of a positive map follows from its finiteness. A characterization of positive linear maps preserving continuity of the entropy (in the following sense: continuity of the entropy on an arbitrary subset of input operators implies continuity of the output entropy on this subset) is obtained. A connection between the local continuity properties of two completely positive complementary maps is considered. Bibliography: 21 titles.

Shirokov, Maxim E [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Asymptotically efficient parameter estimation using quantized output observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies identification of systems in which only quantized output observations are available. An identification algorithm for system gains is introduced that employs empirical measures from multiple sensor thresholds and optimizes their convex ... Keywords: Cramér-Rao bound, Efficient estimator, Quantized observation, System identification

Le Yi Wang; G. George Yin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT Grantham Pang, Chi emitting diodes; tricolor display; audio communication. I. Introduction This paper relates to a tricolor broadcasting through the visible light rays transmitted by the display panel or assembly. Keywords: light

Pang, Grantham

351

Choose best option for enhancing combined-cycle output  

SciTech Connect

This article describes several methods available for boosting the output of gas-turbine-based combined-cycle plants during warm-weather operation. The technology comparisons help choose the option that is most appropriate. Amidst the many advantages of gas-turbine (GT) combined cycles (CC), one drawback is that their achievable output decreases significantly as ambient temperature increases. Reason: The lower density of warm air reduces mass flow through the GT. Unfortunately, hot weather typically corresponds to peak power loads in many areas. Thus, the need to meet peak-load and power-sales contract requirements causes many plant developers to compensate for ambient-temperature-related output loss. The three most common methods of increasing output include: (1) injecting water or steam into the GT, (2) precooling GT inlet air, and/or (3) supplementary firing of the heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). All of these options require significant capital outlays and affect other performance parameters. In addition, they may uniquely impact the operation and/or selection of other components, including boiler feedwater and condensate pumps, valves, steam turbine/generators, condensers, cooling towers, and emissions control systems. Although plant-specific issues will have a significant effect on selecting an option, comparing the performance of different systems based on a theoretical reference plant can be helpful. The comparisons here illustrate the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the major power augmentation technologies now in use.

Boswell, M.; Tawney, R.; Narula, R.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Improved Model Output Statistics Forecasts through Model Consensus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consensus forecasts are computed by averaging model output statistics (MOS) forecasts based on the limited-area fine-mesh (LFM) model and the nested grid model (NGM) for the three-year period 1990–92. The test consists of four weather elements (...

Robert L. Vislocky; J. Michael Fritsch

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (<100 microns) using a proprietary process. These composite powders of Al with nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

355

Neural network modeling of pulsed-laser weld pool shapes in aluminum alloy welds  

SciTech Connect

A model was developed to predict the weld pool shape in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welds of aluminum alloy 5754. The model utilized neural network analysis to relate the weld process conditions to four pool shape parameters: penetration, width, width at half-penetration, and cross-sectional area. The model development involved the identification of the input (process) variables, the desired output (shape) variables, and the optimal neural network architecture. The latter was influenced by the number of defined inputs and outputs as well as the amount of data that was available for training the network. After appropriate training, the best network was identified and was used to predict the weld shape. A routine to convert the shape parameters into predicted weld profiles was also developed. This routine was based on the actual experimental weld profiles and did not impose an artificial analytical function to describe the weld profile. The neural network model was tested on experimental welds. The model predictions were excellent. It was found that the predicted shapes were within the experimental variations that were found along the length of the welds (due to the pulsed nature of the weld power) and the reproducibility of welds made under nominally identical conditions.

Vitek, J.M.; Iskander, Y.S.; Oblow, E.M.; Babu, S.S.; David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fuerschbach, P.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smartt, H.B.; Pace, D.P. Tolle, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Pricing of Electricity to Aluminum Smelters in the Northwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal agency marketing electric power in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville sells power from federal hydroelectric projects and two nuclear projects to public and private utilities and directly to several major industrial firms, primarily aluminum companies operating aluminum smelters in the region. These direct service industries (DSIs) have a contractual right to purchase up to 3.500 average megawatts annually from Bonneville. Because the aluminum smelters in the Northwest are generally older and less efficient than plants in other parts of the world and because aluminum companies are facing lower electricity prices in other parts of the world, the Northwest plants have become "swing" plants. That is when the world price of aluminum is high, these plants will run at capacity but they are the first plants to shut down when the world price of aluminum is low. Because of these factors, DSIs have been purchasing only about 2.700 megawatts annually, and annual purchases have been as low as 1.670 megawatts. Sales to the DSIs represent about 45 percent of all industrial uses of electricity or about 18 percent of total electricity loads in the four-state region and about 23 percent of all Bonneville sales. The dramatic fluctuations in Bonnevilles revenue brought on by operating the aluminum plants in the region as swing plants have prompted Bonneville to search for innovative pricing schemes designed to maintain its revenue base. Bonneville's proposed strategy includes tying the price of electricity it sells to the aluminum smelters to the world price of aluminum. This paper will examine Bonneville's proposed pricing strategy; it will also examine other strategies to reduce uncertainty in the region's future electric load.

Foley, T. J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Strategies for OPEC`s pricing and output decisions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines OPEC pricing and output strategies, both to provide an understanding of OPECs unwise price doubling in 1979-80 and also to analyze what strategy might serve it best for the future. We focus on the unavoidable uncertainty regarding the underlying parameters that characterize the world oil market (price elasticities, income growth rates), and the sensitivity of discounted OPEC revenue to changes in these parameters, for various pricing strategies. In 1979-80, OPEC chose a high-price strategy, which could have yielded good results (like many other price-paths) if the market`s underlying parameters had been more favorable. But the price elasticities of demand and non-OPEC supply were much higher than anticipated, so that OPEC did very poorly-not only in absolute terms, but also relative to what it could have achieved if it had set its price more cautiously. We search for a robustly optimal strategy for OPEC in the future, which will serve it well relative to other strategies, regardless of the true parameter values underlying the market (within some plausible range). We conclude that OPEC`s interests will be served best by a policy of moderate output growth, at a rate no faster than that of world income growth. This will require that OPEC slow its rate of output growth since 1985, cutting it at least in half. Slowing its output growth will allow OPEC gradually to regain the market share lost after its disastrous 1979-80 price doubling, but without jeopardizing its revenue, as might a policy of more rapid increases in output. This will yield a consistently good result for OPEC, relative to alternative strategies, over a fairly wide range of demand and supply conditions. 53 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Gately, D. [New York Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Output-increasing, protective cover for a solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible cover (14) for a flexible solar cell (12) protects the cell from the ambient and increases the cell's efficiency. The cell(12)includes silicon spheres (16) held in a flexible aluminum sheet matrix (20,22). The cover (14) is a flexible, protective layer (60) of light-transparent material having a relatively flat upper, free surface (64) and an irregular opposed surface (66). The irregular surface (66) includes first portions (68) which conform to the polar regions (31R) of the spheres (16) and second convex (72) or concave (90) portions (72 or 90) which define spaces (78) in conjunction with the reflective surface (20T) of one aluminum sheet (20). Without the cover (14) light (50) falling on the surface (20T) between the spheres (16) is wasted, that is, it does not fall on a sphere (16). The surfaces of the second portions are non-parallel to the direction of the otherwise wasted light (50), which fact, together with a selected relationship between the refractive indices of the cover and the spaces, result in sufficient diffraction of the otherwise wasted light (50) so that about 25% of it is reflected from the surface (20T) onto a sphere (16).

Hammerbacher, Milfred D. (Dallas, TX)

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

2169 steel waveform experiments.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe-phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

2169 steel waveform experiments.  

SciTech Connect

In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe-phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

ADVANCED CERAMIC COMPOSITES FOR MOLTEN ALUMINUM CONTACT APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new refractory material which was developed for use in molten aluminum contact applications was shown to exhibit improved corrosion and wear resistance leading to improved thermal management through reduced heat losses caused by refractory thinning and wastage. This material was developed based on an understanding of the corrosion and wear mechanisms associated with currently used aluminum contact refractories under a U.S. Department of Energy funded project to investigate multifunctional refractory materials for energy efficient handling of molten metals. This new material has been validated through an industrial trial at a commercial aluminum rod and cable mill. Material development and results of this industrial validation trial are discussed.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Peters, Klaus-Markus [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Galvanic Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Steel and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No aluminum bolt AW 7075 failed in magnesium due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Even aluminum bolts in T6 condition can be used for automotive ...

365

Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEEM MURI Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion Puneesh Puri and Vigor Yang The Pennsylvania Aluminum Particle Combustion · Aluminum oxide cap formed under the effect of surface tension · Oxidized

Yang, Vigor

366

Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Associations American Iron and Steel Institute For over a century, North American steel producers have worked as partners and members of the American Iron and Steel...

368

Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baotou Steel (Group) Corp. is one of the important production bases for steel rails in China. In order to meet the development of railway transportation, steel rails ...

369

Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric onImplementing the National Broadband Plan by...

370

Energy in Iron and Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management: Energy in Iron and Steel ... today imposed by energy, raw materials supply and over supply in the market. ... Through the studies of CCT, TTT and X-ray analysis, it has been successfully ...

371

Session F: Iron and Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Precipitated Duplex Stainless Steel: Wee-Do Yoo1; Young Ju Oh1; Won Jon Yang1; Doo Hyun Kim1; Jong Hoon Lee1; 1Korea Institute of Materials Science

372

Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

Somerday, Brian P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The Grade 91 Steel Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed analysis of service experience with Grade 91 steels, as well as the results of long-term laboratory tests, has demonstrated that there are key issues associated with use of this tempered martensitic steel that require detailed consideration. These issues include:Review of composition effectsInfluence of fabrication variables on propertiesInfluence of heat treatment on propertiesWelding and post-weld heat treatment ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

374

Welding tritium aged stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to He buildup within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for new weapon systems, and service life extensions of older systems, methods for welding/repair on tritium-exposed material will become important. Results are reported that indicate that both solid-state resistance welding and low-heat gas metal arc overlay welding are promising methods for repair or modification of tritium-aged stainless steel.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Technical Information Publications Case Studies Publications Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader Factors Affecting Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells (PDF 316 KB) The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations. Technology and Economics of Reducing PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production (PDF 139 KB) The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts

377

The External and Internal shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The External and Internal shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings. Author(s), Fu-Yuan Hsu, Shin-Wei Wang, Huey-Jiuan Lin. On-Site ...

378

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information The primary aluminum industry emits PFCs and CO2 directly from the production process and indirectly emits CO2 from its energy consumption. In 2001, the U.S....

379

Fluoride Control in the Aluminum Industry: 100 Years of Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 1, 2007 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The aluminum industry ...

380

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Work Plans  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

finalized its work plan with the collaboration of EPA. The plan describes actions the industry intends to take to achieve its Climate VISION goal by 2010. Read the Aluminum...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sodium Content in Aluminum and Current Efficiency - Correlation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, values for this indicator are usually determined monthly and they are ... Development of Low-Voltage Energy-Saving Aluminum Reduction Technology ... Study of Technology and Equipment on Magnetic Induction Intensity Weaken ...

382

Analytical and FEM Modeling of Aluminum Billet Induction Heating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Mark William Kennedy, Shahid Akhtar, Jon Arne Bakken, Ragnhild Elisabeth Aune ... Process parameters such as: current, power, magnetic field, electrical ... A New Counter Gravity Sand Process Used for Aluminum Alloy Casting.

383

Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on the Filtration of Liquid Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Shahin Akbarnejad, Knut Marthinsen, Jon Arne Bakken, Ragnhild Elizabeth Aune ... aluminum alloy (A356) by the support of various magnetic field strengths (up to ... The obtained results were compared with reference gravity experiments.

384

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

385

Norsk Hydro Buys Vale Aluminum Business - Materials Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Posted on: 5/4/2010 12:00:00 AM... In the largest transaction in its history, Norwegian aluminum producer Norsk Hydro announced on May 2 that it will take over ...

386

Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

Frye, Lowell D. (Kingston, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

Frye, L.D.

1982-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

388

Responsibility, Key Challenges, and Opportunities for the Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It would make the aluminum production process much greener, but again the big gain here would be to get most of our electric power made of non-fossil fuels.

389

A History of the Aluminum Cap of the Washington Monument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The actual chronology of the letters can be found in an earlier paper.6 Frishmuth proposed that the pyramid be made of aluminum at a quoted price of $75, and if ...

390

Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part II: Continuous ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part II: Continuous Non-Isothermal Aging by J.T. Staley, Sr., E. Austin, D.B. Glanton, B. Godin, and G.

391

Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part 1 - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part 1: Two-Step Aging by J.T. Staley; Sr.; H. Conrad; W. Crill; J. Grossman; and F. Skaria ...

392

Effect of Lubrication and Application Modes on Drilled Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the present research work is to study the effect of cutting fluids and its ... and burr formation during drilling of 7075, 6061, and A356 aluminum alloys.

393

Optical device with conical input and output prism faces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

Brunsden, Barry S. (Chicago, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels [Corrosion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion PerformanceMetal...

396

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

OPEC influence grows with world output in next decade  

SciTech Connect

World crude oil and condensate output will rise to 75 million bopd in 2004, concludes a recently released Petroconsultant study, entitled Worldwide Crude Oil 10-Year Forecast. It also projects that OPEC`s role in supplying demand will simultaneously grow to nearly 50% of total output. In reaching these conclusions, this report analyzed and predicted each of 94 significant producing nations for the 1995--2004 period. Output has been projected separately for the onshore and offshore sectors. Each nation, including the new republics of the former Soviet Union and individual emirates of the United Arab Emirates, is discussed within its regional and global framework; and key aspects of each of the seven major regions have been delineated. The study integrated full-cycle resource analysis, economics, infrastructure, politics, history, consumption levels and patterns, energy balances, and other pertinent data to cover both supply and demand pictures. The entire discovery and production history was used to frame exploration and development maturity. Future discovery potential has been estimated from largely geologic parameters.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Current mode instrumentation amplifier with rail-to-rail input and output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Current Mode Instrumentation Amplifier with rail-to-rail input and output is presented. It is based on constant gm input stages, and cascode output stages. Although this CMIA structure has a good Input Common Mode Voltage, it suffers from a poor output ... Keywords: analog integrated circuits, current mode instrumentation amplifier, rail-to-rail input and output

Filipe Costa Beber Vieira; Cesar Augusto Prior; Cesar Ramos Rodrigues; Leonardo Perin; Joao Baptista dos Santos Martins

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Brief paper: Speed regulation with measured output feedback in the control of heavy haul trains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach of output regulation with measurement feedback is proposed for the control of heavy haul trains. The objective is to regulate all cars' speeds to a prescribed speed profile. The output regulation problem of nonlinear systems with measurement ... Keywords: ECP braking system, Heavy haul trains, Measured output feedback, Output regulation, Quadratic programming

X. Zhuan; X. Xia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

About The Associate for Iron and Steel Technology - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION FOR IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY ... that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals and ...

402

Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION WITH A 3 LITER TANK 51H SAMPLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-liter sludge slurry sample was sent to SRNL for demonstration of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The sludge was characterized before and after the aluminum dissolution. Post aluminum dissolution sludge settling and the stability of the decanted supernate were also observed. The characterization of the as-received 3-liter sample of Tank 51H sludge slurry shows a typical high aluminum HM sludge. The XRD analysis of the dried solids indicates Boehmite is the predominant crystalline form of aluminum in the sludge solids. However, amorphous phases of aluminum present in the sludge would not be identified using this analytical technique. The low temperature (55 C) aluminum dissolution process was effective at dissolving aluminum from the sludge. Over the three week test, {approx}42% of the aluminum was dissolved out of the sludge solids. The process appears to be selective for aluminum with no other metals dissolving to any appreciable extent. At the termination of the three week test, the aluminum concentration in the supernate had not leveled off indicating more aluminum could be dissolved from the sludge with longer contact times or higher temperatures. The slow aluminum dissolution rate in the test may indicate the dissolution of the Boehmite form of aluminum however; insufficient kinetic data exists to confirm this hypothesis. The aluminum dissolution process appears to have minimal impact on the settling rate of the post aluminum dissolution sludge. However, limited settling data were generated during the test to quantify the effects. The sludge settling was complete after approximately twelve days. The supernate decanted from the settled sludge after aluminum dissolution appears stable and did not precipitate aluminum over the course of several months. A mixture of the decanted supernate with Tank 11 simulated supernate was also stable with respect to precipitation.

Hay, M; John Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

Steel Winds | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steel Winds Steel Winds Facility Steel Winds Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner UPC Wind/BQ Energy Developer UPC Wind/BQ Energy Location Near Lackawanna NY Coordinates 42.81724°, -78.867542° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.81724,"lon":-78.867542,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

405

ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

T. Misiak

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the primary aluminum industry. Final report, September 1977-September 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a study entitled, Applications of Thermal Energy Storage to Process Heat and Waste Heat Recovery in the Primary Aluminum Industry are presented. In this preliminary study, a system has been identified by which the large amounts of low-grade waste energy in the primary pollution control system gas stream can be utilized for comfort heating in nearby communities. Energy is stored in the form of hot water, contained in conventional, insulated steel tanks, enabling a more efficient utilization of the constant energy source by the cyclical energy demand. Less expensive energy storage means (heated ponds, aquifers), when they become fully characterized, will allow even more cost-competitive systems. Extensive design tradeoff studies have been performed. These tradeoff studies indicate that a heating demand equivalent to 12,000 single-family residences can be supplied by the energy from the Intalco plant. Using a 30-year payback criterion (consistent with utility planning practice), the average cost of energy supplied over the system useful life is predicted at one-third the average cost of fossil fuel. The study clearly shows that the utilization of waste energy from aluminum plants is both technically and economically attractive. The program included a detailed survey of all aluminum plants within the United States, allowing the site specific analyses to be extrapolated to a national basis. Should waste heat recovery systems be implemented by 1985, a national yearly savings of 6.5 million barrels of oil can be realized.

Katter, L.B.; Hoskins, R.L.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Steel Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI report, one in a series of practical guides designed as reference aids for utility personnel working in the field, visually catalogs the various condition issues that commonly affect transmission line steel structures. The scope includes steel poles, lattice structures, connections, foundations, weathering steel, and coatings.ObjectiveStructural conditions commonly encountered by utility personnel in the field ...

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

409

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

SciTech Connect

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

Alleviation of aluminum toxicity by phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Effects of phosphogypsum (PG) on subsoil solution properties and aluminum (Al) speciation were evaluated in this study. A subsoil sample from the Appling series (Typic Hapludults) was treated with either increasing levels of PG (2, 5, and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG), reagent-grade CaSo{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}), or CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) and incubated (22 {plus minus} 2{degree}C) at {minus}0.01 MPa moisture potential. Soil solution pH was 5.67 in untreated soil, while increasing application of PG from 2 to 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} decreased the soil solution pH from 5.08 to 4.47. The soil solution pH was higher in soils treated with similar rates of PG or CaSO{sub 4} {center dot}2H{sub 2}O than CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O. Increasing levels of PG increased the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Si, Mn, F and SO{sub 4} in the soil solution. The concentration of total Al in soil solution was 0.02, 1.95 and 5,25 ppm in soils treated with 2, 5 and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG, respectively. However, Al speciation predicted by the GEOCHEM computer program revealed that at the 5 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, 99% and 0.6% of total Al was complexed with F and SO{sub 4}, respectively, while only 0.3% was in Al{sup 3+} form. At the 10T ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, although 10% of total Al was in Al{sup 3+} form, the activity of Al{sup 3+} was only 0.11 ppm. Therefore, an increase in concentrations of F and SO{sub 4} in soil solution in PG treated soils may alleviate Al toxicity by formation of less phytotoxic Al-F and Al-SO{sub 4} complexes. The toxicity of Al may be further decreased by further by a reduction in activity of Al{sup 3+} due to an increase in soil solution ionic strength in PG treated soils.

Alva, A.K.; Sumner, M.E.; Noble, A.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19 Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: KAISER ALUMINUM CORP. (IL.19 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Dolton , Illinois IL.19-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.19-2 Site Operations: Performed limited duration work extruding uranium billets into three CP-5 fuel elements, circa 1959. IL.19-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope of activities IL.19-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium IL.19-2 Radiological Survey(s): Yes - health and safety monitoring during operations IL.19-4 Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP

413

COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

HARRINGTON SJ

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

Energy Challenges and Conservation Achievements in the Aluminum Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy is a vital resource in the production of aluminum. It is economically essential that producers use it efficiently. The aluminum industry developed historically in an economy of energy surplus or abundance. It has responded to energy constraints with stringent, voluntary energy conservation programs that are enabling producers to reduce their consumption significantly. Conservation plus the results of on-going, energy-related R&D work and innovative technology are helping Alcoa reduce energy requirements. This talk reviews the aluminum industry's and Alcoa's conservation activities of the past five post-embargo years. It highlights smelting improvements, still in the research and development stage, which nonetheless promise significant energy savings in the future, and other research activities as well. The importance of recycling and new recycling technology are included.

Sheldon, A. C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Reactive self-heating model of aluminum spherical nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in many highly energetic, high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a "double-layer" type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts overall oxidation time scale in microseconds range, in agreement with experimental evidence.

Karen S. Martirosyan; Maxim Zyskin

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

X-ray diffraction study of residual stresses in metal-matrix composite-jacketed steel cylinders subjected to internal pressure. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of aluminum/silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC)-jacketed steel structural components was made because of their light weight and high stiffness. Steel 'liner' cylinders were wrapped with MMC 'jackets' with an all-hoop layup and put through various degrees of hydraulic autofrettage and thermal soak. In this report, the results from our x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements on cylinders using a position-sensitive scintillation detection system are discussed. Our experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions from a model based on the elastic-plastic analysis of a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal pressure. Interpretation of the interference effect caused by the MMC jacket on the steel liner is also discussed.

Lee, S.L.; Doxbeck, M.; Capsimalis, G.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Performance of steel-polymer and ceramic-polymer layered composites and concrete under high strain rate loadings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results. SP: steel plate, PU: polyurea, KE: Kineticsample configurations: (a) SP-PU-SP (steel - polyurea -steel) (b) SP-PU-SP-PU (steel - polyurea - steel -

Samiee, Ahsan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting Using an Yttrium Aluminum Perovskit and Bismuth Germanate Phoswich Scintillator  

SciTech Connect

Abstract– Phoswich detectors (two scintillators attached to the same photomultiplier-tube) have been used in the past to measure either betas or gammas separately but were not used to measure beta-gamma coincidence signatures. These coincidence signatures are very important for the detection of many fission products and are exploited to detect four radioxenon isotopes using the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) [1]. Previous PNNL work with a phoswich detector used a commercially available, thin disk of scintillating CaF2(Eu) and a 2” thick NaI(Tl) crystal in a phoswich arrangement. Studies with this detector measured the beta-gamma coincidence signatures from 133Xe, 214Pb and 214Bi [2]. This scintillator combination worked but was not a good match in scintillation light decay times, 940-ns for CaF2(Eu) and 230 ns for NaI(Tl). Additionally, a 6 mm thick quartz window was placed between the NaI(Tl) and the CaF2 to ensure a hermetic seal for the NaI(Tl) crystal . This dead layer significantly reduced the detection probability of the low energy x-rays and gammas that are part of the coincidence signatures for 214Pb, 214Bi and the radioxenons. Further research showed that Yttrium aluminum perovskit (YAP) and bismuth germanate (BGO) have very good scintillation light characteristics and no hermetic seal requirements. The 27-ns scintillation light decay time of YAP and the 300-ns decay time for BGO are a good match between fast and slow light output. The scintillation light output was measured using XIATM digital signal processing readout electronics, and the fast (YAP) and slow (BGO) light components allowed discrimination between the beta and gamma contributions of the radioactive decays. In this paper we discuss the experimental setup and results obtained with this new phoswich detector and the applications beyond radioxenon gas measurements.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Litke, Kevin E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Suarez, Reynold

2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

420

Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

422

Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement and Modeling of Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability Preprint M. Sengupta To be presented at SOLAR 2011 Raleigh, North Carolina May 17-21, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-51105 April 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

425

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 -...

426

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 - 12:00am...

427

CF8C-Plus Steels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CF8C-Plus Steels Home CF8C-Plus Steels Home Contacts Goal Related Links AFA Steels Caterpillar MSTD Corrosion Science & Technology Group Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL Fossil Energy Program ORNL Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program Distributed Energy Program Comments CF8C-Plus cast austenitic steels Phil Maziasz with CF8C-Plus cast austenitic stainless steel Burner housing made of CF8C-Plus steel and designed for the pyrolytic breakdown of carbon particulates trapped in ceramic particulate filters downstream of the burner in a Caterpillar Regeneration System. CF8C-Plus cast austenitic steels are low-cost, high-performance

428

Energy needed to produce aluminum - Today in Energy - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Aluminum production in the United States generally takes two forms, with very different energy requirements. Primary production involves making ...

429

Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Melting of Aluminum by Electricity: A Review of Operating Practice and Discussion of Cost Factors for Melting Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1998, about 10 million tons of aluminum ingot and various forms of scrap were melted to produce a variety of products. The majority of the aluminum was melted in oil or natural gas-fired furnaces. However, as old gas-fired furnaces are being replaced or capacity is being increased, consideration is being given to electric-fired furnaces to obtain more energy efficient melting and increased yield of product. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the reader with the various types of commercial elect...

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

Christian, Jerry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Philip A. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A Low Cost Method for Manufacturing of Aluminum/Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

435

Mr. Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Fred Steinkuehler Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation 20th and State Streets Granite City, Illinois 62040 Dear Mr. Steinkuehler: Enclosed please find your copy of the signed consent forms for the radiological survey of the South Plant Betatron Building. In your letter to me of July 21, 1988, you identified several issues regarding the survey and the consent. I would like to address these concerns below. As noted in the consent form, the purpose of our surveys are only to determine if there is any residual radioactive material on the site that is derived from Department of Energy (DOE) predecessor operations. All data collected during the designation survey is to determine the radiological condition of the portion of the site involved in the predecessor work. No

436

EVALUATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN TANK 51  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days, which became the baseline aluminum dissolution process. LWO initiated a project to modify a waste tank to meet these requirements. Subsequent to an alternative evaluation, LWO management identified an opportunity to perform aluminum dissolution on sludge destined for Sludge Batch 5, but within a limited window that would not allow time for any modifications for tank heating. A variation of the baseline process, dubbed Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), was developed based on the constraint of available energy input in Tank 51 and the window of opportunity, but was not constrained to a minimum extent of dissolution, i.e. dissolve as much aluminum as possible within the time available. This process was intended to operate between 55 and 70 C, but for a significantly longer time than the baseline process. LTAD proceeded in parallel with the baseline project. The preliminary evaluation at the completion of LTAD focused on the material balance and extent of the aluminum dissolved. The range of values of extent of dissolution, 56% to 64%, resulted from the variation in liquid phase sample data available at the time. Additional solid phase data is available from a sample taken after LTAD to refine this range. This report provides additional detailed evaluation of the LTAD process based on analytical and field data and includes: a summary of the process chronology; a determination of an acceptable blending strategy for the aluminum-laden supernate stored in Tank 11; an update to the determination of aluminum dissolved using more complete sample results; a determination of the effect of LTAD on uranium, plutonium, and other metals; a determination of the rate of heat loss from a quiescent tank; and an evaluation of the aluminum dissolution rate model and actual dissolution rate. LTAD was successfully completed in Tank 51 with minimal waste tank changes. The following general conclusions may be drawn about the LTAD process: (1) Dissolution at about 60 C for 46 days dissolved 64% of the aluminum from the sludge slurry. (2) The aluminum-laden leach solution decanted to Tank 11 can be blended with a wide variety of supernates without risk of precipitating the dissolved aluminum based on thermodynamic chemical equilibrium models. (3) Uranium and plutonium leached into solution without corresponding leaching of iron or metal other than aluminum, but the total mass leached was a small fraction of the total uranium and plutonium in the sludge. (4) The concentration of uranium and plutonium in the leach solution was indistinguishable from other tank farm supernates, thus, the leach solutions can be managed relative to the risk of criticality like any other supernate. (5) A small amount of mercury leached into solution from the sludge causing the liquid phase concentration to increase 6 to 10 fold, which is consistent with the 4 to 14 fold increase observed during the 1982 aluminum dissolution demonstration. (6) Chromium did not dissolve during LTAD. (7) Chloride concentration increased in the liquid phase during LTAD due to chloride contamination in the 50% sodium hydroxide solution. (8) The rate of heat loss from Tank 51 at temperatures above 45 C appeared linear and predictable at 8E+7 cal/hr. (9) The rate of heat transfer from Tank 51 did not follow a simplified bulk heat transfer model. (10) Prediction of the aluminum dissolution rate was prone to error due to a lack of active specific surface area data of sludge particles. (11) The higher than expected dissolution rate during LTAD was likely due to smaller than expected particle sizes of most of the sludge particles. While evaluating the LTAD process, the dissolved salt solution from Tank 41 that was stored and sampled in Tank 49 was determined to be supersaturated relative to alu

Pike, J

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

437

BWeb Copy of the Aluminum Chapter from the 1st  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a cheap source of electric power, typically a large scale hydro-electric facility. With 2,204 pounds electricity generated from burning coal and gas to run a small smelting works in New Kensington, Pennsylvania Falls Power Company. The partnership between large scale aluminum production and power generation

Ford, Andrew

438

CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACTANTS IN ALUMINUM-URANIUM FUEL REPROCESSING SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Surface active materials in aluminum nitrate-nitric acid fuel reprocessing solutions were characterized. Polymerized silica, zirconium- modified silica and soluble dibutyl phosphate species were found to contribute to stable emulsion formation. These surfactants were reduced in effectiveness by added acid. (auth)

Cannon, R.D.

1959-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Microstructure of Ice Accretions Grown on Aluminum Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the microstructure of glaze and rime deposits formed on the conductors of power lines, ice accretions are grown on a slowly rotating aluminum cylinder placed in the working section of a wind tunnel. The growth conditions cover ...

Jean-Louis Laforte; Luan C. Phan; Béatrice Felin

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Aluminum: Improved System Yields $100,000 Annual Savings  

SciTech Connect

In another Office of Industrial Technologies Motor Challenge Success Story, Alcoa (formerly Alumax) aluminum reduced annual energy consumption by 12% and reduced both maintenance and noise levels. Order this fact sheet now to learn how your company can both increase energy efficiency and decrease pollution.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Company Background Aluminum rod manufacturer based in Jakarta,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: frequent smaller orders with lower inventory Production inventory is not recorded by Accounting months in 2009 Shift variation unlikely to have caused discrepancy Problem 1: Supporting Materials Usage & Electricity Depreciation Figure 1 - Cost categories excluding aluminum Alex (Kwun Hang) Chan Keith (Hoi Ki

Sun, Yu

442

Fabrication of Aluminum Alloy-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moreover, ability of CFRP drilling of the aluminum alloy-based diamond grinding wheel ... Accelerated Post-Weld Natural Ageing in Ultrasonic Welding Aluminium ..... Powder Metallurgy of High Strength Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 Gas-atomized Powder.

443

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Characterizing Microalgae (Nannochloris oculata) Harvesting by Aluminum Flocculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent progress in algae biotechnology indicates that microalgae have the potential of becoming a significant source for food, feed proteins, nutraceuticals, and lipids for biofuels. Typically low concentrations of microalgae cultures (less than 2 g/L) make harvesting of algae biomass one of the key economic bottlenecks for microalgae production of biofuels and bioproducts. Among the various biomass harvesting options currently under consideration, flocculation appears to be the least expensive and most flexible method for harvesting and initial concentration of dilute algal cultures. In addition to initial biomass concentration, processing factors that could also affect harvesting efficiency include culture pH, flocculant dosage, and media ionic strength (conductivity). This thesis reviews challenges of harvesting and concentration of green microalgae and examines the effect of pH, flocculant dosage, and culture conductivity on charge neutralization and flocculation of Nannochloris oculata by aluminum chloride. N. oculata flocculation was studied by manipulating the culture pH and ionic strength before the addition of aluminum chloride. The removal efficiency, concentration factor, settling rate, and zeta potential of the culture were measured to assess the effect of processing variables and understand mechanisms that govern N. oculata flocculation by aluminum chloride. Flocculation tests conducted with culture concentrations of 10^7 cells/ml revealed that AlCl3 concentration of 0.05 g/L and flocculation pH of 5.3 were optimal conditions for achieving 100% removal efficiency and a twentyfold algae concentration. At flocculant concentrations greater than 0.05 g/L, removal efficiencies were equally good but resulting concentration factors decreased with increasing AlCl3 dosage. Zeta potential measurements were correlated with flocculation dosage, initial cell concentration, medium pH, and aluminum solubility curves to conclude that densely charged multi-valent aluminum hydroxide species were responsible for the efficient flocculation at pH 5.3 with 0.05 g/L AlCl3.

Davis, Ryan T.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: August 13, 2: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on AddThis.com... Fact #482: August 13, 2007

447

Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

P/M Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Applications for P/M stainless steels...Seatback tray slides 316L Galley latches 316L Jet fuel refueling impellers 316L Foam generators 316L Agriculture Fungicide spray equipment 316L Appliances Automatic dishwasher components 304L Automatic washer components 304L Garbage disposal components 410L Pot handles 316L Coffee filters 316L-Si...

449

SARAH 3.2: Dirac Gauginos, UFO output, and more  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and one-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac Gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of model implementations have been created.

Florian Staub

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

450

Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

Post, R.F.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

James W. Evans

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

453

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09 Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SUTTON, STEELE & STEELE CO. (TX.09) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc. TX.09-1 Location: Dallas , Texas TX.09-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 TX.09-2 Site Operations: Conducted operations to separate Uranium shot by means of air float tables and conducted research to air classify C-Liner and C-Special materials. TX.09-1 TX.09-3 TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote TX.09-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Radiological Survey(s): Health and Safety Monitoring TX.09-4 TX.09-5 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

454

Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was identified as the primary factor that accelerates dross formation specifically in the transition from two phases to three phase growth. Limiting magnesium oxidation on the surface of molten aluminum therefore becomes the key to minimizing melt loss, and technology was developed to prevent magnesium oxidation on the aluminum surface. This resulted in a lot of the work being focused on the control of Mg oxidation. Two potential molten metal covering agents that could inhibit dross formation during melting and holding consisting of boric acid and boron nitride were identified. The latter was discounted by industry as it resulted in Boron pick up by the melt beyond that allowed by specifications during plant trials. The understanding of the kinetics of dross formation by the industry partners helped them understand how temperature, alloy chemistry and furnace atmosphere (burner controls--e.g. excess air) effected dross formation. This enables them to introduce in their plant process changes that reduced unnecessary holding at high temperatures, control burner configurations, reduce door openings to avoid ingress of air and optimize charge mixes to ensure rapid melting and avoid excess oxidation.

Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nondestructive Evaluation: Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of a number of projects that were initiated to support the Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Roadmap. The majority of these projects fall within the purview of the Research Technical Advisory Committee. These multiyear and multifaceted projects address a number of important issues dealing with cast stainless steel and other emerging industry needs. The first objective of the project is to maintain the cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) roadmap that outlines an ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

456

Aluminum bulk micromachining through an anodic oxide mask by electrochemical etching in an acetic acid/perchloric acid solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well-defined microstructure with microchannels and a microchamber was fabricated on an aluminum plate by four steps of a new aluminum bulk micromachining process: anodizing, laser irradiation, electrochemical etching, and ultrasonication. An aluminum ... Keywords: Aluminum, Anodizing, Bulk micromachining, Electrochemical etching, Laser irradiation

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Yuhta Wachi, Masatoshi Sakairi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Focus Transformer Steel - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Strain Gradient and Degradation in Magnetic Properties: Focus Transformer Steel. Author(s), Satish Kumar Shekhawat, Basavaraj V., Vijay

458

Project #3: Analysis of Structural Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... properties • Task 5 - Characterize thermal excursions of steel ... 100 105 Yawata "A 514 mod" (WEL-TEN 80C) ... Est. completion date % complete ...

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

459

Project #3: Analysis of Structural Steel Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 100 105 108 Yawata "A 514 mod" (WEL-TEN 80C) 56 Plate 1 ... Task 5 - Characterize thermal excursions of steel ... Analysis completion target date ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

The State of the Indian Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... domestic demand, their competitive position in respect of cost of production, ... In this paper a forecast of the Indian steel industry in the coming five years will ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Materials in the Oil and Gas Industry. Presentation Title, Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review.

462

Mechanical Behavior of Tempered Martensitic Steels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Mechanical Behavior of Tempered Martensitic Steels for Ultrasupercritical Steam Applications. Author(s), Jeffrey A. Hawk, Paul D. Jablonski, ...

463

and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Past and Future Trends of Energy Use in Key Medium and Large Sized Chinese Steel Enterprises year month institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory abstract p...

464

Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications  

NETL has developed a stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed 9 Cr-1 molybdenum alloy ...

465

Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen in Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research. Presentation Title, Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen in Steels. Author(s) ...

466

Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Bainitic Wheel Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Bainitic Wheel Steel ... (SSRT) test and hydrogen-induced delayed cracking (HIDC) were investigated in a noval  ...

467

Plate, Bar, and Structural Steels I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... Process to the Characteristics of SCM 440 Steel as Pin Component in Automobilie Chains: Myrna Ariati1; 1University of Indonesia

468

Multiscale Systems Design of Advanced Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and Production Practice of DR Material in Baosteel ... Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used for Passenger Special Line ...

469

Symposium A: Advanced Steels and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and Production Practice of DR Material in Baosteel ... Smelting Technology and Final Product Quality of Steel Rails Used for Passenger Special Line ...

470

Hot Forging Characteristics of S355NL Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

471

Interactions of Non-metallic Inclusions with Steel and Slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

472

A Techno-Economic Optimization Model For Aluminum Electrolysis ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The major factors affecting the profit of an enterprise are the price ... depreciation of fixed assets, labor cost, output and process consumptions, etc. ... Challenges in Using Discrete Logistics as a Management Decision Tool for ...

473

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Technology Pathways  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technology Pathways Technology Pathways U.S. aluminum producers recognize that reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. In 1996, the U.S. industry entered into partnership with DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) to work toward shared goals. Since then, the Aluminum Industry of the Future partnership has been feeding the technology pipeline so that U.S. producers will have the technologies they need to achieve their long-term economic, energy and environmental goals. The Industries of the Future process helps entire industries articulate their long-term goals and publish them in a unified vision for the future. To achieve that vision, industry leaders jointly define detailed R&D agendas known as roadmaps. ITP relies on roadmap-defined priorities to

474

Energy absorption in aluminum extrusions for a spaceframe chassis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work describes the design, finite-element analysis, and verifications performed by LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum for the prototype design of the CALSTART Running Chassis purpose-built electric vehicle. Component level studies, along with our previous experimental and finite-element works, provided the confidence to study the crashworthiness of a complete aluminum spaceframe. Effects of rail geometry, size, and thickness were studied in order to achieve a controlled crush of the front end structure. These included the performance of the spaceframe itself, and the additive effects of the powertrain cradle and powertrain (motor/controller in this case) as well as suspension. Various design iterations for frontal impact at moderate and high speed are explored.

Logan, R.W.; Perfect, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Parkinson, R.D. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

475

Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Software Tools Aluminum Industry of the Future Tools & Publications ITP offers a wide array of publications, videos, software, and other information products for improving energy efficiency in the aluminum industry. DOE BestPractices Software Tools DOE BestPractices offers a range of software tools and databases that help manufacturers assess their plant's steam, compressed air, motor, and process heating systems. DOE Plant Energy Profiler Industry experience has shown that many plant utility personnel do not have an adequate understanding of their energy cost structure and where the major focus should be for any energy savings program. This tool will address this need and enable an engineer assigned to a plant utility to better understand (a) the cost of all energy sources supplied to the plant,

477

Corrosion Characterization of Drillpipe Steels Used in the Petroleum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this respect stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of two grades of drill pipe ... to Add Sulfur into Molten Steel to Produce Free Cutting Steel for Automobile.

478

Mechanical Properties of a Medium Carbon Low Alloy Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weld Simulation in X100 Pipeline Steel · Weldability of a 700MPa Grade Low Carbon Bainitic Steel Produced by CSP · Why and How Lath Martensite Was ...

479

Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Application of the CALPHAD method for ferritic boiler steels ... of the CALPHAD method on various questions concerning ferritic boiler steels ...

480

Low-Cycle Fatigue Properties of TRIP Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... AHSS typically have improved fatigue strength over conventional steels and High Strength Steels (HSS) of similar tensile strength. Sample ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "output aluminum steel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Selective Corrosion of Stainless Steel at Low pH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and ferrite-austenite-based(22Cr-steel) stainless steel tube for oil & gas wells. ... materials for high CO2 environments, where accidizing resistance is needed.

482

HSLA Steels: Processing, Properties and Applications TABLE OF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Klaus Hulka and Friedrich Heisterkamp. Development of Niobium-Bearing HSLA and Microalloyed Steels at Anshan Iron and Steel Complex Long Chunman, Fu ...

483

Method to Improve Steel Creep Strength by Alloy Design and ...  

steels in coal-fired boilers • Other high-temperature applications where creep-resistant martensitic steel is required Patent Details

484

Project Announced for Clean Energy Manufacturing of Auto Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 30, 2013 ... Project Announced for Clean Energy Manufacturing of Auto Steel ... to develop a new class of advanced steel for the automotive industry.

485

High Strength Nano-Structured Steel - Energy Innovation Portal  

High Strength Nano-Structured Steel The NanoSteel Company Complex modern challenges are driving new ... sheet design breakthrough for the automotive industry.

486

Radiation induced corrosion of steel; Strålningsinducerad korrosion av stål.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis was to investigate the influence of aqueous radiation induced oxidants on stainless steel. This was done by exposing the steel… (more)

Nilsson, Oskar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols Principles for a Steel Industry Methodology for Reporting Carbon-Related Energy Sources and Raw Materials (PDF 48 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Steel Industry...

488

Process Window Study for Heat Resistant Nanocoated Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently developed weldable nanocoated HPF steel has been tested for process window in this study. Performances of hot press formed steel are tested ...

489

Substitution of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel for austentic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the current program to develop a high-strength ferritic-martensitic steel. The alloy is essentially Fe-9% Cr-1% Mo with small additions of V and Nb and is known as modifed 9 Cr-1 Mo steel. Its elevated-temperature properties and design allowable stresses match those of type 304 stainless steel for temperatures up to 600/sup 0/C and exceed those of other ferritic steels by factors of 2 to 3. The improved strength of this alloy permits its use in place of stainless steels for many applications.

Sikka, V. K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Perrhenate Uptake by Iron and Aluminum Oxyhydroxides: An  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Hanford Waste Tank Sludges B R A D L E Y W A K O F F A N D K A T H R Y N L . N A G Y * Department and aluminum oxyhydroxide solids from aqueous simulants of high-level nuclear waste stored at Hanford, WA that 5% of the 99Tc inventory in the Hanford waste tanks may be associated with the sludges, and 0

Illinois at Chicago, University of

491

FILM GROWTH ON ALUMINUM IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Film growths on aluminum and two aluminum-1 wt.% nickel alloys in water at 250 and 350 deg C were studied. It was found that oxide growth does not advance on a uniform front but, to the contrary, the advancing surface contains many outcrops in the form of thin platelets, chunky outcrops, and whiskers. With both the pure metal and the alloys considerable intergranular attack was observed. The general corrosion product was usually more uniform in crystal size when formed on the pure metal, but variations in crystal size were observed on both aluminum and alloys with varying features of the metal surface. The roughness of the general oxide surface (includlng outcrops) was found to increase rapidly to about 0.2 micron and then remain relatively constant with increasing film thickness. The composition of films formed under all investigated conditions, except one, was found to be boehmite ( alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). This exception was films carried by the alloy specimens after testing for 32 days at 350 deg C. In this case the main corrosion film was still boehmite, but in addition the outer surface supported long needles of diaspore ( beta -Al/sub 2/ O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). (auth)

Hart, R.K.; Ruther, W.E.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact.

Nelson, D.Z.; Howell, J.P.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Chromizing of 3Cr Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of corrosion-resistant oxide scales in these environments. The halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) process offers a promising low-cost and versatile alternative to CVD as a means of improving corrosion resistance via formation of a protective Cr-containing coating.

Ravi, Vilupanur [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Harrison, Bradley [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Koch, Jordan [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Ly, Alexander [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Schissler, Andrew [California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona); Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

New results in forecasting of photovoltaic systems output based on solar radiation forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate short term forecasting of photovoltaic (PV) systems output has a great significance for fast development of PV parks in South-East Europe

Laurentiu Fara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels  

SciTech Connect

Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

Sikka, V.K.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

497

Recycling steel from grinding swarf  

SciTech Connect

Two cleaning processes have been investigated for removing contaminants (cutting oil with phosphorus ester) from high speed steel (HSS) griding swarf. One process uses an aqueous surfactant washing technique, and the second process uses supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) extraction. Both technical and preliminary financial analysis are performed to have a better evaluation of these two competing cleaning technologies. Bench scale aqueous washings have shown that the required phosphorus removal is easily obtained, but a sufficient oil removal is more difficult. The experimental results also indicate a strong dependence of the aqueous washing efficiency on the choice of a suitable surfactant. SCCO{sub 2} extraction at 80 C and 340 atm shows that approximately 80% of the oil can be removed from swarf during a 60-minute process to produce a batch of recyclable steel, and that the phosphorus removal also reaches the required level. The cost of processing swarf using either aqueous surfactant washing or SCCO{sub 2} extraction in a 3,000,000 lbs per year plant is analyzed and the market forces impacting the feasibility of recycling on a commercial basis are reviewed. Commercial scale recycling is, in part, dependent upon resolution of regulatory uncertainty on the definition of swarf. States regulating swarf as hazardous provide a significant financial incentive to recycle. In states that regulate swarf as a solid waste, low disposal costs provide a disincentive that must be balanced with the possible hidden, future liabilities of landfill disposal.

Fu, H.; Matthews, M.A.; Warner, L.S. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

498

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Brief paper: Output feedback strict passivity of discrete-time nonlinear systems and adaptive control system design with a PFC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a passivity-based adaptive output feedback control for discrete-time nonlinear systems is considered. Output Feedback Strictly Passive (OFSP) conditions in order to design a stable adaptive output control system will be established. Further, ... Keywords: Adaptive control, Discrete nonlinear systems, Output feedback, Parallel feedforward compensator, Strict passivity

Ikuro Mizumoto; Satoshi Ohdaira; Zenta Iwai

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

Richard Coulter; Kevin Widener; Nitin Bharadwaj; Karen Johnson; Timothy Martin