National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for output aluminum steel

  1. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  2. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  3. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  4. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  5. Galvanic corrosion of structural aluminum coupled with mild steel in a dilute sodium dichromate electrolyte 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Robert Franklin

    1970-01-01

    or the requirement for' the deqr, e of MASTER OF SCIl-NCI= Jaruary IgiO Major Sub ect: Civii I. ngineering GALVANIC CORROSION GF STRUCTURAI. ALUMINUM COUPLED WITH MILD STI:EL IN A DILUTE SODIUii DICIIROMA1'E ELECTROLTTE A Thesis ROBERT FRANKLIN FORD, JR.... Approved as to style and content by: + ~J Co-Chairman of Commii:t C Co-Chair n of Committe~e Member+ I Head of D=p rtm t) Januar; IDIO ABSTRACT Calvanic Corrosion of Structural Aluminum Coup'led with Mild Steel in a Dilute Sodium Dichromate...

  6. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01

    AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING SILICON,and Microstructures of Dual Phase Steels Containing Silicon,microstructures of selected dual-phase steels in which the

  7. Precipitation of aluminum nitride in a high strength maraging steel with low nitrogen content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeanmaire, G.; Dehmas, M.; Redjaïmia, A.; Puech, S.; Fribourg, G.

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, aluminum nitride (AlN) precipitation was investigated in a X23NiCoCrMoAl13-6-3 maraging steel with low nitrogen content (wt.% N = 5.5 ppm). A reliable and robust automatic method by scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was developed for the quantification of AlN precipitates. The first stage was to identify the solvus temperature and to develop a heat treatment able to dissolve the AlN precipitates. The experimental determination of equilibrium conditions and solvus temperature show good agreement with ThermoCalc® simulation. Then, from this AlN-free state, the cooling rate, isothermal holding time and temperature were the subject of an intensive investigation in the austenite region of this maraging steel. In spite of the high temperatures used during heat treatments, the growth kinetic of the largest AlN precipitates (> 1 ?m) is slow. The cooling rate has a major effect on the size and the number density of AlN due to a higher driving force for nucleation at low temperatures. At last, quenching prior to isothermal annealing at high temperatures leads to fine and dense AlN precipitation, resulting from the martensite to austenite transformation. Experimental results will be discussed and compared with kinetic data obtained with the mobility database MobFe2 implemented in Dictra® software. - Highlights: • Slow dissolution kinetic of AlN precipitates due to both their large size and small chemical driving force • Significant effects of cooling rate prior isothermal heat treatment, holding time and temperature on AlN precipitation • Size of AlN precipitates can be reduced by quenching prior isothermal holding. • Fine precipitation of AlN related to the ? ? ? transformation.

  8. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01

    annealing, This signifi- cantly increased the strength of commercial 1010 steel andtwo- phase annealing. The Mo containing steels (Figures 5(a)steels containing retained austenite in the martensitic structure, the austenite formed during the two-phase annealing

  9. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  10. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousef, Adel K. M. [Faculty of Engineering , University of Diyala, Diyala-Baqouba (Iraq); Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A. [Institute of laser for postgraduate studies, Baghdad University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2011-01-17

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  11. Li.sub.2 O-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 glass ceramic-aluminum containing austenitic stainless steel composite body and a method of producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassidy, Roger T. (Monroe, OH)

    1990-05-01

    The present invention relates to a hermetically sealed Li.sub.2 O-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 glass ceramic-aluminum containing stainless steel composite body and a method of producing the body. The composite body includes an oxide interfacial region between the glass ceramic and metal, wherein the interfacial region consists essentially of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 layer. The interfacial Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 region includes constituents of both the metal and glass ceramic.

  12. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be likely to be encountered in actual packaging, transportation, and storage configurations. Modeling of realistic, as-built configurations is beyond the scope of this study.

  13. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World alumvision.pdf More Documents...

  14. Overview of Aluminum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Overview of Aluminum Overview of Aluminum Session Coordinator: Mark T. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory VT Merit Review 2008 February 28, 2008 2 Overview of...

  15. Study of Alumina in Austenitic Stainless Steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chung

    2014-12-18

    transformation through temperature, as opposed to mechanical stresses, the martensite start temperature is calculated through the Ishida model. The addition of aluminum to an austenitic stainless steel composition can alloy for the growth of alumina oxide...

  16. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) autoroadmap.pdf More Documents &...

  17. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Wang, Heli; Turner, John A

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  18. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  19. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  20. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2002, the industry created this updated Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap to define the specific research and development priorities, performance targets, and milestones required to achieve the set vision.

  1. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  2. Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.

  3. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  4. Linear output nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, R.M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

  5. Stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the stainless steels for high-strength, heat-resistant or corrosion-resistant applications. It is a treatment of the properties and selection of stainless steels. Up-to-date information covers physical, mechanical and chemical properties of all stainless grades, including the new ferritic and duplex grades. The book covers physical metallurgy as well as processing and service characteristics, including service in corrosive environments. It deals with wrought and cast stainless steels and reviews fabrication from cold-forming to powder metallurgy.

  6. DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C.

    2010-01-01

    DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS· C. PetersDEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS" C. Peters

  7. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  8. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  9. ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Aluminum is one of the most versatile materials available today that can meet the demanding requirements of tomorrow's products.

  10. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore »(Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (« less

  11. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were obtained with unreinforced 356 aluminum casting. Good strength can be obtained with a sound die casting without any defects produced by squeeze casting. The use of higher pressure to produce the squeeze casting has been shown to increase the strength of a hemispherical dome casting. This dome shape casting has been produced both with and without reinforcement and tested to determine its pressure resistance under internal pressure of water. Only a slight improvement in strength could be determined because of water leaks at the seal between hemispherical dome and its flat supporting side. However, when the ability of the casting was tested under the compressive force of a plunger, the strengthening effect of wire mesh or sheet was evident. Higher loads to failure were obtained because of the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire and punched sheet. Rather than a sudden failure occurring, the reinforcement of the stainless steel wire or the punched hard stainless steel sheet held the material together and prevented any loss of the fractured casting to the surroundings. Unalloyed steel did not have the required strength or mechanical properties to increase the properties of the casting.

  12. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  13. Aluminum processing energy benchmark report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-02-01

    Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58 percent decrease in energy utilization.

  14. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached ?225?kV bias voltage while generating less than 100?pA of field emission (<10?pA) using a 40?mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7?MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ?22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100?pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  15. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  16. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells Saving Energy and Reducing Carbon Emissions with Cell Redesign and Novel Electrolytes This project will develop a multipolar aluminum...

  17. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  18. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  19. Investigation of an isotopically tailored boron-aluminum alloy's neutronic properties for application in neutron shielding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleyer, William Charles

    1989-01-01

    15 20 21 111 MATERIALS FOR FUEL STORAGE RACKS AND SHIPPING CASKS . 23 Alboron . Boron Boral/Boron Carbide . Boron Loaded Stainless Steel . 24 28 31 34 I V MODEL DESCRIPTION . 38 Poison Model . Spent Fuel Storage Model . 38 40 V..., this aluminum-B4C material has received extensive use in PWR spent fuel storage. Boral is fabricated by suspension of fine boron carbide particles in molten aluminum or by powder-metallurigcal techniques. Boron carbide of small mesh size (20x100) is mixed...

  20. Maximum output at minimum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has

  1. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  2. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  3. Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In aluminum die-casting, molten aluminum is forced under high pressure into a die cavity. First a "shot" of molten aluminum is ladled into a shot sleeve and the shot of molten aluminum is forced by...

  4. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  5. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badra, C. [International Trade Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  6. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  7. Micro Joining of Aluminum Graphite Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velamati, Manasa

    2012-07-16

    Advanced aluminum graphite composites have unique thermal properties due to opposing coefficients of thermal expansion of aluminum and graphite. The thermal and mechanical properties of such composites are anisotropic due ...

  8. Current technologies and trends of aluminum design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    A literature review of current aluminum technology in the building and construction industry was carried out. Aluminum is an ideal material for building in corrosive environments and for building structures where small ...

  9. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  10. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  11. Overview: STEEL Enabling Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or confidential information Dr. Roger Heimbuch AutoSteel Partnership w w w . a - s p . o r g 2008 DOE Merit Review OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION * Sheet Steel Fatigue *...

  12. Typhoon of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamamoto, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Typhoon of Steel, a Documentary Film A thesis submitted inTyphoon of Steel A Documentary Film by Gena Sayoko Hamamotoa short community-based documentary film that explores the

  13. Steel Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of manufacturing, construction, transportation, and various consumer products. Traditionally...

  14. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  15. Low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikka, V.K.; Baldwin, R.H.; Howell, C.R.

    1993-07-01

    The low room-temperature ductility Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is associated with their environmental embrittlement. Reducing the aluminum level from 29 to 16 at % has been found to be an effective method in essentially eliminating the environmental-embrittlement effect and increasing the room-temperature ductility value to over 25%. This paper will present data on alloy compositions, melting, casting and processing methods, and mechanical properties. Plans for future work on these alloys will also be described.

  16. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  17. Success Story: Harrison Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study highlights how Harrison Steel leveraged both EPA's ENERGY STAR program and DOE resources to enhance energy efficiency efforts and multiply captured energy savings.

  18. Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Lacy Clark

    1989-01-01

    are capable of producing stea. dy-state fields greater than 15 Tesla while conventional magnets are only capable of about 3 Tesla, . The second advantage is that superconducting magnets create very homogeneous fields. This is particularly important..., the resistivity of 99. 99% pure aluminum is lower than that of oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. 2. As magnetic field increases above about 6 Tesla, , copper continues to increase in resistivity whereas aluminum becomes saturated, i. e. , aluminum...

  19. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  20. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  1. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Activators of Aluminum Electrochemistry in Organic Media. J.I. ; Neff, V. D. Electrochemistry of Polynuclear Transitionaluminum ion based electrochemistry. Closer investigation

  2. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement MECS 2006 - Glass...

  3. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) Improving Process Heating System...

  4. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting...

  5. Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.; Matthews, D.

    1993-11-30

    A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.

  6. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  7. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  8. Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/14/2014 1 Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 2205 stainless steel Microstructure: austenite + ferrite 304L stainless steel Microstructure: austenite Duplex Stainless Steel f a #12

  9. Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leigh, Richard W. (New York, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

  10. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  11. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  12. Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    /mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous particles in high pH suspension.7 Past work by our group dealt with the stabilization of aluminum oxide suspensions of aluminum-containing particles. Solutions of aluminum chloride, with and without citric acid

  13. ALUMINUM--2001 6.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALUMINUM--2001 6.1 ALUMINUM By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic survey data and tables were prepared, international data coordinator. In 2001, 11 domestic companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants consumption in 2001. The recycling rate for aluminum UBCs decreased to 55.4%, compared with 62.1% in 2000

  14. OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridman, Emilia

    OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS Emilia Fridman1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel emilia@eng.tau.ac.il Summary. Output regulation regulation, regulator equations, center manifold 1 Introduction One of the most important problems in control

  15. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Aluminum Vision is intended to stimulate a wide variety of R&D activities to accelerate technology development throughout industry.

  16. A scanning Kelvin probe analysis of aluminum and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, D.C.; Grecsek, G.E.; Roberts, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    A scanning Kelvin probe was used to determine a correlation between work function measurements in air and corrosion potential measurements in solution of pure metals. Test panels of AA2024-T3 treated with various surface preparations and primer/coatings were also analyzed using this technique. Filiform corrosion was observed on a scribed panel that had been exposed to a humid environment, whereas on a non-scribed and non-exposed test panel, holidays in the coating were observed and clearly defined. Work function (wf) analysis yielded more noble values for areas within the scribe mark and more active values were observed for areas adjacent to the scribe mark where delamination of the coating and filiform corrosion was observed. The tips of corrosion filaments were found to be anodic in relation to the body of the filament, with areas of activity extending away from the filaments themselves. Measurements made on an aircraft access panel resulted in the detection of a potential gradient within the repair area. These results indicate that the scanning Kelvin probe is a useful non-destructive technique for the detection of delamination and disbanding of coatings, coating anomalies and corrosion susceptibility of coatings on aluminum aircraft alloys.

  17. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-07-29

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.

  18. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donhowe, E. T.

    1994-01-01

    based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975, and therefore has had the opportunity to evaluate practical operations of the UV technology...

  19. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    W. Sea Water Activated Aluminium-Air Cell. Electrochim. ActaADVANCES IN ALUMINUM - AIR SALT-WATER BATTERIES. Abstr. Pap.liquid has been shown to be air and water stable and allowed

  20. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Benign Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion DevicesN. J. Aluminum as Anode for Energy Storage and Conversion: Awith other forms of energy storage. In light of this, there

  1. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  3. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  4. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A. [Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted primarily of radioactive wastes containing a very high aluminum concentration. Based on initial laboratory testing and previous sludge characterization, aluminum in this sludge could be dissolved at low temperature (no more than 65 deg. C) in a concentrated caustic solution. The amount of aluminum predicted to dissolve under these conditions ranged from 25% to 80%. An opportunity existed to remove a significant amount of aluminum prior to vitrification in DWPF and increase the level of understanding of the effects of caustic dissolution of aluminum at lower temperatures. This paper presents the results of a real waste laboratory demonstration and full-scale implementation of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process which should be considered as a viable means to reduce radioactive sludge mass and reduce the amount of waste to be vitrified. (authors)

  5. A Program to Output Stored Pictures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, Robert J.

    A program called LPTSEE has been written for use with the MIT vision system. LPTSEE makes use of the overprint capability of the line printer to allow the user to output a stored picture image.

  6. Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels By Chia Hooi Too Queens' College University; Abstract Austenitic stainless steels with excellent corrosion resistance and good weldabil- ity have wide, making the steel `stainless'. However, carbide precipitation due to the welding process or heat treatment

  7. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harten, G; Keller, C U

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in astronomical telescopes. Main goals are the characterization of the aluminum oxide layer thickness at different times after evaporation and its influence on the polarization properties of the mirror. The full polarization properties of an aluminum mirror are measured with Mueller matrix ellipsometry at different incidence angles and wavelengths. The best fit of theoretical Mueller matrices to all measurements simultaneously is obtained by taking into account a model of bulk aluminum with a thin aluminum oxide film on top of it. Full Mueller matrix measurements of a mirror are obtained with an absolute accuracy of ~1% after calibration. The determined layer thicknesses indicate logarithmic growth in the first few hou...

  8. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  9. Reaustenitisation from Bainite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Manabu

    1993-03-16

    .7 APPLICATIONS . . . 1.7.1 Ferrite-Martensite dual phase steels 1.7.2 Steels containing some retained austenite 1.7.3 Welding of steels . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.4 Initial austenite grain size . . . . . . . 1.8 TRANSFORMATION FROM AUSTENITE 1.8.1 Widmanstiitten... is important in the production of dual phase steels which have a final microstructure of ferrite and about 20% martensite. These steels have a good combination of strength and uniform ductility, and find applications in the automobile industry. When a fully...

  10. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  11. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H. [Graduate School of Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan); Haga, T. [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya Asahiku Osaka city 535-8585 (Japan); Watari, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda Midoriku Yokohama city 226-8502 (Japan); Kumai, S. [Gunma University, 1-5-1 tenjin cho Kiryu city 376-8515 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  12. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

  13. Technology maturation project on optimization of sheet metal forming of aluminum for use in transportation systems: Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.I.; Smith, M.T.; Lavender, C.A.; Khalell, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Using aluminum instead of steel in transportation systems could dramatically reduce the weight of vehicles--an effective way of decreasing energy consumption and emissions. The current cost of SMF aluminum alloys (about $4 per pound) and the relatively long forming times of current materials are serious drawbacks to the widespread use of SMF in industry. The interdependence of materials testing and model development is critical to optimizing SMF since the current process is conducted in a heated, pressurized die where direct measurement of critical SMF parameters is extremely difficult. Numerical models provide a means of tracking the forming process, allowing the applied gas pressure to be adjusted to maintain the optimum SMF behavior throughout the forming process. Thus, models can help produce the optimum SMF component in the least amount of time. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is integrating SMF model development with research in improved aluminum alloys for SMF. The objectives of this research are: develop and characterize competitively priced aluminum alloys for SMF applications in industry; improve numerical models to accurately predict the optimum forming cycle for reduced forming time and improved quality; verify alloy performance and model accuracy with forming tests conducted in PNL`s Superplastic Forming User Facility. The activities performed in this technology maturation project represent a critical first step in achieving these objectives through cooperative research among industry, PNL, and universities.

  14. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

  15. Energy Challenges and Conservation Achievements in the Aluminum Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Energy is a vital resource in the production of aluminum. It is economically essential that producers use it efficiently. The aluminum industry developed historically in an economy of energy surplus or abundance. It has responded to energy...

  16. Strategies for aluminum recycling : insights from material system optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Preston Pui-Chuen

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic increase in aluminum consumption over the past decades necessitates a societal effort to recycle and reuse these materials to promote true sustainability and energy savings in aluminum production. However, the ...

  17. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A...

  18. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  19. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  20. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  1. Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheller, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    zinc, bauxite, and the hydroelectric power needed to smeltthe Afobaka hydroelectric dam to power an aluminum smelter

  2. The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, Henry Kinsolving

    1956-01-01

    An investigation of the corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions was made. The total immersion, continuous agitation method of testing was used. Commercially pure aluminum and two aluminum alloys were exposed to various concentrations of boric acid...THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN BORIC ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis By HENRI KINSOLVING BASS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College oi' Texas' in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  3. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Ytre Enebakk, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  4. Continuous VRML output fromContinuous VRML output from regional circulation models: aregional circulation models: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continuous VRML output fromContinuous VRML output from regional circulation models: aregional and volume to viewview ·· Generate Virtual Reality Modeling LanguageGenerate Virtual Reality ModelingDesktop or laptop PC with web browser ­­ High speed/large RAM not essentialHigh speed/large RAM not essential

  5. ALUMINUM--1999 5.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALUMINUM--1999 5.1 ALUMINUM By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic survey data and tables were prepared, international data coordinator. In 1999, 12 domestic companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants beverage can (UBC) scrap accounted for more than one-half of the reported old scrap consumption in 1999

  6. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  7. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how Commonwealth Industries (now Aleris Rolled Products) conducted plant-wide energy assessments at its aluminum sheet rolling mills in Lewisport, Kentucky, and Uhrichsville, Ohio, to improve process and energy efficiency.

  8. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 theoreticalminimumenergies.pdf More Documents & Publications Ironmaking Process Alternatives Screening Study...

  9. July/August 20056 Casting aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    July/August 20056 Bob Rapp Casting aluminum Lay people unfamiliar with metallurgical processing to cast Al commercially. Perhaps I can interest the reader with a summary of this important process. I refer to casting large Al shapes suitable for rolling, forging, pressing, extruding, or drawing to make

  10. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

  11. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  12. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  13. Adjoint Error Correction for Integral Outputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Niles A.

    University Computing Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QD, United Kingdom 2 Applied & Computational Mathematics problem gives the e#11;ect of numerical approximations on the output func- tional of interest and nonlinear di#11;erential equations, incor- porating a range of numerical examples illustrating the ability

  14. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  15. MECS 2006- Iron and Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  16. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  17. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.

    1983-10-25

    A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.

  18. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  19. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  20. Generalized Input/Output Equations and Nonlinear Realizability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan

    operator satisfies a possibly high-order differential input/output equation, then it is locally realizable-9108250 and DMS-9403924 Keywords: Generating series, local realization of input/output operators, input/outputGeneralized Input/Output Equations and Nonlinear Realizability Yuan Wang Mathematics Department

  1. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Céline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

    2012-07-31

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  2. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  3. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore »result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  4. Output Feedback Stabilization of Linear PDEs with Finite Dimensional Input-Output Maps and Kelvin-Voigt Damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Soon-Jo

    Output Feedback Stabilization of Linear PDEs with Finite Dimensional Input-Output Maps and Kelvin with respect to x. The finite dimensional input-output (FDIO) map makes it tempting to design an output of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India. Member, IEEE. paranjape@aero.iitb.ac.in. Soon-Jo Chung

  5. Steel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| Department ofSteam SystemSteamSteel

  6. Shear properties on aluminum metal foams prepared by the melt route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, E. [UTRC GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Technologiezentrum; Baranda, P.S. [UTRC, S.L., Minano (Spain); Bonhomme, J. [ITMA, Coruno-Llanera (Spain). Parque Tecnologico de Asturias

    1998-12-31

    The shear modulus and shear strength of AlSi7Mg Aluminum foam with 15% (vol) of 13 {micro}m SiC particles were determined through shear testing. A foam slab with a density of 0.31 g/cm3 was supplied by Hydro Aluminium. Four samples were tested according to ASTM C 273-61. The specimens were bonded to steel load plates. The relative displacement of the plates was measured using two extensometers. In order to evaluate the effect of the cell size distribution on shear properties, cell size and material distribution analyses were carried out for the metal foam slab in areas close to those from which the shear specimens were extracted. A fast failure was observed after the maximum shear load. The failure in the samples were located in the central section of the slab mainly because the lower density was located there.

  7. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2014-08-15

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative to the widely used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties. TCOs are used in devices such as flat screen displays, photovoltaic cells, photochromic windows, chemical sensors, and biosensors....

  8. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  9. Experimental superplastic characterization of advanced aluminum alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Christopher Carl

    1991-01-01

    categories. The first category is experimental SPF testing procedures at a constant crosshead velocity without an applied hydrostatic pressure, where SPF test data does not accurately measure the superplastic . properties of the alloy under study... recrystallization and cavitation in the alloy. This research involves the design and development of a test system to characterize the SPF properties of advanced aluminum alloys. The system in this study is constructed around an Instron testing machine, high...

  10. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  11. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01

    K. (1977). G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill,LBL-9047 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUALB. Heat Treatment C. Mechanical Testing D. Microscopy

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AISI 4340 STEEL MODIFIED WITH ALUMINUM AND SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    13 (1970) . R. A. Tewari and P. R, Dhar, Trans. 11M, p. 35 (C. Wells, Trans. ASM R. A. Tewari and P, R, Dhar, JISI 208,87 (1970) . R. A. Tewari and P. R. Dhar, Trans. 11M, p.

  13. Evaluation of Oxidation and Hydrogen Permeation of Al Containing Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Thad M.; Korinko, Paul; Duncan, Andrew

    2005-06-17

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings are typically applied to these steel to retard hydrogen ingress. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate the potential for intentional alloying of commercial 300-series stainless steels to promote hydrogen permeation resistant oxide scales. Previous research on the Cr- and Fe-oxide scales inherent to 300-series stainless steels has proven to be inconsistent in effecting permeation resistance. The approach undertaken in this research was to add aluminum to the 300-series stainless steels in an attempt to promote a pure Al-oxide or and Al-rich oxide scale. Aloxide had been previously demonstrated to be an effective hydrogen permeation barrier. Results for 304L and 347H alloys doped with Al in concentration from 0.5-3.0 wt% with respect to oxidation kinetic studies, cyclic oxidation and characterization of the oxide scale chemistry are reported herein. Gaseous hydrogen permeation testing of the Al-doped alloys in both the unoxidized and oxidized (600 C, 30 mins) conditions are reported. A critical finding from this work is that at concentration as low as 0.5 wt% Al, the Al stabilizes the ferrite phase in these steels thus producing duplex austenitic-ferritic microstructures. As the Al-content increases the amount of measured ferrite increases thus resulting in hydrogen permeabilities more closely resembling ferritic steels.

  14. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels Shingo Yamasaki Darwin College appreciate Dr S. Aihara and Mr T. Tarui at Nippon Steel Corporation for giving me the opportunity to study at Nippon Steel Corporation. I am indebted to grants from the Personnel Division of Nippon Steel Corporation

  15. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  16. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  17. Fracture of welded aluminum thin-walled structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive methodology was developed in the thesis for damage prediction of welded aluminum thin-walled structures, which includes material modeling, calibration, numerical simulation and experimental verification. ...

  18. Energy and Environmental Profile of the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Nancy

    1997-07-01

    This detailed report (PDF 2.5 MB) benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the aluminum industry.

  19. Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-02-10

    This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  20. Aluminum-detoxifying compounds in roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tahara, Ko; Hashida, Koh; Ohara, Seiji; Kojima, Katsumi; Shinohara, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    tips of Melaleuca and Eucalyptus species. J For Res. 2005;in aluminum resistance of Eucalyptus camaldulensis andplants (Kochian et al. 2004). Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a

  1. Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil,...

  2. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  3. Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-05-10

    Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

  4. High Waste Loading Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for...

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Aluminum Concentrations in Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    guarantee its technical correctness. Title: Solid and Dissolved Phase Aluminum in Storm Water Runoff on the Pajarito Plateau, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES...

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  7. Bandwidth Guaranteed Multicast Scheduling for Virtual Output Queued Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Deng

    Bandwidth Guaranteed Multicast Scheduling for Virtual Output Queued Packet Switches Deng Pan Dept in Internet multimedia applications. Although several multicast scheduling schemes for packet switches have output queued (VOQ) switches. We propose the Credit based Multicast Fair scheduling (CMF) algorithm

  8. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

  9. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian (Flossmoor, IL); Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  10. Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Self--Aligned Processing,Aligned Processing, and Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layerand Atomic Layer Deposition synthesis by atomic layer deposition (ALD) Significance Realizing nanotechnology benefits requires new combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

  11. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichinger, F.T. [BMH Claudius Peters AG, Buxtehude (Germany); Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  12. Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Half of the steel produced in the United States is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steelmakers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant...

  13. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS...

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    phase steels subjected to intercritical annealing followedphase steels sub- jected to intercritical annealing followedof steels fast quenched after intercritical annealing is a

  15. Economic and environmental evaluation of end-of-life aerospace aluminum options using optimization methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Emily, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of recycling have long been understood and the conspicuous energy savings of secondary aluminum production have caused aluminum recycling to increase. Obsolete aircraft are a valuable source of aluminum scrap ...

  16. MECHANICAL TEST RESULTS ON DIPOLE MODEL C-l 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C.

    2010-01-01

    RESULTS ON DIPOLE MODEL C-1 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS C. PetersRESULTS ON DIPOLE MODEL C-I 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS· CraigON DIPOLE MODEL C-I 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS Craig Peters

  17. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  18. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

  19. Phase Transformations in Heterogeneous Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shahid Amin

    1990-05-08

    for autocatalysis, relying on the fact that immediate vicinity of a plate is disturbed quite severely by a combination of elastic and plastic deformation processes due to the shear like nature of the transformation. • Stress-induced Nucleation, i.e., the activation... elements in steels is twofold. They can affect both the thermodynamics and kinetics of transformations. The hardenability of steels is related directly to the in- fluence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of the decomposition products. Primarily...

  20. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  1. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  3. Surface Preparation of Gallium Nitride for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitride for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide AForce Microscopy Atomic Layer Deposition Capacitance-VoltageSurfaces for Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Oxide” x

  4. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  5. Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass Hak Sung Lee1, * and Bohumil3A 2B2, Canada Abstract: Biomass of nonliving brown seaweed Sargassum fluitans pretreated.5. There are indications that the biomass hydroxyl groups were involved in sequestering the aluminum in the form

  6. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  7. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  8. Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fajans, Joel

    Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa) Department of Physics July 1998 Scientific equipment often uses ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel, relying on the steel's nonmagnetic behavior to leave external magnetic fields unaltered. However, stainless steel's permeability can

  9. Simulating Quantum Circuits with Sparse Output Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Schwarz; Maarten Van den Nest

    2013-10-24

    We show that several quantum circuit families can be simulated efficiently classically if it is promised that their output distribution is approximately sparse i.e. the distribution is close to one where only a polynomially small, a priori unknown subset of the measurement probabilities are nonzero. Classical simulations are thereby obtained for quantum circuits which---without the additional sparsity promise---are considered hard to simulate. Our results apply in particular to a family of Fourier sampling circuits (which have structural similarities to Shor's factoring algorithm) but also to several other circuit families, such as IQP circuits. Our results provide examples of quantum circuits that cannot achieve exponential speed-ups due to the presence of too much destructive interference i.e. too many cancelations of amplitudes. The crux of our classical simulation is an efficient algorithm for approximating the significant Fourier coefficients of a class of states called computationally tractable states. The latter result may have applications beyond the scope of this work. In the proof we employ and extend sparse approximation techniques, in particular the Kushilevitz-Mansour algorithm, in combination with probabilistic simulation methods for quantum circuits.

  10. White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ! quenched! and! untempered! steel! normally! used! in! the! manufacture! of! bearings.!The!varieties!of!cracks!studied!include!sparsely!distributed!martensite(lubricant!interactions,!or!hydrogen!trapping!can!be!studied!further.! ! Keywords:!bearing!steel,!indentation!cracks,!cracked!martensite,!grain(boundary!decohesion,! surface! 1! White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel! ! W

  11. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamasaki, Shingo

    The purpose of this work was to model carbide precipitation in steels of a quaternary system which includes two substitutional elements. The work focuses on secondary hardening steels which are used for high-strength components, where hydrogen...

  12. H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cast H-Series austenitic steels are used extensively in several industries for a broad range of high-temperature applications. The H-Series stainless steels have evolved over many years of complex...

  13. Extraordinary Ductility in Albearing TRIP Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ferrite that is normally introduced into TRIP­assisted steels by intercritical annealing or continuousExtraordinary Ductility in Al­bearing ­TRIP Steel By H. L. Yi1 , K. Y. Lee2 and H. K. D. H strength and elongation which are not available with current steels used in the manufacture of automobiles

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS By Shahriar Sharafi St. Edmund College Department of Sweden for providing the materials. IV #12;ABSTRACT Corrosion resistant stainless steels with a mixed microstructure of o-ferrite and austenite in approximately equal proportion are called "duplex stainless steels

  15. Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Iqbal Shah Corpus Christi College, Cambridge;Abstract The short-term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad of factors. Materials scientists conduct countless trials to find new steel compositions, in an attempt

  16. Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Iqbal Shah Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; Abstract The short­term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad of factors. Materials scientists conduct countless trials to find new steel compositions, in an attempt

  17. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  18. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  19. Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeller, Charles P. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

  20. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cycle & Fuel Materials(11); Nuclear Physics & Radiation Physics(73) radiation output, passive signature, plutonium oxide Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full...

  1. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  2. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  3. Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

  4. Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    practice for your x-ray laser Have you ever accidentally put aluminum foil in the microwave and turned it on? I imagine that is similar to experiments that researchers use to...

  5. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  6. New, More Efficient Technology for Remelting Aluminum Chips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosek, D.

    1994-01-01

    This project will introduce a new, more efficient technology for remelting the considerable volume of aluminum by 6.5% . Automated conveyors will transport chips from the machining operation to the new remelting operation for recycling. A reduction...

  7. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  8. The design of a power system using treated aluminum fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slocum, Jonathan (Jonathan T.)

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and a highly sought after fuel source due to its extreme energy density. It has the ability to produce large quantities of hydrogen and heat when reacted with water ...

  9. Evaluation of heat stress in an aluminum smelter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Stacy Rahkell

    1999-01-01

    of heat stress and heat strain was evaluated for the aluminum smelter workers at Alcoa, Rockdale Operations. Personal, environmental, and metabolic factors that contribute to heat-related illnesses were identified. The effectiveness of current...

  10. Consolidation of aluminum 6061 powder by equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, John Montgomery

    1997-01-01

    Equal channel angular extrusion is a promising approach to obtaining full density in powder metallurgy applications. This method can impose large effective deformations through uniform shear strain. Aluminum alloy 6061 powder is used as a test...

  11. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problematic for landfill operations by generating undesirable heat, liquid leachate, and gases reactions. Another source of water in a MSW landfill is leachate recirculation, which is not recommended: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  12. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2009-08-19

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

  13. Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms R. J. Barthelmie1 and S. C. Pryor2 Abstract: Offshore wind energy is developing rapidly in Europe and the trend is towards large wind farms an offshore wind farm, accurate assessment of the wind resource/power output from the wind farm is a necessity

  14. Toward Controlled Wind Farm Output: Adjustable Power Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggiore, Manfredi

    1 Toward Controlled Wind Farm Output: Adjustable Power Filtering Barry G. Rawn, Student Member research into the limits on controllable power output from wind energy conversion systems. The viewpoint methodology that specifies the delivered power as a filtered version of available wind power. Simulation

  15. channels enable burst output in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Ray

    to generate an appropriate spike output depends on a balance between membrane depolarizationsKv3 K+ channels enable burst output in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells B. E. McKay and R. W. Turner and the repolarizing actions of K+ currents. The high-voltage-activated Kv3 class of K+ channels repolarizes Na+ spikes

  16. POLE PLACEMENT VIA OUTPUT FEEDBACK: A METHODOLOGY BASED ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orsi, Robert

    POLE PLACEMENT VIA OUTPUT FEEDBACK: A METHODOLOGY BASED ON PROJECTIONS Kaiyang Yang and Robert Orsi feedback pole placement problems of the following rather general form: given n subsets of the complex plane, find a static output feedback that places in each of these subsets a pole of the closed loop system

  17. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  18. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  19. MODELING THE COOLDOWN OF FORCE COOLED COILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    for copper, aluminum, stainless steel, and epoxy. Mostspine fit. For copper, stainless steel, and aluminum, theof the range for copper, stainless steel, and aluminum. The

  20. Saving Output to a File (Using Codeblocks or Dev-C++) Saving Your Output to a File

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokol, Dina

    Saving Output to a File (Using Codeblocks or Dev-C++) Saving Your Output to a File To save | New | Source File. d. In the new window, right-click and select Paste. e. Then select "File | Save as" to save and name the file. i. In the window that pops up, the bottom fill-in box is labelled "Save as type

  1. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  2. Passive states optimize the output of bosonic Gaussian quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacomo De Palma; Dario Trevisan; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-11-01

    An ordering between the quantum states emerging from a single mode gauge-covariant bosonic Gaussian channel is proven. Specifically, we show that within the set of input density matrices with the same given spectrum, the element passive with respect to the Fock basis (i.e. diagonal with decreasing eigenvalues) produces an output which majorizes all the other outputs emerging from the same set. When applied to pure input states, our finding includes as a special case the result of A. Mari, et al., Nat. Comm. 5, 3826 (2014) which implies that the output associated to the vacuum majorizes the others.

  3. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  4. Seismic Performance and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls with Low Yield Point Steel Infill Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zirakian, Tadeh

    2013-01-01

    Bhowmick A.K. (2009a). Seismic Analysis and Design of Steeland Grondin G.Y. (2009b). “Seismic analysis of steel plateand Bhagwagar T. (2002). “Seismic retrofit of flexible steel

  5. Correction method for in-air output ratio for output variations occurring with changes in backscattered radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajiri, Minoru; Tokiya, Yuji; Watanabe, Kazuhiro [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International University of Health and Welfare, 1-4-3, Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8329 (Japan); Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The in-air output ratio (S{sub c}) for a rectangular field is usually obtained using an equivalent square field formula. However, it is well-known that S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula differs slightly from the measured S{sub c}. Though several correction methods have been suggested for the monitor-backscatter effect, the authors propose a more simple correction method for a rectangular field. Methods: For rectangular fields and equivalent square fields, the authors assumed that the output variation was the product of six output variations for each backscattering area at the top of the collimator jaws, and the correction factor was the ratio of the output variation for a rectangular field to the output variation for an equivalent square field. The output variation was measured by using a telescope measurement. Results: The differences between the measured and corrected S{sub c} ranged from -0.20% to 0.28% for symmetric rectangular fields by applying the correction factor to S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula. This correction method is also available for asymmetric rectangular fields. Conclusions: The authors propose a method to correct S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula, and a method to obtain the output variation for a field defined by collimator jaws.

  6. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F. (Bolingbrook, Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  7. A quantitative determination of the conditions for hot cracking during welding for aluminum alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steenbergen, James Everett

    1969-01-01

    REFERENCES ~ ~ ~ . ~ 12 23 23 46 55 56 VITA 58 vi LIST OP TABLES Table Page Properties of Aluminum Alloys Test Results for 6061-T6 Aluminum Test Results for 7075-T6 Aluminum Strain Data for 6061-T6 Aluminum Strain Data for 7075-T6 Aluminum 27...' These alloys were selected because of their usage in structural design applications and availability. Test specimens were machined from sheet stock in preparation for generation of the test data. The generation of the experimental test data for the aluminum...

  8. Operation of an aluminum-intensive vehicle : report on a six-year project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L. L.; Cuenca, R. M.

    2002-05-02

    In 1994, Ford produced a small demonstration fleet of Mercury Sables with aluminum bodies. Argonne National Laboratory obtained one of these vehicles on a lease so that Laboratory staff could observe the wear characteristics of the body under normal operating conditions. The vehicle was placed in the transportation pool, parked outdoors, and used by staff members for both local and longer trips. The vehicle performed normally, except for having particularly good acceleration because of its light weight and highpower SHO engine. No significant problems were encountered that related to the Al body or engine. No special driving protocols were observed, but a log was kept of trip lengths and fuel purchases. Fuel economy was observed to be improved, compared with that of a similar conventional steel-bodied vehicle that was available for one year of the lease period. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer to obtain emissions and fuel economy over the federal test cycle. The impacts of further mass reduction were also simulated. At the end of the lease, the body was in excellent condition, which we documented with a set of detailed photographs before the vehicle was returned to Ford. There were minor imperfections in the painted surface, probably resulting from the omission of an E-coat during the painting process. We also examined three similar conventional vehicles for comparison; these exhibited varying degrees of rust.

  9. 13 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important in certain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the formation of martensite. Steels like these (Alloy 1, Table 13.1), when normalised, are found to transform13 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important balance of hardenability in the context of large scale steel production technologies. Lean steels tend

  10. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output Perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output. This is typically not feasible for mesoscale weather prediction carried out locally by organizations without by simulating realizations of the geostatistical model. The method is applied to 48-hour mesoscale forecasts

  11. Grid adaptation for functional outputs of compressible flow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, David Anthony, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    An error correction and grid adaptive method is presented for improving the accuracy of functional outputs of compressible flow simulations. The procedure is based on an adjoint formulation in which the estimated error in ...

  12. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  13. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  14. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  15. Tomography of photon-number resolving continuous-output detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter C. Humphreys; Benjamin J. Metcalf; Thomas Gerrits; Thomas Hiemstra; Adriana E. Lita; Joshua Nunn; Sae Woo Nam; Animesh Datta; W. Steven Kolthammer; Ian A. Walmsley

    2015-02-26

    We report a comprehensive approach to analysing continuous-output photon detectors. We employ principal component analysis to maximise the information extracted, followed by a novel noise-tolerant parameterised approach to the tomography of PNRDs. We further propose a measure for rigorously quantifying a detector's photon-number-resolving capability. Our approach applies to all detectors with continuous-output signals. We illustrate our methods by applying them to experimental data obtained from a transition-edge sensor (TES) detector.

  16. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

  17. STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge Competition (SSBC) is to supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    1 STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION 2012 RULES #12;2 MISSION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge individuals in the Student Steel Bridge Competition without regard to race, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, or physical challenges. Bridge teams should be inclusive and open

  18. Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Influence Formation of AlF 3 Passive Film on Aluminum in Li-Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ionEngineering Abstract The passive film that forms on aluminum

  19. Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic induced martensitic transformation of the retained austenite in TRIP assisted steels. The authors begin transformation? S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels

  20. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS...

  1. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel...

  2. Mag-Foot: a steel bridge inspection robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asada, Harry

    A legged robot that moves across a steel structure is developed for steel bridge inspection. Powerful permanent magnets imbedded in each foot allow the robot to hang from a steel ceiling powerlessly. Although the magnets ...

  3. HEAT TREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DUPLEX 1010 AND 1020 STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    1020 steels were subjected to the two phase * " annealingof steel. A viable alternative utilizes annealing in the twoAnnealing (1010). The-.initial microstructure is important in the duplex proc­ essing of steel, and

  4. Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels. T. Sourmail and H. K developed for simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels, taking into account for important phases in creep-resistant austenitic stainless steels. 1 Introduction Precipitation phenomena

  5. PROTON INDUCED SWELLING IN TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Damage in an Austenitic Stainless Steel, USAEC Report ORNL-Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 142. D.and Nicke1- Irradiated 304 Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 499.

  6. FERRITE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW ALLOY DUPLEX STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoel, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.of Niobium Microalloyed Dual- Phase Steel, MetallurgicalAND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE

  8. Current Output and Adjustment The 0-20mA current output is derived from the 0-10V output.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Robert G.

    . There is no power supplied to the unit or power connections are reversed. The range LEDs are designed such that at least one of the LEDs will be lit whenever power is applied. · Sudden output change and/or no response reviewing these hints, call Lion Precision for assistance at 651-484-6544. · None of the range LEDs are lit

  9. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  10. Reactive self-heating model of aluminum spherical nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karen S. Martirosyan; Maxim Zyskin

    2012-12-17

    Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in many highly energetic, high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a "double-layer" type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts overall oxidation time scale in microseconds range, in agreement with experimental evidence.

  11. Reactive self-heating model of aluminum spherical nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martirosyan, Karen S

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in many highly energetic, high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a "double-layer" type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts overall oxidation time scale in microseconds range, in agreement with experimental evidence.

  12. Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

    2003-09-09

    A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

  13. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium...

  14. Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) with an Integrated Experimental and Simulation Approach Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) with...

  15. First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  16. Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation Experiment Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation...

  17. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Mraz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-01-01

    in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured andI. INTRODUCTION Vacuum arc plasma is well known to be highlymeasured for vacuum arc plasmas. Aluminum plasma, for

  18. Energy Conservation Design Features of the ARCO Metals Logan County Aluminum Process Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Speer, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    ARCO Metals Company (Formerly Anaconda Aluminum Company) is proceeding as scheduled with the construction of a $400 Million aluminum processing complex in Logan County, Kentucky. When the initial construction phase is ...

  19. The Development of ALADIN,an Expert System for Aluminum Alloy Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Mark S.

    -Mel- lon Unit,., Pittsburgh, PA, USA 1. Introduction ALADIN (ALuminum Alloy Design INventor) is an expert publications in The- oretical Physics. Dr. Hulthage is working on The Aluminum Alloy Design Inventor (Aladin

  20. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  1. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  2. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  3. CARBON DIFFUSION ACROSS DISSIMILAR STEEL WELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    CARBON DIFFUSION ACROSS DISSIMILAR STEEL WELDS By Julia Margaret Race St. John's College, Cambridge. 111 #12;#12;ABSTRACT Dissimilar steel welds are used extensively in the power generation industry to the high alloy side of the weld. This leaves an area on one side of the weld denuded of carbon

  4. Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel D. W. Kim1 , R. S. Qin1 and H. K. D. H into martensite or bainite are well established because the process by which the parent lattice is transformed within the austenite before its transformation. Keywords: Allotriomorphic ferrite, Steel, Texture, Dual

  5. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  6. STRAIN AGING OF AUSTENITIC HADFIELD MANGANESE STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    STRAIN AGING OF AUSTENITIC HADFIELD MANGANESE STEEL W. S. OWEN1 { and M. GRUJICIC2 1 Department®eld steel is discussed in terms of the interstitial octahedron, local-order model, which de®nes order on the metal sublattice are frozen on sites determined either by the high-temperature equilibrium anneal

  7. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Jerry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Philip A. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

  8. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  9. BWeb Copy of the Aluminum Chapter from the 1st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    to a cheap source of electric power, typically a large scale hydro-electric facility. With 2,204 pounds industry. It then exploits the power of arrays to develop a model which distinguishes between smelters Falls Power Company. The partnership between large scale aluminum production and power generation

  10. Mechanical properties of dissimilar metal joints composed of DP 980 Steel and AA 7075-T6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squires, Lile [Brigham Young University, Provo; Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Miles, Michael [Brigham Young University, Provo; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A solid-state joining process, called friction bit joining (FBJ), was used to spot weld aluminum alloy 7075-T6 to dual phase 980 steel. Lap shear failure loads for specimens without adhesive averaged about 10kN, while cross tension specimens averaged 2.8kN. Addition of adhesive with a thickness up to 500 m provided a gain of about 50% to lap shear failure loads, while a much thinner layer of adhesive caused a rise of about 20% to cross tension failure loads. Microstructures of the welds were martensitic, but the hardness of the joining bit portion was greater, owing to its higher alloy content. Softening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a welded joint appeared to be relatively small, though enough to cause some nugget pullout failures in lap shear tension. Other failures in lap shear tension were interfacial, while all of the failures in cross tension were interfacial.A solid-state joining process, called friction bit joining (FBJ), was used to spot weld aluminum alloy 7075-T6 to dual phase 980 steel. Lap shear failure loads for specimens without adhesive averaged about 10kN, while cross tension specimens averaged 2.8kN. Addition of adhesive with a thickness up to 500 m provided a gain of about 50% to lap shear failure loads, while a much thinner layer of adhesive increased cross tension failure loads by 20%. Microstructures of the welds were martensitic, but the hardness of the joining bit portion was greater than that of the DP 980, owing to its higher alloy content. Softening in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a welded joint appeared to be relatively small, though enough to cause nugget pullout failures in some lap shear tension specimens. Other failures in lap shear tension were interfacial, while all of the failures in cross tension were interfacial.

  11. Cavity-output-field control via interference effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viorel Ciornea; Mihai A. Macovei

    2014-10-25

    We show how interference effects are responsible for manipulating the output electromagnetic field of an optical micro-resonator in the good-cavity limit. The system of interest consists in a moderately strongly pumped two-level emitter embedded in the optical cavity. When an additional weaker laser of the same frequency is pumping the combined system through one of the resonator's mirrors then the output cavity electromagnetic field can be almost completely suppressed or enhanced. This is due to the interference among the scattered light by the strongly pumped atom into the cavity mode and the incident weaker laser field. The result applies to photonic crystal environments as well.

  12. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Handbook providing practical information to help regulators decide if they want to use output-based regulations and explains how to develop an output-based emission standard

  13. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH MMFX STEEL HATEM SELIEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steel in bridge decks. The paper also presents the effects bending MMFX steel bars on their tensile, Corrosion, High-Strength Steel, MMFX, Flexure, Punching Shear. ABSTRACT This paper describes the behavior reinforcement. In addition, for the new steel to be accepted as transverse reinforcement, the effects of bending

  15. Steels for Bearings H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6 Microcracking 33 7 Spheroidise Annealing 34 8 Steels for Aerospace Bearings 41 8.1 SpecialSteels for Bearings H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia May 5, 2011 Director, SKF University Technology Centre for Steels Tata Steel Professor of Metallurgy University of Cambridge Materials Science and Metallurgy

  16. Output-increasing, protective cover for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerbacher, Milfred D. (Dallas, TX)

    1995-11-21

    A flexible cover (14) for a flexible solar cell (12) protects the cell from the ambient and increases the cell's efficiency. The cell(12)includes silicon spheres (16) held in a flexible aluminum sheet matrix (20,22). The cover (14) is a flexible, protective layer (60) of light-transparent material having a relatively flat upper, free surface (64) and an irregular opposed surface (66). The irregular surface (66) includes first portions (68) which conform to the polar regions (31R) of the spheres (16) and second convex (72) or concave (90) portions (72 or 90) which define spaces (78) in conjunction with the reflective surface (20T) of one aluminum sheet (20). Without the cover (14) light (50) falling on the surface (20T) between the spheres (16) is wasted, that is, it does not fall on a sphere (16). The surfaces of the second portions are non-parallel to the direction of the otherwise wasted light (50), which fact, together with a selected relationship between the refractive indices of the cover and the spaces, result in sufficient diffraction of the otherwise wasted light (50) so that about 25% of it is reflected from the surface (20T) onto a sphere (16).

  17. Submodule construction for specifications with input assumptions and output guarantees *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    bisimulation as conformance relation), and by synchronous finite state machines [Kim 97]. A restricted with synchronous communication or interleaving semantics. The paper also provides a new solution formula input and output. A new submodule construction algorithm for synchronous, partially defined input

  18. A Spatial Analysis of Multivariate Output from Regional Climate Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sain, Steve

    , Columbus, OH 43210, ncressie@stat.osu.edu. 1 #12;1 Introduction Many processes in the Earth system cannot, etc. Climate models attempt to represent this system, as well as to incorporate anthropogenic forcingsA Spatial Analysis of Multivariate Output from Regional Climate Models Stephan R. Sain,1 Reinhard

  19. APPROXIMATION THEORY OF OUTPUT STATISTICS Dept. Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdú, Sergio

    . In order to generate a ran- dom process we assume that a primary random source with an equiprobableAPPROXIMATION THEORY OF OUTPUT STATISTICS Te Sun Han Dept. Information Systems Senshu University-length) source coding rate of any finite-alphabet source, and a strong converse of the identijication coding

  20. ANALOG-DIGITAL INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM FOR APPLE CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Initialization Program - ADIOS INITB Appendix 2 Test Program - ADIOS TEST Appendix 3 AND9513 Utilization Appendix HI-506A. Multiplexer F. Sprague UHP -507 Relay Driver G. Teledyne Solid-State Relays H. Advanced bus driver, a 4-bit relay driver, or two solid-state relays. Three of the digital output bits can

  1. Enhanced immune function does not depress reproductive output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christians, Julian

    by a physiological (resource allocation) trade-o¡ between immune function and reproductive e¡ort, and several recent, based on a reciprocal, negative relationship between resources allocated to immune functionEnhanced immune function does not depress reproductive output T. D. Williams* , J. K. Christians, J

  2. TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    1 TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT Grantham Pang, Chi emitting diodes; tricolor display; audio communication. I. Introduction This paper relates to a tricolor broadcasting through the visible light rays transmitted by the display panel or assembly. Keywords: light

  3. Design of Controllers for a Multiple Input Multiple Output System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Amanda Lynne

    2012-07-16

    A method of controller design for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system is needed that will not give the high order controllers of modern control theory but will be more systematic than the “ad hoc” method. The objective of this method...

  4. Computability in Anonymous Networks: Revocable vs. Irrecovable Outputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computability in Anonymous Networks: Revocable vs. Irrecovable Outputs Yuval Emek 1 Jochen Seidel 2 Zurich ­ Distributed Computing Group ­ www.disco.ethz.ch #12;Anonymous Networks #12;Computability in Anonymous Networks #12;Computability in Anonymous Networks Computable Not Computable #12;Computability

  5. Control of fuel cell power output Federico Zenith, Sigurd Skogestad *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of fuel cell power output Federico Zenith, Sigurd Skogestad * Department of Chemical A simplified dynamic model for fuel cells is developed, based on the concept of instantaneous characteristic, which is the set of values of current and voltage that a fuel cell can reach instantaneously

  6. POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS A. EREMENKO AND A. GABRIELOV of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for each system in U, there exists an open set of pole configurations, symmetric with respect to the real line, which cannot

  7. Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback A. Eremenko # and A. Gabrielov + 6 these conditions, there is a non­empty open subset U of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for systems in U , there exist open sets of pole configurations which cannot

  8. Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback A. Eremenko and A. Gabrielov 6 these conditions, there is a non-empty open subset U of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for systems in U, there exist open sets of pole configurations which cannot

  9. POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS A. EREMENKO # AND A. GABRIELOV of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for each system in U , there exists an open set of pole configurations, symmetric with respect to the real line, which cannot

  10. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

  11. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  12. KHAMIS, LAMPERT: CO-CLASSIFICATION WITH OUTPUT SPACE REGULARIZATION 1 CoConut: Co-Classification with Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    KHAMIS, LAMPERT: CO-CLASSIFICATION WITH OUTPUT SPACE REGULARIZATION 1 CoConut: Co, otherwise independent, data samples. The method we present, named CoConut, is based on the idea of adding on the class labels. CoConut can build on existing classi- fiers without making any assumptions on how

  13. Light Steel Framing: Improving the Integral Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundarain, Aitor; Torero, Jose L; Usmani, Asif; Al-Remal, Ahmad M

    2006-09-11

    Light Steel Framing has been extensively used in cold climate countries due to its good thermal and structural behaviour. Improved thermal behaviour results in positive environmental impact essential for sustainable ...

  14. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiawen

    The microstructure of a steel is often developed by solid-state transformation from austenite. The major transformation products are allotriomorphic ferrite, pearlite, Widmanstatten ferrite, bainite and martensite, differentiated by morphological...

  15. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  16. Prevention of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2015-01-01

    The essential facts about the nature of the hydrogen embrittlement of steels have now been known for 140 years. It is diffusible hydrogen that is harmful to the toughness of iron. It follows, therefore, that the harmful influence of diffusible...

  17. HotEye® Steel Surface Inspection System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new inspection system, the HotEye® Rolled Steel Bar (RSB) System, has been developed and demonstrated by OG Technologies (OGT) Inc., with the help of both a NICE3 grant and a project under the...

  18. Instrumentation of Steel Const. Award to CE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Overheight vehicle impact to bridge decks is a major problem in the transportation networks in the United States. An important factor that causes this problem is inadequate vertical clearance of bridges. Using steel pedestals to elevate bridge decks...

  19. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors forWe have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substratefor smooth polishing. Stainless steel is stronger and can be

  20. Beam Energy Scaling on Ion-Induced Electron Yield from K+ Impact on Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Yield from K + Impact on Stainless Steel Michel Kireeff CovoThe K + ions hit the stainless steel target with energy upenergies hitting stainless steel target obtained from

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddick, Glen T.

    2011-01-01

    OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT ANDOF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT ANDOF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND

  2. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  3. EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of

  4. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jayoung (Berkeley, CA); Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  5. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  6. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  7. Irradiation Assisted Grain Boundary Segregation in Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zheng; Faulkner, Roy G.

    2008-07-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced grain boundary segregation (RIS) has considerably improved over the past decade. New models have been introduced and much effort has been devoted to obtaining comprehensive information on segregation from the literature. Analytical techniques have also improved so that chemical analysis of layers 1 nm thick is almost routine. This invited paper will review the major methods used currently for RIS prediction: namely, Rate Theory, Inverse Kirkendall, and Solute Drag approaches. A summary is made of the available data on phosphorus RIS in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This will be discussed in the light of the predictions of the various models in an effort to show which models are the most reliable and easy to use for forecasting P segregation behaviour in steels. A consequence of RIS in RPV steels is a radiation induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). It will be shown how it is possible to relate radiation-induced P segregation levels to DBTT shift. Examples of this exercise will be given for RPV steels and for ferritic steels being considered for first wall fusion applications. Cr RIS in high alloy stainless steels and associated irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) will be briefly discussed. (authors)

  8. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  9. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  10. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunsden, Barry S. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  11. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  12. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  13. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Marc L. (Harriman, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  14. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform with Classical Output for Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Yang Pang; Ben-Qiong Hu

    2007-06-17

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the base of modern signal or information processing. 1-Dimensional fast Fourier transform (1D FFT) and 2D FFT have time complexity O(NlogN) and O(N^2logN) respectively. Quantum 1D and 2D DFT algorithms with classical output (1D QDFT and 2D QDFT) are presented in this paper. And quantum algorithm for convolution estimation is also presented in this paper. Compared with FFT, QDFT has two advantages at least. One of advantages is that 1D and 2D QDFT has time complexity O(sqrt(N)) and O(N) respectively. The other advantage is that QDFT can process very long signal sequence at a time. QDFT and quantum convolution demonstrate that quantum signal processing with classical output is possible.

  15. Isentropic Compression Experiment on Aluminum Using the Z-Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, D.R.; Peterson, R.R.; Blanchard, J.P

    2003-07-15

    The capability of using the Z-Machine at Sandia to perform isentropic compression experiments has been discussed by Hall previously. Pressures exceeding 1.5 Mbar have been launched into materials and the pressure wave can be shaped by varying the load current in Z. In this paper, theoretical results will be presented for an aluminum sample in which we obtain isentropic equations of state (EOS) information.Obtaining the isentropic EOS is necessary in many scientific and technological fields for computer simulations. We will follow the procedure outlined by Reisman to determine the EOS. From these steps, we will determine the theoretical EOS of aluminum using data obtained from BUCKY. We will discuss any variances we have in our results due to the use of two different sets of EOS opacity data.The results presented here were obtained using BUCKY, a 1-D MHD code developed at University of Wisconsin-Madison. BUCKY is a code that simulates high energy density plasmas and target yields for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). BUCKY was originally designed to study target physics and target chamber designs for ICF reactors but can be used to study Isentropic Compression Experiments.We will describe the procedure used to determine the velocity wave profile measurements that leads to determining EOS. From the velocity wave profile we will be able to determine the isentropic compression equations of state of the aluminum sample modeled.

  16. The effects of output transformers on distortion in audio amplifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanier, Ross Edwin

    1949-01-01

    in Pig. 8. The audio frequency amplifier is a conventional single-ended, fixed bias, power amplifier using a 6?6 tube connected for triode operation and driven by a low impedance audio frequency oscillator. The amplifier was coupled to its recommended... distortion in either the primary or the output of the transformer. 52 INTZRMODUIATION DISTORTION Hewlett-Packer Audio Frequenc Oscillator odel 200 Regulate Power Supply Aud o Frequenc Am lifie rane orme under Hew e -Pac sr Harmonic lliave...

  17. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  18. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  19. Metallurgical Research Engineer AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    and carrying out laboratory and plant-based experiments · Qualifying new process routings for existing products and electrical steels, has an immediate opening for an Engineer in its Research & Innovation Center located Send Resume to: molly.keith@aksteel.com AK Steel is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified

  20. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The absolute theoretical minimum energies to produce liquid steel from idealized scrap (100% Fe) and ore (100% Fe2O3) are much lower than consumed in practice, as are the theoretical minimum energies to roll the steel into its final shape.

  1. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  2. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  3. Tension bending ratcheting tests of 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, L.D.; Jones, D.P.; Rapp, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses results of an experimental program conducted to investigate the strain ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel under various combinations of applied membrane load and displacement controlled cyclic bending strain. Tests were performed on uniaxial specimens at temperatures of 70 F (21 C) and 550 F (288 C). Bending strain, ratchet strain and axial displacement of the specimens were monitored throughout the tests. Membrane stress to monotonic yield stress ratios of 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3 were tested with pseudo-elastic bending stress to yield stress ratios ranging from 1.4 to 10.7. Test output was in the form of plots of cumulative axial membrane strain versus cycles up to the point of shakedown, i.e., the point at which no additional progressive strain was observed. Shakedown was demonstrated in the 500 F tests but not the room temperature tests. The 550 F results are shown in terms of shakedown membrane strain versus equivalent bending stress ratio for each of the tested membrane stress ratios. The cyclic and monotonic stress-strain curves for the test materials are presented to enable the use of various models for predicting the ratcheting and shakedown behavior. The results may be used to develop improved ratcheting and shakedown rules permitting a relaxation of the traditional ratcheting rules in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

  4. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-06

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary.

  5. EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baram, J.

    2013-01-01

    EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUMEMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM J.Al 1100 samples during plastic deformation were analyzed

  6. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  7. Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

  8. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2009-06-02

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  9. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2010-08-24

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  10. Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

    1992-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16831 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RELIABLE GAS TURBINE... OUTPUT; ATTAINING TEMPERATURE INDEPENDENT PERFORMANCE James E. Neeley, P.E. Power Plant Engineer Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled with dropping gas prices, has made gas...

  11. Fracture toughness properties of low Charpy energy shelf steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    A low Charpy shelf steel is defined in this report as a steel which has a Charpy impact energy sufficiently low (less than 50 ft-lbs) to mitigate the determination of RT/sub NDT/ as defined by Appendix G of Section III of the ASME code. Six steels (one in both the irradiated and the unirradiated states) with Charpy shelf energies between 30 and 60 ft-lbs are evaluated. The evluation is based on an examination of the Charpy impact curves and fracture toughness parameters such as K/sub Ic/ and K/sub Ia/. One material was a low Charpy shelf steel for which both unirradiated and irradiated results are considered. Two of the materials are degraded (quenched only) carbon steels while a third is a high strength rotor forging steel. One material is a pipe steel and one is an ordinary carbon structural steel.

  12. Ferritic-martensitic steel subjected to equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, David Christopher

    2009-05-15

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel (T91) has been extensively investigated as a structural material for GenIV nuclear reactors and Accelerator Driven Transmutation systems. One attractive characteristic of this steel in these applications...

  13. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  14. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  15. Analytical modeling of composite steel-concrete frame systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atahan, Ali Osman

    1996-01-01

    of reinforced concrete or composite steel shapes encased in reinforced concrete (SRC), structural steel beams, and composite beam-column joints. To facilitate the modeling of inelastic deformations in joint regions, a panel element capable of representing joint...

  16. Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in helicopter gear steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purushothaman, Ganesh Kumaran

    2001-01-01

    to the workpiece. From microhardness distributions in the subsurface of hardened steels, visible burn is found to be accompanied by reaustenitization of the workpiece. With burning, rehardening of the steel also occurs. Rehardening is a consequence...

  17. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  18. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  19. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant Lightweight Rear Chassis Structures Future Generation Passenger Compartment AutoSteel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

  20. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  1. The Pricing of Electricity to Aluminum Smelters in the Northwest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    prompted Bonneville to search for Innovative pnClng schemes designed to maintain its revenue base Bonneville's proposed strategy Includes tYing the price of electricity it seilS to tne alumlr,u~ smelters to the world price of aluminum. This paper wili... examine Bonneville's proposed pnClng strategy; it will also examine other strategies to reduce uncertainty In the region's future electriC load. BACKGROUND For well over half a century, electrical power has been a cornerstone of the PaCific Northwest...

  2. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification applies to pellets of aluminum oxide that may be ultimately used in a reactor core, for example, as filler or spacers within fuel, burnable poison, or control rods. In order to distinguish between the subject pellets and “burnable poison” pellets, it is established that the subject pellets are not intended to be used as neutron-absorbing material. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

  3. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  4. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  5. The Signifance of Retained Austenite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadeshia, H K D H

    1980-02-05

    . Introduction 90 2. Experimental Method and Techniques 91 3. Results and Discussion 92 4. Summary 94 VIII. An Analysis o£ the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure o£ a High-Silicon Dual-Phase Steel 1. Introduction 2. De£ormation Models 3. Experimental... £ects such that the extent o£ twinning was the greatest when adjacent martensite units had twin-related lattices. The thermodynamics o£ dislocated martensites have been briefly examined, The inhomogeneous de£ormation behaviour o£ dual-phase steels has been analysed in terms...

  6. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  7. Casting Engineer Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    AK Steel Casting Engineer ­ Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless, will act in support of primary and secondary steelmaking as well as casting operations for carbon

  8. MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY OF STRONG 912 wt% Cr STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    viewpoint, the factors determining the long­term (105 h) stability of martensitic creep­resistant steels­design procedures. Although the paper deals with the martensitic steels, its conclusions are general ­ for this reason it is necessary to briefly explain why martensitic steels are so popular in the modern power

  9. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    of martensite on hydrogen embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels has not been firmly established. Although stainless steels, ' martensite, in both sensitized and nonsensitized microstructures, is associated-induced martensite [6- 8]. The role of high-nickel compositions in type 316 stainless steels can then be said

  10. Mechanisms of Tempered Martensite Embrittlement in Low Alloy Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Mechanisms of Tempered Martensite Embrittlement in Low Alloy Steels R. M. HORN AND ROBERT O strength martensitic steels, heat-treated to achieve optimum combinations of strength, ductility, and tough-quenched alloy steels in the range 250 to 450~ (tempered martensite embrittlement). Whereas there is now a large

  11. Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels A. Das1,2,3 , P. C that the crystallographic texture due to martensitic transformation can be predicted for 18/8 austenitic stainless steel steel was prestrained and then tested in tension at a temperature where martensite was induced

  12. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    and corrosion resistance. Type 304 stainless steel is, however, susceptible to strain- induced martensitic in austenitic stainless steels, a' martensite, is associated with lower resistance to hydrogen embrittlementTechnical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels: Type 304

  13. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  14. Improving the Performance of Creep-Strength-Enhanced Ferritic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to maximize performance of CSEF steels · Activities combine basic & applied R&D with strong power industry Steels Approach to improved CSEF steels relies on two strategies 1. Modified heat treatments: ­ Could stress-rupture results suggested reduced tendency for HAZ failures · "Standard" heat treatment: 760°C

  15. Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings Richard Hardin and Christoph are summarized. Hardin, R., and Beckermann, C., "Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings An overview of the objectives and progress made by the "Integrated Design of Steel Castings for Service

  16. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    in the production of steel castings. Removing inclusions and refilling the defect areas with the weld metal account in steel with oxygen during pouring of the (deoxidized) steel from the ladle into the mold. Oxy- gen may come from the surrounding atmosphere, refracto- ries, slag, or the sand mold.[3] The atmosphere

  17. Spheroidisation of Hypereutectoid State of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    annealing [16] but such processes are impractical to adopt for general use. Nanostructured bainitic steels retards the spheroidisation process in high carbon steel during isothermal annealing [17], making it allSpheroidisation of Hypereutectoid State of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel D. Luoa , M.J. Peeta , S

  18. Characterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . Experimental procedure Stainless steel (316L) wires with 190 mm diameter in the annealed state are usedCharacterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire H. S. Wang1 , J. R. Yang1 of 316L austenitic stainless steel has been examined using TEM and X-ray diffraction. The deformation

  19. High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial Electrolysis Cells D O U G L show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2 /m3 , hydrogen was produced

  20. Microstructural Investigation of Co-rolled Nanocrystalline Stainless Steel Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Microstructural Investigation of Co-rolled Nanocrystalline Stainless Steel Sheets Delphine RetraintL austenitic stainless steel is commonly used in the food, chemical or petrochemical industries stainless steel plates of dimensions 120 × 120 × 1 mmand chemical composition (wt.%) 0.025 C, 0.38 Si, 1

  1. Microstructural Development during Solidification of Stainless Steel Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) Microstructural Development during Solidification of Stainless Steel Alloys J.W. ELMER, S.M. ALLEN, and T.W. EAGAR The microstructures that develop during the solidification of stainless steel investigates the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys and describes

  2. Weldability Of New Ferritic Stainless Steel For Exhaust Manifold Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Weldability Of New Ferritic Stainless Steel For Exhaust Manifold Application Vincent Villaret1-2, a-marie.fortain@airliquide.com, e gilles.fras@iut-nimes.fr, f fabien.januard@airliquide.com Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, efficiency and small size. To achieve such requirements, ferritic stainless steels with high chromium content

  3. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning will describe the process used for cleaning and processing stainless steel. As examples I will use our as good as ever. #12;Summary of the Cleaning Process for Stainless Steel (e.g. 316 L) 1. Keep the items

  4. absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 3538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ±4 dislocation density 26±9, 70±1 distribution of carbon 71±2 driving forces 202±4 dual phase steels 358absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 353±8 acicular ferrites 237±76 forging steels 273±4 growth 240±3 inoculation 267±75 lattice matches 245 morphology 237±40 nucleation 243

  5. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 -...

  6. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 The U.S....

  7. Structural Analysis of LargeStructural Analysis of Large Caliber Hybrid Ceramic/SteelCaliber Hybrid Ceramic/Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Structural Analysis of LargeStructural Analysis of Large Caliber Hybrid Ceramic/SteelCaliber Hybrid Ceramic/Steel Gun BarrelsGun Barrels MS ThesisMS Thesis Jon DeLongJon DeLong Department of Mechanical ·Merger of ceramics into the conventional steel gun barrel design ·Use of a probabilistic structural

  8. Electrical and mechanical studies of high purity aluminum single crystals at 4.2 K under cyclic strain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Hong

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of orientation on strain hardening and resistivity degradation in high purity aluminum single crystals resulting from uniaxial cyclic strain at 4.2 K. Aluminum crystals with various...

  9. Study of Dislocation Densities Through the Thickness of 7050 Aluminum Cory Parker, David Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Study of Dislocation Densities Through the Thickness of 7050 Aluminum Cory Parker, David Field WSU number DMR-1062898. Introduction 7050 Aluminum is a lightweight, yet strong, alloy primarily used rather difficult due to the presence of a wide range of particles in the substrate. 7050 goes through

  10. Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Wayne

    Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils M. Dall'Agnol, J. H. Bouton,* and W. A. Parrott ABSTRACT Soil acidity and aluminum (Al)toxicity are major problems different screening methods for selection of acid soil tolerant alfalfa germplasms in the greenhouse during

  11. Fracture response of externally flawed aluminum cylindrical shells under internal gaseous detonation loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Al

    Fracture response of externally flawed aluminum cylindrical shells under internal gaseous. Experiments were performed to observe the fracture behavior of thin- wall and initially-flawed aluminum tubes to different fracture events are analyzed. Keywords: tube fracture, detonation, crack branching, crack curving

  12. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templated Channel Electrodes via Atomic Layer A. B. F. Martinsona,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templated Channel Electrodes via Atomic Layer Deposition A. B. F. Martinsona of transparent, semiconducting oxides via atomic layer deposition may allow for significantly faster charge aluminum oxide membranes via atomic layer deposition. Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs

  13. Comparative study of the growth of sputtered aluminum oxide films on organic and inorganic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Frank

    coatings as they are used, e.g., in gas-turbine engines [2]. Ultrathin and well-ordered aluminum oxide material aluminum oxide in inorganic and also organic heterostructures. Atomic force microscopy studies such as microelectronics, optics and coating technology. Because of its extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal

  14. A thermomechanical study of the effects of mold topography on the solidification of Aluminum alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    1 A thermomechanical study of the effects of mold topography on the solidification of Aluminum-3801, USA A thermomechanical study of the effects of mold topography on the solidification of Aluminum alloys at early times is provided. The various coupling mechanisms between the solid-shell and mold

  15. Chemical Preparation of Aluminum Borate Whiskers I. Erkin GNENLI and A. Cneyt TAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531, Turkey Aluminum borate Aluminum sulphate (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O, 99.9%, Riedel de-Haen, Seelze, Germany), boric acid (H3BO3: 99.9%, Riedel de-Haen, Germany) and potassium sulphate (K2SO4: 99.9%, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) were accurately

  16. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  17. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  18. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  19. Stochastic Analysis of Stable Marriages in Combined Input Output Queued Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goel, Ashish

    Stochastic Analysis of Stable Marriages in Combined Input Output Queued Switches Ashish Goel 1 Balaji Prabhakar 2 Abstract Traditionally, Output Queued switch architectures have been proposed to implement Quality of Service schemes such as Weighted Fair Queueing. Output Queued switches with N input

  20. SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E power output variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power output

  1. A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms Sairaj to the power output of a wind farm while factoring in the availability of the wind turbines in the farm availability model for the wind turbines, we propose a method to determine the wind-farm power output pdf

  2. Aalborg Universitet On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sera, Dezso

    Aalborg Universitet On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz version (APA): Sera, D., & Baghzouz, Y. (2008). On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power DEZSO SERA

  3. A Deep Learning Model for Structured Outputs with High-order Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    A Deep Learning Model for Structured Outputs with High-order Interaction Hongyu Guo , Xiaodan Zhu to generate a powerful nonlinear functional mapping from structured input to structured output. More nonlinear functional mapping from high-order structured input to high-order structured output. To this end

  4. A 400 to 500-MHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Multi-Watt Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, William B.

    PA cells are power-combined to generate approximately 5-Watt output. The same PA chip is used, the authors demonstrated a fully integrated CMOS 1-Watt PA with high-Q 1:3 turns- ratio output balun [8A 400 to 500-MHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Multi-Watt Output Jeongmin Jeon, Student Member, IEEE

  5. Flexible High-Output Nanogenerator Based on Lateral ZnO Nanowire Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Flexible High-Output Nanogenerator Based on Lateral ZnO Nanowire Array Guang Zhu, Rusen Yang scalable sweeping-printing-method, for fabricating flexible high- output nanogenerator (HONG) that can-circuit voltage of up to 2.03 V and a peak output power density of 11 mW/cm3 have been achieved. The generated

  6. Supplementary Information Flexible high-output nanogenerator based on lateral ZnO nanowire array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    1 Supplementary Information Flexible high-output nanogenerator based on lateral ZnO nanowire array voltage input was provided by a functional generator (peak value of 2 V and 0.5 Hz); and the output direction is along the c-axis. #12;3 Durability test Figure S3. Result of the durability test on the output

  7. Augmenting Test Suites Effectiveness by Increasing Output Diversity Nadia Alshahwan and Mark Harman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Mark

    that output uniqueness shall be used to augment a traditional test generation adequacy criterion not replace for relatively high coverage test suites. In this paper we use output uniqueness to augment a test suiteAugmenting Test Suites Effectiveness by Increasing Output Diversity Nadia Alshahwan and Mark Harman

  8. PARALLEL HIGH THROUGHPUT SOFT-OUTPUT SPHERE DECODER Q. Qi, C. Chakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    - putation complexity of only the list generator. Recently, a high speed systolic-like soft-output spherePARALLEL HIGH THROUGHPUT SOFT-OUTPUT SPHERE DECODER Q. Qi, C. Chakrabarti School of Electrical,chaitali}@asu.edu ABSTRACT Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output communication systems de- mand fast sphere decoding with high

  9. Toward high output-power nanogenerator Peng Fei,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Toward high output-power nanogenerator Jin Liu,1 Peng Fei,1,2 Jun Zhou,1 Rao Tummala,1 and Zhong contributed by all of the NWs while the output voltage is determined by the voltage generated by a single NW 2008; published online 29 April 2008 In this paper, the factors that determine the power output

  10. Aluminum (l5Onm) Organic Layers (lOOnm)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    in OLED structures has resulted [1] in significant improvements in both light output (brightness________________________ ITO (l8Onm) Glass (1.1mm) Fabrication of natural DNA-containing organic light emitting diodes Eliot F, Ohio 45433-7707 USA ABSTRACT The process of creating natural DNA-containing bio-organic light emitting

  11. Steel Innovations Conference 2013 Christchurch, New Zealand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    to transform seismic design in many applications. However, in spite of all the foreseen excellent attributesSteel Innovations Conference 2013 Christchurch, New Zealand 21-22 February 2013 SEISMIC BEHAVIOR of the structural system, lack of knowledge on its expected seismic performance has been an absolute impediment

  12. Hydrogen Susceptibility of Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peet, Matthew; Hojo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    to 2-5% and UTS to 65-70% of prior value. Thermal desorption measurements confirmed the higher solubility of hydrogen in the steel with higher austenite content. The level of hydrogen saturation was found to correlate to the total area of grain...

  13. Selection of Processes for Welding Steel Rails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    structure. · Particular attention is given to thermit, flash and oxyacetylene processes with some discussion for welding of steel rail. The traditional pro- cesses of thermit, oxacetylene and flash welding are well is brought to an elevated temperature, and the heat diffuses into the bulk of the metal. Thermit, electroslag

  14. Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagnall, Christopher (Hempfield, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield, PA)

    1985-01-01

    For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

  15. Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    casting due to thermal effects (temperature differences) and volume changes (e.g., shrinkage, sand are the primary reasons for dimensional changes during casting. In the case such shrinkage is free or unrestrained of the sand and the solidifying steel. Such hindered shrinkage of restrained casting features is usually less

  16. Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through...

  17. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  18. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  19. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Douglas, Kent E. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  20. TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

  1. Structure of stagnated plasma in aluminum wire array Z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Bott, S. C.; Rapley, J.; Chittenden, J. P.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2006-08-15

    Experiments with aluminum wire array Z pinches have been carried out on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)]. It has been shown that in these arrays, there are two intense sources of radiation during stagnation; Al XII line emission from a precursor-sized object, and both continuum and Al XIII radiation from bright spots of either significantly higher temperature or density randomly distributed around this object so as to produce a hollow emission profile. Spatially resolved spectra produced by spherically bent crystals were recorded, both time-integrated and time-resolved, and were used to show that these two sources of radiation peak at the same time.

  2. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  3. Formability Prediction Of Aluminum Sheet In Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppin, Christian; Daniel, Dominique; Shahani, Ravi; Gese, Helmut; Dell, Harry

    2007-05-17

    In the following paper, a full mechanical characterization of the AA6016 T4 aluminum alloy car body sheet DR100 is presented. A comprehensive experimental program was performed to identify and model the orthotopic elasto-plastic deformation behavior of the material and its fracture characteristics including criteria for localized necking, ductile fracture and shear fracture. The commercial software package MF GenYld + CrachFEM in combination with the explicit finite element code Ls-Dyna is used to validate the quality of the material model with experiments, namely, prediction of the FLD, deep drawing with a cross-shaped punch and finally, analysis of a simplified hemming process using a solid discretization of the problem. The focus is on the correct prediction of the limits of the material in such processes.

  4. Single-crystalline aluminum film for ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Bo-Tsun; Wu, Yen-Mo; Chung, Yi-Chen; Hsueh, Wei-Jen; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic devices have advanced significantly in the past decade. Being one of the most intriguing devices, plamonic nanolasers plays an important role in biomedicine, chemical sensor, information technology, and optical integrated circuits. However, nanoscale plasmonic devices, particularly in ultraviolet regime, are extremely sensitive to metal and interface quality, which renders the development of ultraviolet plasmonics. Here, by addressing the material issues, we demonstrate a low threshold, high characteristic temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor ZnO nanolaser working at room temperature. The template for ZnO nanowires consists of a flat single-crystalline aluminum film grown by molecular beam epitaxy and an ultra-smooth Al2O3 spacer layer prepared by atomic layer deposition. By effectively reducing surface plasmon scattering loss and metal intrinsic absorption loss, the high-quality metal film and sharp interfaces between layers boost the device performance. Our work paves the way for future applicati...

  5. Advanced manufacturing by spray forming: Aluminum strip and microelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. INEL is developing a unique spray-forming method based on de Laval (converging/diverging) nozzle designs to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Properties of the spray-formed material are tailored by controlling the characteristics of the spray plume and substrate. Two examples are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the replication of micron-scale features in micropatterned polymers during the production of microelectromechanical systems.

  6. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  7. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  8. Microscale investigation of the corrosion performances of low-carbon and stainless steels in highly alkaline concretes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion Behaviour of New Stainless Steels Reinforcing BarsSpecification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes. ” ASTMFilms of Different Stainless Steels Developed on Alkaline

  9. SARAH 3.2: Dirac Gauginos, UFO output, and more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Staub

    2013-02-12

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and one-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac Gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of model implementations have been created.

  10. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

  11. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-01-19

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

  12. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  13. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-18

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation.

  14. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  15. Transformation Strain and Crystallographic Texture in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Saurabh

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5.2 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.6 Evolution of martensitic transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 v CONTENTS vi 2.6.1 Koistinen-Marburger equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6.2 Justification... TEXTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 1 Introduction Displacive transformations in steels such as bainite and martensite gener- ate dilatational and shear strains of about 0.03 and 0.22-0.26 respectively [1]. However, the shear strains associated...

  16. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrouge, Dominique

    steels, show a marked temperature dependence of the fracture toughness, as indicated in figure 1.11. At high temperatures fracture occurs normally by ductile rupture, whereas cleavage is the dominating fracture mode at low temperatures. The low carbon con... ductile metal experiences brittle frac- ture when exposed to both a tensile stress and hydrogen resulting from metal dissolu- tion in a corrosive atmosphere. Hydrogen-induced cracks are most often transgranu- lar, although intergranular fracture...

  17. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  18. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  19. Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2012-01-01

    A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  1. Analytical study and cost modeling of secondary aluminum consumption for alloy producers under uncertain demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A series of case studies on raw materials inventory strategy for both wrought and cast aluminum alloy productions were conducted under recourse-based modeling framework with the explicit considerations of the demand ...

  2. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  3. Design of an aluminum differential housing and driveline components for high performance applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Richard A. (Richard Alexander), 1982-

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design a lightweight aluminum differential housing to replace the cast-iron housing used in the Torsen® T-1. The redesigned housing was destined for use in the 2004 MIT Formula SAE vehicle, ...

  4. Angular-dependent interatomic potential for the aluminum-hydrogen system F. Apostol* and Y. Mishin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishin, Yuri

    , an aluminum oxide layer protects the underlying Al alloy from the environment. But in the presence of me- chanical stresses, the oxide layer can develop microscopic cracks exposing the alloy surface. Water

  5. Fabrication and applications of nanocomposite structures using anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gapin, Andrew Isaac

    2007-01-01

    effects of this thin oxide layer have led to numerousof an anodized aluminum oxide layer will now be examined.and thickening of the oxide layer. One critical aspect of

  6. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA...

  7. Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, Syed Faisal

    2014-07-23

    solubility. Chloride can be removed from water and wastewater by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using advanced softening process. This research was conducted to evaluate chloride removal using electrochemically generated aluminum hydroxide and lime...

  8. Recycling production designs : the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brommer, Tracey H. (Tracey Helenius)

    2013-01-01

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an ...

  9. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. An in-situ interdiffusion method for harvesting energy from an aluminum-water reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandeau, Erich John

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are indispensable for countless underwater tasks but are currently limited in their range and endurance by the energy density of their battery packs. Aluminum is an ideal energy source ...

  11. Temperature-dependent Urbach tail measurements of lutetium aluminum garnet single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberman, Vladimir

    Lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) is the most promising candidate for a high-index lens material for use in microlithographic imaging lenses. In the deep ultraviolet spectral range the transmission of high-purity LuAG was ...

  12. Phosphate and Organic Acids as Competing Sorbates on Amorphous Aluminum Oxide. (3791)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Phosphate and Organic Acids as Competing Sorbates on Amorphous Aluminum Oxide. (3791) Authors: K that organics (i.e. oxalic acid), readily present in PL, play in P retention under varying pH conditions

  13. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  14. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  15. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  16. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35  Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  17. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen...

  18. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel...

  19. New Austenitic Stainless Steels for Exhaust Components (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08maziasz9112.pdf More Documents & Publications CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components Vehicle Technologies Office...

  20. Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mechanical properties and limitations during steady state operation of U-ZrH TRIGA type fuel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical...

  1. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Stainless steel weld metal designed to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    to be significantly better than commercially available martensitic stainless steel welding consumables, and it has transformation, Residual stress, Stainless steel, Martensitic, Transformation plasticity Introduction Residual weld metal could be based on a martensitic stainless steel. Although such alloys are available

  2. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry Bandwidth Study U.S....

  3. Design of duplex low-carbon steels with carbide forming elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costello, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    molybdenum steel is more sensitive to annealing temperatureannealing with selected commercial and experimental low-carbon steels.annealing and the resultant volume fraction of the strong phase, played a major role in the duplex processing of steel.

  4. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01

    I Ferritic-Martensitic Steel Annealing temp (°C) Oy eu eTa+ y) phase annealing for dual phase steels when good impactphase annealing temperatures. The boron-treated steel shows

  5. In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe Rolling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe; haemocompatibility. Abstract. Bulk nanocrystalline 304 stainless steel (nanocrystalline 304ss) discs had been successfully prepared by the commercial microcrystalline 304 stainless steel (microcrystalline 304ss) plate

  6. Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys. Electron beam welds, laser beam welds and rapidly solidified stainless steel alloys have small physical Fe content by measur- ing the magnetic properties of fully ferritic stainless steel specimens

  7. CARBON ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY~4720 1 U.S.A. IntroductioE. Dual Phase steels are currentlymartensite-austenite dual phase steel, although the results

  8. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 0.1C STEEL WITH Nb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, Jing-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.and Prooerties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Prooerties of Vanadium Dual Phase Steel and Cold Pressing

  9. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01

    and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~Formable HSLA and Dual- Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  10. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Dabbs; Ilhan A. Aksay

    2005-01-12

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations.

  11. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01

    RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

  12. Geometry dependence of crack growth resistance curves in thin sheet aluminum alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stricklin, Lance Lee

    1988-01-01

    and 7475 aluminum alloys were cut into ~ T, 1T, 2 T compact tension specimens, fatigue precracked, and tested under displacement control at room temperature. The data were reduced using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), Irwin plasticity... of specimens before testing; (2) the actual test procedures including data acquisition; (3) the use of several techniques including photoelastic methods for analysis. SPECIMEN PREPARATION The materials tested were a 2090 aluminum-lithium alloy and a 7475...

  13. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 3, Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1991-12-06

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined that early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m of 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum (Al) particles. From the measured particle velocity data, we are able to infer the reaction rate of aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. We observed that a substantional portion of the aluminum metal in all of the PETN and TNE formulations reacted within the timeframe of the one-dimensional experiment. In the PETN formulation filed with 5 wt % of 5 {mu}m aluminum, all of the metal reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 22% in energy compared to pure PETN. A reactive-flow hydrodynamic model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction produce expansion (Taylor wave) is used to interpret the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism for aluminum and the global kinetic parameters used in the model have been found to be consistent for all the PETN and TNT formulations.

  14. THE USE OF MICROSTRUCTURE CONTROL TO TOUGHEN FERRITIC STEELS FOR CRYOGENIC USE. II. Fe-Mn STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    steels in current use at LNG temperatures and below containtemperature to below LNG temperature. The resulting alloysis suitable for use to below LNG temperature in the grain-

  15. Quasi-output-buffered switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Jay Cheng, Duan-Shin Lee and Chi-Feung Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    Quasi-output-buffered switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Jay Cheng, Duan-Shin Lee and Chi-Feung Wu--Output-buffered switches are known to have better performance than other switch architectures. However, output- buffered switches also suffer from the notorious scalability prob- lem, and direct constructions of large output

  16. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  17. Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M. [Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita, 870-0152 (Japan); Yakushiji, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita, 870-0152 (Japan); Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita, 870-1192 (Japan)

    2006-03-06

    The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

  18. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  19. An aluminum resist substrate for microfabrication by LIGA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Boehme, Dale R.; Hauck, Cheryl A. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter; Hunter, Luke L.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; McLean, Dorrance E.; Aigeldinger, Georg; Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Hachman, John T.; Losey, Matthew W.; Skala, Dawn M.; Korellis, John S.; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2005-04-01

    Resist substrates used in the LIGA process must provide high initial bond strength between the substrate and resist, little degradation of the bond strength during x-ray exposure, acceptable undercut rates during development, and a surface enabling good electrodeposition of metals. Additionally, they should produce little fluorescence radiation and give small secondary doses in bright regions of the resist at the substrate interface. To develop a new substrate satisfying all these requirements, we have investigated secondary resist doses due to electrons and fluorescence, resist adhesion before exposure, loss of fine features during extended development, and the nucleation and adhesion of electrodeposits for various substrate materials. The result of these studies is a new anodized aluminum substrate and accompanying methods for resist bonding and electrodeposition. We demonstrate successful use of this substrate through all process steps and establish its capabilities via the fabrication of isolated resist features down to 6 {micro}m, feature aspect ratios up to 280 and electroformed nickel structures at heights of 190 to 1400 {micro}m. The minimum mask absorber thickness required for this new substrate ranges from 7 to 15 {micro}m depending on the resist thickness.

  20. Polymerization of phenylacetylene by triethyl aluminum and titanium tetraethoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, A.C. (Pitney Bowes, Inc., Danbury, CT); Waters, P.F.; Aldridge, M.H.

    1982-07-01

    The polymerization of phenylacetylene to polyphenylacetylene was accomplished with the combined catalysts triethyl aluminum and titanium tetraethoxide. The progress of the reaction was monitored by gas chromatography. The parameters included temperature (-80, 25, 140/sup 0/C), solvent (benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, cyclohexane, and nitrobenzene), mole ratio of catalysts (Al/Ti; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 9.0), aging times of catalysts (2, 10, and 40 min), and order of addition of reagents. Derivatives of polyphenylacetylene were obtained by the acylation of polyphenylacetylene with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride, the sulfonation of polyphenylacetylene with benzenesulfonyl chloride, and the formation of polyphenylacetylene complexes with complexing agents such as bromine, iodine, iodine chloride, boron trifluoride, and ferric chloride. A new phenylacetylene-acetylene product mixture was produced by the polymerization of phenylacetylene and acetylene at 25 and -80/sup 0/C. The electrical conductivity of polyphenylacetylene and its derivatives is in the range of 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -3/ ..cap omega../sup -1/ cm/sup -1/.

  1. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  2. Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using...

  3. Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical the corrosion rate of Type 304 stainless steel (SS) in subcritical and supercritical environments. The EN

  4. Output Field-Quadrature Measurements and Squeezing in Ultrastrong Cavity-QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Stassi; Salvatore Savasta; Luigi Garziano; Bernardo Spagnolo; Franco Nori

    2015-09-30

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the correct output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interactions and cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  5. Quasi-Output-Buffered Switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Fellow, IEEE, Jay Cheng, Senior Member, IEEE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    1 Quasi-Output-Buffered Switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Fellow, IEEE, Jay Cheng, Senior Member, IEEE-buffered switches have better performance than other switch architectures. However, output-buffered switches also-buffered switches are difficult. In this paper, we study the problem of constructing scalable switches that have

  6. Optimizing the Output of a Human-Powered Energy Harvesting System with Miniaturization and Integrated Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    1 Optimizing the Output of a Human-Powered Energy Harvesting System with Miniaturization]. Aside from reducing power consumption in such systems, har- vesting human energy output as a potential mechanical energy from human foot-strikes and explore its configuration and control towards optimized energy

  7. Distinguishers for the Compression Function and Output Transformation of Hamsi-256

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Distinguishers for the Compression Function and Output Transformation of Hamsi-256 Jean, with digital signatures and integrity checks as their main applications. Collision attacks on the deployed as the full 6-round output transformation. The former gives near-collisions on (256 - 25) bits

  8. Code optimization and analysis for multiple-input and multiple-output communication systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue, Guosen

    2005-11-01

    at the output of the soft-input soft-output (SISO) multiuser detectors as a function of the pdf of input extrinsic messages, user spreading codes, channel impulse responses, and signal-to-noise ratios. Using these techniques, we are able to accurately compute...

  9. On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output Pavel Hub´acek Daniel Wichs Abstract We study the communication complexity of secure function evaluation (SFE). Consider SFE protocols have communication complexity that scales with size of the output y, which can

  10. Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH- Input/Output-Procedure Peter Paerisch/Output-Controllers for in situ and automatic function control of solar thermal systems that were developed within the research project have been installed in 12 systems. After five years seven solar thermal systems benefited from

  11. Statistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    are calculated with R, a language for statistical computing. The routine STEP in R is used to remove variablesStatistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS Annemiek Pijnappel De Bilt, 2011 | Stageverslag #12;#12;Statistical post processing of model output from the air

  12. Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, A. Douglas

    Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers Hakan E. T many modes and their competition can address the mode selection and output power of these lasers lasing patterns of two- dimensional dielectric microcavity lasers of different shape, including

  13. High power CW Tm:YLF laser with a holographic output Alex Dergachev, Peter F. Moulton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    High power CW Tm:YLF laser with a holographic output coupler Alex Dergachev, Peter F. Moulton Q with output power exceeding 30 W. 2003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3580) Lasers, solid yet reported of a high power Tm-doped bulk laser operated with a bulk holographic Bragg grating

  14. Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardo-Carrión, Juan R.

    Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models using output from nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model, Meso-NH, simulations. The radiative for a systematic evaluation of the mesoscale cloud models. An overall good agreement is obtained for both

  15. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  16. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  17. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  18. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  19. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, John M. (Greenville, TX)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  20. Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharafi, Shahriar

    1993-12-07

    -DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS By Shahriar Sharafi St. Edmund College Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Pelnbroke Street Calnbridge CB23QZ A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Calnbridge September 1993... The experts of Science and Culture are like candles Which light the way through the darkness for humanity But they never find daylight They just tell a tale and leave. OMAR KHAYYAM The great Persian Scienti3t, Philosopher and Poet Late 11th/early 12th Century...

  1. Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Abstract Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass

  2. Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate. The inclusion model is implemented in a general-purpose casting simulation code. The model is validated

  3. MODELLING OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN NOVEL HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    MODELLING OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN NOVEL HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WELDS by Gethin Rees Ernmanuel College . . . . Nomenclature List CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 An Introduction to the Welding Process 1.1.1 The Welding Processes . . 1.1.2 The Welding Thermal Cycle 1.2 An Introduction to the Metallurgy of Steel 1.2.1 Pure Iron

  4. DESIGN OF PARTIALLY RESTRAINED STEEL FRAMES USING ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Christopher M.

    DESIGN OF PARTIALLY RESTRAINED STEEL FRAMES USING ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND AN OBJECT by the experience and intuition of the designer. However, researchers are continually developing analysis of the steel frames in lieu of design specification and code requirements. The advanced analysis based design

  5. The limit of strength and toughness of steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhen

    2001-12-17

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the governing principles of strength and toughness, along with the approaches that can be used to improve these properties and the inherent limits to how strong and tough a steel can be.

  6. Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-10-01

    Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ºC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

  7. Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    austenitic stainless steels such as AISI- 304L and 301L partially transform to martensite when deformed. #12Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold rolled and deformed by tension of martensite crystallography (PMTC ) and Patel-Cohen´s theory for variant selection to predict crystallographic

  8. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR STEEL STRUCTURES IN MODERATE SEISMIC REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Eric

    DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR STEEL STRUCTURES IN MODERATE SEISMIC REGIONS E.M. Hines1 and L.A. Fahnestock2 ABSTRACT The authors propose a design philosophy for steel buildings in moderate seismic regions that draws of the International Building Code has introduced seismic design to regions of North America that heretofore have

  9. Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels B. Qin and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Twinning induced plasticity steels are austenitic alloys in which mechanical twinning is a prominent deformation, Twinning, Twinning induced plasticity, Automobiles Introduction Mechanical twinning is a plastic

  10. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  11. EFFECT OF POROSITY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 8630 CAST STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    of steel castings. Likewise there are no guidelines relating non-destructive testing or non- destructive radiographs of 8630 steel fatigue test specimens taken prior to fatigue testing. The measurement procedure well with the fatigue test specimens' measured elastic modulus. Converting the elastic modulus

  12. MODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , or even larger shrinkage cavities found in inadequately fed cast sections. Microporosity can cause leaksMODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING Kent D. Carlson, Zhiping Lin pressure, feeding flow, and porosity formation and growth in steel castings during solidification

  13. INTEGRATED DESIGN OF STEEL CASTINGS FOR SERVICE PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Bellet TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2006 #12;Casting Simulation (Shrinkage PredictionINTEGRATED DESIGN OF STEEL CASTINGS FOR SERVICE PERFORMANCE Richard. A. Hardin1 , Richard K. Huff2, USA 2 Caterpillar Inc., Champaign, IL 61820, USA Keywords: steel casting, porosity, fatigue life

  14. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and refilling the defect areas with weld metal account for approximately 20% of the direct cost of steel pouring of the (deoxidized) steel from the ladle into the mold. Oxygen may come from the surrounding atmosphere, refractories, slag, or the sand mold (Sommerville and McKeogh, 1981). The atmosphere is generally

  15. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  16. Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortensi, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation of Ga ions into 316 stainless steel was performed at fluences ranging from 8x10¹? to 10¹? ions/cm². The depth profile of Ga in the steel was analyzed via Rutherford Backscattering and ToFSIMS. The surface effects were...

  17. Optimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    in the prices of energy might significantly affect the profitability as shown for a stainless-steel productionOptimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time- Sensitive Electricity Cost Hubert Research, Wallstadter Str. 59, 68526 Ladenburg, Germany b Technische Universität Dortmund, Emil-Figge Str

  18. Predicting the Energy Output of Wind Farms Based on Weather Data: Important Variables and their Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladislavleva, Katya; Neumann, Frank; Wagner, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy plays an increasing role in the supply of energy world-wide. The energy output of a wind farm is highly dependent on the weather condition present at the wind farm. If the output can be predicted more accurately, energy suppliers can coordinate the collaborative production of different energy sources more efficiently to avoid costly overproductions. With this paper, we take a computer science perspective on energy prediction based on weather data and analyze the important parameters as well as their correlation on the energy output. To deal with the interaction of the different parameters we use symbolic regression based on the genetic programming tool DataModeler. Our studies are carried out on publicly available weather and energy data for a wind farm in Australia. We reveal the correlation of the different variables for the energy output. The model obtained for energy prediction gives a very reliable prediction of the energy output for newly given weather data.

  19. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

  20. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-03-16

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range. 3 figs.

  1. Biomolecular Filters for Improved Separation of Output Signals in Enzyme Logic Systems Applied to Biomedical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Halamek; Jian Zhou; Lenka Halamkova; Vera Bocharova; Vladimir Privman; Joseph Wang; Evgeny Katz

    2011-10-08

    Biomolecular logic systems processing biochemical input signals and producing "digital" outputs in the form of YES/NO were developed for analysis of physiological conditions characteristic of liver injury, soft tissue injury and abdominal trauma. Injury biomarkers were used as input signals for activating the logic systems. Their normal physiological concentrations were defined as logic-0 level, while their pathologically elevated concentrations were defined as logic-1 values. Since the input concentrations applied as logic 0 and 1 values were not sufficiently different, the output signals being at low and high values (0, 1 outputs) were separated with a short gap making their discrimination difficult. Coupled enzymatic reactions functioning as a biomolecular signal processing system with a built-in filter property were developed. The filter process involves a partial back-conversion of the optical-output-signal-yielding product, but only at its low concentrations, thus allowing the proper discrimination between 0 and 1 output values.

  2. System for adjusting frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, David B.

    2006-11-14

    A system for setting and adjusting a frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator in a network is disclosed. The system comprises an accumulator module configured to receive pulses from an oscillator and to output an accumulated value. An adjustor module is configured to store an adjustor value used to correct local oscillator drift. A digital adder adds values from the accumulator module to values stored in the adjustor module and outputs their sums to the accumulator module, where they are stored. The digital adder also outputs an electrical pulse to a logic module. The logic module is in electrical communication with the adjustor module and the network. The logic module may change the value stored in the adjustor module to compensate for local oscillator drift or change the frequency of output pulses. The logic module may also keep time and calculate drift.

  3. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  4. Desorption and sublimation kinetics for fluorinated aluminum nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Davis, Robert F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and desorption of halogen and other gaseous species from surfaces is a key fundamental process for both wet chemical and dry plasma etch and clean processes utilized in nanoelectronic fabrication processes. Therefore, to increase the fundamental understanding of these processes with regard to aluminum nitride (AlN) surfaces, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to investigate the desorption kinetics of water (H{sub 2}O), fluorine (F{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and other related species from aluminum nitride thin film surfaces treated with an aqueous solution of buffered hydrogen fluoride (BHF) diluted in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). Pre-TPD XPS measurements of the CH{sub 3}OH:BHF treated AlN surfaces showed the presence of a variety of Al-F, N-F, Al-O, Al-OH, C-H, and C-O surfaces species in addition to Al-N bonding from the AlN thin film. The primary species observed desorbing from these same surfaces during TPD measurements included H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HF, F{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH with some evidence for nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) desorption as well. For H{sub 2}O, two desorption peaks with second order kinetics were observed at 195 and 460?°C with activation energies (E{sub d}) of 51?±?3 and 87?±?5?kJ/mol, respectively. Desorption of HF similarly exhibited second order kinetics with a peak temperature of 475?°C and E{sub d} of 110?±?5?kJ/mol. The TPD spectra for F{sub 2} exhibited two peaks at 485 and 585?°C with second order kinetics and E{sub d} of 62?±?3 and 270?±?10?kJ/mol, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with previous E{sub d} measurements for desorption of H{sub 2}O from SiO{sub 2} and AlF{sub x} from AlN surfaces, respectively. The F{sub 2} desorption is therefore attributed to fragmentation of AlF{sub x} species in the mass spectrometer ionizer. H{sub 2} desorption exhibited an additional high temperature peak at 910?°C with E{sub d}?=?370?±?10?kJ/mol that is consistent with both the dehydrogenation of surface AlOH species and H{sub 2} assisted sublimation of AlN. Similarly, N{sub 2} exhibited a similar higher temperature desorption peak with E{sub d}?=?535?±?40?kJ/mol that is consistent with the activation energy for direct sublimation of AlN.

  5. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  6. Engineer HR/CR Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    & Technology Center located in Middletown, Ohio. This position, reporting to the Manager of Process Research facilities. Travel may be required in support of AK Steel's manufacturing plants. The ideal candidate of this position. Send Resume to: molly.keith@aksteel.com AK Steel is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified

  7. Microbial and Colloidal Deposition to Solid Surfaces: Effect of Heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gexin

    2009-01-01

    aluminum alloy and stainless steel” Langmuir 25:1620-1626 G.bare and zeolite-coated stainless steel and aluminum alloy:aluminum alloy and stainless steel” Langmuir 25: 1620-

  8. Preparations, properties, and applications of periodic nano arrays using anodized aluminum oxide and di-block copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Kunbae

    2011-01-01

    alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition. Nano Letters,example, by using atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxidedeposition or atomic layer deposition, for various other

  9. Computer simulation of grain boundary self-diffusion in aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dragunov, Andrei S., E-mail: andrei.dragunov@aun.edu.ng [American University of Nigeria, Nigeria, Adamawa State, Yola Yola By-Pass 98 Lamido Zubairu Way (Nigeria); Weckman, A. V.; Demyanov, B. F. [Altai State Technical University, Russia, Altai Region, Barnaul (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-06

    In the work study the process of self-diffusion in symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GB) with the axes misorientation [100], [110] and [111]. The research was carried out by the methods of computer simulation The objects of the research are the three GB of common and special type for each axis misorientation. The angles of misorientation of the common GB is amounted to 10°, 30° and 50°. The simulation was performed by the method of molecular dynamics in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 K, with an interval of 50 K. For research on the direction jumps atoms were built tracks the movement of atoms in the process of self-diffusion. The calculations have shown, that for all of GB is characterized by pronounced anisotropy of the jumps at low temperatures (< 700K). At temperatures near to the melting point directions of the jumps are isotropic only for three GB (?=30°[100], ?=50=[100] and ?5(013)[100]). For other GB such as [100] and [110] remains priority direction of diffusion along the nuclei GB dislocations. Arrenius curves have from one to three linear plots with different tilt. Change the tilt of Arrenius dependences testifies to the change in the mechanism of self-diffusion. The parameters of grainboundary self-diffusion were determined The activation energy of grainboundary diffusion in 4–5 times lower than the energy of activation of a volume self-diffusion of aluminum (about 200 KJ/mol). The minimum value of activation energy has GB 10° with the axis misorientation [100] (10,15 KJ/mol), maximum (104.12 Kj/mol) - a special GB ?11(113)

  10. Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney

    2015-03-16

    We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

  11. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  12. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  13. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  14. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian (Glenmont, NY); Bievenue, Thomas J. (Delmar, NY); Burdett, John H. (Charlton, NY); Gallagher, Brian W. (Guilderland, NY); Shakshober, Stuart M. (Hudson, NY); Chen, Zewu (Schenectady, NY); Moore, Michael D. (Alplaus, NY)

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  15. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Martensitic on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Martensitic Stainless Steels Heat Treatable (Fe-Cr type) (code 1820) 1. General The martensitic stainless steels with low nickel are hardenable

  16. Oxidation behavior of ferriticmartensitic and ODS steels in supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Oxidation behavior of ferritic­martensitic and ODS steels in supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff swelling under irradiation and to stress cor- rosion cracking, ferritic­martensitic steels, such as HCM12A such as the 9CrODS (JAEA) and the 14CrODS (CEA) steels are ferritic­martensitic steels that contain a fine

  17. Design and identification of high performance steel alloys for structures subjected to underwater impulsive loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Necking Dynamic fracture a b s t r a c t Martensitic and austenitic steel alloys were designed to optimize under various loading paths. The model was calibrated for two high performance martensitic steels (HSLA-100 and BA-160) and an austenitic steel (TRIP-120). The martensitic steel (BA-160) was designed

  18. d TRIP steel S. Chatterjee, M. Murugananth and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of 23%. Keywords: TRIP assisted steel, Martensite, Bainite, d Ferrite Introduction Steels into martensite during deformation.1­10 The critical solute in TRIP assisted steels is silicon, whichd TRIP steel S. Chatterjee, M. Murugananth and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* A combination of neural

  19. Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers W. Brostow*1 modification of selected tool steels. The steels were covered with adhesive coatings of the hard chrome type was determined by a profilometer before and after burnishing. Adhesion of coatings to steel was determined

  20. Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmignani, B

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine