National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ous coal processing

  1. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  2. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  6. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  8. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  9. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  10. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  11. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  12. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  13. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  14. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  15. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  16. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  17. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  18. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  19. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  20. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  1. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  2. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  3. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  4. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  5. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  6. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  7. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  8. Integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Skinner, Ronald W.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved two-stage process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal.

  9. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  10. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  11. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  12. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  13. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  14. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  15. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  16. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Winshel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    Consol R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The first objective will utilize analytical techniques which have not been fully demonstrated; the second objective involves more previously proven methods. This quarter, two feed coals and 39 process oils from Wilsonville Run 258 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 258 was operated in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. The subbituminous feed coals were from the Spring Creek Mine (Anderson and Dietz seams) and from the Black Thunder Mine (Wyodak and Anderson seams). Shell 324 catalyst was used in the second stage. Various coal samples related to Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed for chemical and petrographic composition. These results will be given in a future report, which covers all of Run 259. 18 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W.; Givens, Edwin N.; Skinner, Ronald W.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  18. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are considered individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.

  19. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are consideredmore » individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.« less

  20. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  1. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Simpson, Theodore B. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  2. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruether, John A.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture of agglomerates, excess water, dissolved catalyst, and unagglomerated solids is pumped to reaction pressure and then passed through a drainage device where all but a small amount of surface water is removed from the agglomerates. Sufficient catalyst for the reaction is contained in surface water remaining on the agglomerates. The agglomerates fall into the liquefaction reactor countercurrently to a stream of hot gas which is utilized to dry and preheat the agglomerates as well as deposit catalyst on the agglomerates before they enter the reactor where they are converted to primarily liquid products under hydrogen pressure.

  3. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-04

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  4. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Doohee

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

  5. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-07-01

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Three major topics are reported: (1) Feed coals and process oils form Wilsonville Run 259 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 259 was operated in the catalytic/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode with ash recycle. Feed coals were conventionally cleaned and deep cleaned coal from the Ireland Mine (Pittsburgh seam). The catalyst used in both reactors was Shell 324 for most of the run; Amocat IC was used for start-up and (unstable) period A. (2) A special set of samples from Wilsonville Runs 258 and 259 was analyzed to provide clues for the cause of interstage deposition problems during Run 258, which was operated with subbituminous coal. (3) Eight technical sites were visited to provide input to the Analytical Needs Assessment and to refine ideas for proposed research under the Participants Program. The site visits are summarized. 11 refs., 18 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Process for detoxifying coal tars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longwell, John P. (Cambridge, MA); Peters, William A. (Arlington, MA)

    1983-01-01

    A process for treating liquid hydrocarbons to remove toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons comprises feeding the hydrocarbons into a reactor where vapors are thermally treated in contact with a catalyst consisting essentially of calcium oxide or a calcium oxide containing mineral. Thermally treating liquid hydrocarbons in contact with calcium oxide preferentially increases the cracking of aromatics thus producing a product having a reduced amount of aromatic compounds.

  8. Two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    An improved SRC-I two-stage coal liquefaction process which improves the product slate is provided. Substantially all of the net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate from the LC-Finer is combined with the SRC process solvent, substantially all of the net 400.degree.-650.degree. F. middle distillate from the SRC section is combined with the hydrocracker solvent in the LC-Finer, and the initial boiling point of the SRC process solvent is increased sufficiently high to produce a net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate of zero for the two-stage liquefaction process.

  9. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  10. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  11. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  12. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  13. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  14. Process for improving soluble coal yield in a coal deashing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Coal liquefaction products are contacted with a deashing solvent and introduced into a first separation zone. The first separation zone is maintained at an elevated temperature and pressure, determined to maximize the recovery of soluble coal products, to cause said coal liquefaction products to separate into a first light phase and a first heavy phase. Under these conditions the heavy phase while still fluid-like in character is substantially non-flowable. Flowability is returned to the fluid-like heavy phase by the introduction of an additional quantity of deashing solvent into the first separation zone at a location below the interface between the first light and heavy phases or into the heavy phase withdrawal conduit during withdrawal of the first heavy phase and prior to any substantial pressure reduction. The first heavy phase then is withdrawn from the first separation zone for additional downstream processing without plugging either the withdrawal conduit or the downstream apparatus. The first light phase comprising the soluble coal products is withdrawn and recovered in an increased yield to provide a more economical coal deashing process.

  15. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  16. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  17. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  18. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  19. Continuous process for conversion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Willson, Warrack G.; Baker, Gene G.; Sondreal, Everett A.; Farnum, Sylvia A.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for converting coal to liquid and gaseous products wherein the liquid products predominate and wherein reactor, tubing, and valve plugging due to carbonate salt formation is reduced by reacting crushed low-rank coal containing about 12 to 30% by weight of water in a solvent at a temperature in the range of about 455.degree. to 500.degree. C., under about 2000 to 5000 psi pressure of a H.sub.2 /CO mixture for a liquid residence time of about 20 to 60 minutes. The solvent is a fraction of liquid product defined on a weight basis as being made up of about 55% of which distills at less than 250.degree. C./lmm, about 20% of which is soluble in THF, and about 25% of which is carbon polymer and indigenous inorganic matter. The solvent is further defined as containing at least about 5 weight % of partially hydrogenated aromatics and/or fully hydrogenated aromatics and little or no alkylated aromatics or higher alkanes.

  20. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  3. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  4. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  5. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  6. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  7. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  8. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  9. Stochastic simulation of pulverized coal (PC) processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing population and electricity demand in the U.S. require capacity expansion of power systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has invested considerable efforts on research and development to improve the design and simulation of these power plants. Incorporation of novel process synthesis techniques and realistic simulation methodologies yield optimal flowsheet configurations and accurate estimation of their performance parameters. To provide a better estimation of such performance indicators, simulation models should predict the process behavior based on not only deterministic values of well-known input parameters but also uncertain variables associated with simulation assumptions. In this work, the stochastic simulation of a load-following pulverized coal (PC) power plant takes into account the variation of three input variables, namely, atmospheric air temperature, atmospheric air humidity, and generation load. These uncertain variables are characterized with probability density functions (pdfs) obtained from available atmospheric and electrical energy generation data. The stochastic simulation is carried out by obtaining a sample of values from the pdfs that generates a set of scenarios under which the model is run. An efficient sampling technique [Hammersley sequence sampling (HSS)] guarantees a set of scenarios uniformly distributed throughout the uncertain variable range. Then, each model run generates results on performance parameters as cycle efficiency, carbon emissions, sulfur emissions, and water consumption that are statistically analyzed after all runs are completed. Among these parameters, water consumption is of importance because an increasing demand has been observed mostly in arid regions of the country and, therefore, constrains the operability of the processes. This water consumption is significantly affected by atmospheric uncertainties. The original deterministic process model

  10. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  11. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  12. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  13. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  14. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  15. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  16. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  17. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  18. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  19. Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnink, Brett; Kanunar, Jayanth; Liang, Zhuoxiong

    2002-01-01

    A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

  20. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  1. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  2. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  3. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B.; McLean, Joseph B.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    1989-01-01

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  4. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  5. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  6. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  7. Power recovery system for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, Joel R. (Maryville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for minimizing energy required to inject reactant such as coal-oil slurry into a reaction vessel, using high pressure effluent from the latter to displace the reactant from a containment vessel into the reaction vessel with assistance of low pressure pump. Effluent is degassed in the containment vessel, and a heel of the degassed effluent is maintained between incoming effluent and reactant in the containment vessel.

  8. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  9. Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

  10. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  11. Rate of coal devolatilization in iron and steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaio, R.S.; Rio Doce, C.V. do; Fruehan, R.J.; Ozturk, B. . Center for Iron and Steel Making Research)

    1991-01-01

    The devolatilization of coal particles under ironmaking and steelmaking conditions was studied. A new experimental technique was developed to measure the rates of devolatilization. A unique method was used to prepare coal particles based on thick coal bands rich in a given maceral group. Experiments with these single particles gave good reproducibility. The rates of devolatilization for all coal types from low to high rank coals were measured in the gaseous atmosphere and within the slag phase. Real time x-ray images were taken for high volatile, low volatile and anthracite coals devolatilizing in a molten smelting slag. The rate in terms of percentage devolatilization were relatively independent of coal type and a small function of furnace temperature at high heating rates and temperatures studied. The rates depended on particle size and heating rates. The results were consistent with internal transport controlled processes primarily heat transfer. Furthermore the rates were the same in the gas and slag phase which is consistent with heat transfer control.

  12. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  13. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  14. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  15. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  16. Application of polymer membrane technology in coal combustion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaldis, S.P.; Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2007-03-15

    The energy efficiency and the environmental consequences of typical coal upgrading processes, such as combustion, depend to a large extent on the degree of gas separation, recovery, and recycle. Among the available methods used in chemical industry for a variety of gas separation tasks, the technology of polymer membranes offers several advantages such as low size, simplicity of operation and maintenance, compatibility, and use with a diversity of fuel sources. To examine the impact of membrane separation on coal upgrading processes, the Aspen Plus simulation software was used, in combination with developed membrane mathematical models. Energy analysis in coal combustion processes, where the main scope is CO{sub 2} removal, showed that very promising results can be attained. It is estimated that 95% of the emitted CO{sub 2} can be captured with a moderately low energy penalty (10%). This penalty can be further decreased if higher selectivity and/or permeability polymers can be developed.

  17. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  18. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  19. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  20. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  1. Process for hydroliquefying coal or like carbonaceous solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John Michael

    1977-01-01

    In this process the products of the dissolution-hydrogenation of coal or the like material in a hydrocarbon rich solvent are subjected in their slurryform fraction to an asphaltenes decomposing action of an alkali, like caustic soda or, being admixed after the gasiform fraction of the hydrogenation products has been taken off the slurryform fraction of the hydrogenation products now including the admixed alkali is subjected to a rehydrogenation by a hydrogen rich gas which after its rehydrogenating use is preferably applied, as source of hydrogen, to said dissolution-hydrogenation of coal. Optionally the admixed alkali includes minor amounts of a carboxylic acid salt of calcium.

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  3. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  4. Advanced Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2 Separation ADECOS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Development Of The Coal-Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

  5. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  7. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  8. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  9. Process simulation of a circulating fluidized bed coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legros, R.; Sotudeh-Gharebaagh, R.; Paris, J.; Chaouki, J.; Preto, F.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this work is the development of a process simulator for a Circulating Fluidized Bed coal Combustor (CFBC). The development of a simple comprehensive model for coal combustion in a CFBC is based on existing work reported in the literature. The model combines the hydrodynamic features of a CFBC riser with the different reaction steps involved during coal combustion, including the sulphur capture by limestone particles. The commercial process simulation program ASPEN PLUS was chosen as a framework for the development of the CFBC process simulator. ASPEN PLUS has been widely accepted in the chemical industry as a design tool because of its ability to simulate various chemical processes, including power generation cycles. In ASPEN PLUS, several ideal chemical reactor models involving solids are available for simulation purposes. The CFBC process simulator is constructed using several ASPEN PLUS unit operation blocks. The information required for each block is obtained from the combustion and hydrodynamic models, which are inserted into the simulation flowsheet as subroutines or internal programs. The resulting CFBC process simulator is used to predict the performance of the CFBC pilot plant at Energy Research laboratories, CANMET in Ottawa.

  10. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  11. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  12. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  13. Process for coal liquefaction using electrodeposited catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of solid hydrocarbonaceous materials is disclosed. Particles of such materials are electroplated with a metal catalyst and are then suspended in a hydrocarbon oil and subjected to hydrogenolysis to liquefy the solid hydrocarbonaceous material. A liquid product oil is separated from residue solid material containing char and the catalyst metal. The catalyst is recovered from the solid material by electrolysis for reuse. A portion of the product oil can be employed as the hydrocarbon oil for suspending additional particles of catalyst coated solid carbonaceous material for hydrogenolysis.

  14. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  15. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  16. Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant amount of our nation’s electricity.

  17. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  18. Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

  19. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  20. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  1. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  2. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  3. Economic feasibility study: CFR advanced direct coal liquefaction process. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Preliminary technical and economic data are presented on the CFR Advanced Coal Liquefaction Process. Operating cost estimates and material balances are given.

  4. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  5. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  6. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  7. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Ames, L.B.; Ronzio, N.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a program to determine the feasibility and potential applications for direct firing of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines, specifically gas turbines and diesel engines. AMAX Extractive Research and Development, Inc. supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines programs. One of the lots was of ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (UCCSF) for which a two-stage caustic and acid leaching procedure was developed to chemically clean the coal. As a part of the contract, AMAX R and D developed a conceptual design and preliminary cost estimate for a commercial-scale process for UCCSF manufacture. The contract was extended to include the following objectives: define chemical cleaning and slurry preparation process conditions and costs more precisely; investigate methods to reduce the product cost; and determine the relationship, in dollars per million Btu, between product cost and fuel quality. Laboratory investigations have been carried out to define the chemical cleaning process conditions required to generate fuels containing from 0.17 to 1.0% ash. Capital and operating cost refinements are to be performed on the basis of the preferred process operating conditions identified during the laboratory investigations. Several such areas for cost reductions have been identified. Caustic strengths from 2 to 7% NaOH are currently anticipated while 25% NaOH was used as the basis for the preliminary cost estimate. In addition, leaching times for each of the process steps have been reduced to half or less of the times used for the preliminary cost estimate. Improvement of fuel quality has been achieved by use of a proprietary hot-water leaching step to reduce the residual alkali content to less than 250 ppM (Na/sub 2/O plus K/sub 2/O) on a dry coal basis. 2 refs., 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  9. Validation of the materials-process-product model (coal SNG). [Estimating method for comparing processes, changing assumptions and technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albanese, A.; Bhagat, N.; Friend, L.; Lamontagne, J.; Pouder, R.; Vinjamuri, G.

    1980-03-01

    The use of coal as a source of high Btu gas is currently viewed as one possible means of supplementing dwindling natural gas supplies. While certain coal gasification processes have demonstrated technical feasibility, much uncertainty and inconsistency remains regarding the capital and operating costs of large scale coal conversion facilities; cost estimates may vary by as much as 50%. Studies conducted for the American Gas Association (AGA) and US Energy Research and Development Administration by C.F. Braun and Co. have defined technical specifications and cost guidelines for estimating costs of coal gasification technologies (AGA Guidelines). Based on the AGA Guidelines, Braun has also prepared cost estimates for selected coal gasification processes. Recent efforts by International Research and Technology Inc. (IR and T) have led to development of the Materials-Process-Product Model (MPPM), a comprehensive anaytic tool for evaluation of processes and costs for coal gasification and other coal conversion technologies. This validation of the MPPM presents a comparison of engineering and cost computation methodologies employed in the MPPM to those employed by Braun and comparison of MPPM results to Braun cost estimates. These comparisons indicate that the MPPM has the potential to be a valuable tool for assisting in the evaluation of coal gasification technologies.

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  11. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  12. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  14. Aqueour biphase extraction for processing of fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osseo-Asare, K.

    1997-07-23

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. For super-clean coal production, the degree of liberation needed to separate coal from mineral matter, including pyrite, requires grinding to 10 mm or below. In addition, large amounts of fine coal are discharged to refuse ponds because current coal cleaning technology cannot adequately treat such finely divided materials. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. This technique relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble organic polymer and an inorganic metal salt to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. Differences in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of particulates can then be exploited to effect selective transfers to either the upper polymer-rich phase, or the lower salt-rich phase. An experimental program is proposed involving phase diagram determination, phase separation rate measurements, partition measurements, and washing experiments.

  15. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  16. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  17. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation: Processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, processes, and apparatus for coal liquefaction and hydrogenation. Included are patents for catalytic two-stage, catalytic single-step, fixed-bed, hydrogen-donor, internal heat transfer, and multi-phase processes. Topics also include catalyst production, catalyst recovery, desulfurization, pretreatment of coals, energy recovery processes, solvent product separation, hydrogenating gases, and pollution control. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Dewatering: Coal and mineral processing. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of dewatering. Included is coverage of techniques, processes, and evaluations applied to coal processing, coal slurry preparation, ash treatments, and processing of other mineral ores. Mechanical devices, heating devices, filtering techniques, air drying, the use of surfactants and flocculants, and design techniques in dewatering systems are discussed. Dewatering of peats, sewage sludges, and industrial sludges are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  20. Combined processing of coal and heavy resids. Progress report, July 16-October 15, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    This quarter's work dealt primarily with the effect of the petroleum solvent on coprocessing and the effect on the solvent of processing at coprocessing conditions. Catalytic upgrading of the petroleum residuum at coprocessing conditions resulted in upgrading by decreasing the heteroatom content, upgrading asphaltenes, and decreasing the viscosity and Conradson Carbon residue percent of the solvents to produce more fluid and less likely to coke materials. Pretreatment of the different petroleum residua by catalytic hydrotreatment followed by extraction improves the amount of coal conversion achieved during coprocessing. For some residua, the hydrotreatment results in an improved solvent yielding high levels, approx. 50%, oil production. As would be expected higher catalyst loading produces higher oil yields for both the original and pretreated residua. Coal conversion is affected by catalyst loading and by the condition of the solvent. In coprocessing, the solvent to coal ratio influences the upgrading of the petroleum material and the conversion of coal. An optimal range of coal concentration between 30 and 50% is observed for both coal conversion and oil production. In catalytic coprocessing, coal has been shown to be upgraded to oil. In some instances, as much as 40% of the coal is converted to oil and 80 to 90% of the oil produced in the coprocessing reaction is made from coal. The composition of the solvent has definite effects on coal conversion and oil yields. When tetralin is added at a 1.5% donable hydrogen level, substantive coal conversion is obtained even in a nitrogen atmosphere. In summary, the petroleum crude or residuum used in the coprocessing reaction is an important factor in the final product obtained. Selection of the proper processing conditions is crucial in achieving product selectivity. 6 references, 17 figures, 17 tables.

  1. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  2. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  3. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.

    1985-05-15

    Activity in April centered on performing hot-water leaching investigations. Analyses of caustic filtrates to be used for regeneration tests were completed. Modifications to the Inconel caustic-leach reactor were made to permit injection of caustic after preheating the coal-water feed slurry. Criteria for cost estimates and sensitivity analysis were established.

  4. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  5. Effect of coal rank and process conditions on temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.; Moniz, M.

    1986-04-01

    The temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor in the integrated TSL process is studied. The effects of gas and slurry superficial velocities, process solvent characteristics, reactor length, and catalyst sulfiding agent on the exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are studied. A substantial temperature difference is observed with subbituminous coal as compared with bituminous coal, at comparable reactor conditions. Some of the factors that are believed to have contributed to the large exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are slow kinetics and high reaction heat for subbituminous coal conversion and pyrrhotite catalysis.

  6. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  7. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  9. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  10. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1997-02-11

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  11. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  12. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  13. Combined processing of coal and heavy resids. Progress report, January 16, 1985-April 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of using heavy petroleum crudes and residua in the processing of coal and to determine whether both coal and the petroleum solvent can be simultaneously upgraded. The effect of process parameters, the influence of solvent properties and composition and the role of the catalyst in coprocessing are being evaluated. The influence of solvent properties and composition and the effect of catalyst type and a variety of reaction parameters have been investigated in the coprocessing of heavy petroleum crudes and residua with Illinois No. 6 coal. Hydrotreatment of the solvent prior to using as a coprocessing solvent substantially improves the amount of coal conversion achieved. Catalytic treatment is required to produce significant quantities of pentane soluble material. The addition of hydroaromatic compounds at donable hydrogen levels of 0.55% or higher generally increases coal conversion and the amount of oil produced. The selectivity of different catalytic materials for upgrading the petroleum solvent and the coal specifically is evident and has been applied to two stage processing. This report is divided into three parts. Part I is a description of a study of adsorption and pore diffusion limitations in coprocessing. Part II describes the effect of solvent composition particularly the use of coal-derived solvents in conjunction with the petroleum solvent in coprocessing. Part III is an explanation of the relation of pore size to diffusivities given in the October 1984 to January 1985 Progress Report. 11 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. A concept for using solar energy in a coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, V.K. )

    1991-01-01

    A fluidized bed system called CO{sub 2} acceptor process to convert lignite or sub-bituminous coal into synthetic gas or pipeline gas has been developed by Conoco Coal Development Company under contract with Department of Energy at a pilot plant stage of 40 tons per day. The background of the process and its advantages over the Lurgi coal gasification process have been discussed. In this paper the potential methods on how solar energy can be stored in lime and recovered at night time have been presented. The possible strategies on how solar energy can be utilized in the CO{sub 2} acceptor process to gasify the coal have also been suggested. The preliminary analysis indicates that the product gas contains 50% more energy per kilogram of coal as compared to the standard CO{sub 2} acceptor process, and the gasification can be carried out during night time using the solar energy stored in a solid material. Some of the advantages of CO{sub 2} acceptor process using solar energy as compared to solar coal gasification have also been pointed out.

  15. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  16. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

  17. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B.; Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.

  19. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

    1989-10-17

    A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

  20. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  1. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  3. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  4. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept - Task 2: Evaluation of Process Steps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    A novel direct coal liquefaction technology is being investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates under DOE Contract DE-AC22-95PC95050. The novel concept consists of a new approach to coal liquefaction chemistry which avoids some of the inherent limitations of current high-temperature thermal liquefaction processes. The chemistry employed is based on hydride ion donation to solubilize coal at temperatures (350-400{degrees}C) significantly lower than those typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. The process concept being explored consists of two reaction stages. In the first stage, the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second, the products are catalytically upgraded to acceptable refinery feedstocks. The program explores not only the initial solubilization step, but integration of the subsequent processing steps, including an interstage solids-separation step, to produce distillate products. A unique feature of the process concept is that many of the individual reaction steps can be decoupled, because little recycle around the liquefaction system is expected. This allows for considerable latitude in the process design. Furthermore, this has allowed for each key element in the process to be explored independently in laboratory work conducted under Task 2 of the program.

  5. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Fonseca, A.; Mauer, R.

    1996-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated using the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

  6. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  8. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N.; Ying, David H. S.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  9. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Novel Intergrated Process to Process to Produce Fuels from Coal and Other Carbonaceous Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-25

    BioConversion Technology, LLC has developed a novel gasifier design that produces a clean, medium to high BTU synthesis gas that can be utilized for a variety of applications. The staged, indirectly heated design produces high quality synthesis gas without the need for costly pure oxygen. This design also allows for extreme flexibility with respect to feedstocks (including those with high moisture contents) in addition to high throughputs in a small gasifier footprint. A pilot scale testing project was proposed to assist BCT with commercializing the process. A prototype gasifier constructed by BCT was transported to WRI for installation and testing. After troubleshooting, the gasifier was successfully operated with both coal and biomass feedstocks. Instrument upgrades are recommended for further testing.

  11. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the tenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1996. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized two HTI coal/petroleum coprocessing samples for Ni and V concentrations, as requested by DOE. The results are reported in Appendix 1. (2) CONSOL began work to evaluate the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers, and specifically ethylphenyl ethers, from coal liquefaction phenols. The work includes a literature review and experimentation. The status of this ongoing work is described in this report. (3) A set of samples was requested from HTI Run ALC-2 (Appendix 2). (4) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is developing a kinetic mechanistic model of resid reactivity. A summary of Delaware`s progress is appended to this report (Appendix 3). (5) A paper was submitted for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997, in San Francisco, CA, (Appendix 4).

  12. Multi-gravity separator: an alternate gravity concentrator to process coal fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumder, A.K.; Bhoi, K.S.; Barnwal, J.P.

    2007-08-15

    The multi-gravity separator (MGS) is a novel piece of equipment for the separation of fine and ultra-fine minerals. However, the published literature does not demonstrate its use in the separation of coal fines. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the effects of different process variables on the performance of an MGS for the beneficiation of coal fines. The results obtained from this study revealed that among the parameters studied, drum rotation and feed solids concentration play dominating roles in controlling the yield and ash content of the clean coal. Mathematical modeling equations that correlate the variables studied and the yield and ash contents of the clean coal were developed to predict the performance of an MGS under different operating and design conditions. The entire exercise revealed that the MGS could produce a clean coal with an ash content of 14.67% and a yield of 71.23% from a feed coal having an ash content of 24.61 %.

  13. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajchel, M. |; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A.; Maurer, R.; Ehrlinger, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. and Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology will enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant coast and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. In addition, testing is also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-, filled and thus eliminate the need for tailings ponds. This reporting period, September 1, 1995 through November 30, 1995, marked the inception of this project. During this period Task No. 1, Procurement and Set-Up, was completed. The pilot plant apparatus was constructed at the SIU Coal Research Center in Carterville, Illinois. All equipment and feedstock were received at the site.

  14. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  16. Alternative process schemes for coal conversion. Progress report No. 4, September 1, 1979-March 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansone, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    This progress report is divided into two parts. In Part A, the results of the first three progress reports which dealt with the separation of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//CH/sub 4//CO mixtures resulting from coal gasification processes are briefly summarized. The separation calculations were performed for ideal, cryogenic, clathrate (gas-hydrate), and absorption/stripping separation processes. The cryogenic separation indicates the least energy requirement. Work on this phase of the program has been concluded. An experimental coal gasification program is being undertaken. In Part B, a review smmary of existing and developing coal gasificaton processes is presented. The relative merits of gasifier type, heating method, operating mode, process conditions, and gasifying medium are considered. This is followed by a qualitative appraisal of several selected coal gasification processes based upon the above considerations. It is intended that this report will help focus attention on those areas in which significant process improvements can be realized. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for future work.

  17. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  18. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 1, Base program activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process development, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, and development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this objective, novel analytical methods were evaluated for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL teamed with 24 research groups in the program. Well-defined and characterized samples of coal liquefaction process-derived materials were provided to each group. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  1. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Foster, Edward P.; Tewari, Krishna

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  2. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  3. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  4. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  5. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  7. Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G.

    1991-01-01

    A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

  8. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. During this quarter, analyses were completed on 65 process samples from representative periods of HRI Run POC-2 in which coal, coal/plastics, and coal/rubber were the feedstocks. A sample of the oil phase of the oil/water separator from HRI Run POC-1 was analyzed to determine the types and concentrations of phenolic compounds. Chemical analyses and microautoclave tests were performed to monitor the oxidation and measure the reactivity of the standard coal (Old Ben Mine No. 1) which has been used for the last six years to determine solvent quality of process oils analyzed in this and previous DOE contracts.

  9. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  10. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing. Inventors: Borole, Abhijeet P. 1 ; Hamilton, Choo Y. 1 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  11. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  14. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  16. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  17. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    Part 3 consists of appendices 5, 6 and 7, which have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. They deal with regression analysis of pilot plant SRC-II yields to develop thermal response models of the process and the possibility of predicting yields from coal properties. The possibility of a runaway exothermal reaction under some operating conditions on the demonstration plant scale is also considered. (LTN)

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  19. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  20. Coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, December 13, 1983-March 12, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Biloen, P.; Holder, G.D.; Klinzing, G.E.; Tierney, J.W.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental work is continuing on four separate projects related to coal conversion processes. The direct digital control of exothermic multiphase reactions is being studied in an experimental adiabatic flow reactor. The existence of two stable steady states for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction network at the same temperature and feed condition has been verified and quantified. Various absorbents for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub X/ are being studied. The absorption of NO/sub 2/ by methanol and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone has been extensively examined. Preliminary data have been obtained with triethylene-tetraamine. Hindered amines will be studied next. Procedures for the preparation of liquid membranes have been tested and the incorporation of hindered amines in them will now be examined. Isotopic switching is being used to study the way in which promoters affect supported metal catalysts. With improved resolution from the mass spectrometer, early quantitative results give indications of three different surface species and of non-statistical ingrowth of /sup 13/C into the product molecules. A program for the study of the extraction of coal and oil shale using supercritical fluids is being carried out. The effect of the presence of piperidine on the amount of toluene solubles produced by supercritical extraction of coal with toluene/piperidine mixture has been determined. A new kinetic model for the extraction/liquefaction of coal by supercritical toluene and THF has been developed and proven satisfactory. Bruceton coal and Hi Na lignite have been extracted with supercritical water. 3 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Role of the Liquids From Coal process in the world energy picture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, J.P.; Knottnerus, B.A.

    1997-12-31

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, has essentially completed the demonstration phase of a 1,000 Tons per day (TPD) Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) plant near Gillette, Wyoming. The plant has been in operation for 4{1/2} years and has delivered 15 unit trains of Process Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}), the low-sulfur, high-Btu solid product to five major utilities. Recent test burns have indicated the PDF{trademark} can offer the following benefits to utility customers: lower sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions, lower utilized fuel costs to power plants, and long term stable fuel supply. More than three million gallons of Coal Derived Liquid (CDL{trademark}) have also been delivered to seven industrial fuel users and one steel mill blast furnace. Additionally, laboratory characteristics of CDL{trademark} and process development efforts have indicated that CDL{trademark} can be readily upgraded into higher value chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. Commercialization of the LFC{trademark} is also progressing. Permit work for a large scale commercial ENCOAL{reg_sign} plant in Wyoming is now underway and domestic and international commercialization activity is in progress by TEK-KOL, a general partnership between SGI International and a Zeigler subsidiary. This paper covers the historical background of the project, describes the LFC{trademark} process and describes the worldwide outlook for commercialization.

  2. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  3. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  4. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  5. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana

    2008-11-15

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Application of the Granuflow Process to Pipeline-Transported Coal Slurry CRADA PC96-010, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard P. Killmeyer; Wu-Wey Wen

    1997-09-24

    In light of the current difficulties in processing fine coal and the potential for a significant increase in fines due to more demanding quality specifications, the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has been involved in the reconstitution of the fine clean coal resulting from advanced fine coal cleaning technologies. FETC has invented and developed a new strategy that combines fine-coal dewatering and reconstitution into one step. The process reduces the moisture content of the clean coal, and alleviates handling problems related to dustiness, stickiness, flowability, and freezing. This process has been named the GranuFlow Process. Early work successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the process for laboratory-scale vacuum filtration dewatering using asphalt emulsion. Further tests focused on the application of the process to a screen-bowl centrifuge via batch mode tests at 300 lb/hr. These tests produced roughly the same results as the laboratory filtration tests did, and they included some testing using Orimulsion, a bitumen emulsion. The Orimulsion seemed to offer greater potential for moisture reduction and was less affected by colder slurry temperatures. Most recently, FETC has conducted several series of tests in its Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. These tests dramatically showed the visible difference in the dewatered product by applying the GranuFlow Process, turning it from a clumpy, wet, sticky material into a granular, dry free-flowing product. In addition, it verified previous results with improvements in moisture content, dustiness, stickiness, and freezing. Orimulsion showed a significant benefit over asphalt emulsion in moisture reduction at additions more than 5%. The overall goal of this project was to successfully apply FETC'S GranuFlow Process to improve coal slurry pipeline operations. Williams Technologies, Inc. (WTI), a leader in pipeline technology, has an interest in reducing the moisture

  7. Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of a coal-liquefaction residue - water slurry using vaccum-tower bottoms from the H-Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    About 6.7 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) which were obtained during the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The single 9.5-hour run with H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry was completed at 750 to 760 psig gasifier pressure. The run consisted of two test periods, each at a different gasifier temperature. Over 99.6 percent conversion of carbon in the feed to syngas was achieved yielding 32.9 to 33.7 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue charged. The oxygen requirement was about 1.0 pound of oxygen per pound of residue. The dry syngas contained 78.5 to 79.7 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen.

  8. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  9. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-02-16

    A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  11. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  12. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-sixth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a ``workstation`` environment. Success in this program will be a major step in improving the predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: Demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized ``first principles`` treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  16. Technical and economic evaluation of selected coal-liquefaction processes. Phase O. Preliminary screening evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Forrester, R.C. III; Singh, S.P.N.; Fisher, J.F.; Wham, R.M.; Thiel, S.W.; Meyer, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary scoping evaluations of ten conceptual coal liquefaction processes were made for the Department of Energy using available published information. Production costs calculated under a consistent set of economic criteria varied from $0.78 to $1.47/gal for gasoline in constant 1979 dollars. However, existing design documents showed little consistency as to status of process development, credibility of process design basis, completeness of design, or conservatism of cost estimation. We concluded that a more complete and thorough design study of each process would be necessary to achieve any degree of technical and economic consistency, and that it was therefore not possible to satisfy DOE's desire for consistent technical and economic comparisons in this type of preliminary scoping study.

  17. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  18. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A.; Maurer, R.

    1997-05-01

    Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and remixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back- filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated with the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

  19. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  20. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K.

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  1. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1984-02-15

    The subject invention comprises the steps of first reacting particulate coal with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C and at a partial pressure of methane of less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. More preferably, the method of the subject invention is carried out at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C and a pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 1.5 seconds. Surprisingly, it has been found that in the practice of the subject invention not only are commercially significant quantities of ethylene produced, namely yields in excess of 10% (percent carbon converted to product), along with economically significant quantities of-benzene and light oils, namely toluene and xylene, but also that there is little, if any, net consumption of methane in the reaction and possibly even a small net production. Since it is apparent that the carbonaceous solids or char remaining after the reaction is carried out may be burned to provide the necessary energy to carry out the process of the subject invention, it is apparent that the subject invention advantageously provides a method for the conversion of coal to economically significant quantities of ethylene, benzene and light oils while requiring only coal and, possibly, small amounts of make-up methane. Other objects and advantages of the subject invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a consideration of the attached drawings, the detailed description of the invention, and the experimental examples set forth below.

  2. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  5. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  6. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  7. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides. Final report, September 11, 1991--September 10, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, S.T.

    1994-06-08

    The main objective of this project was to study transition metal carbides and nitrides as catalysts for hydroprocessing. In particular, the goals were to study the solid-state transformations that occur during synthesis of the compounds using a temperature-programmed method, and to investigate the catalytic properties of the materials for the upgrading of model coal liquids at realistic process conditions.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-seventh quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    Significant advances have been made at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive two-dimensional computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification and pulverized coal combustion. During the same time period, significant advances have been made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in the mechanisms and kinetics of coal pyrolysis and secondary reactions of pyrolysis products. This program presents a unique opportunity to merge the technology developed by each organization to provide detailed predictive capability for advanced coal characterization techniques in conjunction with comprehensive computer models to provide accurate process simulations. The program will streamline submodels existing or under development for coal pyrolysis chemistry, volatile secondary reactions, tar formation, soot formation, char reactivity, and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} pollutant formation. Submodels for coal viscosity, agglomeration, tar/char secondary reactions, sulfur capture, and ash physics and chemistry will be developed or adapted. The submodels will first be incorporated into the BYU entrained-bed gasification code and subsequently, into a fixed-bed gasification code (to be selected and adapted). These codes will be validated by comparison with small scale laboratory and PDU-scale experiments. Progress is described.

  10. Applications of organo-calcium chemistry to control contaminant aromatic hydrocarbons in advanced coal gasification processes: Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longwall, J.P.; Chang, C.C.S.; Lai, C.K.S.; Chen, P.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Peters, W.A.

    1988-09-01

    The broad goal of this contract was to provide quantitative understanding of the thermal reactions of aromatics contaminants with calcium oxide under conditions pertinent to their in situ or out-board reduction or elimination from advanced coal gasification process and waste streams. Specific objectives were formalized into the following four tasks: cracking of fresh coal pyrolysis tar, benzene cracking, CaO deactivation behavior, and preliminary economic implications. The approach primarily involved laboratory scale measurements of rates and extents of feed conversion, and of quality indices or compositions of the resulting products, when pure aromatic compounds or newly formed coal pyrolysis tars undergo controlled extents of thermal treatment with CaO of known preparation history. 70 refs., 54 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Process for the production and recovery of fuel values from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sass, Allan; McCarthy, Harry E.; Kaufman, Paul R.; Finney, Clement S.

    1982-01-01

    A method of pyrolyzing and desulfurizing coal in a transport reactor to recover volatile fuel values and hydrogen by heating particulate coal entrained in a carrier gas substantially free of oxygen to a pyrolysis temperature in a zone within three seconds.

  12. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  14. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  15. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 23rd quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR`s Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (i) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (ii) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (iii) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a ``workstation`` environment.

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-second quarterly report, January 2, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  18. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  19. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  2. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  3. An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

    2009-10-01

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

  4. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  5. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  6. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January to April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal solid processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. Information on field disposal behavior is needed (a) as input to predictive models being developed, (b) as input to the development of rule of thumb design guidelines for the disposal of these wastes, and (c) as evidence of the behavior of these wastes in the natural environment.This study is organized into four major Tasks. Task 1 and 2 were devoted to planning the Task 3 field study. Task 4 uses the results of the field testing to produce an Engineering Design Manual for the utilities and industrial users who manage wastes from advanced coal combustion technologies.

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Institutional: Form EIA-3, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Manufacturing and TransformationProcessing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal...

  8. Optimized Pump Systems Save Coal Preparation Plant Money and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peabody Holding Company completed a project to improve the performance of a coal slurry pumping system at its Randolph Coal Preparation plant. Changes to the coal washing process ...

  9. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  10. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  11. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  12. An integrated approach to coal gasifier testing, modeling, and process optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.K. Sundaram; K.I. Johnson; J. Matyas; R.E. Williford; S.P. Pilli; V.N. Korolev

    2009-09-15

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean-burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. This paper describes an integrated approach to provide the experimental data and engineering models needed to better understand how to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. The experimental program includes slag viscosity testing and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the limits on operating temperature for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also described to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. The goal of this experimental and model program is to predict coal and oxidant feed rates and to control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  14. Pollutants from coal conversion processes. Final technical report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, R.M.; Ferrell, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A devolatilized Kentucky bituminous coal, a North Carolina peat, and a New Mexico subbituminous coal have been gasified with steam and oxygen in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The reactor was operated at pressures of 570 to 840 kPa (80 to 120 psia), molar steam-to-carbon feed ratios of 0.6 to 1.9, and average bed temperatures of 795 to 1010/sup 0/C (1460 to 1850/sup 0/F). The coal feed rate ranged from 14 to 33 kg/h (30 to 73 lb/h). The reactor effluents were analyzed for major components and potentially hazardous minor components using gas chromatography; tars and wastewaters condensed from the product were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography; and the feed coals, spent chars, and condensed phase streams were analyzed for selected trace metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experimental results were used to provide a basis for the formulation and evaluation of a mathematical model of the gasifier. The model assumes instantaneous devolatilization of coal at the top of the fluidized-bed, instantaneous combustion of carbon at the bottom of the bed, and steam/carbon gasification and water gas shift reaction in a single perfectly mixed isothermal stage. The effects of various operating parameters and phenomena on reactor performance were determined using the model. As would be expected, carbon conversion and make gas production both increase with bed temperature, steam-to-carbon feed ratio, and solid-phase space time. Both also go up with pressure, but above about 1.7 MPa the increases are negligible. At the temperatures studied, the water-gas shift reaction falls short of equilibrium for pressures lower than 2.1 MPa (confirming experimental results), but the reaction is close to equilibrium at pressures above this value. 25 references, 16 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida

  16. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  17. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Terry G.; Offen, George R.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  18. Apparatus and method for controlling the rotary airlocks in a coal processing system by reversing the motor current rotating the air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groombridge, Clifton E.

    1996-01-01

    An improvement to a coal processing system where hard materials found in the coal may cause jamming of either inflow or outflow rotary airlocks, each driven by a reversible motor. The instantaneous current used by the motor is continually monitored and compared to a predetermined value. If an overcurrent condition occurs, indicating a jamming of the airlock, a controller means starts a "soft" reverse rotation of the motor thereby clearing the jamming. Three patterns of the motor reversal are provided.

  19. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  20. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  1. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  3. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  4. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  5. Process for separating coal synthesized methane from unreacted intermediate and contaminant gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, R.E.; Scott, C.D.; Ryon, A.D.

    1980-10-27

    Gas produced from coal and containing CH/sub 4/, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S is contacted with CO/sub 2/ scrub liquid to form (1) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing as solutes CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/S and minor portions of the CO and H/sub 2/, and (2) a gas stream containing CO/sub 2/ and major portions of the CO and H/sub 2/, the CO and H/sub 2/ in this stream being recycled to the means which produces gas from coal, and CO/sub 2/ in the stream being recycled to the scrub liquid. The solute-bearing liquid CO/sub 2/ stream is fractionated into (1) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/S, and (2) a H/sub 2//CO gas stream which is recycled into contact with the scrub liquid. The last-mentioned liquid CO/sub 2/ stream is fractionated into (1) a CH/sub 4//CO/sub 2/ gas stream the CO/sub 2/ of which is recycled to the scrub liquid, and (2) a liquid CO/sub 2/ stream containing H/sub 2/S, and CO/sub 2/ of this stream is also recycled to the scrub liquid.

  6. Process for separating coal synthesized methane from unreacted intermediate and contaminant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Ray E.; Scott, Charles D.; Ryon, Allen D.

    1982-01-01

    Gas produced from coal and containing CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S is contacted with CO.sub.2 scrub liquid to form (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing as solutes CH.sub.4, H.sub.2 S and minor portions of the CO and H.sub.2, and (2) a gas stream containing CO.sub.2 and major portions of the CO and H.sub.2, the CO and H.sub.2 in this stream being recycled to the means which produces gas from coal, and CO.sub.2 in the stream being recycled to the scrub liquid. The solute-bearing liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing CH.sub.4 and H.sub.2 S, and (2) a H.sub.2 /CO gas stream which is recycled into contact with the scrub liquid. The last-mentioned liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a CH.sub.4 /CO.sub.2 gas stream the CO.sub.2 of which is recycled to the scrub liquid, and (2) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing H.sub.2 S, and CO.sub.2 of this stream is also recycled to the scrub liquid.

  7. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Combined processing of coal and heavy resids. Final report, July 1982-January 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The results from this report are summarized on Tables 47, 48 and 49. These results are presented in terms of the average values obtained from the experiments performed and present a good overview of the results obtained. The addition of catalyst in the residuum upgrading reactions increased the amount of PS (pentane-solubles) production achieved and, in the case of NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, substantially increased the IOM formed. The presence of TET (tetralin) had varying effect; but only in the reaction with NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ did TET improve the PS production. In all upgrading reactions, the BS fraction was reduced during the reaction forming both lighter and heavier products. The catalytic reactions with NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Mo naphthenate at 425/sup 0/C reduced the BS (benzene-soluble) fraction the most. The combination of TET plus NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ resulted in the greatest reduction of the BS fraction and subsequent increase in the PS fraction. In the coprocessing experiments, both the addition of catalyst and the addition of TET promoted coal conversion. Coal conversion in coprocessing appears to be dependent upon both catalyst and hydrogen donation except in the case of a highly active catalyst where catalytic activity predominates. TET did not promote the production of PS materials in either the thermal or catalytic reactions. The effect of TET and catalytic treatment on BS production is also instructive in examining the roles and relative importance of these two factors in coprocessing. Since all of these reactions showed positive oil production, the increases observed in the BS production were directly related to the upgrading of liquefied coal to BS products. Thus, the presence of TET assisted in the production of BS but not in the production of PS. The presence of a hydrotreating catalyst was required for PS production in the copressing reactions. Appendices A, B and C have been entered separately into EDB and ERA.

  9. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  10. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Tarrer, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses a kinetic investigation of the Fe-S-H/sub 2/ system conducted as an outgrowth of current research in the SRC-I (solvent refined coal) process to better understand the effects of naturally occurring iron sulfides in coal hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization. A total of twelve closed system reactions were carried out in which 48 to 60 mesh pyrite, in the presence of hydrogen gas, underwent transformation to 1C hexagonal pyrrhotite. Reaction temperatures were 350/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C with four sample runs at temperature. Initial pressure of hydrogen gas was 1250 psig (8617 KPa). A comparison of the results for each reaction series was evaluated with time and temperature as variables. The transformation rate of pyrite to pyrrhotite was found to increase over the range of reaction temperatures with the 400/sup 0/C samples showing the greatest amount of transformation per unit time. For the 375/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C runs pyrrhotite formation decreased after approximately 15 minutes of reaction time due to (1) reduced availability of pyrite, and (2) resistance to diffusion in the topochemical product layer.

  11. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  12. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    The coal to hydrogen project utilizes the iron/iron oxide looping process to produce high purity hydrogen. The input energy for the process is provided by syngas coming from gasification process of coal. The reaction pathways for this process have been studied and favorable conditions for energy efficient operation have been identified. The Magnetically Stabilized Porous Structure (MSPS) is invented. It is fabricated from iron and silica particles and its repeatable high performance has been demonstrated through many experiments under various conditions in thermogravimetric analyzer, a lab-scale reactor, and a large scale reactor. The chemical reaction kinetics for both oxidation and reduction steps has been investigated thoroughly inside MSPS as well as on the surface of very smooth iron rod. Hydrogen, CO, and syngas have been tested individually as the reducing agent in reduction step and their performance is compared. Syngas is found to be the most pragmatic reducing agent for the two-step water splitting process. The transport properties of MSPS including porosity, permeability, and effective thermal conductivity are determined based on high resolution 3D CT x-ray images obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and pore-level simulations using a lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE)-based mesoscopic model developed during this investigation. The results of those measurements and simulations provide necessary inputs to the development of a reliable volume-averaging-based continuum model that is used to simulate the dynamics of the redox process in MSPS. Extensive efforts have been devoted to simulate the redox process in MSPS by developing a continuum model consist of various modules for conductive and radiative heat transfer, fluid flow, species transport, and reaction kinetics. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for species transport of chemically reacting flow in porous media have been investigated and verified numerically. Both approaches lead to correct

  13. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  14. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  16. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  17. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  18. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS Consolidation Program: flushing and blowdown system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-01-01

    The flushing and blowdown system of an EDS plant provides the means of removing viscous coal products and slurry streams from plant vessels and lines. In addition, it provides the flushing oil needed during normal operations for purging instruments in slurry service, for flushing slurry pump and slurry agitator seals, and for flushing slurry safety valve inlet lines. It contains a blowdown system for collecting material from washing operations, including the transport of the collected material to slop tankage. The rerun options for depleting the inventory of collected slop are a related aspect of the flushing and blowdown system design although specific equipment for handling slop is not part of the flushing and blowdown system facilities. This report documents the results of a study which evaluates the flushing and blowdown requirements for a commercial-scale EDS plant. The work was conducted as part of the EDS Consolidation Program. The design recommendations represent a consolidation of learnings accrued during previous phases of the EDS Project including results obtained from ECLP operations, from the ECLP Test Program, and from past EDS Study Design preparations. 1 reference, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  20. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  1. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  2. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  3. Prediction and measurement of optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasification processes. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Smith, P.J.

    1980-02-15

    This report summarizes work completed to predict and measure optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasifications processes. This study is the third in a series designed to investigate mixing and reaction in entrained coal gasifiers. A new team of graduate and undergraduate students was formed to conduct the experiments on optimum gasification operating conditions. Additional coal types, which will be tested in the gasifier were identified, ordered, and delivered. Characterization of these coals will be initiated. Hardware design modifications to introduce swirl into the secondary were initiated. Minor modifications were made to the gasifier to allow laser diagnostics to be made on an independently funded study with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The tasks completed on the two-dimensional model included the substantiation of a Gaussian PDF for the top-hat PDF in BURN and the completion of a Lagrangian particle turbulent dispersion module. The reacting submodel is progressing into the final stages of debug. The formulation of the radiation submodel is nearly complete and coding has been initiated. A device was designed, fabricated, and used to calibrate the actual Swirl Number of the cold-flow swirl generator used in the Phase 2 study. Swirl calibrations were obtained at the normal tests flow rates and at reduced flow rates. Two cold-flow tests were also performed to gather local velocity data under swirling conditions. Further analysis of the cold-flow coal-dust and swirl test results from the previous Phase 2 study were completed.

  4. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two distinct processes: Indirect Liquefaction and Direct Liquefaction. In Indirect Liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas for short), which is a mixture containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a commercial process that can be used

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  8. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  9. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  10. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  11. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the twelfth quarter of activities. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) Thirty-nine samples from four run conditions of HTI Run PB-07 were received. Appropriate samples were characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vacuum distillation, and solvent quality tests. (2) The University of Delaware completed their subcontract this quarter. A meeting was held on April 30, 1997 at the University to close out the subcontract. (3) Twelve sets of samples were chosen from the CONSOL sample bank for the study of the insoluble and presumed unreactive material from process stream samples. Each set consists of the whole process stream and the 454 C{sup +} (850 F{sup +}) distillation resid derived from that process stream. Processing data for all samples were compiled. The samples represent four Wilsonville pilot plant runs and two HTI runs.

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  13. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  14. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Refining and upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The refinery and upgrade process development unit (PDU) is designed to upgrade liquid hydrocarbon products from the direct and indirect liquefaction PDU`s to transportation fuels. The refinery will comprise of the following reactor systems: (a) Hydrotreating (b) Hydrocracking (c) Reforming. The three reactor systems will share common feed preparation, product separation and fractionation sections. The refinery is being designed to operate independently of the other PDU`s. The use of common feed and product handling systems will permit operation of one process reactor system at a time in the refinery. In addition, the hydrotreater and hydrocracker will be operable in series. The process is designed to utilize intermediate storage and maximize the use of equipment.

  15. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  16. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  17. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 30. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. The fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [111 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, S. R.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated for each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg/sup 0/, H/sub 2/Se, AsH/sub 3/ and SbH/sub 3/) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase.

  18. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  19. Novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim

    2011-09-14

    This final report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of a novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coalfired syngas (award number DE-FE0001124). The work was conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) from September 15, 2009, through December 14, 2011. Tetramer Technologies, LLC (Tetramer) was our subcontract partner on this project. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at Wilsonville, AL, provided access to syngas gasifier test facilities. The main objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective membrane process that could be used in the relatively near-term to capture CO{sub 2} from shifted syngas generated by a coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this project, novel polymeric membranes (designated as Proteus™ membranes) with separation properties superior to conventional polymeric membranes were developed. Hydrogen permeance of up to 800 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 50 psig, which exceeds the original project targets of 200 gpu for hydrogen permeance and 10 for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Lab-scale Proteus membrane modules (with a membrane area of 0.13 m{sup 2}) were also developed using scaled-up Proteus membranes and high temperature stable module components identified during this project. A mixed-gas hydrogen permeance of about 160 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 100 psig. We believe that a significant improvement in the membrane and module performance is likely with additional development work. Both Proteus membranes and lab-scale Proteus membrane modules were further evaluated using coal-derived syngas streams at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The results indicate that all module components, including the Proteus membrane, were stable under the field

  20. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis: production and combustion-test evaluation of product coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalvinskas, J.; Daly, D.

    1982-04-30

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, Pittsburgh No. 8 from Greene County, PA, Illinois No. 6 from Jackson County, Illinois and Eagle No. 5 from Moffat County, Colorado were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals (PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio and 282, Illinois No. 6 Coal from Jefferson County, Illinois) and one subbituminous coal (PSOC 230, Rosebud Coal fom Rosebud County, Montana) were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29 to 69%, reductions in volatiles (12 to 37%) and hydrogen (6 to 31%). Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56 to 86%), reductions in volatiles (77 to 84%) and hydrogen (56 to 64%). The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State plane flame furance to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

  2. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  3. ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant - Project Brief PDF-78KB University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Ghent, Kentucky PROJECT FACT SHEET Advanced Multi-Product Coal ...

  4. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  5. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  6. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  7. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  8. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  9. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  10. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Fifteenth quarterly report, [January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-04-26

    Maximum methane production was obtained in the experimental vials that contained 0.2% SNTM supplemented with 10 mM sodium citrate and 1% TxL (144 cc), while in the control vials CH{sub 4} production was only 58 cc. The conversion efficiency was 24%. This clearly shows citrate to be an important mediator for the formation of acetate (main precursor for CH{sub 4} formation) in the glyoxylate cycle, on the one hand, and as a sequestering agent, on the other. These results further indicate that citrate can, be successfully used as co-substrate for enhancement of the TxL biogasification process. The results obtained reconfirmed our hypothesis that the metals (such as Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CO{sup 2+}, Zr{sup 2+}, etc., present in the coal structure) are chelated/sequestered by the addition of citrate. Mass balance calculations show that this increase in CH{sup 4} production is due to the biomethanation of TxL and not because of the chemical conversion of co-substrate(s) to CH{sub 4} (Table 1). The effect of sodium citrate on biomethanation of TXL from the first experiment ``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1`` was reconfirmed in this experiment. The peak in acetate concentration (1317 ppm) on day 7 was followed by a rapid conversion of this precursor to CH{sub 4} (Figure 16). The VFA data obtained from both experiments (``Effect of co-substrate addition No. 1 and No. 2``) confirms the hypothesis that citrate and methanol can significantly enhance the biomethanation of TxL (Figure 17).

  13. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  14. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  15. Demonstration of Innovative Applications of Technology for the CT-121 FGD Process. Project Performance Summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of sixteen selected from 55 proposals submitted in 1988 and 1989 in response to the CCTDP second solicitation.

  16. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  18. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  19. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, August 1981-October 1981. [Using model compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdate catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.

  20. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  1. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  2. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  3. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy’s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process – High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  4. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  5. The examination of pretreatment and end use technologies for dirty fuels produced from coal gasification, coal pyrolysis, oil shale processing, and heavy oil recovery: Final technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raden, D.P.; Page, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify pretreatment (upgrading) and end use technologies which: (1) reduce environmental, health and safety impacts, (2) reduce pollution control costs, or (3) reduce upgrading costs of ''dirty fuels'' while producing higher value energy products. A comprehensive list of technologies was developed for upgrading the various dirty fuels to higher value and products. Fifty-two process flow concepts were examined and from these four process flow concepts were chosen for further development. These are: heavy oil recovery and in situ hydrotreating; wet air oxidation in a downhole reactor; total raw gas shift; and high density fuels via vacuum devolatilization. Each of these four process flow concepts described exhibit the potential for reducing environmental, health and safety impacts and/or pollution control costs. In addition these concepts utilize dirty fuels to produce an upgraded or higher value energy product. These concepts should be developed and evaluated in greater detail to assess their technical and economical viability. Therefore, it is recommended that a program plan be formulated and a proof-of-concept research program be performed for each process concept. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  7. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  9. Development and evaluation of wastewater-treatment processes at the H-Coal site in Catlettsburg, Kentucky. Volume I. Design summary and R and D task identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oswald, G.E.; Walker, J.F.; Brown, C.H.; Klein, J.A.; Genung, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    The design of a mobile process development unit (PDU) for coal conversion wastewater treatment and an overview of the associated R and D program for its use are described. The PDU consists of three modular units, which can be arranged in various sequences: carbon adsorption, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. Each of the units has a nominal flow capacity of approx. 60 mL of wastewater feed per second (1 gpm). The feed to the PDU will be taken as a sidestream from the existing wastewater treatment system at the H-Coal site. It will have been processed through oil-water separation and distillation stripping, and can be taken both before and after bio-oxidation by an activated sludge process. The ozonation system experimental parameters are ozone contact time, ozone treatment rate, column pressure, and pH. The system will be analyzed as a continuous stirred tank reactor. The calculated results will include ozone reaction, treatment, and absorption rates, contaminant depletion and reaction rates, ozone absorption and contaminant removal efficiencies, and ozone volumetric mass-transfer coefficients. The carbon adsorption system will be operated to obtain bed-depth-service-time (BDST) data for various carbons and operating conditions. The BDST method will yield the rate of carbon exhaustion as well as the minimum depth of carbon required to remove contaminants. Reverse osmosis will be studied to measure dissolved solids rejection efficiency, permeate recovery, and fouling characteristics of various commercially available membranes.

  10. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  11. Time phased alternate blending of feed coals for liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweigharett, Frank; Hoover, David S.; Garg, Diwaker

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for reducing process performance excursions during feed coal or process solvent changeover in a coal hydroliquefaction process by blending of feedstocks or solvents over time. ,

  12. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  13. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  14. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  15. Cooperative investigation by Auburn University and Cities Service Research and Development Company of combined coal and heavy resid processing. Quarterly report, October 15, 1983-January 15, 1984. [Use of petroleum residual fuels as organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of using heavy petroleum crudes and residua as solvents in coal liquefaction. Petroleum residuum is a hydrogen-rich material and coal is hydrogen deficient. In coprocessing, the fundamental concept being evaluated is to determine if petroleum residua can transfer hydrogen directly to coal at specified reaction conditions. The reaction parameters for such a transfer must be determined and optimized. Secondly, the idea of modifying the petroleum residua to produce more effective solvents for transferring hydrogen to coal during liquefaction is being evaluated. The goal of the coprocessing is to increase the net yield and improve the quality of liquid product compared to that originally present in the petroleum residuum. The parametric evaluation has shown that optimal conditions for combined processing are: Reaction Tempperature - 425/sup 0/C; Hydrogen Pressure - above 500 psia initial hydrogen pressure; Time - 90 minutes; and Catalyst - powdered hydrogenation catalyst. Coal conversion and oil production from combined catalytic (powdered) processing compare favorably with that from tetralin with a powdered catalyst. An added benefit of combined processing is the upgrading of the petroleum crude which is obtained during processing. Comparison of the final oil yields to the initial charge shows that combined processing yields a net increase of 23.3% for 90 minute reaction time while tetralin provides a net increase of 17.7% for 30 minutes of reaction. 3 figures, 20 tables.

  16. Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

  17. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  18. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  19. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  20. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  1. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  2. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  3. Parametric and kinetic studies on deactivation and regeneration of hydrotreating catalysts in solvent refined coal upgrading process and an evaluation of the liquid vaporization effects on hydrotreater performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    Catalysts used in hydrotreating the solvent refined coal were rapidly deactivated during the initial stages of processing. The major cause of deactivation appears to be the deposition of carbonaceous material on the catalyst. A simulated aging technique involving a series of reactions on the same batch of catalyst and a model compound activity test were developed and used to study the effects of process conditions, feedstock characteristics, catalyst properties, and catalyst pretreatment on initial catalyst deactivation. The variables shown to increase the rate of deactivation are: increased catalyst loading, high reaction temperature, low hydrogen pressure, unsulfiding the catalyst, and high concentrations of preasphaltenes and insoluble organic matter in the feedstock. The loss in catalyst surface area during the aging process was substantial, being as high as 95%. A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, was applied to upgrading of two-coal derived feedstocks. A catalyst deactivation mechanism was proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. Catalyst regeneration of aged catalysts from the LC-Finer and the ITSL process has been accomplished through oxidative treatment followed by presulfiding. A parametric study has been performed to identify the optimum regeneration conditions. The degree of regeneration appears to be dependent on the feed material and reaction history of the catalyst. Liquid vaporization affects the hydrotreater performance significantly. The hydrotreater is simulated to study the effects of the solvent volatility, hydrogen flow rate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. A gradientless reactor system was designed, built, and used to verify the key result ofthe simulation study.

  4. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  5. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  6. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and ...

  7. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  9. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  10. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placido, Andrew; Liu, Kunlei; Challman, Don; Andrews, Rodney; Jacques, David

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  11. Filtering coal-derived oil through a filter media precoated with particles partially solubilized by said oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Billy R.; Edwards, Michael S.

    1977-01-01

    Solids such as char, ash, and refractory organic compounds are removed from coal-derived liquids from coal liquefaction processes by the pressure precoat filtration method using particles of 85-350 mesh material selected from the group of bituminous coal, anthracite coal, lignite, and devolatilized coals as precoat materials and as body feed to the unfiltered coal-derived liquid.

  12. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  13. Eleventh annual international Pittsburgh coal conference proceedings: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    The conference presented over 300 papers in 39 separate sessions. These presentations are grouped into five topical areas: the technologies in pre- and post-utilization of coal; research and development in coal conversion; advanced coal combustion; environmental control technologies, and environmental policy issues related to coal use. The program has expanded its coverage in non-fuel use of coal. This is reflected in the three sessions on use of coal in the steel industry, and a sessions on carbon products and non-fuel coal applications. Volume 2 includes the following topics: Environmental systems and technologies/Environmental policy; Coal drying, dewatering and reconstitution; Coal cleaning technology; Slurry bed technology; Coal syngas, methanol, DME, olefins and oxygenates; Environmental issues in energy conversion technology; Applied coal geology; Use of coal in the steel industry; Recent developments in coal preparation; International coal gasification projects; Progress on Clean Coal projects; Retrofit air quality control technologies;Fluidized bed combustion; Commercialization of coal preparation technologies; Integrated gasification combined cycle program; the US Department of Energy`s Combustion 2000 program; and Environmental issues in coal utilization. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  15. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  16. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Coal Distribution Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: August 17, 2016 Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009

  17. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  18. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  19. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Kataria, Atish; Soukri, Mustapha; Farmer, Justin; Mobley, Paul; Tanthana, Jak; Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  20. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  1. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal production, 1986. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-28

    Coal Production 1986 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Aministration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1986 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1986. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. This report also includes updated data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on both January 1, 1986 and January 1, 1987. This is the seventh annual summry on minable coal, pursuant to Sec. 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  7. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  9. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Givens, E.N.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-12-09

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal. 2 figs.

  10. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  11. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  12. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Early Days of Coal Research | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Early Days of Coal Research Wartime Needs Spur Interest in Coal-to-Oil Processes In 1944 ... Oil was in tight supply in the United States during the war years. As demand for petroleum ...

  14. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  15. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  16. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  17. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  18. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  19. Washington delivers for the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 sets the course for better use of America's largest natural resource. Approximately $62 billion were authorised for coal related projects and nearly $2.9 million directed at coal projects in the tax portion of the bill. The article summarises some key points of the bill that affect the coal mining, processing and utilization sectors. The background for the article was provided courtesy of the National Mining Association. 4 tabs.

  20. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  1. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  3. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  6. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  13. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  15. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  16. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  17. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. [Fate of 36 trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run.

  1. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  2. Estimation of Coal Reserves for UCG in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bialecka, Barbara

    2008-03-15

    One of the prospective methods of coal utilization, especially in case of coal resources which are not mineable by means of conventional methods, is underground coal gasification (UCG). This technology allows recovery of coal energy 'in situ' and thus avoid the health and safety risks related to people which are inseparable from traditional coal extraction techniques.In Poland most mining areas are characterized by numerous coal beds where extraction was ceased on account of technical and economic reasons or safety issues. This article presents estimates of Polish hard coal resources, broken down into individual mines, that can constitute the basis of raw materials for the gasification process. Five mines, representing more than 4 thousand tons, appear to be UCG candidates.

  3. Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

  4. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  5. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy conducted a joint program with industry and State agencies to demonstrate the best of these new technologies at scales large enough for companies to make commercial decisions. More than 20 of the technologies

  6. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  7. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  9. Further studies of the effects of oxidation on the surface properties of coal and coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research was to investigate the oxidation behavior of coal and coal pyrite and to correlate the changes in the surface properties induced by oxidation, along with the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these organic and inorganic materials, with the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. This provide more fundamental knowledge for understanding the way in which different factors interact in a medium as heterogeneous as coal. Fourteen coal samples of different ranks ranging from high to medium sulfur content were studied by dry oxidation tests at different temperatures and humidities, and by wet oxidation tests using different oxidizing agents. The concentration of surface oxygen functional groups was determined by ion-exchange methods. The changes in the coal composition with oxidation were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The wettability of as-received and oxidized coal and coal pyrite samples was assessed by film flotation tests. The electrokinetic behavior of different coals and coal pyrite samples was studied by electrokinetic tests using electrophoresis. Possible oxidation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the changes on the coal surface induced by different oxidation treatments.

  10. Liquefaction of calcium-containing subbituminous coals and coals of lower rank

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Martin L.; Taunton, John W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for the treatment of a calcium-containing subbituminous coal and coals of lower rank to form insoluble, thermally stable calcium salts which remain within the solids portions of the residue on liquefaction of the coal, thereby suppressing the formation scale, made up largely of calcium carbonate deposits, e.g., vaterite, which normally forms within the coal liquefaction reactor (i.e., coal liquefaction zone), e.g., on reactor surfaces, lines, auxiliary equipment and the like. A solution of a compound or salt characterized by the formula MX, where M is a Group IA metal of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X is an anion which is capable of forming water-insoluble, thermally stable calcium compounds, is maintained in contact with a particulate coal feed sufficient to impregnate said salt or compound into the pores of the coal. On separation of the impregnated particulate coal from the solution, the coal can be liquefied in a coal liquefaction reactor (reaction zone) at coal liquefaction conditions without significant formation of vaterite or other forms of calcium carbonate on reactor surfaces, auxiliary equipment and the like; and the Group IA metal which remains within the liquefaction bottoms catalyzes the reaction when the liquefaction bottoms are subjected to a gasification reaction.

  11. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  13. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  15. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  16. Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal for Biomass Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Christopher J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2013-06-19

    Systems comprising of multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the warm syngas cleanup of coal- and biomass-derived syngas. Tailored specifically for biomass application the process described here consists of six primary unit operations: 1) Na2CO3 bed for HCl removal, 2) two regenerable ZnO beds for bulk H2S removal, 3) ZnO bed for H2S polishing, 4) NiCu/SBA-16 sorbent for trace metal (e.g. AsH3) removal, 5) steam reforming catalyst bed for tars and light hydrocarbons reformation and NH3 decomposition, and a 6) Cu-based LT-WGS catalyst bed. Simulated biomass-derived syngas containing a multitude of inorganic contaminants (H2S, AsH3, HCl, and NH3) and hydrocarbon additives (methane, ethylene, benzene, and naphthalene) was used to demonstrate process effectiveness. The efficiency of the process was demonstrated for a period of 175 hours, during which no signs of deactivation were observed. Post-run analysis revealed small levels of sulfur slipped through the sorbent bed train to the two downstream catalytic beds. Future improvements could be made to the trace metal polishing sorbent to ensure complete inorganic contaminant removal (to low ppb level) prior to the catalytic steps. However, dual, regenerating ZnO beds were effective for continuous removal for the vast majority of the sulfur present in the feed gas. The process was effective for complete AsH3 and HCl removal. The steam reforming catalyst completely reformed all the hydrocarbons present in the feed (methane, ethylene, benzene, and naphthalene) to additional syngas. However, post-run evaluation, under kinetically-controlled conditions, indicates deactivation of the steam reforming catalyst. Spent material characterization suggests this is attributed, in part, to coke formation, likely due to the presence of benzene and/or naphthalene in the feed. Future adaptation of this technology may require dual, regenerable steam reformers. The process and materials described in this report hold

  17. Use of low-rank coals in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D.; Rath, L.K.; Loh, H.P.; Reed, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible use of low rank coals in advanced power generation systems similar to those being demonstrated under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The results of the studies made on integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion using low rank coal and the implications of some future process enhancements are also discussed.

  18. Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Prudich, Michael E.; King, Jr., William E.; Moon, William G.

    1984-07-03

    A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

  19. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  20. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-31

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  1. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  2. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  3. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  4. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  5. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  6. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Derbyshire, Frank; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Jagtoyen, Marit

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  7. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW

  8. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  9. Characterization of the surface properties of Illinois Basin coals. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, I.; Harvey, R.D.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1992-08-01

    Understanding the surface properties of coal is important for predicting the physical-chemical behavior of coal during coal cleaning combustion and conversion. Data on surface properties help coal scientists and engineers in the design of effective coal desulfurization processes, and thereby aid in the marketability of Illinois Basin coals. The main objective of this project is to characterize the surface properties (surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, surface charge, and surface chemical structure) of eight coals in the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP), and explore statistical relationships between surface properties and other coal characteristics.

  10. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Yanlong; Ji, Qin; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    Recent interest in coprocessing coal with hydrogen rich waste materials in order to produce liquid transportation fuels has given rise to interesting twists on standard coal liquefaction. In general, coprocessing coal with a waste material has been approached with the idea that the waste material would be mixed with the coal under liquefaction conditions with little or no preliminary processing of the waste material other than shredding into smaller size particles. Mixing the waste material with the coal would occur in the primary stage of liquefaction. The primary stage would accomplish the dissolution of the coal and breakdown of the waste material. The products would then be introduced into the secondary stage where upgrading of product would occur. This paper describes the usefulness of oil derived from pyrolysis of waste rubber tires as a reactant in coal coprocessing or coal liquefaction.

  11. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: trace elements research and development report no. 53, interim report no. 34. Volume III. Pilot plant development work part 6: the fate of trace elements in the SRC process for the period, August 1, 1977 - February 28, 1979. [36 elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filby, R.H.; Khalil, S.R.; Grimm, C.A.; Ekabaram, V.; Hunt, M.L.

    1980-12-01

    This work reports the results of neutron activation analysis determination of the fate of trace elements in the SRC II process. Six coals were studied for their behavior in material balance runs carried out at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant. The distribution of trace elements among products and input streams was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10/sup 12/ neutrons cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ followed by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy. National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were used to evaluate the analytical precision and accuracy of the methods used. For each material balance study the trace element input stream was taken as ground coal and the output streams were vacuum bottoms, SRC II product oil, and process water. In addition to these major components, oils, sludges and waters from liquid-liquid separators, effluent waters, biosludges, and by-product sulfur were also analyzed. Concerning the distribution of trace elements in the SRC II process, it was found that the vacuum bottoms was the major sink for all trace element studied, with the exception of Hg. Much lower trace element concentrations (except for Hg) were found in the SRC II product oil relative to the vacuum bottoms or the feed coal, irrespective of coal type. The results indicate excellent balances for the elements studied, except for Hg. Except for Hg, Se, and C1, the SRC II product and process waters contributed less than 1% of the elemental balances for light oil fractions and process waters indicates that Hg, and to a lesser degree As, Se, and Sb, exhibited volatile behavior in the SRC II process but that the degree of volatility is strongly dependent on conditions or coal type.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  13. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  14. Two-stage, close coupled catalytic liquefaction of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Panvelker, S.V.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1990-09-01

    During the first quarter of 1990, work was carried out in the microautoclave, microreactor, and Bench-Scale units. An economics analysis on sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities was also completed. Several supported catalysts and a sample of iron oxide were screened in the microautoclave unsulfided and sulfided with DMDS and TNPS. A second shipment of Black Thunder coal from Wilsonville, oil agglomerated cleaned Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City, OTISCA cleaned coal a New Mexico coal were evaluated for relative conversions with and without catalyst. Results of Bench-Scale developments with cleaned, oil agglomerated, Illinois {number sign}6 coal from Homer City(CC-6), Dispersed Catalyst/Supported Catalyst Two-Stage and reversed sequential operation (CC-7), on Black Thunder Coal (CC-7), and preliminary observations on OTISCA cleaned coal are presented. The oil agglomerated cleaned coal gave higher conversion and distillate production than the OTISCA cleaned coal. The Dispersed/Supported Two-Stage operation yielded higher gas production than the reverse sequence but also showed the higher coal conversion. Economic analysis of sub-bituminous coal processing at two space velocities showed a 3% higher return on investment with a 50% increase in space velocity. 13 tabs.

  15. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  17. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  18. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing; Parasher, Sukesh; Hare, Jeffrey J.; Harding, N. Stanley; Black, Stephanie E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  19. ccpi-multi-product-coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant - Project Brief [PDF-78KB] University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Ghent, Kentucky PROJECT FACT SHEET Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant [PDF-447KB] (Oct 2008) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant, Final Report [PDF-750KB] (Apr 2007) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports

  20. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  1. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  2. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  4. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  6. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  9. "Annual Coal Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  10. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  11. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  12. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  13. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Coal Combustion Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  15. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

  16. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  17. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Coal Data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  19. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by use of milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such.

  20. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  1. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  2. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  3. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  4. Coal Utilization Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crosscutting Research » Coal Utilization Science Coal Utilization Science Computer scientists at FE's NETL study a visualization of a power plant component. Computer scientists at FE's NETL study a visualization of a power plant component. Traditionally the process of taking a new power plant system from the drawing board to a first-of-a-kind prototype has involved a series of progressively larger engineering test facilities and pilot plants, leading ultimately to a full-scale demonstration.

  5. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  6. The NOXSO clean coal project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  7. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  8. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  9. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  10. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  11. Recent two-stage coal liquefaction results from Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.K.; Udani, L.H.; Nalitham, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents results from two recent runs conducted at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D facility of Wilsonville, Alabama. The first run was an extended demonstration of sub-bituminous coal liquefaction using an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) process. The second run employed a bituminous coal in a reconfigured two-stage process (RITLS) wherein the undeashed products from the first stage were hydrotreated prior to separation of coal ash. Good operability and satisfactory yield structure were demonstrated in both the runs.

  12. Kinetics of heavy oil/coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szladow, A.J.; Chan, R.K. ); Foudu, S.; Kelly, J.F. )

    1988-06-01

    A number of studies have been reported on coprocessing of coal and oil sand bitumen, petroleum residues and distillate fractions in catalytic and non-catalytic processes. The studies described the effects of feedstock characteristics, process chemistry and operating variables on the product yield and distribution; however, very few kinetic data were reported in these investigations. This paper presents the kinetic data and modelling of the CANMET coal/heavy oil coprocessing process. CANMET has been conducting research and process development work on coprocessing of Canadian heavy oil/bitumen and coal since 1979 including studies of the kinetics and mechanisms of coprocessing. As a continuation of the program, CANMET and Lobbe Technologies undertook a project on mathematical modelling of coprocessing kinetics with emphasis on the development of reaction engineering models for improved process performance and operation.

  13. Coal gasification construction materials: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, J.M.; Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

    1981-12-01

    Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

  14. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  15. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  16. 87th regular meeting of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnie, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven papers are included in these proceedings. Topics include management of coal mining operations, improving mine health and safety, new technologies for longwall mining, coal haulage, coal drying, a demonstration of the LFC process, and state of the art in mining automation. All eleven papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  18. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  19. Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture New Single-step hydrolysis process co-converts coal and any biomass to liquid fuel Savannah ...

  20. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  1. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  2. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  3. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  4. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  5. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  6. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  8. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  9. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  10. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  11. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  12. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... stitutions * InternationalCoal Technology Export C&PS ... * Systems Integration * Plant Designs Central Power ... Boiler System - Indirect Fired Cycles - Pressurized ...

  13. WCI Case for Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... technology: It has been calculated that if the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plant worldwide were brought up to current German levels of efficiency, the ...

  14. Coal-fired boiler for petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketterman, W.R.; Heinzmann, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a significant amount of interest in conversion from oil/gas fired boilers to coal-fired equipment since the Arab oil embargo of 1973. The CRA Incorporated Coffeyville Refinery decided in 1977 to proceed with the installation of a 86.183 Kg/h coal fired boiler to generate process steam at 650 psig (4,482 k Pa) 596/sup 0/F (313/sup 0/C). A significant portion of this steam is passed through steam turbines to obtain mechanical power. Building and operating a coal-fired steam plant is a ''Different Kettle of Fish'' from building and operating an oil/gas-fired steam plant. The intention of this paper is to deal with some of the ''Why's and Wherefores'' of the conversion to coal-fired equipment.

  15. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  16. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  17. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael T. Klein

    1998-10-01

    Major objectives of the present project are to develop a better understanding of the roles of the catalyst and the liquefaction solvent in the coal liquefaction process. An open question concerning the role of the catalyst is whether intimate contact between the catalyst and the coal particles is important or required. To answer this question, it had been planned to coat an active catalyst with a porous silica coating which was found to retain catalyst activity while preventing actual contact between catalyst and coal. Consultation with people in DuPont who coat catalysts for increasing abrasion resistance have indicated that only portions of the catalyst are coated by their process (spray drying) and that sections of uncoated catalyst remain. For that reason, it was decided to suspend the catalyst in a basket separated from the coal in the reactor. The basket walls were to be permeable to the liquefaction solvent but not to the coal particles. Several such baskets were constructed of stainless steel with holes which would not permit passage of coal particles larger than 30 mesh. Liquefactions run with the coal of greater than 30 mesh size gave normal conversion of coal to liquid in the absence of catalyst in the basket, but substantially increased conversion when Ni/Mo on alumina catalyst was in the basket. While this result is interesting and suggestive of some kind of mass transfer of soluble material occurring between the catalyst and the coal, it does not eliminate the possibility of breakdown of the coal particle into particle sizes permeable to the basket. Indeed, a small amount of fine coal has been found inside the basket. To determine whether fine coal from breakdown of the coal particles is responsible for the conversion, a new basket is being prepared with 0.5{micro}m pore size.

  18. Coal water slurries. (Latest citations from the Patent bibliographic database with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the mixing of coal with water to achieve a fuel mixture, or a medium for the transporting or processing of coal. Apparatus, preparation methods, and a variety of processes regarding the utilization of coal-water slurries are presented. Applications include synthetic gas production and coal beneficiation operations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.