National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for osram opto semiconductors

  1. Osram Sylvania | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGEProjects/DefinitionsOrchidxOsComp SystemsOsram

  2. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: OSRAM SYLVANIA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergyof Energy JLANetApp WorkplaceOSRAM SYLVANIA

  4. Opto Working Group Meeting March 21, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    Summary of failures after burn-in/thermal cycles Summary K.K. Gan #12;K.K. Gan Opto Working Group Implemented several improvements based on experience gained from production of 1st generation opto cold solder is a major cause of opto-link failures opto-boards built by OSU have ~0.1% broken

  5. Excellence Opto: Order (2013-CE-49002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Excellence Opto, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Excellence Opto had failed to certify that certain models of traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Exploring and enhancing conductivity in semiconductor nanoparticle films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Venda Jane

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are a promising material for use in opto-electronic devices as their optical properties tune with particle size. NCs formed via colloidal synthesis are suspended in solution by the organic ...

  7. New Efficiency Record Achieved for White OLED Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Osram Opto-Semiconductors, Inc. has successfully demonstrated a white organic light emitting diode (OLED) with a record efficiency of 25 lumens per watt, the highest known efficiency achieved to date for a polymer-based white OLED. The 25 LPW cool-white-emitting device was produced by applying a standard external inorganic phosphor to Osram's record-breaking blue-emitting phosphorescent polymer device with a peak luminous efficacy of 14 LPW.

  8. Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-thermal transduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeuchi, M; Takeuchi, M; Hagiwara, M; Haulot, G; Ho, CM

    2013-01-01

    Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-of reconfigurable microfluidic pump using optoelectronic

  9. Opto-mechano-fluidic viscometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kewen, E-mail: khan56@illinois.edu; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Bahl, Gaurav, E-mail: bahl@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The recent development of opto-mechano-fluidic resonators has provided—by harnessing photon radiation pressure—a microfluidics platform for the optical sensing of fluid density and bulk modulus. Here, we show that fluid viscosity can also be determined through optomechanical measurement of the vibrational noise spectrum of the resonator mechanical modes. A linear relationship between the spectral linewidth and root-viscosity is predicted and experimentally verified in the low viscosity regime. Our result is a step towards multi-frequency measurement of viscoelasticity of arbitrary fluids, without sample contamination, using highly sensitive optomechanics techniques.

  10. October 30, 2013 Status of Opto-Board Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    Pixel Week 1 October 30, 2013 K.K. Gan Status of Opto-Board Production K.K. Gan, R + 16 data links #12;Pixel Week 3 Production Status K.K. Gan nSQP B opto-boards production completed passed reception test at CERN IBL opto-boards production completed passed

  11. Opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique for highperformance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung [Purdue University; Ravindranath, Sandeep [Purdue University; Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Irudayaraj, Joseph [Purdue University; Wereley, Steven T. [Purdue University

    2012-01-01

    This communication first demonstrates bio-compatibility of a recently developed opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique, using microorganisms. Aggregation, patterning, translation, trapping and size-based separation of microorganisms performed with the technique firmly establishes its usefulness for development of a high-performance on-chip bioassay system.

  12. Cooling and control of a cavity opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan H. Lee; Terry G. McRae; Glen I. Harris; Joachim Knittel; Warwick P. Bowen

    2010-02-11

    We implement a cavity opto-electromechanical system integrating electrical actuation capabilities of nanoelectromechanical devices with ultrasensitive mechanical transduction achieved via intra-cavity optomechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 microN are realized, with simultaneous mechanical transduction sensitivity of 1.5 X 10^-18 m/rtHz representing a three orders of magnitude improvement over any nanoelectromechanical system to date. Opto-electromechanical feedback cooling is demonstrated, exhibiting strong squashing of the in-loop transduction signal. Out-of-loop transduction provides accurate temperature calibration even in the critical paradigm where measurement backaction induces opto-mechanical correlations.

  13. Opto-Electrical Cooling of Polar Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Zeppenfeld; M. Motsch; P. W. H. Pinkse; G. Rempe

    2009-10-07

    We present an opto-electrical cooling scheme for polar molecules based on a Sisyphus-type cooling cycle in suitably tailored electric trapping fields. Dissipation is provided by spontaneous vibrational decay in a closed level scheme found in symmetric-top rotors comprising six low-field-seeking rovibrational states. A generic trap design is presented. Suitable molecules are identified with vibrational decay rates on the order of 100Hz. A simulation of the cooling process shows that the molecular temperature can be reduced from 1K to 1mK in approximately 10s. The molecules remain electrically trapped during this time, indicating that the ultracold regime can be reached in an experimentally feasible scheme.

  14. Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    1 Module Title: Metamaterials, Nanophotonics and Plasmonics Module Code: OPTO6004 Core introduction to the three cornerstones of future photonic technologies, namely metamaterials, plasmonics. Comprehend the concept of metamaterials and underlying principles of their operation A3. Learn about

  15. Multivariable isoperformance methodology for precision opto-mechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Weck, Olivier Ladislas, 1968-

    2001-01-01

    Precision opto-mechanical systems, such as space telescopes, combine structures, optics and controls in order to meet stringent pointing and phasing requirements. In this context a novel approach to the design of complex, ...

  16. Modulating light with light via giant nano-opto-mechanical nonlinearity of plasmonic metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Jianfa; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    From the demonstration of saturable absorption by Vavilow and Levshin in 1926, and with invention of the laser, unavailability of strongly nonlinear materials was a key obstacle for developing optical signal processing, in particular in transparent telecommunication networks. Today, most advanced photonic switching materials exploit gain dynamics and near-band and excitonic effects in semiconductors, nonlinearities in organic media with weakly-localized electrons and nonlinearities enhanced by hybridization with metamaterials. Here we report on a new type of artificial nonlinearity that is nano-opto-mechanical in nature. It was observed in an artificial metamaterial array of plasmonic meta-molecules supported by a flexible nano-membrane. Here nonlinearity is underpinned by the reversible reconfiguration of its structure induced by light. In a film of only 100 nanometres thickness we demonstrated modulation of light with light using milliwatt power telecom diode lasers.

  17. Remark on laser linewidth hazard in opto-mechanical cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajos Diósi

    2008-07-23

    I discuss the robustness of the pumped cavity dynamics against phase diffusion of the laser and conclude that opto-mechanical cooling has extreme sensitivity compared to laser cooling of atoms. Certain proposals of ground state opto-mechanical cooling by single cavity would require an unrealistic sharp laser linewidth or equivalently, a very low level of phase noise. A systematic way to cancel classical excess phase noise is the interferometric twin-cavity pumping, initiated for optically trapped macro-mirrors of future gravitational-wave detectors.

  18. Quantum network of superconducting qubits through opto-mechanical interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang-qi Yin; W. L. Yang; L. Sun; L. M. Duan

    2015-01-08

    We propose a scheme to realize quantum networking of superconducting qubits based on the opto-mechanical interface. The superconducting qubits interact with the microwave photons, which then couple to the optical photons through the opto-mechanical interface. The interface generates a quantum link between superconducting qubits and optical flying qubits with tunable pulse shapes and carrier frequencies, enabling transmission of quantum information to other superconducting or atomic qubits. We show that the scheme works under realistic experimental conditions and it also provides a way for fast initialization of the superconducting qubits under 1 K instead of 20 mK operation temperature.

  19. Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics - opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Williams, Stuart J. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chuang, Han-sheng [University of Pennsylvania; Green, Nicolas [University of Southampton, England; Wereley, Steven G. [Purdue University

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of technologies that employ both optical and electrical forces to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro and nano scale. These technologies, which have emerged primarily over the last decade, have provided a revolutionary and fresh perspective at fundamental electrokinetic processes, as well as have engendered a novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimeter-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.

  20. Spatially resolved imaging of opto-electrical property variations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikiforov, Maxim; Darling, Seth B; Suzer, Ozgun; Guest, Jeffrey; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    Systems and methods for opto electric properties are provided. A light source illuminates a sample. A reference detector senses light from the light source. A sample detector receives light from the sample. A positioning fixture allows for relative positioning of the sample or the light source with respect to each other. An electrical signal device measures the electrical properties of the sample. The reference detector, sample detector and electrical signal device provide information that may be processed to determine opto-electric properties of the same.

  1. Development Engineer (m/w) Innovation Opto-electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    . nanograde's current materials pipeline includes materials for displays, lighting panels and solar cellsDevelopment Engineer (m/w) Innovation Opto-electronic Devices nanograde, with of ces in CH material problems in high-margin applications for mobile, display, lighting and energy applications

  2. Internship (6+ months) Innovation Opto-electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    . nanograde's current materials pipeline includes materials for displays, lighting panels and solar cellsInternship (6+ months) Innovation Opto-electronic Devices nanograde, with of ces in CH material problems in high-margin applications for mobile, display, lighting and energy applications

  3. K.K. Gan B Layer Workshop 1 Opto-Link Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    -Link Working Group/common projects #12;K.K. Gan B Layer Workshop 3 Need New Opto-Link for B Layer? opto current pixel opto-link architecture to take advantage of R&D effort and production experience #12;K: 14 x 1015 1-MeV neq/cm2 2.7 x 1015 p/cm2 or 71 Mrad for 24 GeV protons above estimates include 50

  4. Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto-mechanical resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto- mechanical resonator://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Simultaneous radiation pressure induced heating and cooling of an opto-mechanical resonator to a combination of large mechanical oscillations and necessary saturation of amplification, the noise floor

  5. Micro-optic elements for a compact opto-electronic integrated neural coprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrington, William Frederick, Jr

    2015-01-01

    The research done for this thesis was aimed at developing the optical elements needed for the Compact Opto-electronic Integrated Neural coprocessor (COIN coprocessor) project. The COIN coprocessor is an implementation of ...

  6. Post assembly process development for Monolithic OptoPill integration on silicon CMOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, Yi-Shu Vivian, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic OptoPill integration by means of recess mounting is a heterogeneous technique employed to integrate III-V photonic devices on silicon CMOS circuits. The goal is to create an effective fabrication process that ...

  7. Sandia Energy - Semiconductor Revolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor Revolution Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Semiconductor Revolution Semiconductor RevolutionTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-14T14:32:12+00:00...

  8. Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McRae, Terry G; Harris, Glen I; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P

    2010-01-01

    A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step towards the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics, and provides new capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

  9. Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terry G. McRae; Kwan H. Lee; Glen I. Harris; Joachim Knittel; Warwick P. Bowen

    2010-05-27

    A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step towards the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics, and provides new capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

  10. Release strategies for making transferable semiconductor structures, devices and device components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Yoon, Jongseung (Urbana, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Baca, Alfred J. (Urbana, IL)

    2011-04-26

    Provided are methods for making a device or device component by providing a multilayer structure having a plurality of functional layers and a plurality of release layers and releasing the functional layers from the multilayer structure by separating one or more of the release layers to generate a plurality of transferable structures. The transferable structures are printed onto a device substrate or device component supported by a device substrate. The methods and systems provide means for making high-quality and low-cost photovoltaic devices, transferable semiconductor structures, (opto-)electronic devices and device components.

  11. Release strategies for making transferable semiconductor structures, devices and device components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Meitl, Matthew; Ko, Heung Cho; Yoon, Jongseung; Menard, Etienne; Baca, Alfred J

    2014-11-25

    Provided are methods for making a device or device component by providing a multilayer structure having a plurality of functional layers and a plurality of release layers and releasing the functional layers from the multilayer structure by separating one or more of the release layers to generate a plurality of transferable structures. The transferable structures are printed onto a device substrate or device component supported by a device substrate. The methods and systems provide means for making high-quality and low-cost photovoltaic devices, transferable semiconductor structures, (opto-)electronic devices and device components.

  12. OPTO-ACOUSTIC OSCILLATOR USING SILICON MEMS OPTICAL MODULATOR Suresh Sridaran and Sunil A. Bhave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    is chosen for oscillation by the RF filter. The superior phase noise is due to the long energy storage timesOPTO-ACOUSTIC OSCILLATOR USING SILICON MEMS OPTICAL MODULATOR Suresh Sridaran and Sunil A. Bhave OxideMEMS Lab, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA ABSTRACT We show operation of a silicon MEMS based

  13. K.K. Gan 1 Building New Opto-boards by 2012?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, K. K.

    K.K. Gan 1 Building New Opto-boards by 2012? August 3, 2010 K.K. Gan The Ohio State University #12 to fabricate prototype BeO boards by vendor 2 weeks for passive components mounting 2 weeks to fabricate/test new boards 8 weeks to fabricate production BeO boards by vendor 2 weeks for passive components

  14. Reducing stray light in Opto-Mechanical Systems Michael A. Gauvin and Edward R. Freniere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Jill

    Reducing stray light in Opto-Mechanical Systems Michael A. Gauvin and Edward R. Freniere Lambda Research Corporation Abstract Almost every optical imaging system suffers from stray light or unwanted light. In an optical imaging system, stray light is caused by light from a bright source shining

  15. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  16. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  17. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  18. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  19. Mismatched semiconductor nanowires: growth and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yim, Joanne Wing Lan

    2011-01-01

    of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties (system Material properties Zn-VI compound semiconductors (

  20. Advanced Electrical Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khanal, Devesh Raj

    2010-01-01

    extracting materials properties from semiconductors is theimportant material properties of semiconductors are the free

  1. Quantum memories with electrically controlled storage and retrieval in an opto- and electro-mechanical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li-Guo Qin; Zhong-Yang Wang; Gong-Wei Lin; Jing-Yun Zhao; Shang-Qing Gong

    2013-09-12

    We propose a novel scheme to realize electrically controlled quantum memories in the opto- and electro-mechanical (OEM) cavity. Combining this OEM cavity with the mechanism of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) we find that the quantum interference, arising from the two optical transitions of the $\\Lambda$ type three-level atomic ensembles, can be manipulated electrically. Numerical calculations show that the probe photon state can be well stored into the atomic spin state by sending an electric current pulse and retrieved with time-reverse symmetry by sending the other current pulse with opposite direction. The quantum interference with electric controlling is expected to apply to other quantum control aspects.

  2. Classical non-Gaussian state preparation through squeezing in an opto-electromechanical resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menno Poot; King Y. Fong; Hong X. Tang

    2014-11-20

    We demonstrate squeezing of a strongly interacting opto-electromechanical system using a parametric drive. By employing real-time feedback on the phase of the pump at twice the resonance frequency the thermo-mechanical noise is squeezed beyond the 3 dB instability limit. Surprisingly, this method can also be used to generate highly nonlinear states. We show that using the parametric drive with feedback on, classical number-like and cat-like states can be prepared. This presents a valuable electro-optomechanical state-preparation protocol that is extendable to the quantum regime.

  3. Classical non-Gaussian state preparation through squeezing in an opto-electromechanical resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate squeezing of a strongly interacting opto-electromechanical system using a parametric drive. By employing real-time feedback on the phase of the pump at twice the resonance frequency the thermo-mechanical noise is squeezed beyond the 3 dB instability limit. Surprisingly, this method can also be used to generate highly nonlinear states. We show that using the parametric drive with feedback on, classical number-like and cat-like states can be prepared. This presents a valuable electro-optomechanical state-preparation protocol that is extendable to the quantum regime.

  4. Mechanically-mediated optical response in hybrid opto-electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Jiang; Yuanshun Cui; Hongxiang Liu; Guibin Chen

    2014-04-15

    We theoretically investigate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency, absorption and parametric amplification in a hybrid opto-electromechanical system consisting of an optical cavity and a microwave cavity coupled to a common nanomechanical resonator. When the two cavity modes are driven on their respective red sidebands by two pump beams and a probe beam is applied to the optical cavity to monitor the optical response of the hybrid system, we find that a transparency window appears in the probe transmission spectrum due to destructive interference. When the optical cavity is pumped on its blue sideband, the analog of electromagnetically induced absorption and parametric amplification occur due to constructive interference.

  5. Mechanically-mediated optical response in hybrid opto-electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Hongxiang; Chen, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency, absorption and parametric amplification in a hybrid opto-electromechanical system consisting of an optical cavity and a microwave cavity coupled to a common nanomechanical resonator. When the two cavity modes are driven on their respective red sidebands by two pump beams and a probe beam is applied to the optical cavity to monitor the optical response of the hybrid system, we find that a transparency window appears in the probe transmission spectrum due to destructive interference. When the optical cavity is pumped on its blue sideband, the analog of electromagnetically induced absorption and parametric amplification occur due to constructive interference.

  6. Electrostatic screening by semiconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krcmar, Maja

    1998-01-01

    distributions. We determine the sluice screening length for the screening of a charged surface defect, and the interaction energy between two charged surface defects. We find the spatial scales over which dielectric and metallic properties of the semiconductors...

  7. DSENT - A Tool Connecting Emerging Photonics with Electronics for Opto-Electronic Networks-on-Chip Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen

    2012-02-08

    With the advent of many-core chips that place substantial demand on the NoC, photonics has been investigated as a promising alternative to electrical NoCs. While numerous opto-electronic NoCs have been proposed, their ...

  8. Method of doping a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Chiang Y. (Miller Place, NY); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.

  9. An ultra-low dissipation micro-oscillator for quantum opto-mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Serra; A. Borrielli; F. S. Cataliotti; F. Marin; F. Marino; A. Pontin; G. A. Prodi; M. Bonaldi

    2012-08-30

    Generating non-classical states of light by opto-mechanical coupling depends critically on the mechanical and optical properties of micro-oscillators and on the minimization of thermal noise. We present an oscillating micro-mirror with a mechanical quality factor Q = 2.6x10^6 at cryogenic temperature and a Finesse of 65000, obtained thanks to an innovative approach to the design and the control of mechanical dissipation. Already at 4 K with an input laser power of 2 mW, the radiation-pressure quantum fluctuations become the main noise source, overcoming thermal noise. This feature makes our devices particularly suitable for the production of pondero-motive squeezing.

  10. Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akram, M Javed; Saif, Farhan

    2015-01-01

    The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

  11. Efficient tunable switch from slow light to fast light in quantum opto-electromechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Javed Akram; Khalid Naseer; Farhan Saif

    2015-03-05

    The control of slow and fast light propagation, in the probe transmission in a single experiment, is a challenging task. This type of control can only be achieved through highly nonlinear interactions and additional interfering pathway(s), which is therefore seldom reported. Here, we devise a scheme in which slow light, and a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved in the probe transmission based on a hybrid setup, which is composed of an optical cavity with two charged nano mechanical resonators (MRs). The two MRs are electrostatically coupled via tunable Coulomb coupling strength ($g_{c}$) making a quantum opto-electromechanical system (QOEMS). The parameter $g_{c}$ that couples the two MRs can be switched on and off by controlling the bias voltages on the MRs, and acts as a tunable switch that allows the propagation of transmitted probe field as slow light ($g_{c} \

  12. A macro-realism inequality for opto-electro-mechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill Lambert; Robert Johansson; Franco Nori

    2011-11-04

    We show how to apply the Leggett-Garg inequality to opto-electro-mechanical systems near their quantum ground state. We find that by using a dichotomic quantum non-demolition measurement (via, e.g., an additional circuit-QED measurement device) either on the cavity or on the nanomechanical system itself, the Leggett-Garg inequality is violated. We argue that only measurements on the mechanical system itself give a truly unambigous violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality for the mechanical system. In this case, a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality indicates physics beyond that of "macroscopic realism" is occurring in the mechanical system. Finally, we discuss the difficulties in using unbound non-dichotomic observables with the Leggett-Garg inequality.

  13. Tutorial: Opto-mechanical cooling by the back-action of cavity photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple classical analysis of light interacting with a Fabry-Perot cavity consisting of a fixed (dielectric) front mirror and a vibrating rear mirror. In the adiabatic approximation, the returning light exhibits sideband symmetry, which will go away once the photon lifetime becomes comparable to or longer than the oscillation period of the rear mirror. When the oscillation period is short compared to the cavity photon lifetime, one must approach the problem differently, treating the vibrating mirror as a scatterer which sends a fraction of the incident light into sideband frequencies. With proper detuning, the cavity's internal radiation pressure could either dampen or amplify the vibrations of the mirror; the former is the physical principle behind opto-mechanical cooling by the back-action of cavity photons.

  14. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  15. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  16. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  17. Chemical dynamics and bonding at gas/semiconductor and oxide/semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    and physical properties of semiconductor materials. Onematerials considered, Ge and III-V semiconductors, have favorable intrinsic properties

  18. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  19. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  20. Highly Mismatched Semiconductor Alloys with Extreme Compositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levander, Alejandro X.

    2012-01-01

    A. , Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN,Semiconductor alloying is a common method for tailoring material propertiesSemiconductor alloying is a common method for tailoring material properties

  1. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  2. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  3. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Wednesday, 28 August 2013 00:00 Accentuating the...

  4. ELECTRON TRANSFER AT SENSITIZED SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spitler, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Pleskov. , Y. , Electrochemistry of SemiconductorsjPlenum54 Semiconductor electrochemistry Experimental apparatus forSemiconductor electrochemistry is a complex intersec'tion of

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    F. , Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN,materials In the semiconductor community, thermal conductivity is a very important property

  6. Scanned probe characterization of semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Law, James Jeremy MacDonald

    2009-01-01

    electronic properties on two semiconductor material systems.semiconductor materials system suffers from perturbations in local electronic structure due to crystallographic defects. Understanding the electronic properties

  7. HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    HAPPY NEW YEAR! #12;Semiconductor Spintronics Niu Burkov Culcer Nunez Nomura Yao Sinova Sinitsyn Dietl Koenig Lin Timm Jungwirth Lee Fernandez-Rossier U. Texas at Austin 2005 Taiwan Spintronics Workshop #12;Spintronics Toolbag Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As .... others Coupled Spin Charge

  8. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  9. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  10. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  11. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  12. Semiconductor device PN junction fabrication using optical processing of amorphous semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rangappan, Anikara

    2014-11-25

    Systems and methods for semiconductor device PN junction fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical device having a P-N junction comprises: depositing a layer of amorphous semiconductor material onto a crystalline semiconductor base, wherein the crystalline semiconductor base comprises a crystalline phase of a same semiconductor as the amorphous layer; and growing the layer of amorphous semiconductor material into a layer of crystalline semiconductor material that is epitaxially matched to the lattice structure of the crystalline semiconductor base by applying an optical energy that penetrates at least the amorphous semiconductor material.

  13. Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01

    semiconductor processing materials are closely held intellectual property. Chemical textbooks and handbooks

  14. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  15. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Means, Joel L.; Floro, Jerrold Anthony

    2001-07-01

    Strain-induced self-assembly during semiconductor heteroepitaxy offers a promising approach to produce quantum nanostructures for nanologic and optoelectronics applications. Our current research direction aims to move beyond self-assembly of the basic quantum dot towards the fabrication of more complex, potentially functional structures such as quantum dot molecules and quantum wires. This report summarizes the steps taken to improve the growth quality of our GeSi molecular beam epitaxy process, and then highlights the outcomes of this effort.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and Synthesis of Novel Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) are semiconductors doped with small amounts of magnetic active transition...

  17. Growth and Characterization of Semiconductor Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Jiebin

    2011-01-01

    of semiconductors. Physics and materials properties.of semiconductors. Physics and materials properties, 1996.properties [19, 46-52], compared with bulk materials. In general, when semiconductor

  18. Impurity gettering in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A process for impurity gettering in a semiconductor substrate or device such as a silicon substrate or device is disclosed. The process comprises hydrogenating the substrate or device at the back side thereof with sufficient intensity and for a time period sufficient to produce a damaged back side. Thereafter, the substrate or device is illuminated with electromagnetic radiation at an intensity and for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the back side and alloy with a metal there present to form a contact and capture the impurities. The impurity gettering process also can function to simultaneously passivate defects within the substrate or device, with the defects likewise diffusing to the back side for simultaneous passivation. Simultaneously, substantially all hydrogen-induced damage on the back side of the substrate or device is likewise annihilated. Also taught is an alternate process comprising thermal treatment after hydrogenation of the substrate or device at a temperature of from about 500 C to about 700 C for a time period sufficient to cause the impurities to diffuse to the damaged back side thereof for subsequent capture by an alloying metal. 1 fig.

  19. Refractive Indices of Semiconductors from Energy gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tripathy, S K

    2015-01-01

    An empirical relation based on energy gap and refractive index data has been proposed in the present study to calculate the refractive index of semiconductors. The proposed model is then applied to binary as well as ternary semiconductors for a wide range of energy gap. Using the relation, dielectric constants of some III-V group semiconductors are calculated. The calculated values for different group of binary semiconductors, alkali halides and ternary semiconductors fairly agree with other calculations and known values over a wide range of energy gap. The temperature variation of refractive index for some binary semiconductors have been calculated.

  20. Refractive Indices of Semiconductors from Energy gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Tripathy

    2015-07-16

    An empirical relation based on energy gap and refractive index data has been proposed in the present study to calculate the refractive index of semiconductors. The proposed model is then applied to binary as well as ternary semiconductors for a wide range of energy gap. Using the relation, dielectric constants of some III-V group semiconductors are calculated. The calculated values for different group of binary semiconductors, alkali halides and ternary semiconductors fairly agree with other calculations and known values over a wide range of energy gap. The temperature variation of refractive index for some binary semiconductors have been calculated.

  1. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  2. Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

  3. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-14

    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  4. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  5. Semiconductor nanocrystal-based phagokinetic tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A; Parak, Wolfgang J; Le Gros, Mark; Boudreau, Rosanne

    2014-11-18

    Methods for determining metabolic properties of living cells through the uptake of semiconductor nanocrystals by cells. Generally the methods require a layer of neutral or hydrophilic semiconductor nanocrystals and a layer of cells seeded onto a culture surface and changes in the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals are detected. The observed changes made to the layer of semiconductor nanocrystals can be correlated to such metabolic properties as metastatic potential, cell motility or migration.

  6. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  7. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, Nikos P. (Pasadena, CA); Polzik, Eugene S. (H.o slashed.jbjerg, DK); Kimble, H. Jeff (LaCanada, CA)

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100's THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 .mu.m to 1.66 .mu.m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage.

  8. Opto-electronic device for frequency standard generation and terahertz-range optical demodulation based on quantum interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgiades, N.P.; Polzik, E.S.; Kimble, H.J.

    1999-02-02

    An opto-electronic system and technique for comparing laser frequencies with large frequency separations, establishing new frequency standards, and achieving phase-sensitive detection at ultra high frequencies are disclosed. Light responsive materials with multiple energy levels suitable for multi-photon excitation are preferably used for nonlinear mixing via quantum interference of different excitation paths affecting a common energy level. Demodulation of a carrier with a demodulation frequency up to 100`s THZ can be achieved for frequency comparison and phase-sensitive detection. A large number of materials can be used to cover a wide spectral range including the ultra violet, visible and near infrared regions. In particular, absolute frequency measurement in a spectrum from 1.25 {micro}m to 1.66 {micro}m for fiber optics can be accomplished with a nearly continuous frequency coverage. 7 figs.

  9. e! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    e! Science News Semiconductor manufacturing technique holds promise for solar energy PublishedSemiconductor manufacturing technique holds promise for solar energy | e! Science News 5/26/2010http semiconductor manufacturing method pioneered at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got

  10. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  11. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T. (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  12. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  13. Transport, Analyte Detection, and Opto-Electronic Response of p-Type CuO Nanowires Benjamin J. Hansen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    -cost approaches to synthesizing quality nanostruc- tures in metal-oxides such as ZnO, In2O3, TiO2, and Cu. In particular, semiconductor nanowires (NWs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as promising

  14. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  15. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  16. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  17. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  18. Stretchable semiconductor elements and stretchable electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC)

    2009-07-07

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  19. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  20. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D. (Dover, MA); Cabalu, Jasper S. (Cary, NC)

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  1. Low Energy Ion Implantationin Semiconductor Manufacturing | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Low Energy Ion Implantation in Semiconductor Manufacturing Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

  2. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as...

  3. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Presenters: Jeff...

  4. Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

  5. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers)...

  6. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  7. Characterization of Novel Semiconductor Alloys for Band Gap Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broesler, Robert Joseph

    2010-01-01

    of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties. 1999,in Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN, AlN,Semiconductor Alloys: InAlN, ZnSeO and GaNAs 2 Materials Properties

  8. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Hambarian, Artak (Yerevan, AM)

    2008-09-02

    Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

  9. Yunnan Semiconductor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) Jump to:SanmingYunlongGreenenergy CoEnergySemiconductor

  10. Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Energy Corp KPE formerly Photon Semiconductor Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kyungdong Photovoltaic Energy Corp (KPE) (formerly Photon Semiconductor &...

  11. PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Science PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEARF PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEARchannel for one particular coating is unrelated to the

  12. Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric...

  13. PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W. L. Hansen, E.SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS* W. L. Hansen, E.suita­ bility for radiation detectors. Collimated gamma-ray

  14. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print Wednesday, 21 January 2015...

  15. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow...

  16. Statistical Methods for Enhanced Metrology in Semiconductor/Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Dekong

    2012-01-01

    maps in semiconductor manufacturing. ” Pattern Recognit.Third ISMI Symposium on Manufacturing Effectiveness. Austin,thickness in semiconductor manufacturing. In Proceedings of

  17. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films You are accessing a...

  18. ENERGY TRANSPORT IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES ANSGAR JUNGEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    ENERGY TRANSPORT IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES ANSGAR J¨UNGEL Abstract. The modeling, analysis, and numerical approximation of energy-transport models for semiconductor devices is reviewed. The derivation-dependent energy-transport equations with physical transport coefficients. The discretization of the stationary

  19. Semiclassical Transport Models for Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion

    Semiclassical Transport Models for Semiconductor Spintronics Yuriy V. Pershin,1,2 Semion Saikin1 spintronic device modeling. These include drift-diffusion models, kinetic transport equations and Monte Carlo in semiconductor structures have moved the state of the art closer to the realiza- tion of novel spintronic devices

  20. Semiclassical Transport Models for Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Privman, Vladimir

    Semiclassical Transport Models for Semiconductor Spintronics Yuriy V. Pershin,1,2 Semion Saikin1 spintronic device modeling. These include drift-diffusion models, kinetic transport equations and Monte Carlo in semiconductor structures have moved the state of the art closer to the realization of novel spintronic devices

  1. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  2. COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessler, Nir

    COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS Nir Yaacobi-Gross #12;COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS Research Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements type II bulk homojunctions in near IR active all nanocrystals solar cells. Submitted to Adv Mater. 2011

  3. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    cost reductions in the manufacturing of solar mod- ules.1 Moreover, it is essential to identify newSemiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers Linyou Cao, Pengyu Fan, Alok P. Vasudev the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250

  4. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  5. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  6. EXCITONIC EIGENSTATES OF DISORDERED SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be symmetric, continuous, and coercive. The disorder of the wire is modelled by adding a potential in the Hamil.meier@uni-paderborn.de http://www.global-sci.com/ Global Science Preprint #12;2 1 Introduction Semiconductors of semiconductors are exploited in solar cells, light emitting diodes, and lasers, and, furthermore, future

  7. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  8. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  9. Phosphorous doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct, Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094)

    1999-07-20

    A method (10) of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried (16, 18), with the phosphorus then being diffused (20) into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement.

  10. Phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    A method of phosphorus doping a semiconductor particle using ammonium phosphate is disclosed. A p-doped silicon sphere is mixed with a diluted solution of ammonium phosphate having a predetermined concentration. These spheres are dried with the phosphorus then being diffused into the sphere to create either a shallow or deep p-n junction. A good PSG glass layer is formed on the surface of the sphere during the diffusion process. A subsequent segregation anneal process is utilized to strip metal impurities from near the p-n junction into the glass layer. A subsequent HF strip procedure is then utilized to removed the PSG layer. Ammonium phosphate is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirement. 1 fig.

  11. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernable pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light.

  12. Heating device for semiconductor wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, S.R.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for heat treating semiconductor wafers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heating device which contains an assembly of light energy sources for emitting light energy onto a wafer. In particular, the light energy sources are positioned such that many different radial heating zones are created on a wafer being heated. For instance, in one embodiment, the light energy sources form a spiral configuration. In an alternative embodiment, the light energy sources appear to be randomly dispersed with respect to each other so that no discernible pattern is present. In a third alternative embodiment of the present invention, the light energy sources form concentric rings. Tuning light sources are then placed in between the concentric rings of light. 4 figs.

  13. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, Samuel R. [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Ruberu, T. Purnima A. [Ames Laboratory; Tavasoli, Elham [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-15

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor–metal and semiconductor–metal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  14. Nitride semiconductor Surface and interface characterization and device design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    piezoelectric polarization effects in nitride heterostructures," in III-V Nitride Semiconductors: Applications

  15. Transport Equations for Semiconductors Prof. Dr. Ansgar Jungel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    - cations have been invented; for instance, semiconductor lasers, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LED

  16. Electronegativity estimation of electronic polarizabilities of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Keyan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    On the basis of the viewpoint of structure-property relationship in solid state matters, we proposed some useful relations to quantitatively calculate the electronic polarizabilities of binary and ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors, by using electronegativity and principal quantum number. The calculated electronic polarizabilities are in good agreement with reported values in the literature. Both electronegativity and principal quantum number can effectively reflect the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms in these semiconductors, which determines the magnitude of their electronic polarizabilities. The present work provides a useful guide to compositionally design novel semiconductor materials, and further explore advanced electro-optic devices.

  17. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (El Cerrito, CA); Choi, Heonjin (Seoul, KR); Lee, Sangkwon (Daejeon, KR); He, Rongrui (Albany, CA); Zhang, Yanfeng (El Cerrito, CA); Kuykendal, Tevye (Berkeley, CA); Pauzauskie, Peter (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  18. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  19. Surface phonons of III-V semiconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    1994-01-01

    are the simplest of all semiconductor surfaces. Their atomic relaxations and electronic surface states are rather well understood. There have, however, been surprisingly few experimental studies of their vibrational properties, and ours in the first detailed...

  20. Electrical Usage Characterization of Semiconductor Processing Tools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts in performing an energy and power audit of a semiconductor process tool. A protocol exists that fully describes these measurements and their use and applicability and it will be described. This protocol...

  1. Spin injection and manipulation in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Karthik (Karthik Raman)

    2011-01-01

    The use of organic semiconductors to enable organic spintronic devices requires the understanding of transport and control of the spin state of the carriers. This thesis deals with the above issue, focusing on the interface ...

  2. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  3. Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzel, Tamar

    We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

  4. NANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to data storage, switching, lighting and other devices, can lead to substantially new hardwareNANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili Georgian Technical and manipulation on a nanometre scale, which allows the fabrication of nanostructures with the properties mainly

  5. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  6. A Markovian analysis of semiconductor manufacturing processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Kent Eugene

    1991-01-01

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Manufacturing process control is necessary to achieve and maintain high quality man- ufactured product. Semiconductor fabrication process control has generally taken the form of mean value based methods. This research analyzes...

  7. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  8. Wide-Bandgap Compound Semiconductors to Enable Novel Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, M.H.; Chow, W.W.; Wright, A.F.; Lee, S.R.; Jones, E.D.; Han, J.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-04-01

    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of GaN-based wide bandgap semiconductor materials (referred to as III-N materials). Our theoretical investigations include the determination of fundamental materials parameters from first-principles calculations, the study of gain properties of III-N heterostructures using a microscopic laser theory and density-functional-theory, charge-state calculations to determine the core structure and energy levels of dislocations in III-N materials. Our experimental investigations include time-resolved photoluminescence and magneto-luminescence studies of GaN epilayers and multiquantum well samples as well as x-ray diffraction studies of AlGaN ternary alloys. In addition, we performed a number of experiments to determine how various materials processing steps affect both the optical and electrical properties of GaN-based materials. These studies include photoluminescence studies of GaN epilayers after post-growth rapid thermal annealing, ion implantation to produce n- and p-type material and electrical and optical studies of plasma-etched structures.

  9. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Smith, Nickolaus A.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Baldwin, Jon K.

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth rates as a function of catalyst size/SC-NW diameter and shown for the first time that SLS is governed by Gibbs-Thomson effects. Lastly, from an applications standpoint, we report growth of SC-NWs from a range of substrates, including ITO-coated glass for fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices, comparing these to their quasi zero-dimensional quantum-dot counterparts.

  10. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  11. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  12. Optical temperature indicator using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A reversible optical temperature indicator utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to various temperature levels. The thermochromic material is enclosed in an enamel which provides protection and prevents breakdown at higher temperatures. Cadmium sulfide is the preferred semiconductor material. The indicator may be utilized as a sign or in a striped arrangement to clearly provide a warning to a user. The various color responses provide multiple levels of alarm.

  13. Electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Edwin Y. (Livermore, CA); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An electron gas grid semiconductor radiation detector (EGGSRAD) useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems is described. The radiation detector employs doping of the semiconductor and variation of the semiconductor detector material to form a two-dimensional electron gas, and to allow transistor action within the detector. This radiation detector provides superior energy resolution and radiation detection sensitivity over the conventional semiconductor radiation detector and the "electron-only" semiconductor radiation detectors which utilize a grid electrode near the anode. In a first embodiment, the EGGSRAD incorporates delta-doped layers adjacent the anode which produce an internal free electron grid well to which an external grid electrode can be attached. In a second embodiment, a quantum well is formed between two of the delta-doped layers, and the quantum well forms the internal free electron gas grid to which an external grid electrode can be attached. Two other embodiments which are similar to the first and second embodiment involve a graded bandgap formed by changing the composition of the semiconductor material near the first and last of the delta-doped layers to increase or decrease the conduction band energy adjacent to the delta-doped layers.

  14. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  15. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  16. SUBMITTED TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE OF IEEE TRANS. ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING 1 Simulation of Semiconductor Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBMITTED TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE OF IEEE TRANS. ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING 1 Simulation of Semiconductor Manufacturing Supply-Chain Systems with DEVS, MPC, and KIB Dongping Huang, Hessam Sarjoughian1 manufacturing supply-chain systems can be described using a combination of Discrete EVent System Specification

  17. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  18. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  19. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttram, Malcolm T. (Sandia Park, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Chow, Weng W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  20. Opto-acoustic thrombolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter (Berkeley, CA); Da Silva, Luiz (Danville, CA); Glinsky, Michael (Livermore, CA); London, Richard (Orinda, CA); Maitland, Duncan (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Pat (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a catheter-based device for generating an ultrasound excitation in biological tissue. Pulsed laser light is guided through an optical fiber to provide the energy for producing the acoustic vibrations. The optical energy is deposited in a water-based absorbing fluid, e.g. saline, thrombolytic agent, blood or thrombus, and generates an acoustic impulse in the fluid through thermoelastic and/or thermodynamic mechanisms. By pulsing the laser at a repetition rate (which may vary from 10 Hz to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus or treating vasospasm. The catheter can also incorporate thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it can be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control and with optical sensors for characterization of thrombus type and consistency.

  1. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen Edward (Pinole, CA); Bourret-Courchesne, Edith (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Marvin J. (Danville, CA); Klintenberg, Mattias K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-07-29

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  2. Two-Photon Emission from Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Hayat; Pavel Ginzburg; Meir Orenstein

    2007-10-25

    We report the first experimental observations of two-photon emission from semiconductors, to the best of our knowledge, and develop a corresponding theory for the room-temperature process. Spontaneous two-photon emission is demonstrated in optically-pumped bulk GaAs and in electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells. Singly-stimulated two-photon emission measurements demonstrate the theoretically predicted two-photon optical gain in semiconductors - a necessary ingredient for any realizations of future two-photon semiconductor lasers. Photon-coincidence experiment validates the simultaneity of the electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP two-photon emission, limited only by detector's temporal resolution.

  3. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J. (Tijeras, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  4. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2006-05-23

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  5. Support apparatus for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.; Torres, Kenneth J.

    2003-06-10

    A support apparatus for minimizing gravitational stress in semiconductor wafers, and particularly silicon wafers, during thermal processing. The support apparatus comprises two concentric circular support structures disposed on a common support fixture. The two concentric circular support structures, located generally at between 10 and 70% and 70 and 100% and preferably at 35 and 82.3% of the semiconductor wafer radius, can be either solid rings or a plurality of spaced support points spaced apart from each other in a substantially uniform manner. Further, the support structures can have segments removed to facilitate wafer loading and unloading. In order to withstand the elevated temperatures encountered during semiconductor wafer processing, the support apparatus, including the concentric circular support structures and support fixture can be fabricated from refractory materials, such as silicon carbide, quartz and graphite. The claimed wafer support apparatus can be readily adapted for use in either batch or single-wafer processors.

  6. Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications in semiconductor manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassett, David Ian, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) has an enormous potential impact within the semiconductor supply chain, especially within semiconductor manufacturing. The end benefit of RFID will be in the mass serialization, and ...

  7. A study of corporate entrepreneurship in the semiconductor industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tallapureddy, Anish R

    2014-01-01

    The number of semiconductor companies receiving venture funding has been decreasing through-out the last decade. The economics of manufacturing semiconductors do not offer an attractive risk-reward profile to the traditional ...

  8. Lattice mismatched compound semiconductors and devices on silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    III-V compound semiconductors, due to their superior electron mobility, are promising candidates for n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). However, the limited size of III-V substrates and ...

  9. Ultrafast optical studies of electronic dynamics in semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew

    2012-05-31

    The dynamics of charge carriers in semiconductors are of fundamental importance for semiconductor applications. This includes studies of energy relaxation, carrier recombination, and carrier transport (both diffusive and ballistic). Due...

  10. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  11. Course Information --EE 531 Semiconductor Devices and Device Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    of Semiconductor Devices" by Hess "Si Processing for the VLSI Era: Vol. 3-- The Submicron MOSFET" by Wolf "Advanced: 20% Exam 1: 30% Exam 2: 30% Project: 20% Prerequisite: Semiconductor Devices (EE 482) or equivalent

  12. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  13. Isovalent Anion Substitution in Ga-Mn-pnictide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter

    2010-01-01

    5 Ferromagnetic Semiconductors as Spintronicthe previous two examples, spintronic devices aim to exploitdevice [1]. Moreover, spintronic devices are proposed to

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of InSb Semiconductor Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Rajat Kanti

    2011-01-01

    and semiconductor thin films and nanostructures [10, 11]. Recent development of graphene (one atom thick 2D

  15. Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebard, Arthur F.

    Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics S.J. Pearton1,* , C.R. Abernathy1 or light emission. The relatively new field of semiconductor spintronics seeks, in addition, to exploit Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Wide bandgap materials; Semiconductor; Spintronics 1

  16. LINEAR STABILITY OF ELECTRON-FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS IN UNGATED SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    LINEAR STABILITY OF ELECTRON-FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS IN UNGATED SEMICONDUCTORS A Dissertation Submitted All Rights Reserved #12;LINEAR STABILITY OF ELECTRON-FLOW HYDRODYNAMICS IN UNGATED SEMICONDUCTORS Abstract by Williams R. Calder´on Mu~noz Semiconductors play an important role in modern electronic

  17. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  18. Semiconductors 80C552/83C552

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Richard

    Supersedes data of 1998 Jan 06 IC20 Data Handbook 1998 Aug 13 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS #12;Philips SemiconductorsPhilips Semiconductors 80C552/83C552 Single-chip 8-bit microcontroller Product specification VSS VDD AVSS AVDD HIGH ORDER ADDRESS AND DATA BUS #12;Philips Semiconductors Product specification 80C

  19. Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    ) is limited by the properties of the semiconductor material used. We investigated metalAmorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS Werner Moritz1 , Tatsuo-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) prepared as a thin layer on transparent glass

  20. High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Mapping of Semiconductor Dopant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    ,2 The electrical properties of nanoscale semiconductor structures are strongly dependent on the presence of interfaces and surfaces. Near such features, the electrical properties of the semiconductor may deviate substantially from its bulk properties. Many semiconductor characterization techniques, for example, scanning

  1. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  2. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  3. Semiconductor laser with multiple lasing wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-07-29

    A new class of multi-terminal vertical-cavity semiconductor laser components has been developed. These multi-terminal laser components can be switched, either electrically or optically, between distinct lasing wavelengths, or can be made to lase simultaneously at multiple wavelengths.

  4. HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS M.D. MCCLUSKEY* University) spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium in GaP, AlSb, ZnSe, and GaN has provided important information about the structures of dopant- hydrogen complexes and their interaction with the host lattice. In GaN:Mg, for example

  5. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  6. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  7. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  8. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  9. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  10. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  11. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  12. Method of transferring strained semiconductor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Santa Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (College Station, TX)

    2009-12-29

    The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one strained semiconductor layer and at least one strain-induced seed layer. The strain-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.

  13. Semiconductor junction formation by directed heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Robert B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-03-24

    The process of the invention includes applying precursors 6 with N- and P-type dopants therein to a silicon web 2, with the web 2 then being baked in an oven 10 to drive off excessive solvents, and the web 2 is then heated using a pulsed high intensity light in a mechanism 12 at 1100.degree.-1150.degree. C. for about 10 seconds to simultaneously form semiconductor junctions in both faces of the web.

  14. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  15. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

  16. Environmental Stewardship: How Semiconductor Suppliers Help to Meet Energy-Efficiency Regulations and Voluntary Specifications in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizhen, Li; Fanara, Andrew; Fridley, David; Merriman, Louise; Ju, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    partners, semiconductor suppliers, and other stakeholdersHow Semiconductor Suppliers Help to Meet Energy-Efficiencythe role that semiconductor suppliers can play in meeting

  17. ENG EC574 Physics and Semiconductor Materials 2007-2008 Catalog Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics necessary to understand the properties of semiconductor materials. Study the basic electrical and optical properties of semiconductor material that are important for semiconductor of the semiconductor material properties. 6. Gain insight on the potential impact of the semiconductor material

  18. Photovoltaic healing of non-uniformities in semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karpov, Victor G.; Roussillon, Yann; Shvydka, Diana; Compaan, Alvin D.; Giolando, Dean M.

    2006-08-29

    A method of making a photovoltaic device using light energy and a solution to normalize electric potential variations in the device. A semiconductor layer having nonuniformities comprising areas of aberrant electric potential deviating from the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor is deposited onto a substrate layer. A solution containing an electrolyte, at least one bonding material, and positive and negative ions is applied over the top surface of the semiconductor. Light energy is applied to generate photovoltage in the semiconductor, causing a redistribution of the ions and the bonding material to the areas of aberrant electric potential. The bonding material selectively bonds to the nonuniformities in a manner such that the electric potential of the nonuniformities is normalized relative to the electric potential of the top surface of the semiconductor layer. A conductive electrode layer is then deposited over the top surface of the semiconductor layer.

  19. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  20. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  1. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  2. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  3. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Daejeon, KR); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2011-07-19

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  4. Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Savoy, IL); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Urbana, IL)

    2009-11-24

    The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.

  5. Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrystals Using Redox Buffers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Jesse H.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled Chemical Doping of Semiconductor Nanocrys- talsHerein, we demonstrate a chemical strategy for the con-dope the nanocrystal solid. Chemical doping methods reported

  6. Spin injection and transport in semiconductor and metal nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lei

    2009-01-01

    1 1.1 Introduction to spintronics: fundamentals andCahay, Introduction to spintronics (CRC Press, Boca Raton,in Semiconductor Spintronics and Quantum Computation, edited

  7. Semiconductor nanowires: from LEDs to Solar Cells | MIT-Harvard...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor nanowires: from LEDs to Solar Cells May 4, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Silvija Gradeak Laboratory for Nanophotonics and Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  8. Argonne announces new licensing agreement with AKHAN Semiconductor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suite of breakthrough diamond-based semiconductor inventions developed by nanoscientist Ani Sumant of Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials, a DOE Office of Science User...

  9. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Neil

    2014-01-01

    low-cost, high efficiency solar energy conversion devices.Awards under the SunShot Solar Energy Technologies Program.Photoelectrochemistry, Solar Energy Abstract Semiconductor

  10. Organic Semiconductor Chemistry | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marder Department of ChemistryBiochemistry, Director, Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Tech marder000 Abstract: Organic semiconductors have attracted...

  11. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  12. Interface design principles for high-performance organic semiconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface design principles for high-performance organic semiconductor devices Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a promising cost-effective candidate in next generation photovoltaic...

  13. Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes Enhanced by Inversion Channel Charge Collection and Hydrogen Spillover Citation Details In-Document...

  14. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  15. Inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials for flexible and stretchable bio-integrated electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    -integrated electronics; flexible electronics; semiconductor nanomaterials; stretchable electronics; transfer printing flexible/stretchable electronics, in which semiconductor nanomaterials serve as the active componentsREVIEW Inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials for flexible and stretchable bio

  16. Electronically Nonalloyed State of a Statistical Single Atomic Layer Semiconductor Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    spectroscopy Alloying different semiconductor compounds attracted wide attention, since the material properties formed semiconductor alloy has spatially homogeneous properties; that is, the original materials semiconductor materials with, for example, intentionally designed band gaps, lattice constants, and/or optical

  17. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 69-96 69 Environmental Applications of Semiconductor Photocatalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 69-96 69 Environmental Applications of Semiconductor Photocatalysis Michael R November 30, 1994) Contents I. Introduction A. General Background B. Semiconductor Photocatalysis II. Mechanisms of Semiconductor Photocatalysis A. Basic Features and Characteristic Times B. Formation

  18. Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluskey, M D

    1997-06-01

    Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

  19. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  20. Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M.; Yarrison-Rice, Jan M.; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-12-04

    Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.

  1. Fabrication of Semiconductors by Wet Chemical Etch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francoviglia, Laura

    2008-07-01

    AlGaAs not intentionally doped (i) 130 Å InGaAs not intentionally doped (i) 30 Å AlGaAs not intentionally doped (i) Delta Si Doping 1.1E12/cm2 Superlattice Buffer GaAs Buffer S.I. GaAs Substrate Epi Layer Structures of V3339 350 Å GaAs 5E18 Si Doping... with Bardeen, Brittain and Shockley’s invention of the transistor in Bell Labs in 1947 and Kilby and Noyce’s introduction of the integrated circuit about a decade later, semiconductor devices have dramat- ically advanced the computing and electronics...

  2. Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock Semiconductor

  3. A Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Nikhil; Boyd, Sarah; Somani, Ajay; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Aspects in Semiconductor Manufacturing. Proceed- ings of thefrom semiconductor manufacturing processes. EHS AssessmentM. Energy in chemical manufacturing processes: Gate-to-gate

  4. Semiconductors 4-bit I2C LED dimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    LEDs to 25 mA · Edge rate control on outputs · No glitch on power-up · Supports hot insertion · LowPhilips Semiconductors PCA9533 4-bit I2C LED dimmer Product data sheet Supersedes data of 2003 Sep 19 2004 Oct 01 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS #12;Philips Semiconductors Product data sheet PCA95334-bit I2C LED

  5. Semiconductor Few-Electron Quantum Dots as Spin Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the experimental steps we have taken towards using a single electron spin, trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot detector is pushed to a faster regime (100 kHz), to detect single electron tunnel events in real time. WeSemiconductor Few-Electron Quantum Dots as Spin Qubits J.M. Elzerman1,2 , R. Hanson1 , L.H.W. van

  6. Semiconductors 8-bit multiplying D/A converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Philips Semiconductors MC1408-8 8-bit multiplying D/A converter Product data Supersedes data of 1994 Aug 31 File under Integrated Circuits, IC11 Handbook 2001 Aug 03 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS #12;Philips Semiconductors Product data MC1408-88-bit multiplying D/A converter 22001 Aug 03 853-0935 26835 DESCRIPTION

  7. Effects of Quantum Confinement on the Doping Limit of Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    . The magnitude of this effect in a given material is found to be determined by two material properties of semiconductor nanostructures in terms of their fundamental material parameters. Doping limits in various bulk are generated in semiconductor materials in response to extrinsic doping so as to pull EF back toward EFS

  8. Semiconductor Fundamentals tlu@math.pku.edu.cn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tiao

    physics to solid materials. More specifically, we are interested in semiconductor crystals. Crystals. Such a structure yields a periodic potential throughout the material. #12;Introduction Two properties of crystalsSemiconductor Fundamentals tlu@math.pku.edu.cn :http://dsec.pku.edu.cn/~tlu :http

  9. Spherical deformation of compliant substrates with semiconductor device islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    is a function of the island structure, size, and substrate material properties. Although the substrate semiconductor device materials, such as amor- phous silicon and silicon nitride, are brittle and crack easily and thinning the substrate cannot be used to reduce the strain. Because inorganic semiconductor materials

  10. NewsTrack -Science New semiconductor technology created

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    NewsTrack - Science New semiconductor technology created CHAMPAIGN, Ill., Dec. 14 (UPI) -- U of Illinois-Champaign say the new technology permits either a one- or three-dimensional layout. The approach Rogers Page 1 of 1United Press International - NewsTrack - New semiconductor technology created 12

  11. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals.

  12. Transition metal oxides on organic semiconductors Yongbiao Zhao a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    inverted organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and inverted organic solar cells (OSCs), which can improve of organic semiconductors (OSs). For example, in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) [7], they are used! Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic

  13. Distributed Quantum Computation Architecture Using Semiconductor Nanophotonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodney Van Meter; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Austin G. Fowler; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2009-09-17

    In a large-scale quantum computer, the cost of communications will dominate the performance and resource requirements, place many severe demands on the technology, and constrain the architecture. Unfortunately, fault-tolerant computers based entirely on photons with probabilistic gates, though equipped with "built-in" communication, have very large resource overheads; likewise, computers with reliable probabilistic gates between photons or quantum memories may lack sufficient communication resources in the presence of realistic optical losses. Here, we consider a compromise architecture, in which semiconductor spin qubits are coupled by bright laser pulses through nanophotonic waveguides and cavities using a combination of frequent probabilistic and sparse determinstic entanglement mechanisms. The large photonic resource requirements incurred by the use of probabilistic gates for quantum communication are mitigated in part by the potential high-speed operation of the semiconductor nanophotonic hardware. The system employs topological cluster-state quantum error correction for achieving fault-tolerance. Our results suggest that such an architecture/technology combination has the potential to scale to a system capable of attacking classically intractable computational problems.

  14. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  15. Comparison of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, B.

    2004-01-02

    Recent developmental advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a point that the present Si-based power devices cannot handle. The requirements include higher blocking voltages, switching frequencies, efficiency, and reliability. To overcome these limitations, new semiconductor materials for power device applications are needed. For high power requirements, wide-bandgap semiconductors like silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond, with their superior electrical properties, are likely candidates to replace Si in the near future. This report compares wide-bandgap semiconductors with respect to their promise and applicability for power applications and predicts the future of power device semiconductor materials.

  16. Methods of producing free-standing semiconductors using sacrificial buffer layers and recyclable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Lin, Yong; Norman, Andrew; Alberi, Kirstin

    2015-05-26

    A method of producing semiconductor materials and devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials are provided. In particular, a method is provided of producing a semiconductor material, such as a III-V semiconductor, on a spinel substrate using a sacrificial buffer layer, and devices such as photovoltaic cells that incorporate the semiconductor materials. The sacrificial buffer material and semiconductor materials may be deposited using lattice-matching epitaxy or coincident site lattice-matching epitaxy, resulting in a close degree of lattice matching between the substrate material and deposited material for a wide variety of material compositions. The sacrificial buffer layer may be dissolved using an epitaxial liftoff technique in order to separate the semiconductor device from the spinel substrate, and the spinel substrate may be reused in the subsequent fabrication of other semiconductor devices. The low-defect density semiconductor materials produced using this method result in the enhanced performance of the semiconductor devices that incorporate the semiconductor materials.

  17. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  18. Nonclassical Light from Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Grünwald; W. Vogel

    2014-05-06

    The fluorescence light from semiconductor quantum wells is analyzed with respect to its quantum optical properties. The light emitted by the excitons is described by bosonic excitations with a Kerr-type nonlinear interaction. To create the excitons, the incoming pump laser light is absorbed and the absorption acts as a spectral filter for the emitted light. The quantum properties of the emitted light are analyzed for the bare excitonic and the quantum-well systems. Squeezing of the quantum-well fluorescence persists for higher pump laser powers than the squeezing of the excitonic fluorescence. For strong pumping, the nonlinearity suppresses the creation of photon pairs and the photon statistics becomes sub-Poisson.

  19. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  20. Polymeric semiconductor/graphene hybrid field-effect transistors Jia Huang a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymeric semiconductor/graphene hybrid field-effect transistors Jia Huang a,b, , Daniel R. Hines semiconductor Graphene Thin film transistor Hybrid material a b s t r a c t Solution processed organic field semiconductors and graphene. Compared against OFETs with only pure organic semiconductors, our hybrid FETs

  1. Electronic properties of hybrid organicinorganic semiconductors B. Fluegel, Y. Zhang, and A. Mascarenhas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Electronic properties of hybrid organic­inorganic semiconductors B. Fluegel, Y. Zhang, and A semiconductor band gaps and lattice constants. The gradual exhaustion of usable new inorganic material; published 8 November 2004) Hybrid semiconductors comprising networks of inorganic II­VI semiconductor

  2. ssentially all semiconductor technology is based on electronic devices, such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roukes, Michael L.

    , spintronicsmayalsoleadinthenearfutureto the development of semiconductor devices capable of performing high-speed logic and memory

  3. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  4. Amorphization of elemental and compound semiconductors upon ion implantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    application to semiconductor doping.1 "7 Amorphization is known to reduce the random channeling tails of light, knowledge of the threshold dam- age density may also allow us to use the defects associ- ated with the solid

  5. Improving reuse of semiconductor equipment through benchmarking, standardization, and automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silber, Jacob B. (Jacob Bradley)

    2006-01-01

    The 6D program at Intel® Corporation was set up to improve operations around capital equipment reuse, primarily in their semiconductor manufacturing facilities. The company was faced with a number of challenges, including ...

  6. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang; , Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao; Ko, Heung Cho; Mack, Shawn

    2013-03-12

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  7. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2011-10-18

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  8. Printable semiconductor structures and related methods of making and assembling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Menard, Etienne (Urbana, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Khang, Dahl-Young (Urbana, IL); Sun, Yugang (Westmont, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Mack, Shawn (Goleta, CA)

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides a high yield pathway for the fabrication, transfer and assembly of high quality printable semiconductor elements having selected physical dimensions, shapes, compositions and spatial orientations. The compositions and methods of the present invention provide high precision registered transfer and integration of arrays of microsized and/or nanosized semiconductor structures onto substrates, including large area substrates and/or flexible substrates. In addition, the present invention provides methods of making printable semiconductor elements from low cost bulk materials, such as bulk silicon wafers, and smart-materials processing strategies that enable a versatile and commercially attractive printing-based fabrication platform for making a broad range of functional semiconductor devices.

  9. DECENTRALIZING SEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITY PLANNING VIA INTERNAL MARKET COORDINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    and S. DAVID WU Manufacturing Logistics Institute, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems semiconductor manufacturer: marketing managers reserve capacity from manufacturing based on product demands, while attempting to maximize profit; manufacturing managers allocate capacity to competing marketing

  10. Thermo-electrically pumped semiconductor light emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-electric heat exchange in semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows these devices to emit optical power in excess of the electrical power used to drive them, with the remaining power drawn from ambient heat. ...

  11. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  12. Translating semiconductor device physics into nanoparticle films for electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanger, Darcy Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores and quantifies some of the important device physics, parameters, and mechanisms of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dot (QD) electronic devices, and photovoltaic devices in particular. This involves ...

  13. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR I. Chambouleyron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, José Mario

    Chapter 12 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DIELECTRIC AND SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS I. Chambouleyron Instituto, Young sketched the current theory of color vision in terms of three different (pri- Handbook of Thin

  14. Scanning probe characterization of novel semiconductor materials and devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaotian

    2007-01-01

    structure and properties of semiconductor materials andsemiconductor material systems. In the first part of this dissertation, propertiessemiconductor devices shrink in size, it becomes more important to characterize and understand electronic properties of the materials

  15. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  16. Semiconductor nanocrystals : synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and applications in biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Peter M. (Peter Matthew)

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of this thesis is the synthesis and applications of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs). Novel synthetic routes to ternary 1-III-VI QDs are presented, and we report the first highly luminescent ...

  17. Three-terminal semiconductor laser for wave mixing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belyanin, Alexey; Kocharovsky, V.; Kocharovsky, V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-01-01

    We suggest and analyze the concept of a semiconductor laser device that incorporates two basic ideas: (i) dual-wavelength generation of two optical fields on the interband transitions with independent control of each field in a three...

  18. AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

  19. Spectral properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and their applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liptay, Thomas J. (Thomas John)

    2007-01-01

    The ability to engineer the optical properties of the semiconductor nanocrystals by controlling their growth - size, shape, materials, coatings, etc - makes them appealing for many optical applications. Despite the impressive ...

  20. Brittle and ductile fracture of semiconductor nanowires --molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    Brittle and ductile fracture of semiconductor nanowires -- molecular dynamics simulations Keonwook November 9, 2006 Abstract Fracture of silicon and germanium nanowires in tension at room temperature potentials predict brittle fracture initiated by crack nucleation from the surface, most potentials predict

  1. Thermally robust semiconductor optical amplifiers and laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dijaili, Sol P. (Moraga, CA); Patterson, Frank G. (Danville, CA); Walker, Jeffrey D. (El Cerrito, CA); Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Petersen, Holly (Manteca, CA); Goward, William (Antioch, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A highly heat conductive layer is combined with or placed in the vicinity of the optical waveguide region of active semiconductor components. The thermally conductive layer enhances the conduction of heat away from the active region, which is where the heat is generated in active semiconductor components. This layer is placed so close to the optical region that it must also function as a waveguide and causes the active region to be nearly the same temperature as the ambient or heat sink. However, the semiconductor material itself should be as temperature insensitive as possible and therefore the invention combines a highly thermally conductive dielectric layer with improved semiconductor materials to achieve an overall package that offers improved thermal performance. The highly thermally conductive layer serves two basic functions. First, it provides a lower index material than the semiconductor device so that certain kinds of optical waveguides may be formed, e.g., a ridge waveguide. The second and most important function, as it relates to this invention, is that it provides a significantly higher thermal conductivity than the semiconductor material, which is the principal material in the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices.

  2. Reconditioning of semiconductor substrates to remove photoresist during semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farino, Anthony J.

    2004-01-27

    A method for reconditioning the surface of a semiconductor substrate to remove an unwanted (i.e. defective) layer of photoresist is disclosed. The method adapts a conventional automated spinner which is used to rotate the substrate at high speed while a stream of a first solvent (e.g. acetone) is used to dissolve the photoresist. A stream of a second solvent (e.g. methanol) is then used to clean the substrate at a lower speed, with the substrate being allowed to dry with continued rotation. The method of the present invention can be used within a photolithography track so that the substrates need never leave the track for reconditioning.

  3. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. On the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.

  4. Excitonic exchange splitting in bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an approach to calculate the excitonic fine-structure splittings due to electron-hole short-range exchange interactions using the local-density approximation pseudopotential method, and apply it to bulk semiconductors CdSe, InP, GaAs, and InAs. Comparing with previous theoretical results, the current calculated splittings agree well with experiments. Furthermore, we provide an approximate relationship between the short-range exchange splitting and the exciton Bohr radius, which can be used to estimate the exchange splitting for other materials. The current calculation indicates that a commonly used formula for exchange splitting in quantum dot is not valid. Finally, we find a very large pressure dependence of the exchange splitting: a factor of 4.5 increase as the lattice constant changes by 3.5{percent}. This increase is mainly due to the decrease of the Bohr radius via the change of electron effective mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Characterization and electrical modeling of semiconductors bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marx, K.D.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E.

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor bridges (SCBs) are finding increased use as initiators for explosive and pyrotechnic devices. They offer advantages in reduced voltage and energy requirements, coupled with excellent safety features. The design of explosive systems which implement either SCBs or metal bridgewires can be facilitated through the use of electrical simulation software such as the PSpice{reg_sign} computer code. A key component in the electrical simulation of such systems is an electrical model of the bridge. This report has two objectives: (1) to present and characterize electrical data taken in tests of detonators which employ SCBs with BNCP as the explosive powder; and (2) to derive appropriate electrical models for such detonators. The basis of such models is a description of the resistance as a function of energy deposited in the SCB. However, two important features which must be added to this are (1) the inclusion of energy loss through such mechanisms as ohmic heating of the aluminum lands and heat transfer from the bridge to the surrounding media; and (2) accounting for energy deposited in the SCB through heat transfer to the bridge from the explosive powder after the powder ignites. The modeling procedure is entirely empirical; i.e., models for the SCB resistance and the energy gain and loss have been estimated from experimental data taken over a range of firing conditions. We present results obtained by applying the model to the simulation of SCB operation in representative tests.

  6. Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G. P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R. M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J. -S.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free induction decay and spin echo simulations we characterize the combined effect of both types of interactions on the decoherence of the electron spin, for external fields ranging from low to high values. We show that for spin echo simulations the hyperfine interaction is the dominant source of decoherence at short times for low fields, and competes with the dipole-dipole interactions at longer times. Onmore »the contrary, at high fields the main source of decay is due to the dipole-dipole interactions. In the latter regime an asymmetry in the echo is observed. Furthermore, the non-decaying fraction previously observed for zero field free induction decay simulations in quantum dots with only hyperfine interactions, is destroyed for longer times by the mean-field treatment of the dipolar interactions.« less

  7. Semiconductor-inspired superconducting quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun-Pil Shim; Charles Tahan

    2015-07-28

    Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some almost magical and very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control with minimal overhead (zero overhead in 2-qubit gates), and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is especially suited to qubits based on variable super-semi junctions.

  8. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney Allen (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick Joseph (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  9. Control of the Casimir Force Using Semiconductor Test Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; U. Mohideen; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2011-04-09

    We describe experimental and related theoretical work on the measurement of the Casimir force using semiconductor test bodies. This field of research started in 2005 and several important and interesting results have already been obtained. Specifically, the Casimir force or its gradient were measured in the configuration of an Au-coated sphere and different semiconductor surfaces. It was found that the force magnitude depends significantly on the replacement of the metal with a semiconductor and on the concentration of charge carriers in the semiconductor material. Special attention is paid to the experiment on the optical modulation of the Casimir force. In this experiment the difference Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and Si plate in the presence and in the absence of laser light was measured. Possible applications of this experiment are discussed, specifically, for the realization of the pulsating Casimir force in three-layer systems. Theoretical problems arising from the comparison of the experimental data for the difference Casimir force with the Lifshitz theory are analyzed. We consider the possibility to control the magnitude of the Casimir force in phase transitions of semiconductor materials. Experiments on measuring the Casimir force gradient between an Au-coated sphere and Si plate covered with rectangular corrugations of different character are also described. Here, we discuss the interplay between the material properties and nontrivial geometry and the applicability of the proximity force approximation. The review contains comparison between different experiments and analysis of their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Wavelength-resonant surface-emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schaus, Christian F. (Albuquerque, NM); Osinski, Marek A. (Albuquerque, NM); McInerney, John G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Raja, M. Yasin A. (Albuquerque, NM); Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Hammons, Burrell E. (Tijeras, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A wavelength resonant semiconductor gain medium is disclosed. The essential feature of this medium is a multiplicity of quantum-well gain regions separated by semiconductor spacer regions of higher bandgap. Each period of this medium consisting of one quantum-well region and the adjacent spacer region is chosen such that the total width is equal to an integral multiple of 1/2 the wavelength in the medium of the radiation with which the medium is interacting. Optical, electron-beam and electrical injection pumping of the medium is disclosed. This medium may be used as a laser medium for single devices or arrays either with or without reflectors, which may be either semiconductor or external.

  11. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

    2008-02-12

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  12. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-02-20

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method are disclosed. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). 12 figs.

  13. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

  14. Size dependence of the Directional Scattering Conditions on Semiconductor Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Camara, Braulio; Cuadrado, Alexander; Urruchi, Virginia; Sanchez-Pena, Jose Manuel; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The resonant modes observed in semiconductor nanoparticles and the coherence interaction between them, producing directional light scattering, may be very interesting for CMOS integrated all-optical devices. In these systems the control over the light scattering should be crucial, as well as the strength of this control. Fabrication parameters such as the size and shape of the nanoparticles and the optical properties of the environment can strongly affect to the emergence of these phenomena. In this work, we numerically explore the size dependence of the directional scattering conditions of semiconductor nanoparticles. Several semiconductor materials and a large size range have been considered to be a reference for further works. An interesting and unexpected linear behavior has been observed.

  15. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Nanoscale Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Surfaces by Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    Quantitative Determination of Nanoscale Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Surfaces by Scanning semiconductor surfaces permits quantitative evaluation of nanoscale electronic properties of the surface. Band properties associated with particular point defects within the material. An overview of the methods employed

  17. Cascaded third harmonic generation in hybrid graphene-semiconductor waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnova, Daria A

    2015-01-01

    We study cascaded harmonic generation of hybrid surface plasmons in integrated planar waveguides composed of a graphene layer and a doped-semiconductor slab. We derive a comprehensive model of cascaded third harmonic generation through phase-matched nonlinear interaction of fundamental, second harmonic and third harmonic plasmonic modes supported by the structure. We show that hybrid graphene-semiconductor waveguides can simultaneously phase-match these three interacting harmonics, increasing the total third-harmonic output by a factor of 5 compared to the non-cascaded regime.

  18. Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

    2007-04-10

    An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

  19. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI)

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  20. Semiconductor microlasers with intracavity microfluidics for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.

    1997-03-01

    Microfabricated electro-optical-mechanical systems are expected to play an important role in future biomedical, biochemical and environmental technologies. Semiconductor photonic materials and devices are attractive components of such systems because of their ability to generate, transmit, modulate, and detect light. In this paper the authors report investigations of light-emitting semiconductor/glass microcavities filled with simple fluids. They examine surface tension for transporting liquids into the intracavity space and study the influence of the liquid on the spectral emission of the microcavity.

  1. Entrainment by Spatiotemporal Chaos in Glow Discharge-Semiconductor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marat Akhmet; Ismail Rafatov; Mehmet Onur Fen

    2014-06-15

    Entrainment of limit cycles by chaos [1] is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach [2], it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [3].

  2. Features of the electric-field distribution in anisotropic semiconductor wafers in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, V. V., E-mail: wwfilippow@mail.ru [Lipetsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Bormontov, E. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.

  3. Contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2014-05-27

    Methods for contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical semiconductor device comprises: a first step that includes gettering of impurities from a semiconductor wafer and forming a backsurface field; and a second step that includes forming a front contact for the semiconductor wafer, wherein the second step is performed after completion of the first step.

  4. Effect of n-p-n heterostructures on interface recombination and semiconductor laser cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    semiconductor heterostructures such as n-p-n junctions are ubiquitous in electronics and are of increasingEffect of n-p-n heterostructures on interface recombination and semiconductor laser cooling G 2010; published online 13 December 2010 The design of doped n-p-n semiconductor heterostructures has

  5. Novel Logic Devices based on 2D Crystal Semiconductors: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Logic Devices based on 2D Crystal Semiconductors: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited Paper that the advent of 2D crystal semiconductors has caused excitement in the field [2]. These materials can: djena@nd.edu Abstract Two-dimensional crystal semiconductors such as graphene, BN, and the transition

  6. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy of mixed-anion semiconductor heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    a detailed understanding of atomic- to nanometer-scale properties of semiconductor materials and devices of semiconductor materials and devices at the atomic to nanometer scale. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling and electronic properties in semiconductor epitaxial and device structures with spatial resolution at or near

  7. Metrology-Related Costs in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    98-4 Planning Report Metrology-Related Costs in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry, 1990, 1996 Administration #12;Metrology-Related Costs in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry, 1990, 1996 and 2001 NIST Contract Acknowledgements 5 II. Defining Metrology-Related Costs in the Semiconductor Industry 6 A. Physical Measurements

  8. Theory of semiconductor magnetic bipolar transistors M. E. Flattea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    - rating both semiconductors and ferromagnets, such as the spin-valve transistor,12 have demonstrated polarized before passing into the collector. The first is a dramatic spin-filtering effect on carriers passing from the emitter to the p base, the second is spin-selective conduction electron spin flipping

  9. Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    -limiting and self-assembly processes where surface and chemical phenomena guide the synthesis and fabrication) the formation of self-assembled monolayers of dopant-containing molecules on the surface of crystalline SiARTICLES Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers JOHNNY C. HO1

  10. Semiconductor Nanowires for Energy Conversion Allon I. Hochbaum*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    production from renewable sources. There exist many potential renewable energy technologies in the form is predicted to come from renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectric, solar, wind, hydrothermalSemiconductor Nanowires for Energy Conversion Allon I. Hochbaum*, and Peidong Yang* Department

  11. Main resonances in directly modulated semiconductor lasers: effect of spontaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toral, Raúl

    Main resonances in directly modulated semiconductor lasers: effect of spontaneous emission and gain saddle-node bifurcations related to the main resonances in pump-modulated laser diodes are obtained via] and of the spontaneous emission terms [lo] have already been considered, but little attention has been given to main

  12. Method for altering the luminescence of a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, J. Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Dimos, Duane B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for altering the luminescence of a light emitting semiconductor (LES) device. In particular, a method is described whereby a silicon LES device can be selectively irradiated with a radiation source effective for altering the intensity of luminescence of the irradiated region.

  13. Nonlocal electrodynamics of weakly confined excitons in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    -VI, and I-VII materials are summarized in Table I. Due to the dominance of strongly confined structures." For example, in an ideal 2D-QW the exciton Bohr radius is half of that in 3D, af = ao/2,3 which leads 1994; accepted 28 July 1994) The third order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum dots

  14. Tunable photonic microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Sze-Chun

    Tunable photonic microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics feedback are investigated for photonic microwave generation. The optical injection first drives the laser into P1 dynamics so that its intensity oscillates at a microwave frequency. A dual-loop optical feedback

  15. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Mel

    Olfaction Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks M. W. Siegel Carnegie Mellon around a chemical plant, sniffing as it goes for gas leaks (or the vapors of liquid leaks), navigating perhaps directed to the offending pipe fissure or open valve by acoustic homing toward the source

  16. Dielectric function of diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguado, R.; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Sinova, Jairo; Brey, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the dielectric function of metallic (III,Mn)V diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime. Our theoretical approach is based on the kinetic exchange model for carrier induced (III,Mn)V ferromagnetism. The dielectric...

  17. Hydrogen in compound semiconductors M. D. McCluskeya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    Hydrogen in compound semiconductors M. D. McCluskeya) and N. M. Johnson Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, California 94304 Received 9 October 1998; accepted 18 December 1998 Hydrogen can consequence of hydrogenation is the passivation of dopant impurities, which leads to a decrease

  18. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602223 Inorganic Semiconductors for Flexible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602223 Inorganic Semiconductors for Flexible Electronics** By Yugang Sun* and John A. Rogers* 1. Introduction Electronic systems that can cover large areas on flexible substrates of applications that lie outside those easily addressed with wafer-based electron- ics. Examples include flexible

  19. Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illing, Lucas

    Communication using Synchronization of Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers with optoelectronic feedback S Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 93093-0402, USA Abstract. A communication of GHz chaotic signals. We then test a proposed communication scheme by successfully transmitting

  20. Simulations of Deep-Level Defects in Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert

    ( Z Y X v = 1 2f1 +2 +3 +4g;tx = 1 2f1 +2 ,3 ,4g 19 4 1999 4 #12;A. Resende AIMPRO Group ENDEASD. European Network on Defect Engineering of Advanced Semiconductor Devices ENDEASD #12;A. Resende AIMPRO

  1. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmore »process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.« less

  2. Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2004 July, 2004 -Rev. 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    download the ON Semiconductor Soldering and Mounting Techniques Reference Manual, SOLDERRM/D. PDIP-14 N, P Power Dissipation @ TA = 25°C Plastic Package Derate above 25°C PD 1/RqJA 1.0 8.0 W mW/°C Junction

  3. Mechanical nanomanipulation of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Mechanical nanomanipulation of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots C. Obermu¨ller, A of single strain-induced Ga0.9In0.1As quantum dots. This was achieved by scanning a metal coated tapered of the dots2 owing to the lattice mismatch between the materials. In this case the InP islands are acting

  4. Nonlinear Optical Processes in Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongrui

    2015-07-28

    The optical properties of two types of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor structures are studied. One of them is for structures based on quantum wells (QWs), and the other is graphene. We study the dynamics of optically excited electron-hole plasma...

  5. By Lindsey Haugh Semiconductors are one of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - tant industry for the economy and national security. In 2012, the Semiconductor In- dustry Association. Rachel Umbel, a doctoral student in the materials science and engineering program at Virginia Tech materials science and engineering and electrical and computer engineering. Guido's research group is made up

  6. Method for altering the luminescence of a semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, J.C.; Dimos, D.B.

    1999-01-12

    A method is described for altering the luminescence of a light emitting semiconductor (LES) device. In particular, a method is described whereby a silicon LES device can be selectively irradiated with a radiation source effective for altering the intensity of luminescence of the irradiated region. 4 figs.

  7. Energy Transfer from Individual Semiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Transfer from Individual Semiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene Zheyuan Chen,,§ Ste when a dipole is placed in the vicin- ity of a transparent insulating surface. Graphene,3 5 and practical interest. Indeed, single-layer graphene (SLG) possesses extremely high carrier mobility,6 while

  8. Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    . Absorptance quantization appears to be universal in 2D systems including III­V quantum wells and graphene quantitative examination of the intrinsic absorption properties of free-standing 2D semiconductor thin films work has shown that graphene, a 2D semimetal, has a universal value of light absorption, namely , where

  9. Advanced Stress, Strain And Geometrical Analysis In Semiconductor Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neels, Antonia; Dommann, Alex; Niedermann, Philippe; Farub, Claudiu; Kaenel, Hans von

    2010-11-24

    High stresses and defect densities increases the risk of semiconductor device failure. Reliability studies on potential failure sources have an impact on design and are essential to assure the long term functioning of the device. Related to the dramatically smaller volume of semiconductor devices and new bonding techniques on such devices, new methods in testing and qualification are needed. Reliability studies on potential failure sources have an impact on design and are essential to assure the long term functioning of the device. In this paper, the applications of advanced High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) methods in strain, defect and deformation analysis on semiconductor devices are discussed. HRXRD with Rocking Curves (RC's) and Reciprocal Space Maps (RSM's) is used as accurate, non-destructive experimental method to evaluate the crystalline quality, and more precisely for the given samples, the in-situ strain, defects and geometrical parameters such as tilt and bending of device. The combination with advanced FEM simulations gives the possibility to support efficiently semiconductor devices design.

  10. Study of Phase Selectivity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    observation of the phase selection for these hybrid materials. Introduction Hybrid organic_Youn_Moon@nrel.gov. Present address: University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. (1) Handbook of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid MaterialsArticles Study of Phase Selectivity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconductors Chang-Youn Moon

  11. Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials M. E. Rodri sensitivity to the electronic transport properties of the laser photoexcited material.3 Using two information. INTRODUCTION The nondestructive, nonintrusive evaluation of semicon- ductor materials has been of common

  12. Theory and Design of Smith-Purcell Semiconductor Terahertz Sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Don DeeWayne

    2013-12-06

    difficulties reaching the THz, and no THz device of any type operates on the full range at room temperature. This dissertation proposes a novel semiconductor source which utilizes the transferred-electron (Gunn) effect and the Smith-Purcell effect to operate...

  13. Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 606 Non-equilibrium processes in modern semiconductor devices. Spring 2008. A. F. J. Levi TTh 11 still use equilibrium or near equilibrium concepts to describe device operation. The purpose of this course is to introduce a more realistic approach to understanding device operation in modern sub

  14. Patterned Arrays of Lateral Heterojunctions within Monolayer 2D Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversion process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.

  15. Coherent Control of Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals R. Wilcken,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassel, Universität

    Hannover e.V., Semiconductor and Photovoltaics-Group, Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover, Germany ABSTRACT pulses being phase-modulated in frequency domain. The luminescence generated by electron. In the experiment, we applied polynomial spectral phase functions of second- (GDD) and third-order (TOD), as well

  16. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Chen, Gang (Carlisle, MA); Poudel, Bed (West Newton, MA); Kumar, Shankar (Newton, MA); Wang, Wenzhong (Beijing, CN); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Arlington, MA)

    2009-09-08

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  17. Surface Magnetism: Relativistic Effects at Semiconductor Interfaces and Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    excellently into the energy level scheme of this kind of solar cell and has the potential to replace with high potential for a further devel- opment. The global market for photovoltaics cells is expectedSurface Magnetism: Relativistic Effects at Semiconductor Interfaces and Solar Cells U. Gerstmann, M

  18. Effect of Hydrogen Passivation on the Electronic Structure of Ionic Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Li, S. S.; Li, J. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-05-15

    In theoretical studies of thin film and nanostructured semiconductors, pseudohydrogen (PH) is widely used to passivate the surface dangling bonds. Based on these calculations, it is often believed that nanostructured semiconductors, due to quantum confinement, have a larger band gap than their bulk counterparts. Using first-principles band structure theory calculation and comparing systematically the differences between PH-passivated and real-hydrogen-passivated (RH-passivated) semiconductor surfaces and nanocrystals, we show that, unlike PH passivation that always increases the band gap with respect to the bulk value, RH passivation of the nanostructured semiconductors can either increase or decrease the band gap, depending on the ionicity of the nanocompounds. The differences between PH and RH passivations decreases when the covalency of the semiconductor increases and can be explained using a band coupling model. This observation greatly increases the tunability of nanostructured semiconductor properties, especially for wide-gap ionic semiconductors.

  19. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2012-10-16

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  20. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-06

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  1. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (Pinole, CA); Bruchez, Marcel (Newark, CA); Alivisatos, Paul (Oakland, CA)

    2011-12-20

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  2. Semiconductor nanocrystal probes for biological applications and process for making and using such probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Bruchez, Marcel; Alivisatos, Paul

    2014-01-28

    A semiconductor nanocrystal compound and probe are described. The compound is capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. The compound comprises (1) one or more semiconductor nanocrystals capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy, and (2) one or more linking agents, having a first portion linked to the one or more semiconductor nanocrystals and a second portion capable of linking to one or more affinity molecules. One or more semiconductor nanocrystal compounds are linked to one or more affinity molecules to form a semiconductor nanocrystal probe capable of bonding with one or more detectable substances in a material being analyzed, and capable of, in response to exposure to a first energy, providing a second energy. Also described are processes for respectively: making the semiconductor nanocrystal compound; making the semiconductor nanocrystal probe; and treating materials with the probe.

  3. Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg GRECO Cvo UNI OL/ Nds.PV-Symp. 06-2009 semiconductor physics / quantum solar energy conversion;Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy

  4. Medical Imaging with Semiconductor Detectors Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Universit del Piemonte Orientale and INFN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramello, Luciano

    . Angiographic and mammographic dual energy techniques will be discussed in some detail. 1. SEMICONDUCTOR

  5. Method of plasma etching GA-based compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2013-01-01

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent thereto. The chamber contains a Ga-based compound semiconductor sample in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. SiCl.sub.4 and Ar gases are flowed into the chamber. RF power is supplied to the platen at a first power level, and RF power is supplied to the source electrode. A plasma is generated. Then, RF power is supplied to the platen at a second power level lower than the first power level and no greater than about 30 W. Regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched at a rate of no more than about 25 nm/min to create a substantially smooth etched surface.

  6. Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2012-12-25

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

  7. Extension of spatiotemporal chaos in glow discharge-semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhmet, Marat Fen, Mehmet Onur; Rafatov, Ismail

    2014-12-15

    Generation of chaos in response systems is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach, [H. D. I. Abarbanel, N. F. Rulkov, and M. M. Sushchik, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4528–4535 (1996)] it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [D. D. Šija?i? U. Ebert, and I. Rafatov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 056220 (2004).].

  8. New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volovichev, I.

    2014-11-21

    A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.

  9. Electrically pumped edge-emitting photonic bandgap semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    2004-01-06

    A highly efficient, electrically pumped edge-emitting semiconductor laser based on a one- or two-dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is described. The laser optical cavity is formed using a pair of PBG mirrors operating in the photonic band gap regime. Transverse confinement is achieved by surrounding an active semiconductor layer of high refractive index with lower-index cladding layers. The cladding layers can be electrically insulating in the passive PBG mirror and waveguide regions with a small conducting aperture for efficient channeling of the injection pump current into the active region. The active layer can comprise a quantum well structure. The quantum well structure can be relaxed in the passive regions to provide efficient extraction of laser light from the active region.

  10. Semiconductor Quantum Rods as Single Molecule FluorescentBiological Labels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Boussert, Benjamine; Koski, Kristie; Gerion, Daniele; Manna, Liberato; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-05-29

    In recent years, semiconductor quantum dots have beenapplied with great advantage in a wide range of biological imagingapplications. The continuing developments in the synthesis of nanoscalematerials and specifically in the area of colloidal semiconductornanocrystals have created an opportunity to generate a next generation ofbiological labels with complementary or in some cases enhanced propertiescompared to colloidal quantum dots. In this paper, we report thedevelopment of rod shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) asnew fluorescent biological labels. We have engineered biocompatiblequantum rods by surface silanization and have applied them fornon-specific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting. Theproperties of quantum rods as demonstrated here are enhanced sensitivityand greater resistance for degradation as compared to quantum dots.Quantum rods have many potential applications as biological labels insituations where their properties offer advantages over quantumdots.

  11. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki, E-mail: ttnakan@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  12. Selective etchant for oxide sacrificial material in semiconductor device fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clews, Peggy J.; Mani, Seethambal S.

    2005-05-17

    An etching composition and method is disclosed for removing an oxide sacrificial material during manufacture of semiconductor devices including micromechanical, microelectromechanical or microfluidic devices. The etching composition and method are based on the combination of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4). These acids can be used in the ratio of 1:3 to 3:1 HF:H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to remove all or part of the oxide sacrificial material while providing a high etch selectivity for non-oxide materials including polysilicon, silicon nitride and metals comprising aluminum. Both the HF and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 can be provided as "semiconductor grade" acids in concentrations of generally 40-50% by weight HF, and at least 90% by weight H.sub.2 SO.sub.4.

  13. Semiconductor light source with electrically tunable emission wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belenky, Gregory (Port Jefferson, NY); Bruno, John D. (Bowie, MD); Kisin, Mikhail V. (Centereach, NY); Luryi, Serge (Setauket, NY); Shterengas, Leon (Centereach, NY); Suchalkin, Sergey (Centereach, NY); Tober, Richard L. (Elkridge, MD)

    2011-01-25

    A semiconductor light source comprises a substrate, lower and upper claddings, a waveguide region with imbedded active area, and electrical contacts to provide voltage necessary for the wavelength tuning. The active region includes single or several heterojunction periods sandwiched between charge accumulation layers. Each of the active region periods comprises higher and lower affinity semiconductor layers with type-II band alignment. The charge carrier accumulation in the charge accumulation layers results in electric field build-up and leads to the formation of generally triangular electron and hole potential wells in the higher and lower affinity layers. Nonequillibrium carriers can be created in the active region by means of electrical injection or optical pumping. The ground state energy in the triangular wells and the radiation wavelength can be tuned by changing the voltage drop across the active region.

  14. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  15. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  16. Metal-Semiconductor junctions tlu@math.pku.edu.cn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tiao

    of Ec and Ev and also changes EFi n=ni e -q F - kT , p=ni e q F- kT n-p 2ni = e -F1 Metal-Semiconductor junctions tlu@math.pku.edu.cn homepage: dsec.pku.edu.cn/~tlu blog: http://hi.baidu.com/motioo #12;2 - Many of the properties of pn junctions can be realized by forming an appropriate metal

  17. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakar, S. Melnik, R. V. N.; Sebetci, A.

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  18. Ultrafast laser-induced changes in optical properties of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chirila, C. C.; Lim, Freda C. H.; Gavaza, M. G. [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, 16-16 Connexis, 138632 (Singapore)

    2012-04-01

    We study the effect of laser radiation on optical properties of semiconductors of industrial interest. The material is pumped with a laser of chosen central frequency, for which the absorption is maximal, thus inducing electron dynamics, which modifies the optical properties. By using an improved theoretical model, we study ultrafast dynamic changes in the refraction index and reflectivity corresponding to a wide frequency-interval of probing radiation and identify that interval where these optical changes are most significant.

  19. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S. (Princeton, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  20. Molecular Chemistry to the Fore: New Insights into the Fascinating World of Photoactive Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vela-Becerra, Javier

    2013-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals possess unique properties that are unmatched by other chromophores such as organic dyes or transition-metal complexes. These versatile building blocks have generated much scientific interest and found applications in bioimaging, tracking, lighting, lasing, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, thermoelectrics, and spintronics. Despite these advances, important challenges remain, notably how to produce semiconductor nanostructures with predetermined architecture, how to produce metastable semiconductor nanostructures that are hard to isolate by conventional syntheses, and how to control the degree of surface loading or valence per nanocrystal. Molecular chemists are very familiar with these issues and can use their expertise to help solve these challenges. In this Perspective, we present our group’s recent work on bottom-up molecular control of nanoscale composition and morphology, low-temperature photochemical routes to semiconductor heterostructures and metastable phases, solar-to-chemical energy conversion with semiconductor-based photocatalysts, and controlled surface modification of colloidal semiconductors that bypasses ligand exchange.

  1. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  2. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO? and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore »structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO?-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.« less

  3. Comment on "Analysis of quantum coherent semiconductor quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scully, Marlan O

    2010-01-01

    This is a comment on PRL paper by A.P. Kirk "Analysis of quantum coherent semiconductor quantum dot p-i-n junction photovoltaic cells"

  4. Optical and electronic properties of some binary semiconductors from energy gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunil K. Tripathy; Anup Pattanaik

    2015-10-14

    II-VI and III-V tetrahedral semiconductors have significant potential for novel optoelectronic applications. In the present work, some of the optical and electronic properties of these groups of semiconductors have been studied using a recently proposed empirical relationship for refractive index from energy gap. The calculated values of these properties are also compared with those calculated from some well known relationships. From an analysis of the calculated electronic polarisability of these tetrahedral binary semiconductors from different formulations, we have proposed an empirical relation for its calculation. The predicted values of electronic polarisability of these semiconductors agree fairly well with the known values over a wide range of energy gap.

  5. 2012 DEFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 12-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER, EVAN

    2012-08-17

    The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

  6. Optical and electronic properties of some binary semiconductors from energy gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunil K. Tripathy; Anup Pattanaik

    2015-08-23

    II-VI and III-V tetrahedral semiconductors have significant potential for novel optoelectronic applications. In the present work, some of the optical and electronic properties of these groups of semiconductors have been studied using a recently proposed empirical relationship for refractive index from energy gap. The calculated values of these properties are also compared with those calculated from some well known relationships. From an analysis of the calculated electronic polarisability of these tetrahedral binary semiconductors from different formulations, we have proposed an empirical relation for its calculation. The predicted values of electronic polarisability of these semiconductors agree fairly well with the known values over a wide range of energy gap.

  7. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing (Lenexa, KS); Jiang,Hong-Xing (Manhattan, KS); Lin, Jing-Yu (Manhattan, KS)

    2008-03-18

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  8. Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor films for solar cell application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Redondo Beach, CA); Kapur, Vijay K. (Northridge, CA)

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved thin film solar cell with excellent electrical and mechanical integrity. The device comprises a substrate, a Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor absorber layer and a transparent window layer. The mechanical bond between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer is enhanced by an intermediate layer between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor film being grown. The intermediate layer contains tellurium or substitutes therefor, such as Se, Sn, or Pb. The intermediate layer improves the morphology and electrical characteristics of the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer.

  9. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chisholm, Matthew F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  10. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    94720, USA Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identifiedarchitectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the highinsights useful for photocatalysis at the nanoscale, as well

  11. Development of fluorescent semi-conductor nanocrystal conjugates for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Hee-Sun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are promising imaging probes with characteristic optical properties: tunable bandgap from visible to infrared, narrow and symmetric emission features, broad ...

  12. Optical and electronic properties of some binary semiconductors from energy gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tripathy, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    II-VI and III-V tetrahedral semiconductors have significant potential for novel optoelectronic applications. In the present work, some of the optical and electronic properties of these groups of semiconductors have been studied using a recently proposed empirical relationship for refractive index from energy gap. The calculated values of these properties are also compared with those calculated from some well known relationships. From an analysis of the calculated electronic polarisability of these tetrahedral binary semiconductors from different formulations, we have proposed an empirical relation for its calculation. The predicted values of electronic polarisability of these semiconductors agree fairly well with the known values over a wide range of energy gap.

  13. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-10-04

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  14. Spin-current diode with a ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Qing-Feng Xie, X. C.

    2015-05-04

    Diode is a key device in electronics: the charge current can flow through the device under a forward bias, while almost no current flows under a reverse bias. Here, we propose a corresponding device in spintronics: the spin-current diode, in which the forward spin current is large but the reversed one is negligible. We show that the lead/ferromagnetic quantum dot/lead system and the lead/ferromagnetic semiconductor/lead junction can work as spin-current diodes. The spin-current diode, a low dissipation device, may have important applications in spintronics, as the conventional charge-current diode does in electronics.

  15. Quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures for improved lasers and detectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Weng Wah Dr. (; .); Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Modine, Normand Arthur; Biefeld, Robert Malcolm

    2006-02-01

    The potential for implementing quantum coherence in semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical modeling suggests that coherent dynamics should be possible in self-assembled quantum dots. Our experimental efforts have optimized InGaAs and InAs self-assembled quantum dots on GaAs for demonstrating coherent phenomena. Optical investigations have indicated the appropriate geometries for observing quantum coherence and the type of experiments for observing quantum coherence have been outlined. The optical investigation targeted electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in order to demonstrate an all optical delay line.

  16. A quantum energy transport model for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sho, Shohiro; Odanaka, Shinji

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes numerical methods for a quantum energy transport (QET) model in semiconductors, which is derived by using a diffusion scaling in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. We newly drive a four-moments QET model similar with a classical ET model. Space discretization is performed by a new set of unknown variables. Numerical stability and convergence are obtained by developing numerical schemes and an iterative solution method with a relaxation method. Numerical simulations of electron transport in a scaled MOSFET device are discussed. The QET model allows simulations of quantum confinement transport, and nonlocal and hot-carrier effects in scaled MOSFETs.

  17. Mode imaging and loss evaluation of semiconductor waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Toshimitsu [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-9 Machiike-dai, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    An imaging and loss evaluation method for semiconductor waveguides coupled with non-doped quantum wells is presented. Using the internal emission of the wells as a probe light source, the numbers and widths of the modes of waveguides with various ridge sizes were evaluated by CCD imaging, and the obtained values were consistent with effective index method calculation. Waveguide internal losses were obtained from analyses of the Fabry-Pérot fringes of waveguide emission spectra. We quantified the quality of 29 single-mode waveguide samples as an internal loss and variation of 10.2 ± 0.6??cm{sup ?1}.

  18. Light emission patterns from stadium-shaped semiconductor microcavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susumu Shinohara; Takehiro Fukushima; Takahisa Harayama

    2008-03-10

    We study light emission patterns from stadium-shaped semiconductor (GaAs) microcavity lasers theoretically and experimentally. Performing systematic wave calculations for passive cavity modes, we demonstrate that the averaging by low-loss modes, such as those realized in multi-mode lasing, generates an emission pattern in good agreement with the ray model's prediction. In addition, we show that the dependence of experimental far-field emission patterns on the aspect ratio of the stadium cavity is well reproduced by the ray model.

  19. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  20. Method of making high breakdown voltage semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arthur, Stephen D. (Scotia, NY); Temple, Victor A. K. (Jonesville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A semiconductor device having at least one P-N junction and a multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) region which uniformly merges with the reverse blocking junction is disclosed. The blocking junction is graded into multiple zones of lower concentration dopant adjacent termination to facilitate merging of the JTE to the blocking junction and placing of the JTE at or near the high field point of the blocking junction. Preferably, the JTE region substantially overlaps the graded blocking junction region. A novel device fabrication method is also provided which eliminates the prior art step of separately diffusing the JTE region.

  1. Bistability of Cation Interstitials in II-VI Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, S. H.; Dalpian, G. M.

    2005-11-01

    The stability of cation interstitials in II-VI semiconductors is studied using ab initio methods. We find that interstitials in the neutral charge state are more stable in the tetrahedral interstitial site near the cation, whereas in the (2+) charge state, they are more stable near the anion. The diffusion energy barrier changes when the defect charge state changes. Therefore, if electrons/holes are taken from the defect level by light, changing its charge state, the interstitial atom will be able to diffuse almost spontaneously due to a reduced diffusion barrier.

  2. Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-06-30

    Through the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) plant certification program, Freescale Semiconductor implemented projects at the company's Oak Hill Fab plant that reduced annual energy consumption by 28 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity and 26,000 million British thermal units (Btu) of natural gas between 2006 and 2009, saving more than $2 million each year. The plant is now certified at the SEP silver level, and has a management system in place to proactively manage the facility's energy resources in the future.

  3. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Semiconductor and Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcoming Release of(LVOC) WorkingTableTableSciences Semiconductor

  4. The roadmap for downscaling and introducing new technologies in the semiconductor industry is well laid out for the next ten years2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The roadmap for downscaling and introducing new technologies in the semiconductor industry is well in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, one- dimensional structures, such as carbon nanotubes

  5. Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han, Junfeng Song, Xuemei Li, Yang Liu, Dingsan Gao,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui

    Spontaneous emission factor for semiconductor superluminescent diodes Yongsheng Zhao, Weihua Han emission factor is an important parameter for the characterization of semiconductor light emitting devices difference involved in each device. In this article, the spontaneous emission factor for superluminescent

  6. Estimating the Lead Time Distribution of Priority Lots in a Semiconductor Factory \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershwin, Stanley B.

    Estimating the Lead Time Distribution of Priority Lots in a Semiconductor Factory \\Lambda Asbjoern M. Bonvik y July 10, 1995 Abstract We consider the lead time of priority lots in a semiconductor fac for finding the lead time distribution is described. We describe a method of creating synthetic samples

  7. Cooling of a semiconductor by luminescence up-conversion E. Finkeien, M. Potemski,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viña, Luis

    Cooling of a semiconductor by luminescence up-conversion E. Finkeißen, M. Potemski,a) and P. Wyder the possibility of light-induced lattice cooling in a semiconductor. Under appropriate conditions, pumping of a system with radiation can lead to cooling.1 In the case of atoms, Doppler cooling2­4 and spontaneous anti

  8. Electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet/organic semiconductor/ferromagnet heterojunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Letter Electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet/organic semiconductor online 2 April 2010 Keywords: Bistable device Spin valve Organic semiconductor Magnetoresistance a b s t r a c t We report a study of the electrical bistability and bias-controlled spin valve effect

  9. Macroscopic Nanotemplating of Semiconductor Films with Hydrogen-Bonded Lyotropic Liquid Crystals**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Macroscopic Nanotemplating of Semiconductor Films with Hydrogen-Bonded Lyotropic Liquid Crystals with aqueous gel- like liquid crystals, which rapidly generates a semiconductor film of nearly uniform thickness perforated with 2.5 nm holes on a 7 nm pitch over a virtually limitless area. Liquid

  10. Low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Surfaces R. M. Feenstra1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Surfaces R. M. Feenstra1 Low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor surface are described that measurements at low temperatures have been conducted. Most notably, discrete accumulation layer states have

  11. On the modeling and simulation of reaction-transfer dynamics in semiconductor-electrolyte solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Kui

    On the modeling and simulation of reaction-transfer dynamics in semiconductor-electrolyte solar-performance semiconductor-liquid junction solar cells. We propose in this work a macroscopic mathematical model, a sys- tem-liquid junction, solar cell simulation, naso-scale device modeling. 1 Introduction The mathematical modeling

  12. Preliminary survey report: control technology for gallium arsenide processing at Morgan Semiconductor Division, Garland, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenihan, K.L.

    1987-03-01

    The report covers a walk through survey made of the Morgan Semiconductor Facility in Garland, Texas, to evaluate control technology for gallium-arsenide dust in the semiconductor industry. Engineering controls included the synthesis of gallium-arsenide outside the crystal pullers to reduce arsenic residues in the pullers, also reducing worker exposure to arsenic during cleaning of the crystal pullers.

  13. Pauli-blocking imaging of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    19 March 1999 The photoluminescence PL of InP strained-induced quantum dots in a GaInAs/GaAs quantumPauli-blocking imaging of single strain-induced semiconductor quantum dots C. Obermu¨ller, A of the electronic properties of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots.2 High resolu- tion PL microscopy can

  14. WIGNER MOLECULES IN SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS AND TRAPPED ULTRACOLD BOSONIC CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yannouleas, Constantine

    WIGNER MOLECULES IN SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS AND TRAPPED ULTRACOLD BOSONIC CLOUDS Constantine], with a focus on the strongly correlated regime of electrons in two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots (QDs dot [3]; (3) fractional-quantum-Hall-effect analogies and differences in graphene quantum dots at zero

  15. Semiconductor to Metal to Half-Metal Transition in Pt-Embedded Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Semiconductor to Metal to Half-Metal Transition in Pt-Embedded Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Xiaohui properties of Pt-embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbons (Pt-ZGNRs) are investigated using density-functional theory calculations. It is found that Pt-ZGNRs exhibit a semiconductor-metal-half-metal transition

  16. Mesoscopic pointlike defects in semiconductors: Deep-level energies D. D. Nolte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, David D.

    Mesoscopic pointlike defects in semiconductors: Deep-level energies D. D. Nolte Department in common with quantum dots, such as Coulomb-charging energies, but unlike quantum dots their electronic properties are dominated by the covalent bond energies of the defect-semiconductor interface. The deep

  17. Elimination of internal contamination on semiconductor devices (protective coatings). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo, T.

    1994-07-01

    Characterization results are described of epoxy and gel coatings that were applied to leadless chip carriers (LCC) and TO-46 semiconductor packages. Samples included silicon dioxide, liquid epoxy, epoxy, RTV silicon, and silicon gel; and a standard test sequence was followed. Test results and coating application feasibility for semiconductor packages and military applications are discussed.

  18. TheLM3900ANewCurrent-DifferencingQuadofgInputAmplifiersAN-72 National Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanterman, Aaron

    TL H 7383 TheLM3900ANewCurrent-DifferencingQuadofgInputAmplifiersAN-72 National Semiconductor of these circuits are simply ``re-biased'' versions of conventional handbook circuits but many are new approaches Current Sink 10 1 4 A Voltage Variable Current Sink C1995 National Semiconductor Corporation RRD-B30M115

  19. Density-matrixelectronic-oscillator representation of optical spectroscopy of semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    nanocrystals constitute an ideal system for exploring systematically the evolution of material properties fromDensity-matrix­electronic-oscillator representation of optical spectroscopy of semiconductor 1996; accepted 9 December 1996 The optical response of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals is investigated

  20. Finite Element Solution of Optimal Control Problems Arising in Semiconductor Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    - timization problem, especially for highly heterogeneous materials with large jumps in material properties. 1Finite Element Solution of Optimal Control Problems Arising in Semiconductor Modeling Pavel Bochev, and inverse problems arising in the modeling of semiconductor devices lead to optimization problems

  1. Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall D. M. Mittleman,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    of Physics. S0003-6951 97 01427-7 Doped semiconductors are frequently characterized by two material properties and quality. They also determine many of the electrical and optical properties of the material. NNoncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect D. M. Mittleman,a) J

  2. Inorganic-modified semiconductor TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Inorganic-modified semiconductor TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis Mengye Wang,ab James Ioccozia,b Lan Sun,*a Changjian Lin*a and Zhiqun Lin*b Semiconductor photocatalysis is a promising resistance, and nontoxicity. This Review briefly introduces the key mechanisms of photocatalysis, highlights

  3. NUMERICAL COUPLING OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT EQUATIONS AND ENERGY-TRANSPORT MODELS FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    NUMERICAL COUPLING OF ELECTRIC CIRCUIT EQUATIONS AND ENERGY-TRANSPORT MODELS FOR SEMICONDUCTORS effects is proposed. The charged particle flow in the semiconductor devices is described by the energy-transport equations for the electrons and the drift-diffusion equations for the holes. The electric circuit is modeled

  4. ITRS 2.0: Toward a Re-Framing of the Semiconductor Technology Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    ITRS 2.0: Toward a Re-Framing of the Semiconductor Technology Roadmap Juan-Antonio Carballo3, Wei@ucsd.edu Abstract--The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconduc- tors (ITRS) has roadmapped technology requirements of the semiconductor industry over the past two decades. The roadmap identifies major challenges

  5. Helicon wave excitation to produce energetic electrons for manufacturing semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molvik, A.W.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1998-10-20

    A helicon plasma source is controlled by varying the axial magnetic field or rf power controlling the formation of the helicon wave. An energetic electron current is carried on the wave when the magnetic field is 90 G; but there is minimal energetic electron current when the magnetic field is 100 G in one particular plasma source. Similar performance can be expected from other helicon sources by properly adjusting the magnetic field and power to the particular geometry. This control for adjusting the production of energetic electrons can be used in the semiconductor and thin-film manufacture process. By applying energetic electrons to the insulator layer, such as silicon oxide, etching ions are attracted to the insulator layer and bombard the insulator layer at higher energy than areas that have not accumulated the energetic electrons. Thus, silicon and metal layers, which can neutralize the energetic electron currents will etch at a slower or non-existent rate. This procedure is especially advantageous in the multilayer semiconductor manufacturing because trenches can be formed that are in the range of 0.18--0.35 mm or less. 16 figs.

  6. Lattice matched crystalline substrates for cubic nitride semiconductor growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed embodiments include methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and devices fabricated thereby. The methods include, but are not limited to, providing a substrate having a cubic crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter and growing a cubic crystalline group III-nitride alloy layer on the cubic crystalline substrate by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The cubic crystalline group III-nitride alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter of the substrate (a). The group III-nitride alloy may be a cubic crystalline In.sub.xGa.sub.yAl.sub.1-x-yN alloy. The lattice parameter of the In.sub.xGa.sub.yAl.sub.1-x-yN or other group III-nitride alloy may be related to the substrate lattice parameter by (a')= 2(a) or (a')=(a)/ 2. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  7. High-efficiency photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Paul K.L.; Yu, Edward T.; Wang, Deli

    2011-10-31

    The objective of this project was to exploit a variety of semiconductor nanostructures, specifically semiconductor quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanowires, to achieve high power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In a thin-film device geometry, the objectives were to design, fabricate, and characterize quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cells in which scattering from metallic and/or dielectric nanostructures was employed to direct incident photons into lateral, optically confined paths within a thin (~1-3um or less) device structure. Fundamental issues concerning nonequilibrium carrier escape from quantum-confined structures, removal of thin-film devices from an epitaxial growth substrate, and coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic devices were investigated. In a nanowire device geometry, the initial objectives were to engineer vertical nanowire arrays to optimize optical confinement within the nanowires, and to extend this approach to core-shell heterostructures to achieve broadspectrum absorption while maintaining high opencircuit voltages. Subsequent work extended this approach to include fabrication of nanowire photovoltaic structures on low-cost substrates.

  8. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of semiconductor nanocrystals and solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachleben, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, small biomolecules, and {sup 13}C enriched solids were studied through the relaxation in NMR spectra. Surface structure of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdS) was deduced from high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C liquid state spectra of thiophenol ligands on the nanocrystal surfaces. The surface coverage by thiophenol was found to be low, being 5.6 and 26% for nanocrystal radii of 11.8 and 19.2 {angstrom}. Internal motion is estimated to be slow with a correlation time > 10{sup {minus}8} s{sup {minus}1}. The surface thiophenol ligands react to form a dithiophenol when the nanocrystals were subjected to O{sub 2} and ultraviolet. A method for measuring {sup 14}N-{sup 1}H J-couplings is demonstrated on pyridine and the peptide oxytocin; selective 2D T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} experiments are presented for measuring relaxation times in crowded spectra with overlapping peaks in 1D, but relaxation effects interfere. Possibility of carbon-carbon cross relaxation in {sup 13}C enriched solids is demonstrated by experiments on zinc acetate and L-alanine.

  9. Lattice thermal expansion for normal tetrahedral compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)]. E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.com

    2007-02-15

    The cubic root of the deviation of the lattice thermal expansion from that of the expected value of diamond for group IV semiconductors, binary compounds of III-V and II-VI, as well as several ternary compounds from groups I-III-VI{sub 2}, II-IV-V{sub 2} and I-IV{sub 2}V{sub 3} semiconductors versus their bonding length are given straight lines. Their slopes were found to be 0.0256, 0.0210, 0.0170, 0.0259, 0.0196, and 0.02840 for the groups above, respectively. Depending on the valence electrons of the elements forming these groups, a formula was found to correlate all the values of the slopes mentioned above to that of group IV. This new formula which depends on the melting point and the bonding length as well as the number of valence electrons for the elements forming the compounds, will gives best calculated values for lattice thermal expansion for all compounds forming the groups mentioned above. An empirical relation is also found between the mean ionicity of the compounds forming the groups and their slopes mentioned above and that gave the mean ionicity for the compound CuGe{sub 2}P{sub 3} in the range of 0.442.

  10. Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

  11. Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

  12. Helicon wave excitation to produce energetic electrons for manufacturing semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A helicon plasma source is controlled by varying the axial magnetic field or rf power controlling the formation of the helicon wave. An energetic electron current is carried on the wave when the magnetic field is 90 G; but there is minimal energetic electron current when the magnetic field is 100 G in one particular plasma source. Similar performance can be expected from other helicon sources by properly adjusting the magnetic field and power to the particular geometry. This control for adjusting the production of energetic electrons can be used in the semiconductor and thin-film manufacture process. By applying energetic electrons to the insulator layer, such as silicon oxide, etching ions are attracted to the insulator layer and bombard the insulator layer at higher energy than areas that have not accumulated the energetic electrons. Thus, silicon and metal layers, which can neutralize the energetic electron currents will etch at a slower or non-existent rate. This procedure is especially advantageous in the multilayer semiconductor manufacturing because trenches can be formed that are in the range of 0.18-0.35 mm or less.

  13. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor tehnologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor tehnologies

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Stable Long-Term Operation of Semiconductor Magnetic Sensors in ITER-Relevant Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Evaluation of Stable Long-Term Operation of Semiconductor Magnetic Sensors in ITER-Relevant Environment

  15. Electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Myers, D.R.; Vook, F.L.

    1988-06-16

    An electronic-carrier-controlled photochemical etching process for carrying out patterning and selective removing of material in semiconductor device fabrication includes the steps of selective ion implanting, photochemical dry etching, and thermal annealing, in that order. In the selective ion implanting step, regions of the semiconductor material in a desired pattern are damaged and the remainder of the regions of the material not implanted are left undamaged. The rate of recombination of electrons and holes is increased in the damaged regions of the pattern compared to undamaged regions. In the photochemical dry etching step which follows ion implanting step, the material in the undamaged regions of the semiconductor are removed substantially faster than in the damaged regions representing the pattern, leaving the ion-implanted, damaged regions as raised surface structures on the semiconductor material. After completion of photochemical dry etching step, the thermal annealing step is used to restore the electrical conductivity of the damaged regions of the semiconductor material.

  16. A Computational Study of Metal-Contacts to Beyond-Graphene 2D Semiconductor Materials Jiahao Kang+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Computational Study of Metal-Contacts to Beyond-Graphene 2D Semiconductor Materials Jiahao Kang]-[5]. The mobility of carriers in TMD semiconductors is currently lower than in graphene although it can be boosted guidelines for novel 2D semiconductor device design and fabrication. I. Introduction As CMOS technology

  17. Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor on transport in graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors MOSFETs are reported of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2839330 Graphene has recently generated considerable interest as a semiconductor

  18. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  19. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  20. Predicted Ultrafast Single Qubit Operations in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, C E

    2002-01-01

    Several recently proposed implementations of scalable quantum computation rely on the ability to manipulate the spin polarization of individual electrons in semiconductors. The most rapid single-spin-manipulation technique to date relies on the generation of an effective magnetic field via a spin-sensitive optical Stark effect. This approach has been used to split spin states in colloidal CdSe quantum dots and to manipulate ensembles of spins in ZnMnSe quantum wells with femtosecond optical pulses. Here we report that the process will produce a coherent rotation of spin in quantum dots containing a single electron. The calculated magnitude of the effective magnetic field depends on the dot bandgap and the strain. We predict that in InAs/InP dots, for reasonable experimental parameters, the magnitude of the rotation is sufficient and the intrinsic error is low enough for them to serve as elements of a quantum dot based quantum computer.

  1. Predicted Ultrafast Single Qubit Operations in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. E. Pryor; M. E. Flatté

    2002-11-25

    Several recently proposed implementations of scalable quantum computation rely on the ability to manipulate the spin polarization of individual electrons in semiconductors. The most rapid single-spin-manipulation technique to date relies on the generation of an effective magnetic field via a spin-sensitive optical Stark effect. This approach has been used to split spin states in colloidal CdSe quantum dots and to manipulate ensembles of spins in ZnMnSe quantum wells with femtosecond optical pulses. Here we report that the process will produce a coherent rotation of spin in quantum dots containing a single electron. The calculated magnitude of the effective magnetic field depends on the dot bandgap and the strain. We predict that in InAs/InP dots, for reasonable experimental parameters, the magnitude of the rotation is sufficient and the intrinsic error is low enough for them to serve as elements of a quantum dot based quantum computer.

  2. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  3. Conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor devices with edge channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovskii, E. Yu. Bagraev, N. T.

    2014-12-15

    A method for determining the conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor structures with edge channels is proposed. The method is based on the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations based on Kirchhoff equations, made up of potential differences U{sub ij} measured at stabilized currents I{sub kl}, where i, j, k, l are terminal numbers. The matrix obtained by solving the system of equations completely describes the structure under study, reflecting its configuration and homogeneity. This method can find wide application when using the known Landauer-Buttiker formalism to analyze carrier transport in the quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect modes. Within the proposed method, the contribution of the contact area resistances R{sub c} to the formation of conductance matrix elements is taken into account. The possibilities of practical application of the results obtained in developing analog cryptographic devices are considered.

  4. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  5. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  6. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deri, R J

    2011-01-03

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and increased reliability. The high-level requirements on the semiconductor lasers involve reliability, price points on a price-per-Watt basis, and a set of technical requirements. The technical requirements for the amplifier design in reference 1 are discussed in detail and are summarized in Table 1. These values are still subject to changes as the overall laser system continues to be optimized. Since pump costs can be a significant fraction of the overall laser system cost, it is important to achieve sufficiently low price points for these components. At this time, the price target for tenth-of-akind IFE plant is $0.007/Watt for packaged devices. At this target level, the pumps account for approximately one third of the laser cost. The pump lasers should last for the life of the power plant, leading to a target component lifetime requirement of roughly 14 Ghosts, corresponding to a 30 year plant life and 15 Hz repetition rate. An attractive path forward involes pump operation at high output power levels, on a Watts-per-bar (Watts/chip) basis. This reduces the cost of pump power (price-per-Watt), since to first order the unit price does not increase with power/bar. The industry has seen a continual improvement in power output, with current 1 cm-wide bars emitting up to 500 W QCW (quasi-continuous wave). Increased power/bar also facilitates achieving high irradiance in the array plane. On the other hand, increased power implies greater heat loads and (possibly) higher current drive, which will require increased attention to thermal management and parasitic series resistance. Diode chips containing multiple p-n junctions and quantum wells (also called nanostack structures) may provide an additional approach to reduce the peak current.

  7. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  8. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth Dharmasena, Kumar Pradeepa

  9. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Meitl, Matthew; Sun, Yugang; Ko, Heung Cho; Carlson, Andrew; Choi, Won Mook; Stoykovich, Mark; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Zhu, Zhengtao; Menard, Etienne; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2014-05-20

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Methods of forming semiconductor devices and devices formed using such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene G; Pak, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    Single source precursors are subjected to carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The carbon dioxide may be in a supercritical state. Single source precursors also may be subjected to supercritical fluids other than supercritical carbon dioxide to form particles of material. The methods may be used to form nanoparticles. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form chalcopyrite materials. Devices such as, for example, semiconductor devices may be fabricated that include such particles. Methods of forming semiconductor devices include subjecting single source precursors to carbon dioxide to form particles of semiconductor material, and establishing electrical contact between the particles and an electrode.

  11. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL); Meitl, Matthew (Raleigh, NC); Sun, Yugang (Naperville, IL); Ko, Heung Cho (Urbana, IL); Carlson, Andrew (Urbana, IL); Choi, Won Mook (Champaign, IL); Stoykovich, Mark (Dover, NH); Jiang, Hanqing (Urbana, IL); Huang, Yonggang (Glencoe, IL); Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Keon Jae (Tokyo, JP); Zhu, Zhengtao (Rapid City, SD); Menard, Etienne (Durham, NC); Khang, Dahl-Young (Seoul, KR); Kan, Seong Jun (Daejeon, KR); Ahn, Jong Hyun (Suwon, KR); Kim, Hoon-sik (Champaign, IL)

    2012-07-10

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  13. Energy resolution in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors using heterojunctions and methods of use and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Nelson, Art J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2012-09-04

    In one embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material and a hole blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. In another embodiment, a system comprises a semiconductor gamma detector material, and an electron blocking layer adjacent the gamma detector material, the electron blocking layer resisting passage of electrons therethrough, wherein the electron blocking layer comprises undoped HgCdTe. In another embodiment, a method comprises forming a hole blocking layer adjacent a semiconductor gamma detector material, the hole blocking layer resisting passage of holes therethrough. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  14. Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals as nanoscale emissive probes in light emitting diodes and cell biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Hao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis employs colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as nanoscale emissive probes to investigate the physics of light emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as to unveil properties of cells that conventional imaging ...

  15. Estimating the Lead Time Distribution of Priority Lots in a Semiconductor Factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonvik, Asbjoern M.

    We consider the lead time of priority lots in a semiconductor factory. The main cause of delays is waiting for repairs of failed machines, and the failures are mainly caused by power disturbances. This can be modeled as ...

  16. Ge-on-Si Integrated Photonics: New Tricks from an Old Semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jifeng, Liu

    We review recent progress in Ge active photonic devices for electronic-photonic integration on Si, demonstrating new tricks in optoelectronics from this “old” semiconductor material used for the first transistor more than ...

  17. Singlet exciton fission, a multi-exciton generation process, in organic semiconductor solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadhav, Priyadarshani

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics hold the promise of cheap production and low manufacturing setup costs. The highest efficiency seen in research labs, ~10% today, is still too low for production. In this work we explore ...

  18. FEATURE ARTICLE Femtosecond Dynamics of Electrons Photoinjected into Organic Semiconductors at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Charles B.

    FEATURE ARTICLE Femtosecond Dynamics of Electrons Photoinjected into Organic Semiconductors, 2001 The layer dependent evolution of the unoccupied electronic structure and electron dynamics be assigned as either image potential states or electron affinity (EA) levels, but rather as hybridized EA

  19. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, at 12:00 p...

  20. Biasing, operation and parasitic current limitation in single device equivalent to CMOS, and other semiconductor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D.

    2003-09-23

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of applied gate voltage field induced carriers in essentially intrinsic, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at substantially equal doping levels, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at different doping levels, and containing a single metallurgical doping type, and functional combinations thereof. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents utilizing material(s) which form rectifying junctions with both N and P-type semiconductor whether metallurigically or field induced.

  1. Laboratory Thin-Film Encapsulation of Air-Sensitive Organic Semiconductor Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subbarao, Samuel P.

    We present an approach, which is compatible with both glass and polymer substrates, to in-laboratory handling and intra-laboratory shipping of air-sensitive organic semiconductors. Encapsulation approaches are presented ...

  2. Multivariable analysis of spectral measurements for the characterization of semiconductor processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, David A. (David Allan), 1966-

    2001-01-01

    The availability of affordable and reliable optical sensor technology and the abundance of data that these sensors now provide have created new opportunities to better characterize and control semiconductor processes in ...

  3. Analysis of silicon carbide based semiconductor power devices and their application in power factor correction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durrani, Yamin Qaisar

    2005-11-01

    Recent technological advances have allowed silicon (Si) semiconductor technology to approach the theoretical limits of the Si material; however, power device requirements for many applications are at a stage that the present Si-based power devices...

  4. Prospects for high temperature ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jungwirth, T.; Wang, KY; Masek, J.; Edmonds, KW; Konig, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Polini, M.; Goncharuk, NA; MacDonald, AH; Sawicki, M.; Rushforth, AW; Campion, RP; Zhao, LX; Foxon, CT; Gallagher, BL.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive combined experimental and theoretical study of Curie temperature trends in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors. Broad agreement between theoretical expectations and measured data allows us to conclude that T-c in high...

  5. Internal Image Potential in Semiconductors - Effect on Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HUANG, ZH; WEIMER, M.; Allen, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    The tunneling of electrons from a semiconductor surface to a metal tip, across a vacuum gap, is influenced by two image interactions: an attractive image potential in the vacuum region, which lowers the apparent tunneling barrier, and a repulsive...

  6. Semiconductor-based all-optical switching for optical time-division multiplexed networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Bryan S. (Bryan Shawn), 1975-

    2003-01-01

    All-optical switching will likely be required for future optical networks operating at data rates which exceed electronic processing speeds. Switches utilizing nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are ...

  7. Assembly lead time reduction in a semiconductor capital equipment plant through constraint based scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sedore, Blake William Clark

    2014-01-01

    The assembly protocols for a semiconductor capital equipment machine were analyzed for potential lead time reduction. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum assembly lead time for the machine based on the ...

  8. Production lead time reduction in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant through optimized testing protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadauria, Anubha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Processes at a semiconductor equipment manufacturing facility were studied with the goal to reduce the production lead time. Based on the principles of lean manufacturing, DMAIC methodology was used to guide the process. ...

  9. Antiferromagnetic exchange bias of a ferromagnetic semiconductor by a ferromagnetic metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olejnik, K.

    2010-01-01

    able interest for spintronics, as they o?er the prospect ofof semiconductor spintronics. The development of FM metal/FMfor room temperature spintronics, and also o?er a new means

  10. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Optical and electrical spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures for spintronics applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    nanostructures for spintronics applications Thesis supervisor: Andrea Balocchi and Pierre Renucci E-mail address the spin degree of freedom in semiconductors for spintronics and quantum #12;information applications

  11. Product strategy in response to technological innovation in the semiconductor test industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Robert W. (Robert Wei-Pang), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    After the market boom of 2000 in the semiconductor industry changed significantly. The changes included stricter limits on capital cost spending, and the increased propensity of the industry to outsource the manufacturing ...

  12. Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

    Scientic findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last few ...

  13. Program management systems for the semiconductor processing capital equipment supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, Thomas B. (Thomas Brian), 1970-

    2004-01-01

    The Capital Equipment Procurement group of Intel Corporation is responsible for developing and procuring the semiconductor processing capital equipment that is used throughout all of the company's development and manufacturing ...

  14. Optical Probe for Semiconductor: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-206

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2011-02-01

    This CRADA involves development of a new semiconductor characterization tool, Optical Probe, which can be commercialized by GT Solar. GT Solar will participate in the design and testing of this instrument that will be developed under an IPP project.

  15. Effects of disorder on electron spin dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    characterizes the disorder potential. Using our knowledge of the DOS, a simple model estimates the temperature-doped semiconductors2,3 . Previous work also suggested that the spin dephasing rate of the electrons is suppressed

  16. LDRD-LW Final Report: 07-LW-041 "Magnetism in Semiconductor Nanocrysta...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report: LDRD-LW Final Report: 07-LW-041 "Magnetism in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: New Physics at the Nanoscale" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LDRD-LW Final Report:...

  17. High-precision transfer-printing and integration of vertically oriented semiconductor arrays for flexible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    transfer printing, nanowires, flexible electronics, printable electronics, nanoscale devices ABSTRACT Flexible electronics utilizing single crystalline semiconductors typically require post-growth processes devices. High performance electronics on flexible substrates have been gaining attention from research

  18. Electronic Properties of Disordered Organic Semiconductors via QM/MM Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) have recently received significant attention for their potential use in photovoltaic, light emitting diode, and field effect transistor devices. Part of the appeal of OSCs is the disordered, ...

  19. Spectroscopy and external control of optical dynamics in single semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, Kentaro, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy has progressed substantially in the past ten years and the accompanying progress in the optical study of single semiconductor nanocrystals has opened a new dimension in our understanding of the ...

  20. The physics and chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals in sol-gel derived optical microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yinthai

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) into sol-gel derived matrices presents both novel applications as well as a robust platform in which to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of NCs. This thesis ...

  1. Assembly lead time reduction in a semiconductor capital equipment plant through improved material kitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing operations were studied at a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant, with an aim to reduce the production time of their longest lead time module. Preliminary analysis was done by observing the ...

  2. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  3. Cooperative recombination of electron-hole pairs in semiconductor quantum wells under quantizing magnetic fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jho, Y. D.; Wang, X.; Reitze, D. H.; Kono, J.; Belyanin, Alexey; Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl V.; Solomon, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of detailed investigations of light emission from semiconductor multiple quantum wells at low temperatures and high magnetic fields excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses. The intensity and linewidth ...

  4. Semiconductors and sustainability : energy and materials use in integrated circuit manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branham, Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductors have propelled an incredible revolution in the way we generate, access, store, and communicate information; the effects of this revolution have transformed culture, society, and the economy. At the same time, ...

  5. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications," originally presented on October 21, 2014.

  6. EEE 439 Semiconductor Facilities and Cleanroom Practices (3) [F] Course (Catalog) Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    EEE 439 Semiconductor Facilities and Cleanroom Practices (3) [F] Course (Catalog) Description water, production materials, personnel and operations, hazard management, advanced concepts. Lecture modeling 13. Preconditioning, static, and vibration 14. Codes and legislation 15. Ultrapure water

  7. Ferromagnetic transition temperature enhancement in (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors by carbon codoping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jungwirth, T.; Masek, J.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, AH.

    2003-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of (Ga,Mn)(As,C) diluted magnetic semiconductors with high C acceptor density that combines insights from phenomenological model and microscopic approaches. A tight-binding coherent-potential approximation is used...

  8. Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

    Scientific findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last fe...

  9. Antiferromagnetic exchange bias of a ferromagnetic semiconductor by a ferromagnetic metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olejnik, K.

    2010-01-01

    polarization e?ect in a spintronic device. Here, weable interest for spintronics, as they o?er the prospect ofof semiconductor spintronics. The development of FM metal/FM

  10. Physics and simulation of transport processes in hybrid organic semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Ian Michael

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductors and nanomaterials promise to potentially form the basis for future efficient and cost-effective large area optoelectronic devices, such as lightemitting diodes and solar cells. Although these materials' ...

  11. Growth of coincident site lattice matched semiconductor layers and devices on crystalline substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J

    2013-08-13

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The method further includes growing a crystalline semiconductor layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy, without any buffer layer between the crystalline semiconductor layer and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The crystalline semiconductor layer will be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the substrate lattice parameter (a). The lattice parameter (a') maybe related to the lattice parameter (a) by a scaling factor derived from a geometric relationship between the respective crystal lattices.

  12. Growth and characterization of mid-infrared phosphide-based semiconductor diode lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Pei-Chun

    2010-01-01

    A diode laser emitting at mid-infrared wavelength (2~5 pm) is an ideal light source for petrochemical or industrial-important gas sensing. Antimony-based III-V compound semiconductor material is the most prominent pseudomorphic ...

  13. Comparison of methods to quantify interface trap densities at dielectric/IIIV semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stemmer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    method to high-k/III-V interfaces has been discussedno D it ? CV curve for interfaces with III-V semiconductors,in D it at high-k/III-V interface is criti- cal for the

  14. Quantification of trap densities at dielectric/III–V semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stemmer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    III–V semiconductor interfaces Roman Engel-Herbert, a?model is used to determine interface trap densities ?D it ?2 / In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As interfaces with different D it and

  15. Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynn, Kelvin (Pullman, WA; , Jones, Kelly (Colfax, WA); Ciampi, Guido (Watertown, MA)

    2011-12-06

    Semiconductor materials suitable for being used in radiation detectors are disclosed. A particular example of the semiconductor materials includes tellurium, cadmium, and zinc. Tellurium is in molar excess of cadmium and zinc. The example also includes aluminum having a concentration of about 10 to about 20,000 atomic parts per billion and erbium having a concentration of at least 10,000 atomic parts per billion.

  16. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

  17. Electromagnetic Waves Reflectance of Graphene -- Magnetic Semiconductor Superlattice in Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G

    2014-01-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice placed in magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in Faraday geometry with taking into account dissipation processes. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such superlattice have been calculated for different numbers of periods of the structure and different sizes of the periods with using a transfer matrix method. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice has been shown.

  18. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaney, Walter E. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  19. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelnutt, John A; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal-composite nanodevices. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on two thematic research areas: (1) the creation of metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials for realizing novel catalytic phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding photocatalytic metal deposition processes at the nanoscale especially on photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures such as nanotubes, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation for ionic self-assembly and catalytic processes.

  20. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: Band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu Nam Hai, Pham

    2014-03-15

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics is an emerging field, in which we try to utilize spin degrees of freedom as well as charge transport in materials and devices. While metal-based spin-devices, such as magnetic-field sensors and magnetoresistive random access memory using giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, are already put to practical use, semiconductor-based spintronics has greater potential for expansion because of good compatibility with existing semiconductor technology. Many semiconductor-based spintronics devices with useful functionalities have been proposed and explored so far. To realize those devices and functionalities, we definitely need appropriate materials which have both the properties of semiconductors and ferromagnets. Ferromagnetic semiconductors (FMSs), which are alloy semiconductors containing magnetic atoms such as Mn and Fe, are one of the most promising classes of materials for this purpose and thus have been intensively studied for the past two decades. Here, we review the recent progress in the studies of the most prototypical III-V based FMS, p-type (GaMn)As and its heterostructures with focus on tunneling transport, Fermi level, and bandstructure. Furthermore, we cover the properties of a new n-type FMS, (In,Fe)As, which shows electron-induced ferromagnetism. These FMS materials having zinc-blende crystal structure show excellent compatibility with well-developed III-V heterostructures and devices.

  1. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

  2. Nonlinear optical properties of atomic vapor and semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    This thesis contains the study of highly forbidden resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in atomic potassium vapor using tunable picosecond pulses. Various output characteristics of vapor SHG have been investigated including the input intensity dependence, potassium vapor density dependence, buffer gas pressure dependence, and spatial profile. Recently, the discovery of new nonlinear optical crystals such as barium borate ({beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BBO) and lithium borate (LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, LBO) has greatly improved the performance of a tunable coherent optical devices based on optical parametric generation and amplification. In the second part of this thesis, a homebuilt picosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier (OPG/OPA) system is described in detail, including its construction details and output characteristics. This laser device has found many useful applications in spectroscopic studies including surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy via sum-frequency generation (SFG). The last part of this thesis reports studies on multiphoton-excited photoluminescence from porous silicon and GaN. Multiphoton excitation and photoluminescence can give numerous complementary information about semiconductors not obtainable with one-photon, above-bandgap excitation.

  3. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore »methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

  4. Pin-to-Pin Electrostatic Discharge Protection for Semiconductor Bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KING, TONY L.; TARBELL, WILLIAM W.

    2002-07-01

    The lack of protection for semiconductor bridges (SCBs) against human electrostatic discharge (ESD) presents an obstacle to widespread use of this device. The goal of this research is to protect SCB initiators against pin-to-pin ESD without affecting their performance. Two techniques were investigated. In the first, a parallel capacitor is used to attenuate high frequencies. The second uses a parallel zener diode to limit the voltage amplitude. Both the 1 {micro}F capacitor and the 14 V zener diode protected the SCBs from ESD. The capacitor provided the best protection. The protection circuits had no effect on the SCB's threshold voltage. The function time for the CP-loaded SCBs with capacitors was about 11 {micro}s when fired by a firing set charged to 40 V. The SCBs failed to function when protected by the 6 V and 8 V zeners. The 51 V zener did not provide adequate protection against ESD. The parallel capacitor succeeded in protecting SCB initiators against pin-to-pin ESD without affecting their performance. Additional experiments should be done on SCBs and actual detonators to further quantify the effectiveness of this technique. Methods for retrofitting existing SCB initiators and integrating capacitors into future devices should also be explored.

  5. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  6. Carbon doping of III-V compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moll, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Focus of the study is C acceptor doping of GaAs, since C diffusion coefficient is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of other common p-type dopants in GaAs. C ion implantation results in a concentration of free holes in the valence band < 10% of that of the implanted C atoms for doses > 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. Rutherford backscattering, electrical measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were amonth the techniques used. Ga co-implantation increased the C activation in two steps: first, the additional radiation damage creates vacant As sites that the implanted C can occupy, and second, it maintains the stoichiometry of the implanted layer, reducing the number of compensating native defects. In InP, the behavior of C was different from that in GaAs. C acts as n-type dopant in the In site; however, its incorporation by implantation was difficult to control; experiments using P co-implants were inconsistent. The lattice position of inactive C in GaAs in implanted and epitaxial layers is discussed; evidence for formation of C precipitates in GaAs and InP was found. Correlation of the results with literature on C doping in III-V semiconductors led to a phenomenological description of C in III-V compounds (particularly GaAs): The behavior of C is controlled by the chemical nature of C and the instrinsic Fermi level stabilization energy of the material.

  7. A Novel Class of High-TC Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlyk, L. V.; Kryukov, S. A.; De Long, L. E.; Schupp-Niewa, B.; Niewa, R.; Lynn, J. W.; Huang, Qing; Arenholz, E.; Piamonteze, C.

    2008-05-30

    We have grown single crystals of novel ruthenates (Sr,Ba)(Fe,Co){sub 2+x}Ru{sub 4-x}O{sub 11} that exhibit long-range ferromagnetic order well above room temperature, accompanied by narrow-gap semiconducting properties that include a large anomalous Hall conductance, low resistivity, high carrier concentration and low coercive field, which are properties well suited to spintronic applications. X-ray diffraction, EDX, neutron diffraction and x-ray absorption measurements on single crystals firmly establish the 'R-Type' hexagonal ferrite structure (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, No 194) and single-phase nature of all samples. The electronic structure and physical properties can be tuned by simple chemical substitution of two elements, M = Fe or Co, or by varying the relative concentration of 3d solutes and 4d Ru. Our magnetotransport, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic moment data suggest the mechanism for FM order is quite different from that governing known dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  8. Electrochemistry of a semiconductor chalcopyrite concentrate leaching by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Using carbon-paste-CuFeS{sub 2} electrodes and a cyclic voltammetric technique, it was found that a large number of intermediate electrochemical oxidation reactions were associated with the dissolution of chalcopyrite in presence and absence of bacteria. The effects of concentrations of copper, ferrous and ferric ions, as well as of agitation on the peaks of cyclic voltammograms were measured. It was established that chalcopyrite oxidation was solid-state controlled as suggested by the data of chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric measurements. The activation energy of solid state diffusion of chalcopyrite leaching was determined by the Sand's method to be {triangle}E{sub a} = 20.5 kJ. The leaching mechanism is discussed in terms of solid-state properties (energy bonding) of the n-type semiconductor chalcopyrite and energy density states of redox systems of acidic bacterial leach media. A generalized model for the mechanism of chalcopyrite leaching in presence and absence of bacteria is presented. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-11-15

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit {pi}/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  10. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tulk, Christopher A; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Molaison, Jamie J; Sales, Brian C; Honkimaeki, Veijo

    2015-01-01

    The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection of the mechanisms associated with pressure induced amorphization in these systems, as well as the structure of the recovered phase. It is observed that, between 14.7 and 35 GPa the second peak in the structure factor function gradually disappears. Analysis of the radial distribution function extracted from those data indicate that this feature is associated with gradual cage collapse and breakdown of the tetrahedral structure with the consequent systematic lengthening of the nearest-neighbor framework bonds. This suggests an overall local coordination change to an even higher density amorphous form. Upon recovery from high pressure, the sample remains amorphous, and while there is some indication of the guest-host cage reforming, it doesn't seem that the tetrahedral coordination is recovered. As such, the compresion-decompression process in this systems gives rise to three distict amorphous forms.

  11. Opto-acoustic transducer for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, W.; Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.; Glinsky, M.; London, R.; Maitland, D.; Matthews, D.; Krulevich, P.; Lee, A.

    1999-08-31

    This invention is an optically activated transducer for generating acoustic vibrations in a biological medium. The transducer is located at the end of a fiber optic which may be located within a catheter. Energy for operating the transducer is provided optically by laser light transmitted through the fiber optic to the transducer. Pulsed laser light is absorbed in the working fluid of the transducer to generate a thermal pressure and consequent adiabatic expansion of the transducer head such that it does work against the ambient medium. The transducer returns to its original state by a process of thermal cooling. The motion of the transducer within the ambient medium couples acoustic energy into the medium. By pulsing the laser at a high repetition rate (which may vary from CW to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus. The catheter may also incorporate anti-thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it may be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control. 7 figs.

  12. Opto-acoustic recanilization delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Benett, William (Livermore, CA); Broughton, Kathryn (Berkeley, CA); Esch, Victor (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber delivered laser pulses emulsify thrombus by mechanical stresses that include a combination of pressure, tension and shear stress. Laser radiation is delivered to the locality of a thrombus and the radiation is absorbed by blood, blood dot, or other present materials. The combination of a leading pressure wave and subsequent vapor bubble cause efficient, emulsification of thrombus. Operating the laser in a low average power mode alleviates potential thermal complications. The laser is operated in a high repetition rate mode to take advantage of ultrasound frequency effects of thrombus dissolution as well as to decrease the total procedure time. Specific parameter ranges for operation are described. The device includes optical fibers surrounding a lumen intended for flow of a cooling agent. The fibers may be arranged concentrically around the lumen to deliver radiation and heat over as large an area as possible. An alternative design approach incorporates the optical fibers into the wall of the guiding catheter and utilizes the catheter lumen as the cooling channel. An eccentric tip enables rotation of the device to address all parts of the vasculature. The eccentricity can be provided via a variety of means: spring dip, balloon, protrusion, etc.

  13. Module Title: Project Module Code: OPTO6005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinari, Marc

    Ibsen, Dr Ping Hua, Prof James Wilkinson Contact (email ID) sm@orc.soton.ac.uk, mi@orc.soton.ac.uk, ph2@orc.soton.ac.uk, jsw@orc.soton.ac.uk Is the module subject to external accreditation? No If yes and optical labs of the ORC 3. Train in technical and hands-on research skills to gain technical insight

  14. Opto Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt.InformationImprovements Oil andOpowergeothermal

  15. OptoElectronix Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data availableInformation

  16. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    for semiconductor spintronics. e Nature Phys. , 3(3):153,and D. M. Treger. Spintronics: a spin-based electronicsapplications, such as spintronics and quantum computing. Our

  17. Electromagnetic waves reflection, transmission and absorption by graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure in magnetic field: Faraday geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G

    2014-01-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure have been investigated theoretically with taking into account the dissipation processes. Influence of graphene layers on electromagnetic waves propagation in graphene - semi-infinte magnetic semiconductor and graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure has been analyzed. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such structure have been calculated. The size effects associated with the thickness of the structure have been analyzed. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich structure by an external magnetic field has been shown.

  18. Nonadiabatic Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Light-Induced Electron Transfer from an Anchored Molecular Electron Donor to a Semiconductor Acceptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is typical of the dye sensitized semiconductor nanomaterials used in solar cell, photocatalysis important applications including photocatalysis, photoelectroly- sis, solar cells, waste processing

  19. Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2009-07-23

    This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

  20. Production of films and powders for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Noufi, R.; Li Wang

    1998-03-24

    A process is described for chemical bath deposition of selenide and sulfide salts as films and powders employable as precursors for the fabrication of solar cell devices. The films and powders include (1) Cu{sub x}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; (2) Cu{sub x}Ga{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0--1 and n=1--3; (3) Cu{sub x}In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.27, y=0.72--2 and n=1--3; (4) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein x=1--2.17, y=0.96--2 and n=1--3; (5) In{sub y}Se{sub n}, wherein y=1--2.3 and n=1--3; (6) Cu{sub x}S{sub n}, wherein x=1--2 and n=1--3; and (7) Cu{sub x}(InGa){sub y}(SeS){sub n}, wherein x=1--2, y=0.07--2 and n=0.663--3. A reaction vessel containing therein a substrate upon which will form one or more layers of semiconductor material is provided, and relevant solution mixtures are introduced in a sufficient quantity for a sufficient time and under favorable conditions into the vessel to react with each other to produce the resultant salt being prepared and deposited as one or more layers on the substrate and as a powder on the floor of the vessel. Hydrazine is present during all reaction processes producing non-gallium containing products and optionally present during reaction processes producing gallium-containing products to function as a strong reducing agent and thereby enhance reaction processes. 4 figs.

  1. Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Emory Ming-Yue

    2006-12-19

    Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in silicon microreactorsspecifically designed for rapid mixing and time-resolved X-rayspectroscopy. These results demonstrate that microreactors are valuablefor controlling and characterizing a wide range of reactions in nLvolumes even when nanoscale particles, high temperatures, causticreagents, and rapid time scales are involved. These experiments providethe foundation for future microfluidic investigations into the mechanismsof nanocrystal growth, crystal phase evolution, and heterostructureassembly.

  2. An investigation of corrosion in semiconductor bridge explosive devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klassen, Sandra Ellen; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    In the course of a failure investigation, corrosion of the lands was occasionally found in developmental lots of semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonators and igniters. Evidence was found in both detonators and igniters of the gold layer being deposited on top of a corroded aluminum layer, but inspection of additional dies from the same wafer did not reveal any more corroded parts. In some detonators, evidence was found that corrosion of the aluminum layer also happened after the gold was deposited. Moisture and chloride must both be present for aluminum to corrode. A likely source for chloride is the adhesive used to bond the die to the header. Inspection of other SCB devices, both recently manufactured and manufactured about ten years ago, found no evidence for corrosion even in devices that contained SCBs with aluminum lands and no gold. Several manufacturing defects were noted such as stains, gouges in the gold layer due to tooling, and porosity of the gold layer. Results of atmospheric corrosion experiments confirmed that devices with a porous gold layer over the aluminum layer are susceptible to extensive corrosion when both moisture and chlorine are present. The extent of corrosion depends on the level of chlorine contamination, and corrosion did not occur when only moisture was present. Elimination of the gold plating on the lands eliminated corrosion of the lands in these experiments. Some questions remain unanswered, but enough information was gathered to recommend changes to materials and procedures. A second lot of detonators was successfully built using aluminum SCBs, limiting the use of Ablebond{trademark} adhesive, increasing the rigor in controlling exposure to moisture, and adding inspection steps.

  3. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-08-06

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into environmentally friendly fuels, most notably by the production of hydrogen from water.[1-5] Nanometer-scale materials in particular have attracted considerable scientific attention as the building blocks for light-harvesting applications.[6,7] Their desirable attributes include tunability of the optical properties with size, amenability to relatively inexpensive low-temperature processing, and a high degree of synthetic sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface-to-volume ratios in nanoscale materials should lead to an increased availability of carriers for redox reactions on the nanoparticle surface. Recombination of photoexcited carriers directly competes with photocatalytic activity.[3] Charge separation is often achieved with multi-component heterostructures. An early example is the case of TiO2 powders functionalized with Pt and RuO2 particles, where photoexcited electrons are transferred to Pt (the reduction site) and holes to RuO2 (the oxidation site).[8] More recently, many colloidally synthesized nanometer-scale metal-semiconductor heterostructures have been reported.[7,9,10] A majority of these structures are made by thermal methods.[7,10] We have chosen to study photochemical formation of metal-semiconductor heterostructures. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in photodeposition of metals on nanometer-scale semiconductors is necessary to enable a high degree of synthetic control. At the same time, because the results of metal deposition can be directly observed by electron microscopy, it can be used to understand how factors such as nanocrystal composition, shape, carrier dynamics, and surface chemistry influence the photochemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. In this communication, we report on the photodeposition of Pt on colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

  4. The physics and chemistry of transport in CdSe quantum dot solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarosz, Mirna, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have tunable opto-electronic properties and can be chemically synthesized and manipulated with ease, making them a promising novel material for many diverse applications. An understanding ...

  5. Plasmonic Enhancement of Mn2+ Luminescence and Application of Temperature-Dependent Mn2+ Luminescence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yerok

    2014-12-09

    Doping semiconductor nanocrystals, commonly known as quantum dots (QDs), has attracted significant attention from the scientific community due to the highly tunable nature of the physical properties, such as optical, electrical, opto...

  6. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  7. Surface Plasmon Excitation via Au Nanoparticles in CdSe Semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Konda, R. B.; Mundle, R.; Mustafa, H.; Bamiduro, O.; Roy, U. N.; Cui, Y.; Burger, A.

    2008-10-23

    We present experimental evidence for the large Raman and photoluminescence enhancement in CdSe semiconductor films grown on Si and glass substrates due to excitation of surface plasmon resonances in proximate gold metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of CdSe film. Heterojunction diodes containing n-CdSe on p-Si semiconductor were fabricated and the surface of the diodes was in situ coated with Au nanoparticles using the ultra-high vacuum pulsed-laser deposition technique. A significant enhancement of the photocurrent was obtained in CdSe/p-Si containing Au nanoparticles on the surface compared to CdSe/p-Si due to the enhanced photo-absorption within the semiconductor by the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. These observations suggest a variety of approaches for improving the performance of devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaic, and related devices, including biosensors.

  8. Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2013-01-01

    We propose a plasmonic modulator with semiconductor gain material for optoelectronic integrated circuits. We analyze properties of a finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal (F-MSM) waveguide to be utilized as an ultra-compact and fast plasmonic modulator. The InP-based semiconductor core allows electrical control of signal propagation. By pumping the core we can vary the gain level and thus the transmittance of the whole system. The study of the device was made using both analytical approaches for planar two-dimensional case as well as numerical simulations for finite-width waveguides. We analyze the eigenmodes of the F-MSM waveguide, propagation constant, confinement factor, Purcell factor, absorption coefficient, and extinction ratio of the structure. We show that using thin metal layers instead of thick ones we can obtain higher extinction ratio of the device.

  9. An Extra Electrostatic Energy in Semiconductors and its Impact in Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work revisits the classical concept of electric energy and suggests that the common definition is likely to generate large errors when dealing with nanostructures. For instance, deriving the electrostatic energy in semiconductors using the traditional formula fails at giving the correct electrostatic force between capacitor plates and reveals the existence of an extra contribution to the standard electrostatic energy. This additional energy is found to proceed from the generation of space charge regions which are predicted when combining electrostatics laws with semiconductor statistics, such as for accumulation and inversion layers. On the contrary, no such energy exists when relying on electrostatics only, as for instance when adopting the so-called full depletion approximation. The same holds for charged or neutral insulators that are still consistent with the customary definition, but which are in fact singular cases. In semiconductors, this additional free energy can largely exceed the energy gained...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod using template synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong; Hong, Junki; Chung, Ilsub [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology and Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The authors attempted to fabricate and characterize one dimensional metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) nanorod using a template. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) and polypyrrole (Ppy) were chosen as n-type and p-type semiconductor materials, respectively, whereas Au was chosen as a metal electrode. The fabrication of the nanorod was achieved by ''template synthesis'' method using polycarbonate membrane. The structure of the fabricated nanorod was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, the electrical properties of MSM nanorods were characterized using scanning probe microscopy (Seiko Instruments, SPA 300 HV) by probing with a conductive cantilever. I-V characteristics as a function of the temperature give the activation energy, as well as the barrier height of a metal-semiconductor contact, which is useful to understand the conduction mechanism of MSM nanorods.

  11. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  12. On the modeling and simulation of of reaction-transfer dynamics in semiconductor-electrolyte solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the modeling and simulation of of reaction-transfer dynamics in semiconductor-electrolyte solar-performance semiconductor-liquid junction solar cells. We propose in this work a macroscopic mathematical model, a sys- tem-liquid junction, solar cell simulation, naso-scale device modeling. 1 Introduction The mathematical modeling

  13. Design of I2-II-IV-VI4 Semiconductors through Element Substitution: The Thermodynamic Stability Limit and Chemical Trend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Design of I2-II-IV-VI4 Semiconductors through Element Substitution: The Thermodynamic Stability that this element-substitution design is thermodynamically limited, that is, although I2-II-IV-VI4 with I = Cu, Ag for future design of new quaternary semiconductors. I. INTRODUCTION Because all component elements are earth

  14. Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPÕGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures 8 December 2003; accepted 20 January 2004 InAIP native oxide/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS of Schottky gates can lead to excessive gate leakage current and also restrict the forward gate bias to only

  15. Controlling Graphene Ultrafast Hot Carrier Response from Metal-like to Semiconductor-like by Electrostatic Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    Controlling Graphene Ultrafast Hot Carrier Response from Metal-like to Semiconductor neutral graphene but decreases in highly doped graphene. We show that this transition from semiconductor graphene upon optical excitation. We observe that the photoinduced terahertz absorption increases in charge

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating the Impact of Process Changes on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating--Cluster tools are highly integrated machines that can perform a sequence of semiconductor manufacturing. In addition, we present an integrated simulation model that in- cludes a process model. For a given scheduling

  17. arXiv:0907.4122v1[cond-mat.mes-hall]23Jul2009 SPIN CURRENTS IN SEMICONDUCTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    arXiv:0907.4122v1[cond-mat.mes-hall]23Jul2009 SPIN CURRENTS IN SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES Handbook on Nanoscience and Technology: Frontiers and Advances Eds. A. V. Narlikar and Y. Y. Fu (Oxford-HALL EFFECT? 8 6 SO COUPLINGS IN LOW-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTORS 10 6.1 Rashba coupling in bulk 2DEG

  18. Kinetic model of IIVI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T. Volkmann, M. Ahr, and M. Biehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biehl, Michael

    be found in, e.g., Refs. 1--4. II­VI semiconductors, as a promising class of materials, have been vacuum. Specific properties of the material system and the attractive clarity of the ALE technique allowKinetic model of II­VI(001) semiconductor surfaces: Growth rates in atomic layer epitaxy T

  19. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 1513 Modal Control in Semiconductor Optical Waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    to the case when the core material is a semiconductor with optical gain. A number of devices are discussedJOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 3, MARCH 2006 1513 Modal Control in Semiconductor-layer optical waveguide on the polarization properties of propagating radiation. Particular attention is paid

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 23, NO. 3, AUGUST 2010 477 Optimal Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Emmanuel

    of pre- ventive maintenance (PM) tasks in semiconductor manufacturing operations. We also present results Preventive Maintenance Scheduling in Semiconductor Manufacturing Systems: Software Tool and Simulation Case of a preventive maintenance optimization software tool (PMOST), based on algorithms for the optimal scheduling