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1

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osmosis Capital Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Osmosis Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Sector Carbon Product An investment firm seeking low carbon economy opportunity investments through its Osmosis Capital Fund. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

3

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desalination provides a supply alternative for potable water for many communities, along with possible defenses against security threats potentially affecting clean water supplies. The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with building and operating the Southmost desalination facility (near Brownsville, TX) in South Texas are investigated using the spreadsheet model DESAL ECONOMICS©. Primary data key to this analysis include actual initial construction costs, annual continued costs (i.e., for source-water acquisition and transport, pretreatment, purification, and delivery), capital replacement expenses, and desalination-process parameters. The input data used reflect the unique location and quality of source water, process-flow design, asset selection and configuration, management structure, local cost rates, and employed operational methods unique to the Southmost facility. Thus, the specific results are only applicable to the Southmost facility for a specific time, but do provide useful information and insight into life-cycle costs for public and commercial desalination facilities in a more general sense. Annuity equivalent costs are reported (on both a $/acre-foot (ac-ft) and $/1,000 gallons of finished water basis, f.o.b. (free on board) municipal delivery point) for seven individual operational/expense areas, as well as for the entire desalination facility. Results are also presented across different cost types, categories, and items. The baseline results are deterministic, but are expanded to include sensitivity analyses of useful life, initial construction costs, annual energy costs, and production efficiency rate, amongst others. The current estimated total annual life-cycle costs (in 2006 dollars) to produce and deliver desalinated water to a point in the municipal delivery-system infrastructure for the Southmost facility are $769.62/ac-ft {$2.3619/1,000 gal.}. These baseline estimates apply to the Southmost facility and are sensitive to changes in the production efficiency level, and costs incurred for energy, chemicals, initial construction, etc. Also, results indicate significant outlays, beyond those of Initial Construction, are involved with desalination. For the Southmost facility, when a commitment was made to build a facility for $26.2 million, an implicit commitment for another $39.1 million (basis 2006 dollars) was also made for Continued and Capital Replacement costs. Investigation into life-cycle costs during the design and planning stages of a desalination facility can assist with determining the least-cost asset configuration to adopt and operational methods to employ. Also included are modifications to certain key data-input parameters that provide ‘modified results’ which facilitate a more fair basis of comparing facilities and/or technologies. The modified results, which are considered appropriate to use when comparing to similarlycalculated values (for other facilities or technologies), are $615.01/ac-ft/yr {$1.8874/1,000 gal./yr} (basis 2006 dollars).

Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Experimental investigation of sugar aqueous solutions separation by Reverse Osmosis for the MAnipulated Osmosis Desalination process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Il progetto riguarda lo studio dell'efficienza di separazione di soluzioni acqua-zucchero tramite Osmosi Inversa, prevista come stadio di recupero del processo di desalinizzazione MOD (Manipulated… (more)

Barbera, Elena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Advanced Research Projects...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08042010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio...

7

Reverse osmosis desalination and reclamation : control of colloidal and biofouling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The focus of this thesis work was on the fundamentals of colloidal and biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination and reclamation. A novel sodium chloride… (more)

Chong, Tzyy Haur.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Reverse osmosis desalination in a mini renewable energy power supply system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The design, construction and testing of a reverse-osmosis (PV-RO) desalination system for fresh water shortage area is presented. The system operates from salt water or… (more)

Zhao, Yu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The design and control of a thermal management system for a photovoltaic reverse osmosis system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a well-known process for desalinating seawater and brackish groundwater. Desalination is energy-intensive, so using photovoltaic (PV) panels to power the process is an attractive environmentally ...

Kelley, Leah C. (Leah Camille)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization of membranes is recommended. The identification of optimal osmotic agents for different applications is also suggested as it is clear that the space of potential agents and recovery processes has not been fully explored.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Optimization of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Potential of renewable power system for small scale seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit in Mrair-Gabis village, Libya is evaluated. HOMER optimization model is used to evaluate the different possible configuration options for supplying the electrical ... Keywords: HOMER, Mrair-Gabis-Libya, power system, reverse osmosis seawater desalination

Kh. Abulqasem; M. A. Alghoul; M. N. Mohammed; Alshrif. Mustafa; Kh. Glaisa; Nowshad. Amin; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using reverse osmosis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated as a treatment technology for the removal of organics from biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW) generated from an experimental biomass gasifier at Texas Tech University. Wastewaters were characteristically high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) with initial values ranging from 32,000 to 68,000 mg/1. Since RO is normally considered a complementary treatment technology, wastewaters were pretreated by biological or wet air oxidation (WAO) processes. One set of experiments were run using untreated wastewaters to compare membrane performance with those experiments using pretreated wastewaters. Experiments were run for 8 to 10 hrs using UOP's TFC-85 membrane operating at 700 psig and 18 to 20/sup 0/C. This membrane is similar to the NS-100, a membrane known for being effective in the separation of organics from solution. Separation of organics from solution was determined by COD removal. Removal percentages for biologically pretreated wastewaters averaged 98% except for one group of runs averaging 69% removal. This exception was probably due to the presence of milk solids in the feed. Use of RO on WAO pretreated wastewaters and unpretreated feeds resulted in 90% COD removal. Membrane degradation was observed when using full-strength and WAO pretreated feeds, but not when using feeds that had undergone biological pretreatment. Color removal was computed for the majority of experiments completed. Overall, 99 to 100% of the total color was removed from BGW feeds, values which coincide with those reported in the literature for other wastewaters.

Petty, S.E.; Eliason, S.D.; Laegreid, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Aalborg Universitet Energy systems impacts of reverse osmosis and thermal desalination in Jordan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to result in lower fuel usage with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity and Multi Stage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

17

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the production of electrodeposition primers, water is used as the primary cleaning agent. The dirty water that is generated contains residual contaminants from the primer production equipment, which requires that the water be disposed of as a hazardous waste. These contaminants are typically pigments and solvents. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water is then reused for cleaning in the primer manufacturing process. The integrated ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system operates to reclaim 80 to 85% of the cleaning water. The system effectively removes 100% of the pigments and resins and 98% of the solvents and heavy metals. The quality of the final reclaimed water at the end of the process actually meets local sanitary water system discharge limits.

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fresh water resources in many of the world's oil producing regions, such as western Texas, are scarce, while produced water from oil wells is plentiful, though unfit for most applications due to high salinity and other contamination. Disposing of this water is a great expense to oil producers. This research seeks to advance a technology developed to treat produced water by reverse osmosis and other means to render it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, while simultaneously reducing disposal costs. Pilot testing of the process thus far has demonstrated the technology's capability to produce good-quality water, but process optimization and control were yet to be fully addressed and are focuses of this work. Also, the use of renewable resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy consumption of various process design alternatives, and to test control strategies. By preserving the mechanical energy of the concentrate stream of the reverse osmosis membrane, process energy requirements can be reduced several fold from that of the current configuration. Process control schemes utilizing basic feedback control methods with proportional-integral (PI) controllers are proposed, with the feasibility of the strategy for the most complex process design verified by successful dynamic simulation. A macro-driven spreadsheet was created to allow for quick and easy cost comparisons of renewable energy sources in a variety of locations. Using this tool, wind and solar costs were compared for cities in regions throughout Texas. The renewable energy resource showing the greatest potential was wind power, with the analysis showing that in windy regions such as the Texas Panhandle, wind-generated power costs are approximately equal to those generated with diesel fuel.

Mareth, Brett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work introduces a systematic seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane network synthesis approach, based on the coordinated use of process superstructure representations and global optimization. The approach makes use of superstructure formulations that are capable of extracting a globally optimal design as a performance target, by taking into consideration desired process conditions and constraints that are typically associated with reverse osmosis systems. Thermodynamic insights are employed to develop lean network representations so that any underperforming solutions can be eliminated a priori. This essentially results in considerable improvement of the overall search speed, compared to previously reported attempts. In addition, the approach enables the extraction of structurally different design alternatives. In doing so, distinct membrane network design classes were established by partitioning the search space, based on network size and connectivity. As a result, corresponding lean superstructures were then systematically generated, which capture all structural and operational variants within each design class. The overall purpose is thus to enable the extraction of multiple distinct optimal designs, through global optimization. This mainly helps provide design engineers with a better understanding of the design space and trade-offs between performance and complexity. The approach is illustrated by means of a numerical example, and the results obtained were compared to previously related work. As anticipated, the proposed approach consistently delivered the globally optimal solutions, as well as alternative efficient design candidates attributed to different design classes, with reduced CPU times. This work further capitalizes on the developed representation, by accounting for detailed water quality information, within the SWRO desalination network optimization problem. The superstructures were modified to incorporate models that capture the performance of common membrane elements, as predicted by commercially available simulator tools, e.g. ROSA (Dow) and IMSDesign (Hydranautics). These models allow tracing of individual components throughout the system. Design decisions that are supported by superstructure optimization include network size and connectivity, flow rates, pressures, and post treatment requirements. Moreover, a detailed economic assessment capturing all the significant capital and operating costs associated in SWRO processes, including intake, pre and post treatment has also been accounted for. These modifications were then illustrated using a case study involving four seawater qualities, with salinities ranging from 35 to 45 ppt. The results highlight the dependency of optimal designs on the feed water quality involved, as well as on specified permeate requirements.

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Removal of cadmium and chromium from a pretreated wastewater with reverse osmosis. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to investigate the removals of cadmium(II) and chromium(VI) from a simulated wastewater by reverse osmosis (RO). The project was one very focused aspect of a major U.S. Navy multi-year research project aimed at achieving zero-discharge from its Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants. The effects of varied operating conditions on the performance of a thin-film composite brackish water RO membrane were investigated: feed solutions of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/l NaCl; 2000 mg/l NaCl at pH 5, 6 and 7; and background feed composition solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 at four different mix ratios. The effects of temperature in the range of 20 to 36 C, and operating pressures of 400, 300 and 200 psi were also investigated. In nearly all cases metal concentrations were 10 mg/l; a 100 mg/l test was also performed. Typical RO behaviors were observed with water and solute permeation. Both water permeation and solute passage decreased with time due to membrane compaction. On the other hand, water permeation increased with applied pressure. The best rejections for the metals were obtained in feed solutions of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. A maximum rejection of 99.9 percent was observed for cadmium(II) at a feed solution mole fraction of approximately 0.95 sodium sulfate and a pH of 6. The highest chromium(VI) rejection observed was 99.1 percent at a 0.5 mole fraction of sodium sulfate and pH of 6.

Zapp, K.M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Print E-mail U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program The U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, in consultation with the Carbon Cycle...

26

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

27

An Advanced Reverse Osmosis Technology For Application in Nuclear Desalination Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The lack of adequate supplies of clean, safe water is a growing global problem that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of the world. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people do not have access to adequate supplies of safe water, and that as a result nearly 10,000 people die every day and thousands more suffer from a range of debilitating illnesses due to water related diseases. Included in this total is an estimated 2.2 million child deaths annually. As the world's need for additional sources of fresh water continues to grow, seawater and brackish water desalination are providing an increasingly important contribution to the solution of this problem. Because desalination is an energy intensive process, nuclear desalination provides an economically attractive and environmentally sound alternative to the burning of fossil fuels for desalination. Nevertheless, the enormity of the problem dictates that additional steps must be taken to improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the cost of water production in order to reduce the financial and environmental burden to communities in need. An advanced reverse osmosis (RO) desalination technology has been developed that emphasizes a nontraditional approach to system design and operation, and makes use of a sophisticated design optimization process that can lead to highly optimized design configurations and operating regimes. The technology can be coupled with a nuclear generating station (NGS) to provide an integrated facility for the co-generation of both water and electricity. Waste heat from the NGS allows the use of 'preheated' feedwater into the RO system, improving the efficiency of the RO process and reducing the cost of water production. Because waste heat, rather than process heat, is used the desalination system can be readily coupled to any existing or advanced reactor technology with little or no impact on reactor design and operation and without introducing additional reactor safety considerations. Analyses of nuclear desalination systems employing this advanced RO technology under a variety of seawater feed conditions have consistently shown that the cost of potable water production can be reduced by as much as 15-20% relative to systems designed in a more traditional manner. Demonstration testing has been carried out using a trailer mounted system producing up to 150 m{sup 3}/d of potable water. Experimental results from the demonstration testing are behaving as expected based on the analytical performance models, validating the advanced design concept and confirming that the performance improvements indicated by the analyses can be achieved in operating systems. Further demonstration testing is planned using a 1000 m{sup 3}/d containerized system, currently under design, coupled to an existing nuclear power reactor. (authors)

Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.; Ackert, J.A. [CANDESAL Technologies Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Life Cycle Engineering Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for green manufacturing and construction applications; conduct life cycle engineering assessments for energy efficiency and environmental ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

30

Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water uptake and electro-osmosis are investigated to improve the understanding and aid the modeling of water transport in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) below 0 C. Measurements of water sorption isotherms show a significant reduction in the water capacity of polymer electrolytes below 0 C. This reduced water content is attributed to the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid water. At -25 C, 1100 equivalent weight Nafion in equilibrium with vapor over ice has 8 moles of water per sulfonic acid group. Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion and both random and multiblock copolymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of BPSH chemistries is found to be {approx}0.4, and that of Nafion is {approx}1. No significant temperature effect on the drag coefficient is found. The implication of an electro-osmotic drag coefficient less than unity is discussed in terms of proton conduction mechanisms. Simulations of the ohmically limited current below 0 C show that a reduced water uptake below 0 C results in a significant decrease in PEMFC performance.

Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23: Categorical Exclusion Determination 23: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/04/2010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Funding will support laboratory and bench scale research and development on a novel reverse osmosis process for use in commercial cooling applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goal of Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of research, development, and demonstration and proof-of-concept work to be

32

An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a study to enhance and improve a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) reverse osmosis process that uses seed crystals to promote crystallization of the dissolved salts in the residual brine while it is being treated by identifying those membrane materials that are most suitable for the process. In the study, a one plate SEPA Cell module by GE Osmonics was used to determine which membranes were most susceptible to fouling and/or membrane hydrolysis. A cellulose acetate (CA), polyamide (PA) low MWCO, and PA high MWCO membrane were tested under reverse osmosis conditions. The CA and thin film (TF) membranes were also tested for nanofiltration. The cell was operated under conditions that were determined to be optimum for each membrane by the manufacturer, GE Osmonics. A high pressure, low flow, positive displacement diaphragm pump circulated the saturated calcium sulfate solution with 2 % suspended solids through the cell while the reject and permeate were recycled back to the feed, thereby preserving a saturated solution to promote crystal growth and simulate the seeded reverse osmosis process. The temperature was maintained constant by adding an ice pack to the feed vessel when necessary. The transmembrane pressure differential was maintained constant by adjusting a back pressure valve on the concentrate outlet. The results illustrate that if potable drinking water is the intended use, then the nanofiltration cellulose acetate membrane should be used. If irrigation is the desired use, then the nanofiltration thin film membrane should be used. Overall, the reverse osmosis cellulose acetate membrane was observed to outperform all membranes when all performance parameters were normalized. However, this membrane was observed to be prone to degradation in a seeded slurry and therefore its lifetime should be analyzed further. The polyamide membrane initially had a high water transport coefficient, but fouling led to its rapid decline which was attributed to the membrane’s rough and protrusive surface. A lifetime test on the thin film and cellulose acetate revealed that when operated at their maximum pressure specified by GE Osmonics for a duration of 8 hours that no decrease in rejection occurred.

Hughes, Trenton Whiting

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Edgeworth cycles revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

Doyle, Joseph J.

35

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

01 - 4910 of 29,416 results. 01 - 4910 of 29,416 results. Download CX-004924: Categorical Exclusion Determination lnfinia - Stirling Air Conditioner (StAC) for Compact Cooling CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/05/2010 Location(s): Kennewick, Washington Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004924-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004952: Categorical Exclusion Determination General Atomics -Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/05/2010 Location(s): San Diego, California Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004952-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle

36

Cycle to Cycle Manufacturing Process Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most manufacturing processes produce parts that can only be correctly measured after the process cycle has been completed. Even if in-process measurement and control is possible, it is often too expensive or complex to ...

Hardt, David E.

37

Duty Cycle Software  

Duty cycles capture the influence of one variable in relations to the whole system. This allows for analysis in determining the impact of new ...

38

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cycles in fossil diversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transitions in Global Marine Diversity, Science 281, 1157-know if this cycle is a variation in true diversity or onlyin observed diversity, but either case requires explanation

Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Anderson Quin Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

1993-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

42

Engineered Osmosis for Energy Efficient Separations: Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT DOE F 241.3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to design (i) a stripper system where heat is used to strip ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a diluted draw solution; and (ii) a condensation or absorption system where the stripped NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} are captured in condensed water to form a re-concentrated draw solution. This study supports the Industrial Technologies Program of the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and their Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge award solicitation. Results from this study show that stimulated Oasys draw solutions composed of a complex electrolyte solution associated with the dissolution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} gas in water can successfully be stripped and fully condensed under standard atmospheric pressure. Stripper bottoms NH{sub 3} concentration can reliably be reduced to < 1 mg/L, even when starting with liquids that have an NH{sub 3} mass fraction exceeding 6% to stimulate diluted draw solution from the forward osmosis membrane component of the process. Concentrated draw solution produced by fully condensing the stripper tops was show to exceed 6 M-C with nitrogen-to-carbon (N:C) molar ratios on the order of two. Reducing the operating pressure of the stripper column serves to reduce the partial vapor pressure of both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in solution and enables lower temperature operation towards integration of industrial low-grade of waste heat. Effective stripping of solutes was observed with operating pressures as low as 100 mbar (3-inHg). Systems operating at reduced pressure and temperature require additional design considerations to fully condense and absorb these constituents for reuse within the Oasys EO system context. Comparing empirical data with process stimulation models confirmed that several key parameters related to vapor-liquid equilibrium and intrinsic material properties were not accurate. Additional experiments and refinement of material property databases within the chosen process stimulation software was required to improve the reliability of process simulations for engineering design support. Data from experiments was also employed to calculate critical mass transfer and system design parameters (such as the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP)) to aid in process design. When measured in a less than optimal design state for the stripping of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} from a simulated dilute draw solution the HETP for one type of commercial stripper packing material was 1.88 ft/stage. During this study it was observed that the heat duty required to vaporize the draw solution solutes is substantially affected by the amount of water boilup also produced to achieve a low NH{sub 3} stripper bottoms concentration specification. Additionally, fluid loading of the stripper packing media is a critical performance parameter that affects all facets of optimum stripper column performance. Condensation of the draw solution tops vapor requires additional process considerations if being conducted in sub-atmospheric conditions and low temperature. Future work will focus on the commercialization of the Oasys EO technology platform for numerous applications in water and wastewater treatment as well as harvesting low enthalpy energy with our proprietary osmotic heat engine. Engineering design related to thermal integration of Oasys EO technology for both low and hig-grade heat applications is underway. Novel thermal recovery processes are also being investigated in addition to the conventional approaches described in this report. Oasys Water plans to deploy commercial scale systems into the energy and zero liquid discharge markets in 2013. Additional process refinement will lead to integration of low enthalpy renewable heat sources for municipal desalination applications.

NATHAN HANCOCK

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cycle isolation monitoring  

SciTech Connect

There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

45

Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of water and steam is central to ensuring fossil plant component availability and reliability. This report, which describes formal cycle chemistry improvement programs at nine utilities, will assist utilities in achieving significant operation and maintenance cost reductions.

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

46

Crude Oil Price Cycles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The heating oil and diesel fuel price runups in late January were made even more problematic by coming on top of the high side of the latest crude market cycle. Over the past 10...

47

Crude Oil Price Cycles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The heating oil and diesel price runups in late January were made even more problematic by coming on top of the high side of the latest crude market cycle.

48

The Annual Agricultural Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Sman shad agriculture 1.WAV Length of track 00:44:03 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track The Annual Agricultural Cycle Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry...

Zla ba sgrol ma

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

Secular Cycles and Millennial Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

both secular cycles and millennial up- ward trend dynamics.Cycles and Millennial Trends by Andrey Korotayev, ArtemySecular Cycles and Millennial Trends 1 Initially, we want to

Korotayev, Andrey V; Malkov, Artemy S; Khaltourina, Daria A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Divisions Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division Jeffrey Binder, Division Director Jeffrey Binder, Division Director The Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division (FCID) of the Nuclear Science...

51

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

Helium process cycle  

SciTech Connect

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

54

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

55

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

56

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of {sup 3}He in a single phase {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He solution. The {sup 3}He in superfluid {sup 4}He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid {sup 3}He at an initial concentration in superfluid {sup 4}He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of {sup 4}He while restricting passage of {sup 3}He. The {sup 3}He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

58

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Regional business cycles in Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is clear evidence for differences in the structure of the Italian regional business cycle in the period 1951-2004: the relationship with the national business cycle is closer in the North than in the South. The interaction between regional cycles ... Keywords: Regional business cycles, Spectral analysis, Stylized facts

Camilla Mastromarco; Ulrich Woitek

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report to NEAC Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of April 23, 2013 Washington D.C. June 13, 2013 Burton Richter (Chair), Margaret Chu, Darleane Hoffman, Raymond Juzaitis, Sekazi K Mtingwa, Ronald P Omberg, Joy L Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC met in Washington on April 23, 2013. The meeting focused on issues relating to the NE advanced reactor program (sections II, III, and IV), and on storage and transportation issues (section V) related to a possible interim storage program that is the first step in moving toward a new permanent repository as recommended by the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) and discussed in the recent response by DOE to Congress on the BRC report 1 . The agenda is given in

62

Stirling cycle engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

Lundholm, Gunnar (Lund, SE)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The Energy Strategy Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective long-range energy planning begins with a reflective analysis that encompasses the complexity of today's energy reality and sets a course for activity to achieve long-range continuing advancement. This strategy approach involves an interrelated 'cycle' that once started and controlled in the proper direction is almost self-building in improvement. Energy conservation is the driving force to create additive progress involving system flexibility, process integration, and less energy dependence.

Korich, R. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

USCEA fuel cycle '93  

SciTech Connect

The US Council for Energy Awareness sponsored the Fuel Cycle '93 conference in Dallas, Texas, on March 21-24, 1993. Over 250 participants attended, numerous papers were presented, and several panel discussions were held. The focus of most industry participants remains the formation of USEC and the pending US-Russian HEU agreement. Following are brief summaries of two key papers and the Fuel Market Issues panel discussion.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model Upgrade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes the status of activities to upgrade the Dynamic Mercury Cycling Model (D-MCM), an EPRI simulation model that predicts mercury cycling and bioaccumulation in lakes.

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

66

Optimum cycle parameters of coal fired closed cycle gas turbine in regenerative and combined cycle configurations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the methodology developed for the estimation of thermodynamic performance and reports the optimum cycle parameters of coal fired CCGT in regenerative and combined cycle configurations using air, helium and carbon dioxide as working gases. A rigorous approach has been followed for the determination of the cycle efficiency by assuming the specific heat of working gases as a continuous function of temperature for accurate estimation of cycle parameters. 14 refs.

Rao, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The Kalina cycle and similar cycles for geothermal power production  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a brief discussion of the mechanics of the Kalina cycle and ideas to extend the concept to other somewhat different cycles. A modified cycle which has a potential heat rejection advantage but little or no performance improvement is discussed. Then, the results of the application of the Kalina cycle and the modified cycle to a geothermal application (360/degree/F resource) are discussed. The results are compared with published results for the Kalina cycle with high temperature sources and estimates about performance at the geothermal temperatures. Finally, the conclusions of this scoping work are given along with recommendations of the direction of future work in this area. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bliem, C.J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Nutrient Cycling Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

Peter A. Pryfogle

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Direct fired power cycle  

SciTech Connect

A method for implementing a thermodynamic cycle is described comprising the steps of: expanding a gaseous working stream to transform its energy into usable form; removing from the expanded gaseous working stream a withdrawal stream; combining the withdrawal stream with a lean stream, having a higher content of a higher-boiling component than is contained in the withdrawal stream, to form a composite stream; condensing the composite stream to provide heat; separating the composite stream to form a liquid stream; forming an oncoming liquid working stream that evaporates at a temperature lower than the temperature at which the composite stream condenses; and evaporating the oncoming liquid working stream, using the heat produced by condensing the composite stream, to form the gaseous working stream.

Kalina, A.I.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

70

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGENERATIVE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE ABSTRACT A new absorption cycle , using heat as the energy

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hour LC Life Cycle LCA Life Cycle Analysis LCC Life Cycle Costing LCI Life Cycle Inventory LCOE Levelized Cost of Delivered Electricity LNB Low NO x Burner LNG Liquefied...

72

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Closed-cycle Retrofit Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is investigating implications of a potential U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act 316(b) rulemaking that would establish "Best Technology Available" (BTA) based on closed-cycle cooling retrofits for facilities with once-through cooling. This report focuses on estimated costs associated with closed-cycle cooling system retrofits that include: 1) capital costs, 2) energy required to operate the closed-cycle system, 3) heat rate penalty, and 4) extended downtime required to retrof...

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

75

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern… (more)

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Award Cycle at a Glance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Award Cycle at a Glance. 2013. Eligibility Certification February 19 (with a nomination to the Board of Examiners). April 2 (without a nomination). ...

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Multivariable cycle-to-cycle of an injection molding process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle-to-Cycle (CtC) feedback control has been studied extensively with increasing demands on the precision and quality of manufactured parts. Single input-Single output has been studied as the basis of CtC feedback control. ...

Vanderpuije, Curtis N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The closed fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe [AREVA NC (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

82

CMVRTC: Heavy Truck Duty Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heavy truck duty cycle (HTDC) project heavy truck duty cycle (HTDC) project OVERVIEW The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project was initiated in 2004 and is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies Program. ORNL designed the research program to generate real-world-based duty cycle data from trucks operating in long-haul operations and was designed to be conducted in three phases: identification of parameters to be collected, instrumentation and pilot testing, identification of a real-world fleet, design of the data collection suite and fleet instrumentation, and data collection, analysis, and development of a duty cycle generation tool (DCGT). ANL logo dana logo michelin logo Schrader logo This type of data will be useful for supporting energy efficiency

83

Limit Cycle and Conserved Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that a potential coexists with limit cycle. Here the potential determines the final distribution of population. Our demonstration consists of three steps: We first show the existence of limit from a typical physical sciences setting: the potential is a type of Mexican hat type, with the strength of a magnetic field scale with the strength the potential gradient near the limit cycle, and the friction goes to zero faster than the potential near the limit cycle. Hence the dynamics at the limit cycle is conserved. The diffusion matrix is nevertheless finite at the limit cycle. Secondly, we construct the potential in the dynamics with limit cycle in a typical dynamical systems setting. Thirdly, we argue that such a construction can be carried out in a more general situation based on a method discovered by one of us. This method of dealing with stochastic differential equation is in general different from both Ito and Stratonovich calculus. Our result may be useful in many related applications, such as in the discussion of metastability of limit cycle and in the construction of Hopfield potential in the neural network computation.

X. -M. Zhu; L. Yin; P. Ao

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

CX-007456: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Novel Engineered Osmosis Technology: A Comprehensive Approach to Treatment & Reuse of Produced Water CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 12/20/2011 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

85

CMVRTC: Medium Truck Duty Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

medium truck duty cycle (MTdc) project medium truck duty cycle (MTdc) project OVERVIEW The Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project involves efforts to collect, analyze and archive data related to medium-truck operations in real-world driving environments. Such data and information will be useful to support technology evaluation efforts and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within medium-class truck analyses. The project involves private industry partners from various truck vocations. The MTDC project is unique in that there currently does not exist a national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. This project involves the collection of data from multiple vocations (four vocations) and multiple vehicles within these vocations (three vehicles per

86

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Alternative Cycles for Power Converters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

expansion in the high pressure turbine by passing it through an additional lead-to-steam heat exchanger (HX). This can be a complication relative to the superheated steam cycle....

88

Deoxygenation in Cycling Fossil Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Minimizing shutdown oxygen levels at a cycling fossil plant can reduce corrosion product transport to the boilers. In this study two forms of activated carbon were used to catalyze the oxygen/hydrazine reaction and minimize oxygen levels.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

American business cycles and innovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economists have long studied innovation and its effects on business cycles. Economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950) was the first economist to thoroughly discuss these ideas in his Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, published in 1911 (English translation: The Theory of Economic Development, 1934). This paper focuses on three issues: defining innovation, defining and identifying business cycles, and determining which innovations caused which business cycles. The first section introduces the concepts of innovation and invention. The second section discusses the business cycles and highlights general causes of business cycles. The final section details the history of the iron, steel, aluminum, and pharmaceutical industries and incorporates the available business and economic data (output, productivity, inventories, and capital investment) required to answer the central question: which innovations caused which business cycles? The iron industry, examined over the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, reveals that its relationship to the business cycle is likely significant but was difficult to quantify because of limited data. An examination of the steel industry from the post-Civil War period to the early twentieth century follows. The steel industry had a significant effect on the business cycle and seemed to direct the business cycle during the growth in railroad mileage. Steel was a huge and indispensable industry for most of the 20[th] century so it makes a very important case to study. The aluminum industry is relevant to examine because the process for making aluminum has remained the same since the American inventor, Charles Hall, patented his method in 1889. The contribution of aluminum was significant because of the introduction of the large-scale electrical generators needed to produce aluminum. Finally, the paper focuses on the contribution of the pharmaceutical industry to the business cycle. The pharmaceutical industry is important to this study because it has already proved to be a major source of innovation and is an industry that will continue to play a significant role in the American economy. The findings reveal the contribution from this industry was most significant in the post-World War II era of research and development. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving and expanding this innovation and business cycle study.

Hood, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

92

Life Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reichl, H. “Life cycle inventory analysis and identificationAllen, D.T. ; “Life cycle inventory development for waferLife Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip Sarah Boyd and David

Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David; Krishnan, Nikhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study N.L. Miller 1 *, A.W. KingCycle Research Strategy, DOE SC-0043, Office of BiologicalLBNL Report LBNL-53826. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study is

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

NETL Life Cycle Analysis Fact Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis Fact Sheets Life Cycle Analysis Role of Alternative Energy Sources - Wind Technology Assessment PDF-372KB (Sept 2012) Role of Alternative Energy Sources -...

95

Building Technologies Office: Life Cycle Inventory Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Inventory Database to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Life Cycle Inventory Database on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Life...

96

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Revision 2, March 2012 DOE/NETL-2012/1551 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

97

Geothermal heat cycle research: Supercritical cycle with horizontal counterflow condenser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. To meet this objective, the program has as one of its goals to improve the performance of geothermal binary cycles to levels approaching the practicable thermodynamic maximum. In pursuit of this goal, tests are being conducted at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. In addition to the present test program, preparations are being made to investigate the binary cycle performance improvements which can be achieved by allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. These efforts are anticipated to verify that through the utilization of these advanced power cycle concepts and allowing the supersaturated turbine expansions, improvements of up to 28% in the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) over conventional binary power plants can be achieved. Results are presented for the recent testing including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations. Performance of the heaters and the condenser in a vertical orientation can be predicted well with existing methods and data. The condenser in its near horizontal orientation performs slightly worse than in its vertical orientation. Some problems have been encountered in predicting the performance in the horizontal orientation. There is no evidence of departure from integral condensation in either orientation.

Mines, G.L.; Swank, W.D.; Bliem, C.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ultrafast thermal cycling of solar panels  

SciTech Connect

Two new cyclers that utilize a novel hybrid approach to perform fast thermal cycling of solar panels have been built and are now operational in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center at The Aerospace Corporation. These cyclers are part of a continuing effort to minimize solar cell life test durations by accelerating the cycling rates. These fully automated cyclers, which provide continuous unmanned cycling in a gaseous nitrogen atmosphere, can execute 5 min cycles, thus yielding in excess of 100,000 cycles per year. They also have a unique capability of verifying solar panel functionality without interruption of cycling, so that cycling doesn`t continue on nonfunctioning panels.

Wall, T.S.; Valenzuela, P.R.; Sue, C.

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

H gas turbine combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System--``H`` Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1,430 C (2,600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The ``H`` Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

Corman, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

LDPC codes from Singer cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of coding theory is to devise efficient systems to exploit the full capacity of a communication channel, thus achieving an arbitrarily small error probability. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are a family of block codes-characterised ... Keywords: LDPC Codes, Projective spaces, Singer cycles

Luca Giuzzi; Angelo Sonnino

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Definition: Rankine cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rankine cycle Rankine cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Rankine cycle Sometimes referred to as the steam cycle. Fuel is used to heat a liquid to produce a high pressure gas that expands and produces work, such as turning a turbine; when the turbine is connected to a generator, it produces electricity. Usually water is the liquid used in the Rankine cycle (to produce steam), but other liquids can also be used. The exhaust vapor expelled from the turbine condenses and the liquid is pumped back to the boiler to repeat the cycle.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rankine cycle is a mathematical model that is used to predict the performance of steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealised thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical

103

Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Routes Data Acquisition System Setup Routes Data Acquisition System Setup Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Objective This Department of Energy project focuses on the collection and analysis medium truck (Class-6 and -7) duty cycle data from real-world operations. Analysis of this data will provide information pertaining to the fuel efficiencies and performance of medium trucks in several vocations. Outcomes Rich source of data and information that can contribute to the development of new tools Sound basis upon which DOE can make technology investment decisions A national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data that will support medium-duty vehicle energy efficiency research Collected Data Speed & Acceleration Fuel Consumption GPS Location Road Grade

104

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Combined-cycle power tower  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper evaluates a new power tower concept that offers significant benefits for commercialization of power tower technology. The concept uses a molten nitrate salt centralreceiver plant to supply heat, in the form of combustion air preheat, to a conventional combined-cycle power plant. The evaluation focused on first commercial plants, examined three plant capacities (31, 100, and 300 MWe), and compared these plants with a solar-only 100-MWe plant and with gas-only combined-cycle plants in the same three capacities. Results of the analysis point to several benefits relative to the solar-only plant including low energy cost for first plants, low capital cost for first plants, reduced risk with respect to business uncertainties, and the potential for new markets. In addition, the concept appears to have minimal technology development requirements. Significantly, the results show that it is possible to build a first plant with this concept that can compete with existing gas-only combined-cycle plants.

Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.; Price, H.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Toward single-cycle optical pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-cycle optical pulses, the never-before-achieved regime, have a great potential for attosecond science and phase-sensitive nonlinear optics. To achieve single-cycle optical pulses by active synchronization, three ...

Kim, Jung-Won, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

WEB RESOURCES: The Nuclear Fuel Cycle - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... A compilation of links to websites describing the nuclear fuel cycle. A link to a short overview of the entire cycle is included as well as a ...

110

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Annual Cycle of Surface Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual cycles of upward and downward longwave fluxes at the earth’s surface are investigated by use of the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget Dataset. Principal component analysis is used to quantify ...

Pamela E. Mlynczak; G. Louis Smith; Anne C. Wilber; Paul W. Stackhouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Profit cycle dynamics by Kawika Pierson.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My thesis consists of three essays investigating the existence, causes, and mitigation of profit cycles at an industry level. The first essay examines profit cycles by proposing that the industry-specific features of how ...

Pierson, Kawika (Kawika Paul)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, numerical simulations of the twentieth-century climate are evaluated, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new model diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed that ...

Michael G. Bosilovich; Siegfried D. Schubert; Gregory K. Walker

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Application of the thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis of the application of the thorium fuel cycle to thermal reactors is presented. (JWR)

Kasten, P.R.; Tobias, M.L.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

Brent Dixon

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Political Cycles and the Stock Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

forecast the stock market as controls for business cycle ?uctuations. After controlling for the dividend-price

Santa-Clara, Pedro; Valkanov, Rossen

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Combined Cycle Performance Tracking Guideline: Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Combined Cycle Performance Monitoring and Recovery Guideline (EPRI report 1023971) was developed in 2012 to provide plant owners and operators with a comprehensive guideline for identifying and quantifying combined-cycle performance losses and appropriate recovery activities for a generic F-Class combined-cycle power plant (CCPP). This report, Combined-Cycle Performance Tracking Guideline, has been developed as an adjunct ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

Tlatov, A G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

A. G. Tlatov

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

120

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Understanding the petrochemical cycle: Part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fitness in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) arena involves understanding and coping with business cycles: supply and demand. This becomes increasingly more important as the industry globalizes and matures. Competitive-edge thinking needs to look hard at the forces that influence business cycles. Recognition of potential pitfalls is very important when considering: future capacity expansion, mergers and acquisitions, market departure, plant closure, potential product substitution, etc. Understanding pricing mechanisms and the workings of hockey-stick profitability profiles help HPI operators endure cycle downturns and prepare plants to maximize profits for the next upswing. The paper discusses characteristic trends, cycles in the hydrocarbon processing industry, current conditions, and mitigating cycle effects.

Sedriks, W. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Current Forecast for Sunspot Cycle 24 Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our prediction for the development of sunspot cycle 23 activity came true; one of the very few to have attained this status. We use the 3?cycle quasi?periodicity observed in the planetary index Ap. We improve our method by including data for 150 years and draw inferences as to what to expect for the development phase of cycle 24. Our forecast for the smoothed sunspot number at cycle 24 peak 78±5 in June 2013; the possibility that next three cycles may be progressively less active cannot be ruled out; the trend may possibly continue for the rest of the 21st century.

H. S. Ahluwalia; R. C. Ygbuhay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Conceptual design of an advanced absorption cycle: the double-effect regenerative absorption refrigeration cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced absorption refrigeration cycle was proposed as a heat-activated refrigeration system. Referred to as the double-effect regenerative absorption cycle of cycle 2R, it improves the performance of the conventional single-effect absorption cycle at high heat source temperatures. The performance of cycle 2R continually improves as input temperatures rise, in contrast to the conventional double-effect absorption cycle that has a sharp cut-off temperature below which it ceases to operate. Cycle 2R operates with two subcycles, the first-effect and the second-effect subcycles.

Dao, K.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CrossCut Group CrossCut Group 1 NERAC Briefing: Assessment of Dose of Closed vs Open Gen-IV Fuel Cycles David Wade NERAC Meeting September 30, 2002 Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 2 Public Dose and Worker Dose Comparison of Open vs Closed Fuel Cycles * Gen-IV fuel cycle options are meant to address all stated Gen-IV Goals - Dose to workers and to the public is one of the numerous elements to be evaluated by Gen-IV R&D - The Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group was assigned to take an early look at dose implication tradeoffs of open and closed fuel cycles * FCCG Interpretation of Assignment: - Collect already-existing evaluations and prepare a briefing on what is currently known Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 3 Approach * Look at Actual Historical Doses Based on Operational Experience - Data compiled by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic

129

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Definition: Brayton cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Brayton cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Brayton cycle A thermodynamic cycle using constant pressure, heat addition and rejection. Fuel and a compressor are used to heat and increase the pressure of a gas; the gas expands and spins the blades of a turbine, which, when connected to a generator, generates electricity.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of a constant pressure heat engine. Gas turbine engines and airbreathing jet engines use the Brayton Cycle. Although the Brayton cycle

131

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development Program Presentation to Office of Environmental Management Tank Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline Fuel Cycle R&D Mission Changes from the Former Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative The Science-Based Approach Key Collaborators Budget History Program Elements Summary July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 3 Fuel Cycle R&D Mission The mission of Fuel Cycle Research and Development is to develop options to current fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while reducing proliferation risks by conducting

132

Open-cycle OTEC system performance analysis. [Claude cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An algorithm developed to calculate the performance of Claude-Cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems is described. The algorithm treats each component of the system separately and then interfaces them to form a complete system, allowing a component to be changed without changing the rest of the algorithm. Two components that are subject to change are the evaporator and condenser. For this study we developed mathematical models of a channel-flow evaporator and both a horizontal jet and spray director contact condenser. The algorithm was then programmed to run on SERI's CDC 7600 computer and used to calculate the effect on performance of deaerating the warm and cold water streams before entering the evaporator and condenser, respectively. This study indicates that there is no advantage to removing air from these streams compared with removing the air from the condenser.

Lewandowski, A.A.; Olson, D.A.; Johnson, D.H.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments  

SciTech Connect

In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

COREY,GARTH P.

2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

Business cycles in oil economies  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

Al-Mutairi, N.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Efficiency combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

1990-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

138

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual  

SciTech Connect

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The Seasonal Cycle over the United States and Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual cycle occupies a unique position in the spectra of meteorological time series. This cycle and its first three harmonics are extracted from the series as a seasonal cycle. The distributions of the annual and seasonal cycles are studied ...

Vernon E. Kousky; S. Srivatsangam

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Graph Invariants and Large Cycles - a Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graph invariants are the best and single tools for investigation of abstract structures of graphs. They, combined in convenient relations, carry global and general information about a graph and its various substructures (cycle structures, factors, colorings, coverings, and so on). In this survey paper we have attempted to bring together all direct (pure) relations between basic invariants of a graph and its large cycle structures, perhaps the most important cycle structures, namely Hamilton, longest, dominating and some generalized cycles including Hamilton and dominating cycles as special cases. These very few relations actually form a source (basis) from which nearly all possible hamiltonian results can be developed further based on generalized and extended invariants, extended list of path or cycle structures and additional structural limitations.

Nikoghosyan, Zh G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cycle Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. The mission of NE-54 is primarily focused on activities related to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle which includes mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment. Uranium Mining Both "conventional" open pit, underground mining, and in situ techniques are used to recover uranium ore. In general, open pit mining is used where deposits are close to the surface and underground mining is used

143

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation factsheet Download the Fact Sheet The U.S. Department of Energy enlisted NREL to review and "harmonize" life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Hundreds of assessments have been published, often with considerable variability in results. These variations in approach, while usually legitimate, hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Learn more about life cycle assessments of energy technologies. By harmonizing this data, NREL seeks to reduce the uncertainty around estimates for environmental impacts of renewables and increase the value of

144

Definition: Thermodynamic cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermodynamic cycle Thermodynamic cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermodynamic cycle A process in which a fluid (water, air, ammonia, etc) successively changes state (from a liquid to a gas and back to a liquid) for the purpose of producing or transferring energy.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A thermodynamic cycle consists of a collection of thermodynamic processes transferring heat and work, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables, eventually returning a system to its initial state. In the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its surroundings, therefore acting as a heat engine. State quantities depend only on the thermodynamic state, and cumulative variation of such properties adds up to zero during a cycle. Process quantities (or

145

Proceedings: 1990 Fossil Plant Cycling Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the prospect of much new baseload generation from independent power producers and other qualifying facilities, the cycling capability of utility fossil-fired units originally designed for baseload operation is an ongoing concern. The 30 papers presented at EPRI's fourth cycling conference offer new insights into unit condition and life assessment, conversion, operation, and control as well as some storage-based alternatives to cycling.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Cycle Chemistry Instrumentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective monitoring of the purity of water and steam is an integral part of any productive cycle chemistry monitoring program. The Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry guidelines identified a group of core monitoring parameters that are considered the minimum requirements. Meeting these requirements is part of EPRI's cycle chemistry benchmarking criteria for HRSGs. In addition to the core parameters, many chemistry parameters might need to be ...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

147

On the cycle structure of permutation polynomials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Any permutation of a finite field F"q can be represented by a polynomial P"n(x)=(...+((a"0x+a"1)^q^-^2+a"2)^q^-^2+...+a"n)^q^-^2+a"n"+"1, for some n>=0. P"0 is linear and the cycle structure of P"1 is known. In this work we present the cycle structure ... Keywords: Cycle structure, Inversive generators, Permutation polynomials of finite fields

AyçA ÇE?Melio?Lu; Wilfried Meidl; Alev Topuzo?Lu

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Trends, Cycles, and Kinks - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Historical trends Recent cycle Kinks or shifts in trends Refinery Utilization Grew with Demand ... Across the year, ... Costs for construction were ...

149

Duke Energy's Edwardsport Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Duke Energy's Edwardsport Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Station presently under construction in Knox County, Indiana. (Photos courtesy of Duke Energy.) Gasification...

150

PCM energy storage during defective thermal cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Incomplete thermal cycling affects storage capacities of phase change materials (PCMs). Existing PCM measuring methods are presented with their drawbacks. A new device named “the… (more)

Koekenbier, S.F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Separations and Waste Form. Campaign Objectives. ?Develop the next generation of fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that enable a.

152

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

153

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

meeting is to review findings and help advance research and development in the Fuel Cycle Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies area. It will include a campaign...

154

Essays on consumption cycles and corporate finance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the consumption cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.6 Optimal consumption, expenditures and1.3.2 Optimal nondurable consumption and durable

Issler, Paulo Floriano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National...

156

Automotive Magnesium Applications and Life Cycle Environmental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 22, 2008 ... Life cycle energies and emissions are compared for steel, aluminum and ... 3rd International Conference on SF6 and the Environment, 2004.

157

MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~Iilora and J. W. Tester, Geothermal Energy as a Source ofpresented at the Susanville Geothermal Energy Converence,of Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." General

Pope, W.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Green Building- Efficient Life Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy saving does not just apply to traffic, production or agriculture. Buildings are also contributing to the climate change. The focus here is on the energy they use and on their CO2 emissions. Each year, Siemens invests more than two billion euros in the appropriate research and development. For customers, this means that Siemens is already providing them with energy efficient solutions that save resources and reduce emissions. Siemens Real Estate (SRE) has taken on the task of ensuring that Siemens AG will become 20 percent more energy efficient by 2011, and it has turned an efficiency program for existing real estate, which has been in existence since 2005, into an integrated green building initiative. This initiative comprises the components “Sustainable Building Design”, “Life Cycle Cost Analysis”, “Green Building Certification” and “Natural Resources Management”. These components are deliberately arranged around the life cycle of the real estate concerned. This allows a different emphasis to be placed on the different questions in each project phase and each phase of a building’s life and for them to be answered in a targeted manner. “Sustainable Building Design” comes into effect during the tasking and preliminary planning phase of a building project; and, by providing a specially developed sustainability manual, it helps with the definition of target values and the drawing up of efficiency strategies for the planning of the building. The manual epitomizes, and sets out clearly, the attitude of SRE to all building-specific sustainability matters. In addition, it is used in the offering of rewards for project competitions. As a result, through a selection of different energy-efficiency measures that have been roughly conceived beforehand, the primary energy consumption can already be restricted in the project definition phase. “Life Cycle Cost Analysis” comes into effect when the blueprint for buildings is being drawn up. Up to now, when components and systems were being chosen, the main focus was usually on the investment costs involved. By using a cost tool developed specifically to meet the needs of the company, SRE will in future be able to estimate the component-specific utilization costs – such as cleaning, maintenance, and the use of energy – at an early planning stage. “Green Building Certification” is used in building projects during the planning and implementation phase, and it thus ensures the quality of the new real estate over the long term. Siemens is implementing the Green Building Program of the European Commission in new building projects and renovation work in EU countries. In all other countries that are not taking part in the EU Green Building Program, SRE uses certification in accordance with LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). In the LEED certification, a transparent and easy-to-use catalog of criteria is employed to make an assessment of the use of energy and other aspects of sustainability, such as the selection of the plot of land, the efficient use of water, the quality of air within buildings, and the selection of materials. This ensures that a neutral and independent assessment is made of all new building and large-scale renovation projects. The action program “Natural Resources Management” rounds off the range of measures in the area of existing real estate. The aim of the program is to identify and highlight all latent efficiency potential in existing buildings. This includes, for instance, modernizing the control equipment used for the heating and ventilation systems. This entails replacing electrical power units with more efficient models, and retrofitting fans and pumps with frequency converters. Sixty buildings have now been inspected, and savings of almost eight million Euros have been achieved. The average payback period is less than two years. One example of this is an old Siemens building from the 1970s at the Munich-Perlach site. Through energy optimization, it has been possible to cu

Kohns, R.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with early breeder demonstration reactors. Although subject to continuing debate, progress continued on the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) with startup anticipated near the end of this decade, while plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic R and D programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990s. An important objective of the reprocessing program is to develop advanced technology for the recovery of fissile materials in systems that minimize environmental emissions and doses to plant workers, and that also provide effective fissile material safeguards. Major improvements include technology for remote operation and maintenance, low-flow ventilation systems coupled with more effective off-gas treatment, and advanced process monitoring for control and safeguards.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Open cycle - OTEC turbine design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a low-pressure, open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) is described. Near-surface ocean water at 80 F is allowed to expand in a one-half psi evaporator for passage through a turbine cold water (40 F), pumped upward from a 3,000 ft depth, is used to recondense the steam. Plans for a 2.5-3 MWe prototype plant, as a proof-of-principle project for a 100 MWe plant, include seawater pumps driven off the generator shaft, potable water as a by-product of the condensor, ease of access for O and M, and an integrated, gear-driven deaerator system with reinjection into the warm seawater discharge. An inlet flow of 3,000,000 cu ft/sec, a single stage vertical turbine with 40 ft fiber reinforced composite blades, 200 rpm operation on a 65 ft diameter disk, and an overall efficiency of 3% are features of the 100 MWe plant. A flowfield analysis, a velocity triangle analysis, and a structural dynamics analysis are outlined, along with materials applications and manufacturing process considerations in blade design. The 3MWe OTEC will be one-sixth the size of a 100MWe OTEC.

Coleman, W.H. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Lester, PA); Rogers, J.D. (TM Development, Inc., Chester, PA); Thompson, D.F. (Delaware University, Newark, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Generation of high power single-cycle and multiple-cycle terahertz pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we present experimental methods and results of tabletop generation of high power single-cycle and frequency-tunable multiple-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses pumped with near-infrared ultrashort optical pulses ...

Chen, Zhao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Hybrid Cycles with Hydrogen as Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle fueled with hydrogen have an overall high efficiency. The virtues of the supercritical steam turbine, the high temperature gas turbine and the low pressure steam turbine are fully expressed in this system. ... Keywords: gas turbine, new energy, combined cycle, hydrogen energy, thermal efficiency, energy conversion

Jing Rulin; Xu Hong; Hu Sangao; Gao Dan; Guo Xiaodan; Ni Weidou

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Simulation and optimization of Westinghouse cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nowadays, hydrogen is industrially produced mainly from fossil fuels by natural gas steam reforming, coal gasification and as by-product of naphtha reforming. Next step of research topic of hydrogen production from renewable sources is utilization of ... Keywords: Westinghouse cycle, hydrogen production, water splitting thermo-chemical cycles

Miroslava Smitkova; Frantisek Janí?ek

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The next major step in Argonne`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fuel cycles for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known. (auth)

Hickman, R.G.

1976-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

170

Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1 Y. Li,1 C. N. Arge,2-heliolatitude solar wind over approximately the last three solar cycles. Related key parameters like interplanetary explain solar magnetic field control of long-term interplanetary variations. In particular, the enduring

California at Berkeley, University of

171

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle/Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cycle chemistry in combined cycle plants influences about 70 of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) tube failure mechanisms. These guidelines have been assembled to assist operators and chemists in developing an effective overall cycle chemistry program which will prevent HRSG tube failures (HTF).

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Cycling, Startup, Shutdown, and Layup Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Operators and Chemists  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of water and steam is central to ensuring fossil plant component availability and reliability. Complete optimization of cycle chemistry requires protection of the steam-water cycle during the shutdown, layup, and startup phases of operation. These guidelines will assist utilities in developing cycle chemistry guidelines for all transient operations and shutdowns.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Binary Cycle Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Binary Cycle Power Plant Binary Cycle Power Plant (Redirected from Binary Cycle Power Plants) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Binary Cycle Power Plant General List of Binary Plants Binary power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Binary cycle geothermal power generation plants differ from Dry Steam and Flash Steam systems in that the water or steam from the geothermal reservoir never comes in contact with the turbine/generator units. Low to moderately heated (below 400°F) geothermal fluid and a secondary (hence, "binary") fluid with a much lower boiling point that water pass through a heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines and subsequently, the generators.

174

Binary Cycle Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Binary Cycle Power Plant Binary Cycle Power Plant (Redirected from Binary) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Binary Cycle Power Plant General List of Binary Plants Binary power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Binary cycle geothermal power generation plants differ from Dry Steam and Flash Steam systems in that the water or steam from the geothermal reservoir never comes in contact with the turbine/generator units. Low to moderately heated (below 400°F) geothermal fluid and a secondary (hence, "binary") fluid with a much lower boiling point that water pass through a heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines and subsequently, the generators. Binary cycle power plants are closed-loop systems and virtually nothing

175

NPP and the Global Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Global Carbon Cycle the Global Carbon Cycle Introduction Photosynthetic carbon fixation comprises a major component of the global carbon cycle. Data on net primary productivity (NPP) may be sparse, but a consistent NPP data set may be used to calibrate, parameterize and evaluate models of terrestrial carbon cycling, as well as for validation of remote sensing data and other applications (identifying trends, investigating biogeochemical processes, etc.). It is also useful to place such data within the context of carbon cycling and carbon storage worldwide. For example: How much carbon exists in the biosphere, and where exactly is it stored? How much is in fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas), and how large are current fossil-fuel emissions? How much is in living biomass (plants/ animals/ humans)?

176

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Abdellatif M. Yacout Argonne National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering Division The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex system with multiple components and activities that are combined to provide nuclear energy to a variety of end users. The end uses of nuclear energy are diverse and include electricity, process heat, water desalination, district heating, and possibly future hydrogen production for transportation and energy storage uses. Components of the nuclear fuel cycle include front end components such as uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, and the reactor component. Back end of the fuel cycle include used fuel coming out the reactor, used fuel temporary and permanent storage, and fuel reprocessing. Combined with those components there

177

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Transposed critical temperature Rankine thermodynamic cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transposed critical temperature (TPCT) is shown to be an extremely important thermodynamic property in the selection of the working fluid and turbine states for optimized geothermal power plants operating on a closed organic (binary) Rankine cycle. When the optimum working fluid composition and process states are determined for given source and sink conditions (7 parameter optimization), turbine inlet states are found to be consistently adjacent to the low pressure side of the working fluids' TPCT line on pressure-enthalpy coordinates. Although the TPCT concepts herein may find numerous future applications in high temperature, advanced cycles for fossil or nuclear fired steam power plants and in supercritical organic Rankine heat recovery bottoming cycles for Diesel engines, this discussion is limited to moderate temperature (150 to 250/sup 0/C) closed simple organic Rankine cycle geothermal power plants. Conceptual design calculations pertinent to the first geothermal binary cycle Demonstration Plant are included.

Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

New Kalina cycle promises more efficient cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

The Kalina cycle improves upon the Rankine cycle by adding a distillation phase. This is necessary because the process employs two fluids to make steam-ammonia and water. Use of two fluids is not a new idea, but the Kalina cycle works both components to their optimal extent because of the innovative distillation step. Prior to boiling, an ammonia/water (30/70) solution is raised to an intermediate pressure before entering the distillation subsystem. Here, two streams are created: one, half ammonia, half water; the other, mainly water. The ammonia/based stream is vaporized in the boiler, further raising the pressure, and is expanded through the turbine. It then rejoins the pressurized water stream, where it is condensed-completing the cycle. The Kalina cycle claims higher efficiencies than the Rankine because: less fuel is required to make steam; more pressure is achieved to turn the turbine; less pressure is needed for condensation.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Utility-scale combined-cycle power systems with Kalina bottoming cycles  

SciTech Connect

A new power-generation technology, often referred to as the Kalina cycle, is being developed as a direct replacement for the Rankine steam cycle. It can be applied to any thermal heat source, low or high temperature. Among several Kalina cycle variations, there is one that is particularly well suited as a bottoming cycle for utility combined-cycle applications. It is the subject of this paper. Using an ammonia/water mixture as the working fluid and a condensing system based on absorption-refrigeration principles, the Kalina bottoming cycle outperforms a triple-pressure steam cycle by 16%. Additionally, this version of the Kalina cycle is characterized by an intercooling feature between turbine stages, diametrically opposite to normal reheating practice in steam plants. Energy and mass balances are presented for a 200-MW(electric) Kalina bottoming cycle. Kalina cycle performance is compared to a triple-pressure steam plant. Energy and mass balances are presented as well for a 200-MW(electric) Kalina direct-fired cycle designed for utility purposes.

Kalina, A.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Practical introduction of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The pracitcal introduction of throrium fuel cycles implies that thorium fuel cycles compete economically with uranium fuel cycles in economic nuclear power plants. In this study the reactor types under consideration are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), and fast breeder reactors (FBRs). On the basis that once-through fuel cycles will be used almost exclusively for the next 20 or 25 years, introduction of economic thorium fuel cycles appears best accomplished by commercial introduction of HTGRs. As the price of natural uranium increases, along with commercialization of fuel recycle, there will be increasing incentive to utilize thorium fuel cycles in heavy water reactors and light water reactors as well as in HTGRs. After FBRs and fuel recycle are commercialized, use of thorium fuel cycles in the blanket of FBRs appears advantageous when fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors operate in a symbiosis mode (i.e., where /sup 233/U bred in the blanket of a fast breeder reactor is utilized as fissile fuel in thermal converter reactors).

Kasten, P.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Parametric analysis of the Kalina cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Kalina cycle utilizes a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid in a vapor power cycle. When the liquid mixture is heated the more volatile ammonia tends to vaporize first and at a lower temperature tan does pure water. This property of ammonia-water mixtures makes possible a better match to the enthalpy-temperature curve of a hot gas heat source such as a gas turbine exhaust and also permits circulation of fluids of different composition in different parts of the cycle. Taking advantage of the latter feature, condensation (absorption) can be done at slightly above atmospheric pressure with a low concentration of ammonia, while heat input is at a higher concentration for optimum cycle performance. Computer models have been used to optimize a simplified form of the cycle and to compare results for a more complex version proposed by El-Sayed and Tribus. A method of balancing the cycle was developed and key parameters for optimizing the cycle identified.

Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Back end of an enduring fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rules out the use of vapor compression, reverse osmosis, andrecirculation pumps, nor vapor compression, etc (see figureholds over vapor cycles is the low compression work, on the

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The Anderson Quin Cycle. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

1993-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

189

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Jones, R.; Carter, J.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Carter, J.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life cycle assessment (LCA) harmonization helps lenders, utility executives, and lawmakers get the best, most precise information on greenhouse gas emissions from various sources of energy. LCA has been used to estimate and compare GHG emissions from utility-scale power systems for three decades, often with considerable variability in results. Harmonization provides more exact estimates of greenhouse-gas emissions for renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature and reducing uncertainty. Highlights of Recent Studies Chart that compares published and harmonized lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster.

192

Solar Augmented Steam Cycles: 2010 Industry Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several studies were performed to evaluate a range of solar augmented steam cycle design options. All the designs use steam generated by a solar field in a conventional steam cycle, either offsetting some of the fuel required to generate power or boosting plant power output. The scope of the studies included a conceptual design modeling effort to evaluate a broad range of solar integration design options for biomass and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants and two detailed case studies at NGCC ...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fuel-cycle costs for alternative fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the fuel cycle cost and fresh fuel requirements for a range of nuclear reactor systems including the present day LWR without fuel recycle, an LWR modified to obtain a higher fuel burnup, an LWR using recycle uranium and plutonium fuel, an LWR using a proliferation resistant /sup 233/U-Th cycle, a heavy water reactor, a couple of HTGRs, a GCFR, and several LMFBRs. These reactor systems were selected from a set of 26 developed for the NASAP study and represent a wide range of fuel cycle requirements.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Novel Power Cycle for Combined-Cycle Systems and Utility Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The description of a new power cycle, based on the use of a multicomponent working fluid, was published earlier. A thermodynamic analysis of this cycle has demonstrated its superiority over the currently used Rankine Cycle, and a distribution of losses in the subsystems of this cycle has been established. A new, improved variant of the cycle, which provides 10% efficiency improvement over the initial variant, has been developed. The new variant employs a cooling of the working fluid between turbine stages and a recuperation of the released heat for supplementation of the boiler heat supply. Analysis shows that with this new, improved cycle efficiencies of up to 52% for a combined-cycle system employing standard turbines, and of up to 55% when modern high-temperature gas turbines are employed, can be achieved. The same cycle can be utilized to retrofit existing direct-fired power plants, providing an efficiency of up to 42%. The possible implications off such a cycle implementation are briefly discussed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is now conducting a study of this cycle.

Kalina, A. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Finding good candidate cycles for efficient p-cycle network design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- An important problem in p-cycle network design is to find a set of p-cycles to protect a given working capacity distribution so that the total spare capacity used by the p-cycles is minimized. Existing approaches for solving the problem include ILP and heuristic algorithm. Both require a set of candidate p-cycles to be precomputed. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to compute a small set of candidate p-cycles that can lead to good performance when used by ILP or the heuristic algorithm. The key idea of the algorithm is to generate a combination of high efficiency cycles and short cycles so that both densely distributed and sparsely distributed working capacities can he efficiently protected by the candidate cycles. The algorithm is also flexible in that the number of cycles generated is controlled by an input parameter. Simulation study showed that the cycles generated by our algorithm can lead to near optimal solutions when used by

Chang Liu; Lu Rum

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Obligations Notification Cycle and New Obligations Presentation  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Obligations Notification Cycle and Obligations Notification Cycle and Obligations Notification Cycle and Obligations Notification Cycle and New Obligations New Obligations Bill Benton, DOE/SO-62 Pat Tana, NRC/NSIR Michelle Romano, NAC/NMMSS Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop Obligations Accounting Implementation Workshop January 13, 2004 January 13, 2004 Crowne Crowne Plaza Plaza Ravinia Ravinia Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta, Georgia Notifications Notifications * There are issues! - Timeliness - Information (or lack thereof) - Other? * DOE Facilities - Bill Benton, 301-903-1150, Bill.Benton@hq.doe.gov * NRC Facilities - Pat Tana, 301-415-8105, pmt@nrc.gov * DOE/SO-62, NRC to request meeting of Government representatives involved. * DOE/SO-62, NRC to solicit concrete case studies to

198

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline...

200

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Fuel Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding research and development of nuclear fuel and waste management technologies that meet the nation's energy supply, environmental, and energy security needs. GC-52 also advises DOE on issues involving support for international fuel cycle initiatives aimed at advancing a common vision of the necessity of the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes worldwide in a safe and secure manner. In addition, GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the management and disposition of excess uranium in DOE's uranium stockpile. GC-52 attorneys participate in meetings of DOE's Uranium Inventory Management Coordinating Committee and provide advice on compliance with statutory requirements for the sale or transfer of uranium.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Life Cycle Inventory Database | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Database Life Cycle Inventory Database The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the environmental impact of an item over its entire lifespan. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the database in 2003 with input from a variety of partners. NREL maintains and updates the database with support from the

202

Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

Harris, William D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Group homology and ideal fundamental cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the group-homological version of the generalized Goncharov invariant of finite-volume locally rank one symmetric spaces determines their generalized Neumann-Yang invariant, which is defined using ideal fundamental cycles.

Thilo Kuessner.; Volume 40 (2012); Pages 239-258

204

The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The ...

Patrick Hamill; Eric J. Jensen; P. B. Russell; Jill J. Bauman

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Life Cycles of Moist Baroclinic Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between moisture and baroclinic eddies was examined through eddy life-cycle experiments using a global, primitive equation model. How condensation affects the structural evolution of eddies, their fluxes of heat, moisture, and ...

William J. Gutowski Jr.; Lee E. Branscome; Douglas A. Stewart

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Axisymmetric Inlet Design for Combined Cycle Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Performance considerations for a turbine-based combined-cycle engine inlet are presented using the inlet of the Lockheed SR-71 as a baseline. A numerical model is developed… (more)

Colville, Jesse

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A New Look at the Energy Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The traditional derivation of the energy cycle is reviewed and some paradoxical properties of the energy conversion and flux terms under non-acceleration conditions (steady, conservative motion) are noted. An alternative scheme is derived, based ...

R. Alan Plumb

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

A Modification of the Atmospheric Energy Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modification is made of the conventional energy cycle by combining the eddy flux convergence and the mean meridional circulation terms in the mean momentum and heat equations. The combined terms are interpreted as the effective flux ...

Yoshikazu Hayashi

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Water Recovery From Humidified Power Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recovery of water from humidified cycles using a scrubber-desaturator, and the recovered water's clean-up and reuse have been shown to be practical, with comparatively low increases in capital costs and heat rates.

1998-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Doe Water Cycle Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Department of Energy (DOE) multilaboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the ...

N. L. Miller; A. W. King; M. A. Miller; E. P. Springer; M. L. Wesely; K. E. Bashford; M. E. Conrad; K. Costigan; P. N. Foster; H. K. Gibbs; J. Jin; J. Klazura; B. M. Lesht; M. V. Machavaram; F. Pan; J. Song; D. Troyan; R. A. Washington-Allen

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Analysis of a supercritical hydrogen liquefaction cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a supercritical hydrogen liquefaction cycle is proposed and analyzed numerically. If hydrogen is to be used as an energy carrier, the efficiency of liquefaction will become increasingly important. By examining ...

Staats, Wayne Lawrence

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Separations Needs for the Alternate Chemical Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bulk of the efforts for the development of a hydrogen production plant supported by the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) have been directed towards the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. However, it was judged prudent to re-investigate alternate chemical cycles in light of new developments and technical accomplishments derived from the current S-I work. This work analyzes the available data for the promising alternate chemical cycles to provide an understanding of their inherent chemical separations needs. None of the cycles analyzed have separations that are potential “show stoppers”; although some of the indicated separations will be challenging to perform. The majority of the separations involve processes that are either more achievable or more developed

Frederick F. Stewart

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

life cycle inventory | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

life cycle inventory life cycle inventory Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system for eGrid regions (AKGD, AKMS, AZNM, CAMX, ERCT, FRCC, HIMS, HIOA, MROE, MROW, NEWE, NWPP, NYCW, NYLI, NYUP, RFCE, RFCM, RFCW, RMPA, SPNO, SPSO, SRMV, SRMW, SRSO, SRTV, SRVC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory forms (xls and xml) . A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the eGrid regions. It is representative of the year 2008 mix of fuels used for utility generations for each of the eGrid regions Source USLCI Database Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords eGrid Electricity grid LCI life cycle inventory US Data application/zip icon egrid_electricity_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 7 MiB)

215

Cost-Benefit Assessment of Cycle Alignment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this technical update report represents an in-depth study to evaluate the different methods used to improve cycle alignment. The study outlines the cost and benefits of using these different methods and describes their application. The collection and assemblage of this information will provide a reference for plant engineering and management personnel in their attempts to improve steam plant efficiency by implementing a systematic cycle alignment program. Through the use of t...

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Damage to Power Plants Due to Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The duty cycle for power plants ranges from baseloading or consistently operating at or near fully rated capacity to two-shifting or shutting down during off-peak demand periods. Quantifying the cost of cycling and finding ways to mitigate and control those costs are critical to profitability. European Technology Development Ltd. (ETD) originally prepared and published this report and has agreed to the current revision by EPRI. The report evaluates the effects and implications of cyclic operation on equi...

2001-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

217

The evaporative gas turbine (EGT) cycle  

SciTech Connect

Humidification of the flow through a gas turbine has been proposed in a variety of forms. The STIG plant involves the generation of steam by the gas turbine exhaust in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and its injection into or downstream of the combustion chamber. This increases the mass flow through the turbine and the power output from the plant, with a small increase in efficiency. In the evaporative gas turbine (or EGT) cycle, water is injected in the compressor discharge in a regenerative gas turbine cycle (a so-called CBTX plant--compressor [C], burner [B], turbine [T], heat exchanger [X]); the air is evaporatively cooled before it enters the heat exchanger. While the addition of water increases the turbine mass flow and power output, there is also apparent benefit in reducing the temperature drop in the exhaust stack. In one variation of the basic EGT cycle, water is also added downstream of the evaporative aftercooler, even continuously in the heat exchanger. There are several other variations on the basic cycle (e.g., the cascaded humidified advanced turbine [CHAT]). The present paper analyzes the performance of the EGT cycle. The basic thermodynamics are first discussed, and related to the cycle analysis of a dry regenerative gas turbine plant. Subsequently some detailed calculations of EGT cycles are presented. The main purpose of the work is to seek the optimum pressure ratio in the EGT cycle for given constraints (e.g., fixed maximum to minimum temperature). It is argued that this optimum has a relatively low value.

Horlock, J.H. [Whittle Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle instead of the Otto cycle; and what are the advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid automobile. This is a follow-up to my two previous papers on the physics of automobile engines.1

Bernard J. Feldman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Combined Cycle Performance Monitoring and Recovery Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved combined cycle power plant performance continue to grow as the cost of fuel rises and international concerns over global warming increase.This guideline provides a framework for performance monitoring, assessment, recovery and optimization of combined cycle power plants. The guideline distills existing experience and documents on heat rate recovery and capacity improvement into a comprehensive manual for plant implementation and training applications. The purpose ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Carbon Cycle 2.0 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Information on the vision and research surrounding the Carbon Cycle 2.0 energy program. cc2overvieweeforummay52011en.pdf (Chinese...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nuclear fuel cycles for mid-century development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles was carried out. Fuel cycles reviewed include: once-through fuel cycles in LWRs, PHWRs, HTGRs, and fast gas cooled breed and burn reactors; single-pass recycle schemes: plutonium ...

Parent, Etienne, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Life cycle evolution and systematics of Campanulariid hydrozoans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to study campanulariid life cycle evolution and systematics. The Campanulariidae is a hydrozoan family with many life cycle variations, and provide an excellent model system to study life cycle ...

Govindarajan, Annette Frese, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Predicting solar cycle 24 with a solar dynamo model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whether the upcoming cycle 24 of solar activity will be strong or not is being hotly debated. The solar cycle is produced by a complex dynamo mechanism. We model the last few solar cycles by `feeding' observational data of the Sun's polar magnetic field into our solar dynamo model. Our results fit the observed sunspot numbers of cycles 21-23 extremely well and predict that cycle~24 will be about 35% weaker than cycle~23.

Arnab Rai Choudhuri; Piyali Chatterjee; Jie Jiang

2007-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

224

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Fully Closed Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced plutonium and uranium recovery by extraction (PUREX) reprocessing of discharged fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and fabric...

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

226

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Related Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links Related Links Below are links to life cycle inventory (LCI) databases, life cycle assessment (LCA) information, LCA tools, research institutes utilizing LCA, labeling initiatives and organizations, international LCA initiatives, LCA online forums. Life Cycle Inventory Data Ecoinvent: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories IVAM LCA Data 4: Dutch LCA Database KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology): Korea National Cleaner Production Center LCI Database Life Cycle Assessment Information IERE (The Institute for Environmental Research and Education): The American Center for Life Cycle Assessment SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry): SETAC Life Cycle Assessment SPOLD (Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment Development): 2.0 LCA Consultants homepage

227

The High Cycle Fatigue, Damage Initiation and Growth and Final ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Based Fatigue Life Prediction Models and Methods for Combined Low Cycle and High Cycle Fatigue · Fatigue Behavior of AM60B Subjected to Variable  ...

228

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Basics

229

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - DRIVE: Drive-Cycle Rapid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

representative drive cycles from raw data, the tool is capable of comparing vehicle operation to industry standard test cycles and can even select a representative...

230

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Changes related to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Twitter icon Changes related to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation" A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation...

232

Production and Handling Slide 1: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Handling The Uranium Fuel Cycle Skip Presentation Navigation Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image...

233

Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of the thesis was to study the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production. There were three reactions in this cycle: Bunsen reaction, sulfuric… (more)

Dan, Huang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Increased cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries Title Increased cycling efficiency and rate capability of copper-coated silicon...

235

Comparison of the Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) to other advanced ...  

Comparison of the Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) to other advanced vapor cycles for intermediate and high temperature waste heat reclamation and solar thermal

236

Department of Energy Awards $15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development Department of Energy Awards 15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development August 1,...

237

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the...

238

From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the Nuclear Pore From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the...

239

Vehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GHG emissions of future transportation modes. These resultsVehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycleVehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycle

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Name NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Webmaster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Life Cycle Inventory Home About the Project Database Publications Life Cycle Assessments Related Links...

243

Gas turbine bottoming cycles: Triple-pressure steam versus Kalina  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a triple-pressure steam cycle has been compared with a single-stage Kalina cycle and an optimized three-stage Kalina cycle as the bottoming sections of a gas turbine combined cycle power plant. A Monte Carlo direct search was used to find the optimum separator temperature and ammonia mass fraction for the three-stage Kalina cycle for a specific plant configuration. Both Kalina cycles were more efficient than the triple pressure steam cycle. Optimization of the three-stage Kalina cycle resulted in almost a two percentage point improvement.

Marston, C.H. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States); Hyre, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Assessment of the type of cycling infrastructure required to...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

type of cycling infrastructure required to attract new cyclists Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessment of the type of cycling infrastructure required to attract new cyclists...

245

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2012a. “Analysis & Projections - Models & Documentation. ”Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions MetricsGovernment purposes. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Enhanced absorption cycle computer model. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperatures boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorptions systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system`s components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H{sub 2}O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H{sub 2}O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the User`s Manual.

Grossman, G.; Wilk, M. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Finding cycles and trees in sublinear time.  

SciTech Connect

We present sublinear-time (randomized) algorithms for finding simple cycles of length at least k {ge} 3 and tree-minors in bounded-degree graphs. The complexity of these algorithms is related to the distance of the graph from being C{sub k}-minor-free (resp., free from having the corresponding tree-minor). In particular, if the graph is far (i.e., {Omega}(1)-far) from being cycle-free, i.e. if one has to delete a constant fraction of edges to make it cycle-free, then the algorithm finds a cycle of polylogarithmic length in time {tilde O}({radical}N), where N denotes the number of vertices. This time complexity is optimal up to polylogarithmic factors. The foregoing results are the outcome of our study of the complexity of one-sided error property testing algorithms in the bounded-degree graphs model. For example, we show that cycle-freeness of N-vertex graphs can be tested with one-sided error within time complexity {tilde O}(poly(1/{epsilon}) {center_dot} {radical}N). This matches the known {Omega}({radical}N) query lower bound, and contrasts with the fact that any minor-free property admits a two-sided error tester of query complexity that only depends on the proximity parameter {epsilon}. For any constant k {ge} 3, we extend this result to testing whether the input graph has a simple cycle of length at least k. On the other hand, for any fixed tree T, we show that T -minor-freeness has a one-sided error tester of query complexity that only depends on the proximity parameter {epsilon}. Our algorithm for finding cycles in bounded-degree graphs extends to general graphs, where distances are measured with respect to the actual number of edges. Such an extension is not possible with respect to finding tree-minors in o({radical}N) complexity.

Czumaj, Artur; Goldreich, Oded; Seshadhri, Comandur; Sohler, Christian; Shapira, Asaf; Ron, Dana

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fast power cycle for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

The unique, deep penetration capability of 14 MeV neutrons produced in DT fusion reactions allows the generation of very high temperature working fluid temperatures in a thermal power cycle. In the FAST (Fusion Augmented Steam Turbine) power cycle steam is directly superheated by the high temperature ceramic refractory interior of the blanket, after being generated by heat extracted from the relatively cool blanket structure. The steam is then passed to a high temperature gas turbine for power generation. Cycle studies have been carried out for a range of turbine inlet temperatures (1600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F (870 to 1650/sup 0/C)), number of reheats, turbine mechanical efficiency, recuperator effectiveness, and system pressure losses. Gross cycle efficiency is projected to be in the range of 55 to 60%, (fusion energy to electric power), depending on parameters selected. Turbine inlet temperatures above 2000/sup 0/F, while they do increase efficiency somewhat, are not necessarily for high cycle efficiency.

Powell, J.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Combined Cycle Cogeneration at NALCO Chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Nalco Chemical Company, while expanding their corporate headquarters, elected to investigate the potential for cogeneration. The headquarters complex has a central physical plant for heating and chilling. The authors describe the analysis approach for determining the most economical system design. Generation capacity ranging from 2.7 MW up to 7.0 MW in both simple cycle cogeneration and combined cycle cogeneration was analyzed. Both single pressure and dual pressure waste heat boilers were included in the evaluation. In addition, absorption chilling and electrical centrifugal chilling capacity expansion were integrated into the model. The gas turbine selection procedure is outlined. Bid evaluation procedure involved a life cycle cost comparison wherein the bid specification responses for each model turbine were incorporated into the life cycle facility program. The recommendation for the facility is a 4.0MW combined cycle cogeneration system. This system is scheduled for startup in October of 1985. Most major equipment has been purchased and the building to house the system is nearing completion. A discussion of the purchase and scheduling integration will be included.

Thunem, C. B.; Jacobs, K. W.; Hanzel, W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Cycling Operation of Fossil Plants: Volume 3: Cycling Evaluation of Pepco's Potomac River Generating Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a methodology for examining the economic feasibility of converting fossil power plants from baseload to cycling service. It employs this approach to examine a proposed change of Pepco's Potomac River units 3, 4, and 5 from baseload operation to two-shift cycling.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cycling Operation of Fossil Plants: Volume 1: Cycling Considerations for Niagara Mohawk's Oswego Unit 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil plants are being converted to cycling operation to accommodate daily load swings and to decrease the overall system fuel costs. This report summarizes the methods and results of an engineering study of three two-shift cycling approaches considered for Niagara Mohawk's Oswego unit 5: superheater/turbine bypass, variable pressure operations, and full-flow condensate polishing.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Metrics-Based Feedback Cycles for Software Life-Cycle Management and Process Improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a global organizational feedback cycle, composed of four component feedback cycles, by which the COCOMO II cost estimation model [Boehm et al., 2000] can be used for (1) project or product line scoping; (2) project or product line management; (3) model recalibration to changing circumstances; and (4) evaluation project, product line, or organizational continuous process improvement initiatives

Barry Boehm

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

An Extended Solar Cycle 23 with Deep Minimum Transition to Cycle 24: Assessments and Climatic Ramifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extended length of solar cycle 23 and the associated deep quiet period (QP) between cycles 23 and 24 have been examined using the international sunspot record from 1755 to 2010. This study has also introduced a QP definition based on a (...

Ernest M. Agee; Emily Cornett; Kandace Gleason

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Carbon Cycle Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cycle Engineering Cycle Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Cycle Engineering Address 13725 Dutch Creek Road Place Athens, Ohio Zip 45701 Sector Biofuels, Biomass, Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Agriculture; Consulting; Engineering/architectural/design Phone number 740-541-1685 Website http://www.Carboncycleengineer Coordinates 39.376838°, -82.029904° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.376838,"lon":-82.029904,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

255

Large Scale Truck Duty Cycle.pub  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Truck Duty Cycle Evaluation and Truck Duty Cycle Evaluation and Assessment of Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reduction Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Research Areas Freight Flows Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies Research Brief T he Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting research to better understand truck fuel economy and emissions in normal everyday use, as part of a study sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP). By collecting duty cycle data (velocity, acceleration and elevation) during normal operations of literally thousands of vehicles for an

256

Binary Cycle Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Binary Cycle Power Plant General List of Binary Plants Binary power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Binary cycle geothermal power generation plants differ from Dry Steam and Flash Steam systems in that the water or steam from the geothermal reservoir never comes in contact with the turbine/generator units. Low to moderately heated (below 400°F) geothermal fluid and a secondary (hence, "binary") fluid with a much lower boiling point that water pass through a heat exchanger. Heat from the geothermal fluid causes the secondary fluid to flash to vapor, which then drives the turbines and subsequently, the generators. Binary cycle power plants are closed-loop systems and virtually nothing (except water vapor) is emitted to the atmosphere. Resources below 400°F

257

Westinghouse fuel cell combined cycle systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficiency (voltage) of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should increase with operating pressure, and a pressurized SOFC could function as the heat addition process in a Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) engine. An overall cycle efficiency of 70% should be possible. In cogeneration, half of the waste heat from a PSOFC/GT should be able to be captured in process steam and hot water, leading to a fuel effectiveness of about 85%. In order to make the PSOFC/GT a commercial reality, satisfactory operation of the SOFC at elevated pressure must be verified, a pressurized SOFC generator module must be designed, built, and tested, and the combined cycle and parameters must be optimized. A prototype must also be demonstrated. This paper describes progress toward making the PSOFC/GT a reality.

Veyo, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

Leigh, I.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Neural Network Prediction of solar cycle 24  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to predict the future behavior of solar activity has become of extreme importance due to its effect on the near Earth environment. Predictions of both the amplitude and timing of the next solar cycle will assist in estimating the various consequences of Space Weather. The level of solar activity is usually expressed by international sunspot number ($R_z$). Several prediction techniques have been applied and have achieved varying degrees of success in the domain of solar activity prediction. In this paper, we predict a solar index ($R_z$) in solar cycle 24 by using the neural network method. The neural network technique is used to analyze the time series of solar activity. According to our predictions of yearly sunspot number, the maximum of cycle 24 will occur in the year 2013 and will have an annual mean sunspot number of 65. Finally, we discuss our results in order to compare it with other suggested predictions.

Ajabshirizadeh, A; Abbassi, S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

AFIP-6 MKII First Cycle Report  

SciTech Connect

The first fuel plate frame assembly of the AFIP-6 MKII experiment was irradiated as planned from December, 2011 through February, 2012 in the center flux trap of the Advanced Test Reactor during cycle 151A. Following irradiation in this cycle and while reconfiguring the experiment in the ATR canal, a non-fueled component (the bottom plate) of the first fuel plate frame assembly became separated from the rail sides. There is no evidence that the fueled region of the fuel plate frame assembly was compromised by this incident or the irradiation conditions. The separation of this component was determined to have been caused by flow induced vibrations, where vortex shedding frequencies were resonant with a natural frequency of the bottom plate component. This gave way to amplification, fracture, and separation from the assembly. Although parallel flow induced vibrations were analyzed, vortex shedding flow induced vibrations was an unfamiliar failure mode that was difficult to identify. Both the once-irradiated first fuel plate and un-irradiated second fuel plate frame assemblies were planned for irradiation in the subsequent cycle 151B. The AFIP-6 MKII experiment was excluded from irradiation in cycle 151B because non-trivial design modifications would be needed to mitigate this type of incident during the second irradiation cycle. All items of the experiment hardware were accounted for and cycle 151B occurred with a non-fueled AFIP backup assembly in the center flux trap. Options for completion of the AFIP-6 MKII experiment campaign are presented and future preventative actions are recommended.

N.E. Woolstenhulme

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ORCENT2. Nuclear Steam Turbine Cycle Analysis  

SciTech Connect

ORCENT2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine-generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram.

Fuller, L.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited  

SciTech Connect

This report covers an assessment of two brands of energy management controllers that are currently being offered that utilize the principle of duty cycling to purportedly save energy for unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, gas furnaces, and gas fired boilers. The results of an extensive review of past research on this subject as well as a review of vendor sponsored field testing of these controllers compares these newer controllers to those of the past. Included also is a discussion of how the duty cycling principle is prone to misinterpretation as to its potential to save energy.

Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solid oxide fuel cell combined cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The integration of the solid oxide fuel cell and combustion turbine technologies can result in combined-cycle power plants, fueled with natural gas, that have high efficiencies and clean gaseous emissions. Results of a study are presented in which conceptual designs were developed for 3 power plants based upon such an integration, and ranging in rating from 3 to 10 MW net ac. The plant cycles are described and characteristics of key components summarized. Also, plant design-point efficiency estimates are presented as well as values of other plant performance parameters.

Bevc, F.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Lundberg, W.L.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Test Plan for Heat Cycle Research Program, Phase I Supercritical Cycle Tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 60 kW Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) provides a means of examining different concepts and components associated with the generation of electrical power from a geothermal resource using a binary power cycle. In this power cycle the heat or energy in a hot geothermal fluid is transferred to a secondary working fluid. This working fluid is vaporized in the heat exchange process and the vapor is in turn expanded through a turbine which drives a generator producing electrical power. the heat or energy in the vapor leaving the turbine is transferred to a circulating cooling water in the condenser where the working fluid is condensed to a liquid which can be pumped back to the heaters, completing the cycle. This waste heat load in the condenser is in turn transferred from the cooling water to the atmosphere in a cooling tower. The HCRF allows the different components described in the cycle above to be tested as well as the basic cycle itself. This cycle may vary in that the heaters, condenser, cooling system, pumps, etc. may differ in number and type, however the basic cycle does not change significantly. During this sequence of tests, the HCRF is operated using a supercritical vapor generator and a vertical condenser where the condensation occurs inside of the tubes as opposed to the shell side more commonly used in these applications. In addition to providing the data to be used to evaluate the design of these heat exchangers, these supercritical tests provide cycle and component performance data with both single component working fluids and working fluids comprised of different mixtures of hydrocarbons. The use of these mixtures promises to improve cycle performance, in terms of watt-hours per pound of geothermal fluid, provided the countercurrent flow paths can be maintained between the fluids in both the condenser and the heaters. The supercritical heaters and the condenser to be used in this series of tests were designed to provide the desired countercurrent flow paths.

Mines, Greg L.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Measuring the Degree of Convergence among European Business Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dating of a possible European business cycle has been inconclusive. At this stage, there is no consensus on the existence of such a cycle, or of its periodicity and amplitude, or of the relationship of individual member countries to that cycle. Yet ... Keywords: business cycle, coherence, growth rates, time-frequency analysis

Andrew Hughes Hallett; Christian Richter

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Solar Irradiance Measurements During Solar Cycles 22 and 23 Sabri Mekaoui Abstract The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) is a measure of the radiative output from the Sun. Its value and its long solar cycles. Cycle 22 lasted from late 1986 until 1996 while cycle 23 is currently ending

Glineur, François

268

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle? Global Refining Strategies 2007 Barcelona, Spain

269

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Shutdown, Layup, and Startup of Combined Cycle Units with Heat Recovery Steam Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complete optimization of cycle chemistry in a combined-cycle unit requires more than proper selection and optimization of operating chemistry. Protection of the steam-water cycle also is essential during shutdown, layup, and startup phases. These guidelines consider protection of steam- and water-touched components at these times, consistent with the operating cycle chemistries in use.

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Comparison of Geothermal Power Conversion Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal power conversion cycles are compared with respect to recovery of the available wellhead power. The cycles compared are flash steam, in which steam turbines are driven by steam separated from one or more flash states; binary, in which heat is transferred from flashed steam to an organic turbine cycle; and dual steam, in which two-phase expanders are driven by the flashing steam-brine mixture and steam turbines by the separated steam. Expander efficiencies assumed are 0.7 for steam turbines, 0.8 for organic turbines, and 0.6 for two-phase expanders. The fraction of available wellhead power delivered by each cycle is found to be about the same at all brine temperatures: 0.65 with one stage and 0.7 with four stages for dual stream; 0.4 with one stage and 0.6 with four stages for flash steam; 0.5 for binary; and 0.3 with one stage and 0.5 with four stages for flash binary.

Elliott, David G.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hemispheric Helicity Trend for Solar Cycle 24  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on aboard Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite with the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to ...

Hao, Juan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Cycling Losses During Screw Air Compressor Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air compressors use 10-13 % of a typical industrial facilities' total electricity. Because they often operate at part load, their part load efficiency significantly affects plant energy cost. An intensive study of screw air compressor part load efficiency confirmed that modulation only controls are accurately portrayed by traditional part load models under most conditions. It also confirmed that load-unload type controls are accurately modeled when cycle times are longer than 5 minutes. However, the study revealed compressors with cycling controls require as much as 10-25 % more power than is normally assumed when cycle times decrease below 2 minutes. This short cycle time is common in industrial environments. The study also found that combined modulating and unloading controls operate the compressor as much as 20% more efficiently than previously predicted. Several measures are recommended for improving part load efficiency by up to 25 %: • Increase receiver capacity • Install load-unload controls • Maintain compressor controls • Set higher low-unloading setpoints.

Maxwell, J. B.; Wheeler, G.; Bushnell, D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Life cycle support for sensor network applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing applications for sensor networks is a challenging task. Most programming systems narrowly focus on programming issues while ignoring that programming represents only a tiny fraction of the typical life cycle of an application. Furthermore, ... Keywords: assessment, middleware, sensor networks, separation of concerns, software engineering

Urs Bischoff; Gerd Kortuem

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Rankine cycle machines for solar cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A vigorous effort to develop and demonstrate practical uses of solar energy to heat and cool buildings, to process agricultural products, and to provide thermal and electrical energy for industry has been initiated. One significant part of this effort is the research, development, and demonstration of Rankine cycle machines using fluids heated by solar energy. Recent developments in three such devices are discussed briefly.

Weathers, H.M.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

MID-CYCLE CHANGES IN ETA CARINAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In late 2006, ground-based photometry of {eta} Car plus the Homunculus showed an unexpected decrease in its integrated apparent brightness, an apparent reversal of its long-term brightening. Subsequent Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 photometry of the central star in the near-UV showed that this was not a simple reversal. This multi-wavelength photometry did not support increased extinction by dust as the explanation for the decrease in brightness. A spectrum obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South telescope revealed subtle changes mid-way in {eta} Car's 5.5 yr spectroscopic cycle when compared with HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra at the same phase in the cycle. At mid-cycle the secondary star is 20-30 AU from the primary. We suggest that the spectroscopic changes are consistent with fluctuations in the density and velocity of the primary star's wind, unrelated to the 5.5 yr cycle but possibly related to its latitude-dependent morphology. We also discuss subtle effects that must be taken into account when comparing ground-based and HST/STIS spectra.

Martin, John C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Mehner, Andrea [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Source to tap urban water cycle modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continuous expansion of urban areas is associated with increased water demand, both for domestic and non-domestic uses. To cover this additional demand, centralised infrastructure, such as water supply and distribution networks tend to become more ... Keywords: Metabolism models, Optimisation, Urban water cycle, Water demand management

Evangelos Rozos; Christos Makropoulos

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Laplace transform analysis of the carbon cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Laplace transform representation is used to describe the changes in atmospheric CO"2 in response to emissions. The formalism gives an explicit representation of generic relations that are less clear when model results are presented as numerical integrations ... Keywords: Carbon cycle, Geosequestration, Laplace transforms, Response functions

I. G. Enting

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Weekly Precipitation Cycles along the Northeast Corridor?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty years of precipitation data from seven cities along or near the east coast of the United States from the northern mid-Atlantic region to northern New England have been analyzed to determine if there are any weekly cycles in either daily ...

Mark P. DeLisi; Alan M. Cope; Jason K. Franklin

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Immobilization of Fast Reactor First Cycle Raffinate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of work to bring forward the timing for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate from reprocessing fuel from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). First cycle raffinate is the liquor which contains > 99% of the fission products separated from spent fuel during reprocessing. Approximately 203 m3 of raffinate from the reprocessing of PFR fuel is held in four tanks at the UKAEA's site at Dounreay, Scotland. Two methods of immobilization of this high level waste (HLW) have been considered: vitrification and cementation. Vitrification is the standard industry practice for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate, and many papers have been presented on this technique elsewhere. However, cementation is potentially feasible for immobilizing first cycle raffinate because the heat output is an order of magnitude lower than typical HLW from commercial reprocessing operations such as that at the Sellafield site in Cumbria, England. In fact, it falls within the upper end of the UK definition of intermediate level waste (ILW). Although the decision on which immobilization technique will be employed has yet to be made, initial development work has been undertaken to identify a suitable cementation formulation using inactive simulant of the raffinate. An approach has been made to the waste disposal company Nirex to consider the disposability of the cemented product material. The paper concentrates on the process development work that is being undertaken on cementation to inform the decision making process for selection of the immobilization method.

Langley, K. F.; Partridge, B. A.; Wise, M.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

282

A Kalina cycle technology and its applications  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic cycle with variation in the composition of the working fluid used in the process has been developed. The additional degree of freedom of design due to the variation in the composition of the working fluid provides superior efficiency for several diversified applications such as industrial waste-heat recovery, geothermal, fuel-fired power plants, and others.

Kalina, A.I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

HEMISPHERIC HELICITY TREND FOR SOLAR CYCLE 24  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on board Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions that occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to the outer penumbra, where the sign of penumbra agrees with the sign of the active region as a whole. From these results, we speculate that both the {Sigma}-effect (turbulent convection) and the dynamo have contributed in the generation of helicity, whereas in both cases turbulence in the convection zone has played a significant role.

Hao Juan; Zhang Mei, E-mail: haojuan@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

TYLER ALGEO i Life Cycle Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

building envelope would recover the energy invested in additional insulation within less than two yearsTYLER ALGEO i Life Cycle Analysis of The Civil and Mechanical Engineering Building University envelope of the Civil and Mechanical Engineering (CEME) Building at the University of British Columbia (UBC

285

Physics of fusion-fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of nuclear fusion fuels for a magnetic fusion economy must take into account the various technological impacts of the various fusion fuel cycles as well as the relative reactivity and the required ..beta..'s and temperatures necessary for economic steady-state burns. This paper will review some of the physics of the various fusion fuel cycles (D-T, catalyzed D-D, D-/sup 3/He, D-/sup 6/Li, and the exotic fuels: /sup 3/He/sup 3/He and the proton-based fuels such as P-/sup 6/Li, P-/sup 9/Be, and P-/sup 11/B) including such items as: (1) tritium inventory, burnup, and recycle, (2) neutrons, (3) condensable fuels and ashes, (4) direct electrical recovery prospects, (5) fissile breeding, etc. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of the different fusion fuel cycles will be discussed. The optimum fuel cycle from an overall standpoint of viability and potential technological considerations appears to be catalyzed D-D, which could also support smaller relatively clean, lean-D, rich-/sup 3/He satellite reactors as well as fission reactors.

McNally, J.R. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A Strategy (Vision) for Integrated Water Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resource applications. What are the observation and accuracy needs for global water and energy cycle, to provide enhanced information? #12;---- Initially Close Energy/WaterInitially Close Energy/Water Budgets at ContinentalBudgets at Continental--ScaleScale ---- Couple (land/hydroCouple (land/hydro -- atmosatmos) at the

Houser, Paul R.

287

The promise of the Kalina cycle  

SciTech Connect

New technologies come and go, but the Rankine steam cycle goes on forever - or so it seemed until Alexander I. Kalina found a better way. Power engineers have known for years that heat can be generated more efficiently in a boiler if a mixture like ammonia and water is used as the working fluid, but no one had figured out how to condense the working fluid mixture at normal heat rejection temperatures. Kalina solved the problem, at least in theory. Now it must be determined whether his theory holds up in practice. In the Rankine steam cycle, water is used in a boiler to produce high-pressure vapor, which is expanded through a turbine to produce power. The expanded vapor is subsequently condensed and is pumped back to the boiler in liquid form to repeat the cycle. In the Kalina cycle, a mixture of approximately 70 percent ammonia and 30 percent water is used in a boiler to produce superheated vapor. The ammonia begins to boil first, having the lower boiling point. As the ammonia boils off, the concentration of ammonia in the remaining mixture decreases, and the mixture's boiling point increases. The boiling point keeps changing as the ammonia-water ratio changes, and the fluid mixture is gradually depleted. This leads to a better match in temperature profiles and permits more energy to be transferred to the working fluid. Overall, more of the available heat is utilized in vapor production than in the steam cycle, and more vapor means more power output from the turbine-generator.

Jurgen, R.K.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying reachable and efficient reuse/recycle targets for consumer products and in planning return via appropriate labelling and digital coding for enhancing environmental performance, while satisfying consumer demand.

Tsiliyannis, C.A., E-mail: anion@otenet.gr [ANION Environmental Ltd., 26 Lykoudi Str., Athens 11141 (Greece)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Wavelet Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Pressure Variations in an Internal Combustion Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a continuous wavelet transform we have analyzed the cycle-to-cycle variations of pressure in an internal combustion engine. The time series of maximum pressure variations are examined for different loading and their wavelet power spectrum is calculated for each load. From the wavelet power spectrum we detected the presence of long, intermediate and short-term periodicities in the pressure signal. It is found that depending on the load, the long and intermediate-term periodicities may span several cycles, whereas the short-period oscillations tend to appear intermittently. Knowledge of these periodicities may be useful to develop effective control strategies for efficient combustion.

Asok K. Sen; Grzegorz Litak; Rodolfo Taccani; Robert Radu

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

290

Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study how alternative process schemes and power cycles might be used and integrated to achieve higher systems efficiency. To achieve these design results, the total systems approach is taken requiring creative integration of the various process units within the plant. Advanced gas turbine based cycles for Integrated gasification Combined cycle (IGCC) applications are identified by a screening analysis and the more promising cycles recommended for detailed systems analysis. In the case of the IGFC task, the main objective is met by developing a steady-state simulation of the entire plant and then using dynamic simulations of the hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)/Gas Turbine sub-system to investigate the turbo-machinery performance. From these investigations the desired performance characteristics and a basis for design of turbo-machinery for use in a fuel cell gas turbine power block is developed.

A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

The DOE water cycle pilot study.  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) formed a Water Cycle Study Group (Hornberger et al. 2001) to organize research efforts in regional hydrologic variability, the extent to which this variability is caused by human activity, and the influence of ecosystems. The USGCRP Water Cycle Study Group was followed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Cycle Research Plan (Department of Energy 2002) that outlined an approach toward improving seasonal-to-interannual hydroclimate predictability and closing a regional water budget. The DOE Water Cycle Research Plan identified key research areas, including a comprehensive long-term observational database to support model development, and to develop a better understanding of the relationship between the components of local water budgets and large scale processes. In response to this plan, a multilaboratory DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) demonstration project began with a focus on studying the water budget and its variability at multiple spatial scales. Previous studies have highlighted the need for continued efforts to observationally close a local water budget, develop a numerical model closure scheme, and further quantify the scales in which predictive accuracy are optimal. A concerted effort within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-funded Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) put forth a strategy to understand various hydrometeorological processes and phenomena with an aim toward closing the water and energy budgets of regional watersheds (Lawford 1999, 2001). The GCIP focus on such regional budgets includes the measurement of all components and reduction of the error in the budgets to near zero. To approach this goal, quantification of the uncertainties in both measurements and modeling is required. Model uncertainties within regional climate models continue to be evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (Takle et al. 1999), and model uncertainties within land surface models are being evaluated within the Program to Intercompare Land Surface Schemes (e.g., Henderson-Sellers 1993; Wood et al. 1998; Lohmann et al. 1998). In the context of understanding the water budget at watershed scales, the following two research questions that highlight DOE's unique water isotope analysis and high-performance modeling capabilities were posed as the foci of this pilot study: (1) Can the predictability of the regional water budget be improved using high-resolution model simulations that are constrained and validated with new hydrospheric water measurements? (2) Can water isotopic tracers be used to segregate different pathways through the water cycle and predict a change in regional climate patterns? To address these questions, numerical studies using regional atmospheric-land surface models and multiscale land surface hydrologic models were generated and, to the extent possible, the results were evaluated with observations. While the number of potential processes that may be important in the local water budget is large, several key processes were examined in detail. Most importantly, a concerted effort was made to understand water cycle processes and feedbacks at the land surface-atmosphere interface at spatial scales ranging from 30 m to hundreds of kilometers. A simple expression for the land surface water budget at the watershed scale is expressed as {Delta}S = P + G{sub in} - ET - Q - G{sub out}, where {Delta}S is the change in water storage, P is precipitation, ET is evapotranspiration, Q is streamflow, G{sub in} is groundwater entering the watershed, and G{sub out} is groundwater leaving the watershed, per unit time. The WCPS project identified data gaps and necessary model improvements that will lead to a more accurate representation of the terms in Eq. (1). Table 1 summarizes the components of this water cycle pilot study and the respective participants. The following section provides a description of the surface observation and modeling sit

Miller, N. L.; King, A. W.; Miller, M. A.; Springer, E. P.; Wesely, M. L.; Bashford, K. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P. N.; Gibbs, H. K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B. M.; Machavaram, M. V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washngton-Allen, R. A.; Environmental Research; LBNL; ORNL; BNL; LANL

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Colloidal Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For the tests involving foulant mass measurements and effect of surfactants, a predetermined initial flux to distinguish between two cases. For RO, nanofiltration (NF), and perhaps "tight" ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and, thus, reduces the product water flux (4). For microfiltration (MF) membranes, pore plugging

Elimelech, Menachem

293

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

294

Tools for supercritical carbon dioxide cycle analysis and the cycle's applicability to sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) and the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-C0?) Recompression cycle are two technologies that have the potential to impact the power generation landscape of the future. In order for their ...

Ludington, Alexander R. (Alexander Rockwell)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Life Cycle Assessments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impacts of products, processes, and services. Its quality depends on the life cycle inventory (LCI) data it uses. "In principle, all decisions that affect or are meant to improve...

296

Comprehensive Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle/Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of water and steam is central to ensuring combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plant component availability and reliability. These guidelines for combined cycle/HRSG plants provide information on the application of all-volatile treatment (AVT), oxygenated treatment (OT), phosphate treatment (PT), caustic treatment (CT), and amine treatment. The guidelines will help operators reduce corrosion and deposition and thereby achieve significant operation and maintenance cost ...

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

297

Development of Geothermal Binary Cycle Working Fluid Properties Information and Analysis of Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research discussed in this report was performed at the University of Oklahoma during the period January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. Efforts were directed principally to the following tasks: (1) comparisons of mixture and pure fluid cascade cycles, (2) development of guidelines for working fluid selection for single boiler cycles, (3) continued evaluation of mixtures as working fluids, (4) working fluid thermophysical property correlation and presentations of properties information.

Starling, Kenneth E.; Iqbal, K.Z.; Malik, Z.I.; Chu, C.T.; Ramaswamy, S.; Kumar, K.H.; Lee, T. J.; Brule, M.R.; Aly, F.; Brunsman, K.J.; Plumb, P.

1979-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Progress in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production. [Oxide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid cycles; bromide-sulfate cycles; sulfuric acid-sulfur cycles; hybrid cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Program to develop thermochemical processes for hydrogen production is based on attempts to develop criteria required of an ideal process and to search for types of thermochemical cycles that approximate these criteria. The advantages of reactions with large entropy changes have been demonstrated. The necessity for experimental verification of conceptual cycles has become apparent from the program. This necessity has been stressed in the paper. It should be emphasized that any comparison of conceptual cycles or of engineering or cost analyses must eventually be based on real, rather than assumed, data. (auth)

Bowman, M.G.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

MHK Technologies/Closed Cycle OTEC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Closed Cycle OTEC Closed Cycle OTEC < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Closed Cycle OTEC.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Marine Development Associates Inc Technology Resource Click here OTEC Technology Type Click here OTEC - Closed Cycle Technology Description Closed Cycle System Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 02:50.8 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=MHK_Technologies/Closed_Cycle_OTEC&oldid=681555" Category: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load)

300

Total energy cycle emissions and energy use of electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to provide estimates of changes in life cycle energy use and emissions that would occur with the introduction of EVs. The topics covered include a synopsis of the methodology used in the project, stages in the EV and conventional vehicle energy cycles, characterization of EVs by type and driving cycle, load analysis and capacity of the electric utility, analysis of the materials used for vehicle and battery, description of the total energy cycle analysis model, energy cycle primary energy resource consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, energy cycle emissions, and conclusions.

Singh, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Series-parallel orientations preserving the cycle-radius  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let G be an undirected 2-edge connected graph with nonnegative edge weights and a distinguished vertex z. For every node consider a shortest cycle containing this node and z in G. The cycle-radius of G is the maximum length of a cycle in this set. Let H be a directed graph obtained by directing the edges of G. The cycle-radius of H is similarly defined except that cycles are replaced by directed closed walks. We prove that there exists for every nonnegative edge weight function an orientation H of G whose cycle-radius equals that of G if and only if G is series-parallel. 1

Nili Guttmann-beck; Refael Hassin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fuel Cycle Technology Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Technology Documents Fuel Cycle Technology Documents January 11, 2013 Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Issued on January 11, 2013, the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an integrated system capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power generation, defense, national security and other activities. October 30, 2012 2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security

303

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

304

Use expander cycles for LPG recovery  

SciTech Connect

Expander-type cycles are competitive with other gas recovery processes even when applied to relatively rich gas feeds for a high recovery of only propane plus. These cycles are the most economical to use when (1) ''free pressure drop'' is available between feed and residue gas pressure; (2) product requires demethanization only; (3) feed is very lean and propane plus heavier components are required; (4) a small, unattended, prefabricated unit for LPG recovery is needed; (5) an offshore LPG facility is required to be built on a platform where space and weight allowance is at a premium; (6) a facility is initially built for propane recovery, but is planned for future conversion to ethane recovery; and (7) relatively low-pressure gas feeds (which are usually quite rich) must be processed for a high recovery of ethane. A flow chart for an oil absorption plant is presented.

Valdes, A.R.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m/sup 3//GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m/sup 3//GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste.

Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Improved Linear Programming Decoding using Frustrated Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider transmission over a binary-input additive white Gaussian noise channel using low-density parity-check codes. One of the most popular techniques for decoding low-density parity-check codes is the linear programming decoder. In general, the linear programming decoder is suboptimal. I.e., the word error rate is higher than the optimal, maximum a posteriori decoder. In this paper we present a systematic approach to enhance the linear program decoder. More precisely, in the cases where the linear program outputs a fractional solution, we give a simple algorithm to identify frustrated cycles which cause the output of the linear program to be fractional. Then adding these cycles, adaptively to the basic linear program, we show improved word error rate performance.

Kudekar, Shrinivas; Chertkov, Misha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Transportation implications of a closed fuel cycle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation for each step of a closed fuel cycle is analyzed in consideration of the availability of appropriate transportation infrastructure. The United States has both experience and certified casks for transportation that may be required by this cycle, except for the transport of fresh and used MOX fuel and fresh and used Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel. Packaging that had been used for other fuel with somewhat similar characteristics may be appropriate for these fuels, but would be inefficient. Therefore, the required neutron and gamma shielding, heat dissipation, and criticality were calculated for MOX and ABR fresh and spent fuel. Criticality would not be an issue, but the packaging design would need to balance neutron shielding and regulatory heat dissipation requirements.

Bullard, Tim (University of Nevada - Reno); Bays, Samuel (Idaho National Laboratory); Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Dixon, Brent (Idaho National Laboratory); Greiner, Miles (University of Nevada - Reno)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Closed cycle cogeneration for the future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While present energy needs can be met with available supplies of fossil fuels, the need to plan for the eventual elimination of dependence on premium fuels in utility and industrial applications remains urgent. One of the most promising power conversion technologies for these needs is the closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) configured for power and heat production. Closed cycle gas turbines have been in commercial use, principally in Europe, for over four decades. That experience base, combined with emerging awareness of potential CCGT applications, could lead to the operation of coal-fired CCGT cogeneration systems in the U.S. within the next decade. This paper discusses the multi-fuel capability of the CCGT and compares its performance as a flexible cogeneration system with that of a more conventional steam turbine system.

Crim, W.M.; Fraize, W.E.; Kinney, G.; Malone, G.A.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity.

Leuze, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Life-Cycle Analysis Process Steps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Example of a life-cycle inventory for an unspecified product...70 Nontoxic chemicals 2,000 Water effluents, mg COD 1,000 BOD 150 Acid, as H + 75 Nitrates 5 Metals 300 Ammonium ions 5 Chloride ions 120 Dissolved organics 20 Suspended solids 400 Oil 100 Hydrocarbons 100 Phenol 1 Dissolved solids 400 Phosphate 5 Other nitrogen 10 Sulfate ions 10 COD, chemical...

312

TITAN'S TRANSPORT-DRIVEN METHANE CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms behind the occurrence of large cloud outbursts and precipitation on Titan have been disputed. A global- and annual-mean estimate of surface fluxes indicated only 1% of the insolation, or {approx}0.04 W m{sup -2}, is exchanged as sensible and/or latent fluxes. Since these fluxes are responsible for driving atmospheric convection, it has been argued that moist convection should be quite rare and precipitation even rarer, even if evaporation globally dominates the surface-atmosphere energy exchange. In contrast, climate simulations indicate substantial cloud formation and/or precipitation. We argue that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative imbalance is diagnostic of horizontal heat transport by Titan's atmosphere, and thus constrains the strength of the methane cycle. Simple calculations show the TOA radiative imbalance is {approx}0.5-1 W m{sup -2} in Titan's equatorial region, which implies 2-3 MW of latitudinal heat transport by the atmosphere. Our simulation of Titan's climate suggests this transport may occur primarily as latent heat, with net evaporation at the equator and net accumulation at higher latitudes. Thus, the methane cycle could be 10-20 times previous estimates. Opposing seasonal transport at solstices, compensation by sensible heat transport, and focusing of precipitation by large-scale dynamics could further enhance the local, instantaneous strength of Titan's methane cycle by a factor of several. A limited supply of surface liquids in regions of large surface radiative imbalance may throttle the methane cycle, and if so, we predict more frequent large storms over the lakes district during Titan's northern summer.

Mitchell, Jonathan L. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

Nuclear Plant Life Cycle Management Implementation Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The day-to-day pressures of operation, limited budgets, and regulatory scrutiny of nuclear power plants focus on the present or short term, and may preempt cost-beneficial activities with long-term pay-off. This guide to implementing life-cycle management (LCM) fosters long-range thinking and decision making focused on profitability in the new competitive era of electricity production.

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

G Zero and the Cell Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

G Zero and the Cell Cycle G Zero and the Cell Cycle Name: Frank Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: When a cell "decides" that it does not need to undergo mitosis, but instead, it will just remain an "adult" and accomplish all of its other functions until it "dies," does it then just lock in to its G-2 stage, or is the G-1 stage it's final adult resting place. My recent studies are confusing me about whether the cell is adult and has its correct number of chromosomes in G-1 or in G-2. Replies: A cell does not enter the Gap 2 (G2) stage unless it is definitely going to complete mitosis and cytokinesis. The Synthesis (S) phase is a commitment to cell division. The stage you are referring to is called the G zero state and the cell does not enter the synthesis stage after completing the Gap 1 growth phase (G1), but enters the G0 to proceed with its function. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the G0 may re-enter the cell cycle and move into mitosis with the proper signals.

316

SOFC combined cycle systems for distributed generation  

SciTech Connect

The final phase of the tubular SOFC development program will focus on the development and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC)/gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power systems for distributed power applications. The commercial PSOFC/GT product line will cover the power range 200 kWe to 50 MWe, and the electrical efficiency for these systems will range from 60 to 75% (net AC/LHV CH4), the highest of any known fossil fueled power generation technology. The first demonstration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine combined cycle will be a proof-of-concept 250 kWe PSOFC/MTG power system consisting of a single 200 kWe PSOFC module and a 50 kWe microturbine generator (MTG). The second demonstration of this combined cycle will be 1.3 MWe fully packaged, commercial prototype PSOFC/GT power system consisting of two 500 kWe PSOFC modules and a 300 kWe gas turbine.

Brown, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

Trond Bjornard; Humberto Garcia; William Desmond; Scott Demuth

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the experimental combustion evaluations to several specific technologies that can be used with HAT technology. After 5 years of extensive research and development, P&W is pleased to report that the HAT Technology Development Program goals have been achieved. With 0 to 10 percent steam addition, emissions achieved during this program featured less than 8 ppm NO{sub x}, less than 16 ppm CO, and unburned hydrocarbons corrected to 15 percent O{sub 2} for an FT8 engine operating between 0 and 120 F with 65 to 100 percent power at any day.

Richard Tuthill

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

320

Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Resources Information Resources Site Map Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on AddThis.com... Publications Software FAQs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

322

Production and Handling Slide 3: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle See caption below for image description The second step in the uranium fuel cycle...

323

Production and Handling Slide 23: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The fourth major step in the uranium fuel cycle is uranium enrichment. Slide 23...

324

Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle under historical and future climate change is examined using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, now coupled to a dynamic terrestrial vegetation and global carbon cycle model. When ...

H. Damon Matthews; Andrew J. Weaver; Katrin J. Meissner

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

An Hourly Assimilation–Forecast Cycle: The RUC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), an operational regional analysis–forecast system among the suite of models at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), is distinctive in two primary aspects: its hourly assimilation cycle and its use ...

Stanley G. Benjamin; Dezsö Dévényi; Stephen S. Weygandt; Kevin J. Brundage; John M. Brown; Georg A. Grell; Dongsoo Kim; Barry E. Schwartz; Tatiana G. Smirnova; Tracy Lorraine Smith; Geoffrey S. Manikin

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Surface-cycling of rhenium and its isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of elemental and isotopic metal palaeoredox tracers to the geologic past rests on an understanding of modern metal cycles. This study reevaluates the surface-cycling of Mo and Re in near-surface reservoirs. ...

Miller, Christian Alexander

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

An Analysis of Profit Cycles In the Airline Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to understand the financial dynamics of the airline industry by identifying profit cycle periods of the industry and their driving factors. Assuming that the industry profit cycles could be ...

Jiang, Helen Hong

328

Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the Nuclear Pore  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the Nuclear Pore Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the Nuclear Pore Print Thursday, 13 June 2013 09:30 Pictured is an illustration...

329

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Natural Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System.combined with separate accounting for the use of energy in fuel production, is referred to as full- fuel- cycle (

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications Planning Documents U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap, February 2009 U.S. Life Cycle Inventory User Survey, February 2009 U.S. LCI Database Factsheet, March...

331

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

Deru, M.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Innovative thermal cooling cycles for use in cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses working fluids, the use in thermodynamic cycles and cogeneration. An emphasis is put on energy efficiency of the cycles and alternative fluids. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (CBS)

Skalafuris, A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

WATCH: Current Knowledge of the Terrestrial Global Water Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-related impacts are among the most important consequences of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Changes in the global water cycle will also impact the carbon and nutrient cycles and vegetation patterns. There is already some evidence ...

Richard Harding; Martin Best; Eleanor Blyth; Stefan Hagemann; Pavel Kabat; Lena M. Tallaksen; Tanya Warnaars; David Wiberg; Graham P. Weedon; Henny van Lanen; Fulco Ludwig; Ingjerd Haddeland

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with ...

Elizabeth M. Stone; William J. Randel; John L. Stanford

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Darsim: A Parallel Cycle-Level NoC Simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present DARSIM, a parallel, highly configurable, cycle-level network-on-chip simulator based on an ingress-queued wormhole router architecture. The parallel simulation engine offers cycle-accurate as well as periodic ...

Devadas, Srinivas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The probability of long cycles in interchange processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the number of cycles of length k in a permutation, as a function on the symmetric group. We write it explicitly as a combination of characters of irreducible representations. This allows to study formation of long cycles in the interchange process, including a precise formula for the probability that the permutation is one long cycle at a given time t, and estimates for the cases of shorter cycles.

Alon, Gil

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

High Cycle Fatigue in a Single Crystal Superalloy: Time ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Single crystal superalloys, High cycle fatigue, Environmental coatings, Rupture ... modes were modeled separately and then combined into a damage.

338

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Estimation of Waste Packaging Containers Generated by Households in Taiwan · The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes.

340

Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Increased Enrichment/High Burnup and Light Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization

Jeffrey R. Secker; Baard J. Johansen; David L. Stucker; Odelli Ozer; Kostadin Ivanov; Serkan Yilmaz; E. H. Young

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

PHEV Energy Storage and Drive Cycle Impacts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plug-in Hybrid vehicles energy storage and drive cycle impacts, presented at the 7th Advanced Automotive Battery Conference.

Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

342

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Dataset Additions - November...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Inventory Database Dataset Additions - Type Category Dataset Name Chemical Manufacturing Polylactide Biopolymer Resin, at plant Chemical Manufacturing Recycled...

343

Environmental Cycling of Cellulosic Thermal Insulation and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cellulosic insulation industry, lengthy conditioning cycles and testing -8- ... energy using a flux profile generated during test ... and Technology, Vol. ...

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

344

MHK Technologies/Kalina Cycle OTEC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kalina Cycle OTEC Kalina Cycle OTEC < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Kalina Cycle OTEC.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Ocean Engineering and Energy Systems Technology Resource Click here OTEC Technology Type Click here OTEC - Closed Cycle Technology Description Kalina Cycle The Kalina Cycle is a variation of the more conventional closed cycle OTEC system incorporating aqueous ammonia ammonia water mixture as the working fluid instead of the conventional ammonia or propylene working fluid employed in earlier designs of closed cycle OTEC power systems The Kalina Cycle is a break through technology for OTEC power systems providing a nearly 80 increase in efficiency over previous closed cycle designs Because the ammonia water concentrations can be varied throughout the system to optimize according to system temperatures sort of a designer working fluid and by adding an extra component the recuperator heat losses generally experienced in other closed cycle designs can be minimized and recovered thereby improving the overall efficiency of the power cycle

345

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Modeling Behavior Cycles as a Value System for Developmental Robots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of natural systems is governed by rhythmic behavior cycles at the biological, cognitive, and social levels. These cycles permit natural organisms to adapt their behavior to their environment for survival, behavioral efficiency, or evolutionary ... Keywords: SART networks, behavior cycles, developmental robotics, motivated reinforcement learning, neural networks

Kathryn E. Merrick

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cell cycle nucleic acids, polypeptides and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides isolated nucleic acids and their encoded proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation. The invention further provides recombinant expression cassettes, host cells, transgenic plants, and antibody compositions. The present invention provides methods and compositions relating to altering cell cycle protein content, cell cycle progression, cell number and/or composition of plants.

Gordon-Kamm, William J. (Urbandale, IA); Lowe, Keith S. (Johnston, IA); Larkins, Brian A. (Tucson, AZ); Dilkes, Brian R. (Tucson, AZ); Sun, Yuejin (Westfield, IN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Overview of recent supercritical binary geothermal cycle experiments from the Heat Cycle Research Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility East Mesa, California involves supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing in an organic Rankine cycle. Results of the experiments are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. The heater and condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research, Inc. computer codes used for correlation of the data was in excellent agreement with experimental results. A special series of tests, conducted with propane and up to approximately 40% isopentane concentration, indicated that a close approach to ''integral'' condensation was occurring in the vertically-oriented condenser. Preliminary results of tests in which the turbine expansion ''passed through the two-phase region'' did not indicate efficiency degradation assignable to these metastable expansion processes.

Demuth, O.J.; Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.; Swank, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Proceedings: Ninth International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants with Heat Recovery Steam Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proper selection, application, and optimization of cycle chemistry have long been recognized as integral to ensuring the highest possible levels of component availability and reliability in fossil-fired generating plant units. These proceedings of the Ninth EPRI International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants address state-of-the-art practices in conventional and combined-cycle plants. The content provides a worldwide perspective on cycle chemistry practices and insight on industry issues an...

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

351

An Economic Analysis of Select Fuel Cycles Using the Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycles Schemes (SMAFS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is currently considering alternatives to the current U.S. once-through fuel cycle. This report evaluates the relative economics of three alternative fuel cycles to determine those cost components important to overall fuel cycle costs and total generation costs. The analysis determined that the unit cost of nuclear reactors is the most important nuclear generation cost parameter in future fuel cycles. The report also evaluates ...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

352

Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Kinetics of pyroprocesses in ATW fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) combines the technologies of accelerators and reactors to treat the nuclear waste problem. An ATW system uses a high-current accelerator to generate spallation neutrons to initiate the transmutation of actinides and select fission products in a subcritical nuclear assembly surrounding the target volume. For high burnup and efficient operation, an ATW system requires simple, reliable, and efficient fuel preparation and cleanup procedures to periodically remove {open_quotes}neutron poisons.{close_quotes} We have identified several fuel cycles based on pyroprocessing.

Li, Ning; Hu, Y.C.; Park, B.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

Lewandowski, G.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

356

Energy storage for tokamak reactor cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The inherent characteristic of a tokamak reactor requiring periodic plasma quench and reignition introduces the problem of energy storage to permit continuous electrical output to the power grid. The cycle under consideration in this paper is a 1000 second burn followed by a 100 second reignition phase. The physical size of a typical toroidal plasma reaction chamber for a tokamak reactor has been described earlier. The thermal energy storage requirements described in this reference will serve as a basis for much of the ensuing discussion.

Buchanan, C.H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Future nuclear fuel cycles: prospects and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction has played, from the early steps, a major role in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies, both in the front end and back end. Today's stakes in the field of energy enhance further than before the need for a sustainable management of nuclear materials. Recycling actinides appears as a main guideline, as much for saving resources as for minimizing the final waste impact, and many options can be considered. Strengthened by the important and outstanding performance of recent PUREX processing plants, solvent-extraction processes seem a privileged route to meet the new and challenging requirements of sustainable future nuclear systems. (author)

Boullis, Bernard [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Centre de Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Coal combined cycle system study. Volume I. Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential advantages for proceeding with demonstration of coal-fueled combined cycle power plants through retrofit of a few existing utility steam plants have been evaluated. Two combined cycle concepts were considered: Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) combined cycle and gasification combined cycle. These concepts were compared with AFB steam plants, conventional steam plants with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), and refueling such as with coal-oil mixtures. The ultimate targets are both new plants and conversion of existing plants. Combined cycle plants were found to be most competitive with conventional coal plants and offered lower air emissions and less adverse environmental impact. A demonstration is a necessary step toward commercialization.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The role of life cycle analysis in considering product change  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle analysis is an important tool for determining the environmental impacts of products and packaging. A complete life cycle analysis consists of three phases: life cycle inventory, impact analysis, and improvement analysis. Life cycle inventory examines the energy and resource usage and environmental releases associated with a product system from cradle to grave, that is, from the extraction of raw materials through raw material processing; manufacture, transportation, and use of the product; and, finally, disposal, reuse, or recycling of the product. Life cycle inventory results can be used to identify areas for improving product and packaging systems in terms of reducing energy usage, resource usage, and environmental releases.

Rethmeyer, D.A. (Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Improving the efficiency of binary cycles  

SciTech Connect

The performance of binary geothermal power plants can be improved through the proper choice of a working fluid, and optimization of component designs and operating conditions. This paper summarizes the investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which are examining binary cycle performance improvements for moderate temperature (350 to 400 F) resources. These investigations examine performance improvements resulting from the supercritical vaporization and countercurrent integral condensation of mixed hydrocarbon working fluids, as well as the modification of the turbine inlet state points to achieve supersaturated turbine vapor expansions. For resources, with the brine outlet temperature restricted, the use of turbine exhaust recuperators is examined. The reference plant used to determine improvements in plant performance in these studies operates at conditions similar to the 45 MW Heber binary plant. The brine effectiveness (watt-hours per pound of brine) is used as an indicator for improvements in performance. The performance of the binary cycle can be improved by 25 to 30% relative to the reference plant through the selection of the optimum working fluids and operating conditions, achieving countercurrent integral condensation, and allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Mines, G.L.; Bliem, C.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Testing of a Stirling cycle cooler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stirling cycle coolers have long been used as low temperature refrigeration devices. They are relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and use helium as the working fluid. The Stirling cycle, in principle, can be used for household refrigeration and heat pumping applications as well. Currently, these applications are almost entirely provided by the vapor compression technology using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as working fluids. It has been known that CFCs cause depletion of the ozone layer that protects the earth against harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. A recent report of a ''hole'' in the ozone layer above Antarctica and of possible environmental and health consequences from ozone depletion aroused public attention. The urgent need to reduce the future used of CFCs should instigate investigation of non-CFC alternative technologies. The Stirling cooler technology, which does not use CFCs, could be a viable alternative. A laboratory test of the performance of a Stirling cooler is reported and its implications for household refrigeration are explored. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Chen, F.C.; Keshock, E.G.; Murphy, R.W.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is disclosed which is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

Ritter, D.F.; St. Clair, J.A.; Togami, H.K.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

Ritter, Don F. (Albuquerque, NM); St. Clair, Jack A. (Albuquerque, NM); Togami, Henry K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Uncertainty quantification of limit-cycle oscillations  

SciTech Connect

Different computational methodologies have been developed to quantify the uncertain response of a relatively simple aeroelastic system in limit-cycle oscillation, subject to parametric variability. The aeroelastic system is that of a rigid airfoil, supported by pitch and plunge structural coupling, with nonlinearities in the component in pitch. The nonlinearities are adjusted to permit the formation of a either a subcritical or supercritical branch of limit-cycle oscillations. Uncertainties are specified in the cubic coefficient of the torsional spring and in the initial pitch angle of the airfoil. Stochastic projections of the time-domain and cyclic equations governing system response are carried out, leading to both intrusive and non-intrusive computational formulations. Non-intrusive formulations are examined using stochastic projections derived from Wiener expansions involving Haar wavelet and B-spline bases, while Wiener-Hermite expansions of the cyclic equations are employed intrusively and non-intrusively. Application of the B-spline stochastic projection is extended to the treatment of aerodynamic nonlinearities, as modeled through the discrete Euler equations. The methodologies are compared in terms of computational cost, convergence properties, ease of implementation, and potential for application to complex aeroelastic systems.

Beran, Philip S. [Multidisciplinary Technologies Center, Air Vehicles Directorate, AFRL/VASD, Building 146, 2210 Eighth Street, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)]. E-mail: philip.beran@wpafb.af.mil; Pettit, Chris L. [United States Naval Academy, 590 Holloway Rd., MS 11-B, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)]. E-mail: pettitcl@usna.edu; Millman, Daniel R. [USAF TPS/EDT, 220 South Wolfe Ave, Bldg. 1220, Rm. 131, Edwards AFB, CA 93524-6485 (United States)]. E-mail: daniel.millman@edwards.af.mil

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heat Cycle Research Experimental Program, FY-1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California is presently being conducted to meet this objective. Current testing involves a supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing system. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility and a discussion of the test program. Results of the experiments for the supercritical heaters and the countercurrent, vertical, in-tube condenser are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. The heater and condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research Institute computer codes used for correlation of the data was in excellent agreement with experimental results. Preliminary results of tests in which the turbine expansion ''passed through the two-phase region'' did not indicate efficiency degradation assignable to these metastable expansion processes. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Bliem, C.J.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.L.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cascading Closed Loop Cycle Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WOW Energies was issued Patent 6,857,268 B2 on Feb 22, 2005 titled “CASCADING CLOSED LOOP CYCLE (CCLC) and Patent 7,096,665 B2 on August 29, 2006 titled “CASCADING CLOSED LOOP CYCLE POWER GENERATION”. These patented technologies are collectively marketed as WOWGen®. The WOW Energies patents represent the production of efficient power from low, medium and high temperature heat generated from the combustion of fuels; heat from renewable energy sources such as solar and geothermal heat; or waste heat sources. Waste heat sources can be in the form of exhaust stack flue gases; waste heat from vented steam or steam discharged from steam turbines; hot water; hot oils or combined waste heat sources. A major advantage of the WOWGen® power plant is the ability to produce power without the use, consumption or contamination of valuable water resources. Production of power from waste heat and renewable energy sources is the most viable path to energy independence from foreign oil and reduced emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. The WOWGen® power plant inherently reduces emissions and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) by producing power from waste heat without consuming fuel, thus increasing the overall energy efficiency of any industrial plant or power generation facility. The presentation will focus on the technology and provide case studies of its application.

Romero, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

370

Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Development » Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents November 8, 2011 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. July 11, 2011 Nuclear Separations Technologies Workshop Report

371

NREL: Energy Analysis - Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Factsheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Download the Factsheet Flowchart that shows the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power systems. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Figure 1. Process flow diagram illustrating the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The yellow box defined by the grey line shows the systems boundaries assumed in harmonization. Enlarge image NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review literature on life cycle assessments of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, identify

372

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Learn about how NREL research analysts are evaluating various LCA studies in the Life Cycle Analysis Harmonization Project. NREL is a leader in the field of life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy technologies, both renewable and conventional. Life cycle assessment is a standardized technique that tracks all material, energy, and pollutant flows of a system-from raw material extraction, manufacturing, transport, and construction to operation and end-of-life disposal. Life cycle assessment can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate comparisons of energy technologies. Life cycle assessments provide a well-established and comprehensive framework to compare renewable energy technologies with fossil-based and

373

Interfacing primary heat sources and cycles for thermochemical hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advantages cited for hydrogen production from water by coupling thermochemical cycles with primary heat include the possibility of high efficiencies. These can be realized only if the cycle approximates the criteria required to match the characteristics of the heat source. Different types of cycles may be necessary for fission reactors, for fusion reactors or for solar furnaces. Very high temperature processes based on decomposition of gaseous H/sub 2/O or CO/sub 2/ appear impractical even for projected solar technology. Cycles based on CdO decomposition are potentially quite efficient and require isothermal heat at temperatures that may be available from solar furnaces of fusion reactors. Sulfuric acid and solid sulfate cycles are potentially useful at temperatures available from each heat source. Solid sulfate cycles offer advantages for isothermal heat sources. All cycles under development include concentration and drying steps. Novel methods for improving such operations would be beneficial.

Bowman, M.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal electricity production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle analysis (LCA) is presented for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy use associated with geothermal electricity production with a special focus on operational GHG emissions from hydrothermal flash and dry steam plants. The analysis includes results for both the plant and fuel cycle components of the total life cycle. The impact of recent changes to California's GHG reporting protocol for GHG emissions are discussed by comparing emission rate metrics derived from post and pre revision data sets. These metrics are running capacity weighted average GHG emission rates (g/kWh) and emission rate cumulative distribution functions. To complete our life cycle analysis plant cycle results were extracted from our previous work and added to fuel cycle results. The resulting life cycle fossil energy and greenhouse gas emissions values are compared among a range of fossil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The performance of a flashing binary combined cycle for geothermal power generation is analysed. It is proposed to utilize hot residual brine from the separator in flashing-type plants to run a binary cycle, thereby producing incremental power. Parametric variations were carried out to determine the optimum performance of the combined cycle. Comparative evaluation with the simple flashing plant was made to assess its thermodynamic potential and economic viability. Results of the analyses indicate that the combined cycle can generate 13-28% more power than the

376

Fuel Cycle Research & Development | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Research & Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit proliferation risk. The FCRD program will develop a suite of options to enable future policymakers to make informed decisions about how best to manage used fuel from nuclear reactors. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow commercial deployment of solutions for the sustainable management of used

377

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethanol; NGCC = natural gas combined-cycle; BIGCC =gasification combined-cycle. P ART III U NCERTAINTY Aaverage, (ii) natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC), (iii) coal

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant.Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant.assessment of natural gas combined cycle power plant with

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The Combined Otto and Stirling Cycle Prime-Mover-Based Power Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? An exploratory study of the combined Otto and Stirling cycle prime mover is presented. The Stirling cycle acts as the bottoming cycle on the… (more)

Cullen, Barry, (Thesis)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combined-cycle systems have been performed. Dersch et al, 2004 [2] studied how parabolic troughs could the other part. That approach is relevant for trough systems, but not appropriate in the case of point been used with solar ponds in Israel [5] and low-temperature parabolic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

384

GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Li Li 收件人 School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology Battery Recycling: How to Make It Happen Analysis can help identify a clear path for battery production and recycling  Purpose is to clear the road for mass-market introduction of battery-powered vehicles by identifying any roadblocks on the way  Life cycle analysis (LCA) is used to identify significant environmental issues  Availability of recycling processes can:  Assure against major waste problems at end-of-life  Reduce environmental impacts  Reduce raw material supply issues  Reduce net material costs  Create viable business opportunities  Economic and institutional constraints must also be accounted for

385

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Site Hydrogen Research Center 301 Gateway Drive Aiken, SC 29803 Accommodations Country Inn & Suites Aiken 3270 Whiskey Road Aiken, SC 29803 (803) 649-4024 RESERVATIONS: The cut-off date for guest room block reservations is Wednesday, February 22, 2012. We have a block of rooms reserved at this hotel at the government per diem rate of $86.00 per night. Please reference DOE -NE Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group Meeting when making your reservations to the get the government rate. Reservations will be by individual call-in, per your institutional protocol. Here is a listing of other hotels that offer government room rates. Please note that we do not have rooms reserved at the list locations, only Country Inn & Suites in Aiken. Maps Maps to SRNL from Columbia, Aiken, and Augusta

386

Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

Solar has a vested interest in integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuels (particularly solid oxide fuel cells[SOFC]); this would be a backup for achieving efficiencies on the order of 60% with low exhaust emissions. Preferred cycle is with the fuel cell as a topping system to the gas turbine; bottoming arrangements (fuel cells using the gas turbine exhaust as air supply) would likely be both larger and less efficient unless complex steam bottoming systems are added. The combined SOFC and gas turbine will have an advantage because it will have lower NOx emissions than any heat engine system. Market niche for initial product entry will be the dispersed or distributed power market in nonattainment areas. First entry will be of 1-2 MW units between the years 2000 and 2004. Development requirements are outlined for both the fuel cell and the gas turbine.

White, D.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Avestar® - Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator The AVESTAR® center offers courses using the Combined Cycle Simulator, focusing on the power generation process after gasification. This simulator is well-suited for concentrated training on operation and control of the gas and steam turbines; condensate, feed water, and circulating water systems; heat recovery steam generator; and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. Combined cycle simulator startup operations include bringing up the gas turbine to rated speed on natural gas and then switching over to the firing of synthesis gas. Key capabilities of the Combined Cycle Simulator include: Combined Cycle Simulator Operator training station HMI display for overview of Gas Turbine - Train A Normal base load operation

388

Property:Incentive/CodeChgCycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CodeChgCycle CodeChgCycle Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/CodeChgCycle Property Type Text Description Code Change Cycle. Pages using the property "Incentive/CodeChgCycle" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) B Building Energy Code (Alabama) + No set schedule. Most recent update effective October 1, 2012 Building Energy Code (Alaska) + No set schedule. Most recent update effective: March 9, 2011 Building Energy Code (Arizona) + No set schedule. Arizona is a home rule state and legislation is the normal route through which changes in the energy code proceed. Building Energy Code (Arkansas) + No set schedule. Most recent residential update effective: October 1, 2004. Building Energy Code (California) + Three-year code change cycle. The 2008 Standards took effect January 1, 2010. The 2012 Standards are scheduled to take effect in 2014.

389

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings October 4, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis To help facility managers make sound decisions, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials assume discount rates and energy price projections determined

390

Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the light-water reactor, the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

Buschman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Thermodynamic and economic analysis of cogeneration steam cycles  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic models for two district heating, cogeneration steam cycles were developed in this study. These cycles are an extraction-condensing turbine cycle and a back-pressure turbine cycle. Heat and electrical outputs of these cycles were calculated for inlet conditions ranging from 580 psi, 752 F, to 1740 psi, 995 F (4 MPa, 400/sup 0/C to 12 MPa, 535/sup 0/C), and district heat supply temperatures ranging from 194 F to 248 F (90/sup 0/C to 120/sup 0/C). Furthermore, the performance of these cycles from 0 to 100% of their maximum heat outputs were examined. A simple method of economic analysis based on annual costs was developed, which can take part-load operations into consideration. An extraction-condensing system and a back-pressure system were compared using this method.

Derbentli, T.; Kuehn, T.H.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe Dominique Warin Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Report 6/15/2011 2 I. Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue

393

NREL: Energy Analysis - Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Over the last 30 years, analysts have conducted life cycle assessments on the environmental impacts associated with a variety of nuclear power technologies and systems. These life cycle assessments have had wide-ranging results. To better understand greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from nuclear power systems, NREL completed a comprehensive review and analysis of life cycle assessments focused on light water reactors (LWRs)-including both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs)-published between 1980 and 2010. NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life cycle assessment literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions

394

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

assessment of natural gas combined cycle power plant withAnalysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant.

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

919 919 Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop Workshop Date: February 19-21, 2013 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale iii Executive Summary As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an Environmental Molecular

396

Better Sensors and Controls for Cycling and Turndown  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the electrical generation mix (increase in renewable energy supply), relative costs of fossil fuels, and evolution of the system demand have resulted in greater reliance on cycling and turndown operation in fossil power plants. Coal and combined-cycle generating units are experiencing a combination of broader operating conditions and aging sensing and control equipment, which results in operating limitations during cycling and turndown. This report summarizes sensing and control ...

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

GasTurbine/Heat Recovery Steam Generator Cycle Alignment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this report are to outline a procedure for identifying common opportunities for combined cycle plant performance improvement; to define a framework to analyze these performance opportunities; and to describe the application of this methodology to achieve improved base load performance and part load operability. This overall integrated approach to combined cycle plant performance analysis is referred to as cycle alignment.Three cases are described for potential combined ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Advanced Control Demonstration on a Combined Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Company, Electricit de France (EDF), and EPRI have undertaken a project to demonstrate the applicability of advanced control techniques on a combined-cycle heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This report describes progress on the project during 2005 including model identification, the advanced controller design, controller program development, and controller testing in a simulation environment. A combined-cycle plant was selected as the host plant because many combined-cycle plants have chang...

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Correlating Cycle Duty with Cost at Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report is part of the ongoing EPRI Cycling Impacts Program to develop a range of analysis and simulation-capable planning tools. The objectives are to better determine cycling impacts (including incremental costs), reliability impact, component level effects, and impacts and other elements needed to better plan and manage operational and financial aspects of power generation. This report documents early efforts to establish strong correlations between the cycle duty of a produc...

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

402

Geothermal heat cycle research supercritical cycle with counterflow condenser in different orientations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. The utilization of these concepts verified here will improve the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) about 20% over that of a conventional binary power plant. The major effect in this improvement is the ability to achieve integral, countercurrent condensation. Results are presented for the recent testing including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations and comparison with new design-base computer programs. 9 refs., 9 figs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

Sohail Murad

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

404

Short-cycle higher education: Purposes and issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article deals with a worldwide movement called short-cycle higher education .... lowed less than a fair share of the combined budget, college faculties had.

405

Sustained Peak Low Cycle Fatigue: The Role of Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growth process continued by a combined process of oxidation and creep. ... of a model developed for crack growth during sustained peak low cycle fatigue.

406

Faster, More Efficient Redox Cycle to Split Water or ...  

heating or cooling is required between the respective ... using concentrated solar energy to provide thermal ... More Efficient Redox Cycle to Split W ...

407

Prevention of Compressor Short Cycling in Direct-Expansion (DX...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Units, Part 1: Theoretical Analysis and Simulation Title Prevention of Compressor Short Cycling in Direct-Expansion (DX) Rooftop Units, Part 1: Theoretical Analysis and Simulation...

408

Prevention of Compressor Short Cycling in Direct-Expansion (DX...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Units- Part 2: Field Investigation Title Prevention of Compressor Short Cycling in Direct-Expansion (DX) Rooftop Units- Part 2: Field Investigation Publication Type Journal Article...

409

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project ID: 143 Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Brief Description: Examines the social, environmental and economic impacts of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles. Purpose This project aims to investigate fuel cell vehicles through environmental impact, life cycle assessment, sustainability, and thermodynamic analyses. The project will assist in the development of highly qualified personnel in such areas as system analysis, modeling, methodology development, and applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Organization: University of Ontario Institute of Technology

410

Fuel Cycle Science & Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Radiochemical Separation & Processing Recycle & Waste Management Uranium Enrichment Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Fusion Nuclear Science Isotope Development and Production Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation Nuclear Systems Technology Reactor Technology Nuclear Science Home | Science & Discovery | Nuclear Science | Research Areas | Fuel Cycle Science & Technology SHARE Fuel Cycle Science and Technology The ORNL expertise and experience across the entire nuclear fuel cycle is underpinned by extensive facilities and a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability ORNL supports the understanding, development, evaluation and deployment of

411

Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions Dr. John P. Krasting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ensemble Modeling of Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions Dr. John P. Krasting geophysical fluid dynamics Laboratory Wednesday, Jan 23, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at...

412

Damage Evolution in Thermal Barrier Coatings with Thermal Cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermal barrier coatings typically fail on cooling after prolonged thermal cycling by the growth of sub-critical interface separations. Observations ...

413

Production and Handling Slide 37: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process generates two streams of uranium hexafluoride, one enriched in...

414

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System. NREL. http://extensively for electric power generation, and for dieselextensively for electric power generation, and for diesel

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Life cycle assessment parameters adaptation for Brazilian electricity production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electricity is a major concern in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of most products since it is a required input for production of almost all… (more)

Coelho, Carla

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycle Performance Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manufacturing and Sustainability, University of CaliforniaIntegrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life CycleManufacturing and Sustainability, University of California

Niggeschmidt, Stephan; Helu, Moneer; Diaz, Nancy; Behmann, Benjamin; Lanza, Gisela; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Changes in release cycles for EIA's International Energy Outlook ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Changes in release cycles for EIA's International Energy Outlook and Annual Energy Outlook. To focus more resources on rapidly changing energy markets and how they ...

419

High-Potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for trilateral and supercritical cycles will help realize economically viable geothermal power generation from a broader range of resources temperature. Economic power generation...

420

Efficient Modelling of Fast Cycle Adsorption for the Separation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the rate of cycling major increases in throughput can also be achieved. Objective Modelling a PSA system is inherently complex and hence our aim is to find valid...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

both of NREL, lent their expertise in life cycle assessment modeling and Jatropha production, and Dr. Mark Pitterle of Symbiotic Engineering aided in the literature survey...

422

Updated Uranium Fuel Cycle Environmental Impacts for Advanced Reactor Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to update the environmental impacts from the uranium fuel cycle for select advanced (GEN III+) reactor designs.

Nitschke, R.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

423

Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle. Author(s), Donna Post Guillen, Helge Klockow, Matthew Lehar, Sebastian

424

Production and Handling Slide 5: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refer to caption below for image description The third step in the uranium fuel cycle involves the conversion of "yellowcake" to uranium hexafluoride (UF6), the chemical form...

425

Production and Handling Slide 43: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description Enriched uranium hexafluoride, generally containing 3 to 5% uranium-235, is sent...

426

Process sensitivity of the hybrid sulphur thermochemical cycle / Gerhard Venter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A simple flowsheet of the hybrid sulphur cycle was devised and a steady state simulation thereof was built in Aspen. A sensitivity analysis was done… (more)

Venter, Gerhardus Petrus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

NREL: Energy Analysis - Hydropower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Hydropower OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas...

428

Analysis of Cycling Induced Fatigue in Electrode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Degradation in batteries due to electrochemical cycling of active electrode materials remains a challenging problem to meet new application's ...

429

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycle Performance Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycleenables the integration of green manufacturing principlesKeywords Life cycle cost, green manufacturing, monitoring 1

Niggeschmidt, Stephan; Helu, Moneer; Diaz, Nancy; Behmann, Benjamin; Lanza, Gisela; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Asymmetrically to Crude Oil Price Changes? ” QuarterlyGas Wars: Retail Gasoline Price Fluctua- tions”, Review of7] Eckert, A. “Retail Price Cycles and Response Asymmetry”,

Noel, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe...

433

Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen ...  

Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen (Supplemental to ID 1435) Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

434

NREL: Energy Analysis - Biopower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biopower Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Bioenergy OpenEI: Data,...

435

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of life-cycle assessment and optimization in assessing such questions as: a.) How will future transportation energy production impact water resource availability in the US? b.)...

436

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Life Cycle ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 2, 2008 ... This report was prepared by Pricewaterhouse Coopers, LLP/Ecobalance for Nickel Industry LCA Group. The report describes the life cycle ...

437

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Life Cycle ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

438

Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

Radcliff, Thomas D. (Vernon, CT); Biederman, Bruce P. (West Hartford, CT); Brasz, Joost J. (Fayetteville, NY)

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

439

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

a Short Cycle? A presentation exploring the factors driving higher prices, margins, and light-heavy price differentials in today's market, and what these observations may imply...

440

Characterization of Battery Cycling by In-Situ Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Characterization of Battery Cycling by In-Situ Microscopy ... of lithium ion batteries provides an important route to reducing the lifetime costs of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE ROADMAP rsed e Goals of the U.S. LCI Database Project * Maintain data quality and transparency. * Cover commonly used materials, products, and...

442

The Life Cycle of Steel (LCA/LCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... A life cycle inventory (LCI) looks at the resources, energy and emissions from the steel production to the end of its life. The International Iron ...

443

A new robust cycle-based inventory control policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new robust cycle-based control policy for single installation inventory models with non-stationary uncertain demand.

444

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

445

Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within this framework, the Primary Aluminium Industry has established a global Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data set. Inventory flows include inputs of raw materials  ...

446

Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Sciences October 12-14, 2011, Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Understanding and Reducing...

447

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Fuel ..to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle (Wu et al. Renewableby the heat content of nuclear fuel. In this analysis we use

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Pages that link to "Carbon Cycle Engineering" | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| 250 | 500) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwikiSpecial:WhatLinksHereCarbonCycleEngineering" Special pages About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Developer services OpenEI...

449

Changes related to "Carbon Cycle Engineering" | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwikiSpecial:RecentChangesLinkedCarbonCycleEngineering" Atom Special pages About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Developer services...

450

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

image Published Results The published life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) estimates for hydropower, ocean, geothermal, biopower, solar (crystalline silicon photovoltaic, thin...

451

An Integrated Life Cycle Engineering Model: Energy and Greenhouse...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Life Cycle Engineering Model: Energy and Greenhouse Gas Performance of Residential Heritage Buildings, and the Influence of Retrofit Strategies and Appliance...

452

Off-design Simulations of Offshore Combined Cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis presents an off-design simulation of offshore combined cycles. Offshore installations have a substantial power demand to facilitate the oil and gas production.… (more)

Flatebø, Øystein

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Current Projects for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis > Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis > Current Projects Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics...

454

Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project OVERVIEW The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(HTDC) Project (HTDC) Project OVERVIEW The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies. The project involves efforts to collect, analyze and archive data and information related to class -8 truck operation in real-world environments. Such data and information will be useful for supporting: energy efficiency technology evaluation efforts, the

455

Influence of Cycling and Low-Load Operation on Cycle Chemistry Control and Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of water and steam is central to ensuring component availability and reliability of electric steam generating equipment. The objective and focus of cycle chemistry is to prevent or control and reduce corrosion and the accumulation of deposits in the steam/water circuit of power plants. Current trends in electricity demand have resulted in changing load dispatch for coal- and gas-fired assets worldwide and in an increasing need to provide greater flexibility in the operating patterns of ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

456

Cheng Cycle Brings Flexibility to Steam Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1983 Frito-Lay embarked on building a new 160,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in Kern County California. Based upon an estimated steam load between 5,000 and 50,000 lb/hr and an electrical load of approximately 1500 KW, the Engineering Department examined several energy optimization systems for this site. It was determined that a modified gas turbine cogeneration system was the best overall option. This system is unique in that it injects superheated steam from the waste heat boiler back into the gas turbine. When steam is injected into the turbine combustor, electrical output increases due to the increased mass flow and specific heat of the steam/air mixture. Electrical output ranges from 3.5 KW without injection to a theoretical 6.0 KW at maximum injection. Despite the volatility of nuclear power in California, project risk was low because the implementation of nuclear power would increase retail rates whereas the avoidance of nuclear power would increase avoided costs (buyback rates). When Frito-Lay decided, in 1983, to build a new snack food plant in Kern County, Calif., its main concern was to minimize the plant's total energy costs. The company therefore evaluated the various cogeneration options available and, for each option, conducted an energy-cost analysis. However, plant performance was not to be sacrificed in order to reduce the overall energy costs. After technical and economic analysis had been completed, Frito-Lay chose a cogeneration system using the Cheng Cycle---a gas-turbine system using steam injection that allows for efficient thermal tracking and simultaneous electrical generation. The company began construction of the Kern County plant to produce corn, tortilla, and potato chips in October 1984. Preliminary operation began in April 1986. The plant encompasses 160,000 ft, and is located just outside the city of Bakersfield. Steam is used for space heating as well as process applications. Total steam demand is expected to vary between 5000 and 55,000 lb/hr, depending on production and seasonal variations. The electrical usage of the plant is anticipated to fall between 1000 and 2500 kW, again depending on plant operations. Current utility energy costs are on the order of 50¢/therm for natural gas and 9¢/kWh for electricity. Cogeneration technology involves the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In Frito-Lay's case, the cogeneration system supplies steam for plant process needs and generates electricity for plant consumption and sale to the local utility. The modified gas turbine used in the plant is a Cheng Cycle Series Seven, Figure 1. It is a product of International Power Technology (IPT) of Palo Alto, Calif., which has patented the steam injection and control systems. The system is unique in that it injects superheated steam from the waste heat boiler back into the gas turbine. This steam injection process increases the electrical output of the turbine and improves cycle performance compared to traditional gas turbine systems.

Keller, D. C.; Bynum, D.; Kosla, L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells during constant current cycling. Part I. Cycle performance and electrochemical diagnostics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twelve-cm{sup 2} pouch type lithium-ion cells were assembled with graphite anodes, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes and 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC/DEC electrolyte. These pouch cells were cycled at different depths of discharge (100 percent and 70 percent DOD) at room temperature to investigate cycle performance and pulse power capability. The capacity loss and power fade of the cells cycled over 100 percent DOD was significantly faster than the cell cycled over 70 percent DOD. The overall cell impedance increased with cycling, although the ohmic resistance from the electrolyte was almost constant. From electrochemical analysis of each electrode after cycling, structural and/or impedance changes in the cathode are responsible for most of the capacity and power fade, not the consumption of cycleable Li from side-reactions.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

458

Study of practical cycles for geothermal power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A comparison is made of the performance and cost of geothermal power cycles designed specifically, utilizing existing technology, to exploit the high temperature, high salinity resource at Niland and the moderate temperature, moderately saline resource at East Mesa in California's Imperial Valley. Only two kinds of cycles are considered in the analysis. Both employ a dual flash arrangement and the liberated steam is either utilized directly in a condensing steam turbine or used to heat a secondary working fluid in a closed Rankine (binary) cycle. The performance of several organic fluids was investigated for the closed cycle and the most promising were selected for detailed analysis with the given resource conditions. Results show for the temperature range investigated that if the noncondensible gas content in the brine is low, a dual flash condensing steam turbine cycle is potentially better in terms of resource utilization than a dual flash binary cycle. (The reverse is shown to be true when the brine is utilized directly for heat exchange.) It is also shown that despite the higher resource temperature, the performance of the dual flash binary cycle at Niland is degraded appreciably by the high salinity and its output per unit of brine flow is almost 20 percent lower than that of the steam turbine cycle at East Mesa. Turbine designs were formulated and costs established for power plants having a nominal generating capacity of 50 MW. Three cycles were analyzed in detail. At East Mesa a steam turbine and a binary cycle were compared. At Niland only the binary cycle was analyzed since the high CO/sub 2/ content in the brine precludes the use of a steam turbine there. In each case only the power island equipment was considered and well costs and the cost of flash separators, steam scrubbers and piping to the power plant boundary were excluded from the estimate.

Eskesen, J.H.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Study of practical cycles for geothermal power plants. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparison is made of the performance and cost of geothermal power cycles designed specifically, utilizing existing technology, to exploit the high temperature, high salinity resource at Niland and the moderate temperature, moderately saline resource at East Mesa in California's Imperial Valley. Only two kinds of cycles are considered in the analysis. Both employ a dual flash arrangement and the liberated steam is either utilized directly in a condensing steam turbine or used to heat a secondary working fluid in a closed Rankine (binary) cycle. The performance of several organic fluids was investigated for the closed cycle and the most promising were selected for detailed analysis with the given resource conditions. Results show for the temperature range investigated that if the noncondensible gas content in the brine is low, a dual flash condensing steam turbine cycle is potentially better in terms of resource utilization than a dual flash binary cycle. (The reverse is shown to be true when the brine is utilized directly for heat exchange.) It is also shown that despite the higher resource temperature, the performance of the dual flash binary cycle at Niland is degraded appreciably by the high salinity and its output per unit of brine flow is almost 20 percent lower than that of the steam turbine cycle at East Mesa. Turbine designs were formulated and costs established for power plants having a nominal generating capacity of 50 MW. Three cycles were analyzed in detail. At East Mesa a steam turbine and a binary cycle were compared. At Niland only the binary cycle was analyzed since the high CO/sub 2/ content in the brine precludes the use of a steam turbine there. In each case only the power island equipment was considered and well costs and the cost of flash separators, steam scrubbers and piping to the power plant boundary were excluded from the estimate.

Eskesen, J.H.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cesium vapor cycle for an advanced LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

A review indicates that a cesium vapor topping cycle appears attractive for use in the intermediate fluid circuit of an advanced LMFBR designed for a reactor outlet temperature of 1250$sup 0$F or more and would have the following advantages: (1) it would increase the thermal efficiency by about 5 to 10 points (from approximately 40 percent to approximately 45 to 50 percent) thus reducing the amount of waste heat rejected to the environment by 15 to 30 percent. (2) the higher thermal efficiency should reduce the overall capital cost of the reactor plant in dollars per kilowatt. (3) the cesium can be distilled out of the intermediate fluid circuit to leave it bone-dry, thus greatly reducing the time and cost of maintenance work (particularly for the steam generator). (4) the large volume and low pressure of the cesium vapor region in the cesium condenser-steam generator greatly reduces the magnitude of pressure fluctuations that might occur in the event of a leak in a steam generator tube, and the characteristics inherent in a condenser make it easy to design for rapid concentration of any noncondensibles that may form as a consequence of a steam leak into the cesium region so that a steam leak can be detected easily in the very early stages of its development. (auth)

Fraas, A.P.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Closed-cycle gas turbine chemical processor  

SciTech Connect

A closed-cycle gas turbine chemical processor separates the functions of combustion air and dilution fluid in a gas turbine combustor. The output of the turbine stage of the gas turbine is cooled and recirculated to its compressor from where a proportion is fed to a dilution portion of its combustor and the remainder is fed to a chemical recovery system wherein at least carbon dioxide is recovered therefrom. Fuel and combustion air are fed to a combustion portion of the gas turbine combustor. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the gas turbine is employed to drive an electric generator. A heat recovery steam generator and a steam turbine may be provided to recover additional energy from the gas turbine exhaust. The steam turbine may be employed to also drive the electric generator. additional heat may be added to the heat recovery steam generator for enhancing the electricity generated using heat recovery combustors in which the functions of combustion and dilution are separated. The chemical recovery system may employ process steam tapped from an intermediate stage of the steam turbine for stripping carbon dioxide from an absorbent liquid medium which is used to separate it from the gas stream fed to it. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the fuel fed to the chemical processor increases, the amount of process steam required to separate it from the absorbent fluid medium increases and the contribution to generated electricity by the steam turbine correspondingly decreases.

Stahl, C. R.

1985-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

The principles of life-cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

464

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts and only the latter fraction is subjected to the desorption air stream which has been heated to the desired regeneration temperature. In the present work, the mathematical model describing the heat and mass transfer processes that occur during sorption of moisture in the desiccnnt dehumidifier includes both the gas-side (film) and solid-side resistances for heat and mass transports. The moisture diffusion in the desiccant material is expressed by gas-phase diffusion and surface diffusion. Effects of several parameters on the performance of desiccant cooling system with staged regeneration are investigated and the results of present model are compared with those of the lumped-resistance model. Results of this study show that coefficient of perfomnnce of the desiccant cooling system can be substantially improved by using the staged regeneration concept. There is an optimum stage fraction and optimum cycle time for given system parmeters and operating conditions. The results also indicate that the cooling system performance is higher than that predicted by the lumped-resistance model.

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Life-cycle of Operons  

SciTech Connect

Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

467

Life Cycle Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF{sub 3}, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF{sub 3} in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF{sub 3} and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF{sub 3} at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF{sub 3} in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO{sub 2eq}/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

468

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

Not Available

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

469

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials provided here assume discount rates and energy price projections (TXT 17 KB) determined annually by FEMP and the Energy Information Administration. Building Life Cycle Cost Software FEMP's Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) software can help you calculate life cycle costs, net savings, savings-to-investment ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period for Federal energy and water conservation projects funded by agencies or alternatively financed. BLCC also estimates emissions and emission reductions. An energy escalation rate calculator (EERC) computes an average escalation rate for energy savings performance contracts when payments are based on energy cost savings.

470

Life Cycle Management of Chemicals: Conceptual Design for Information Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tracking the acquisition, use, and disposition of chemicals allows companies to reduce costs; manage risks to health, safety, and the environment; and improve compliance and reporting efficiency. This report provides a means of identifying and evaluating chemical life cycle information management needs. The conceptual design presented here will guide utilities through development of a custom system for managing chemical life cycle data.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

471

Solar cycle properties described by simple convection-driven dynamos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar cycle properties described by simple convection-driven dynamos Radostin D Simitev1 a realistic description of the solar cycle, but through a physically motivated change in the boundary be reversed at least at low latitudes. Keywords: self-consistent MHD dynamos, solar dynamo 1. Introduction

Simitev, Radostin D

472

Efficient circuit partitioning to extend cycle simulation beyond synchronous circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cycle simulation techniques, such as levelized compiled code, can ordinarily be applied only to synchronous designs. They usually cannot be applied to designs containing circuit features like combinational paths, multiple clock domains, generated clocks, ... Keywords: logic simulation, cycle simulation, circuit partitioning, levelized compiled code

Charles J. DeVane

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Solar Power Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, solar power tower, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Strategy for the practical utilization of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

There has been increasing interest in the utilization of thorium fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors for the past few years. This is due to a number of factors, the chief being the recent emphasis given to increasing the proliferation resistance of reactor fuel cycles and the thorium cycle characteristic that bred /sup 233/U can be denatured with /sup 238/U (further, a high radioactivity is associated with recycle /sup 233/U, which increases fuel diversion resistance). Another important factor influencing interest in thorium fuel cycles is the increasing cost of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ ores leading to more emphasis being placed on obtaining higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactor systems, and the fact that thorium fuel cycles have higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactors than do uranium fuel cycles. Finally, there is increasing information which indicates that fast breeder reactors have significantly higher capital costs than do thermal reactors, such that there is an economic advantage in the long term to have combinations of fast breeder reactors and high-conversion thermal reactors operating together. Overall, it appears that the practical, early utilization of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors requires commercialization of HTGRs operating first on stowaway fuel cycles, followed by thorium fuel recycle. In the longer term, thorium utilization involves use of thorium blankets in fast breeder reactors, in combination with recycling the bred /sup 233/U to HTGRs (preferably), or to other thermal reactors.

Kasten, P.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as well as for coal and natural gas grid-generation technologies, are provided as baseline cases Cycle Power Plants 14.9 33.1 Natural Gas Turbine, Combined Cycle Power Plants 18.3 46.0 Coal comparable to the total energy use associated with the natural gas and coal grid-generation technologies

Argonne National Laboratory

477

Life-Cycle Decision Making: Volume 1: Getting Started  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Decision Making (LCDM) 2.0 is a suite of integrated tools for making a wide range of decisions based on life-cycle costs and revenues. LCDM puts powerful methods and tools at the fingertips of employees, empowering them to quickly make better day-to-day business decisions based on the true costs and benefits to the company.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

478

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive FILE COPY TAP By Irwin Stambler, Field Editor DO NOT 16 0 REMOVE 16 Small recuperated gas turbine engine, design rated at 13 hp and 27% efficiency of the cycle- as a heat pump drive for commercial installations. Company is testing prototype gas turbine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

479

End-of-Cycle 11 Examinations at Farley Unit 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluation of data from non-zinc Cycle 11 and zinc Cycle 10 confirmed that addition of zinc to the primary coolant is beneficial in reducing radiation dose rates. The data also indicated that zinc does not have an adverse effect on fuel cladding corrosion.

1997-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

480

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "osmosis cycle cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Semantic modelling of dependency relations between life cycle analysis processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment provides a well-accepted methodology for modelling environmental impacts of human activities. This methodology relies on the decomposition of a studied system into interdependent processes. Several organisations provide processes ... Keywords: environmental information management, life cycle assessment, ontology

Benjamin Bertin; Marian Scuturici; Jean-Marie Pinon; Emmanuel Risler

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Proceedings: Sixth International Conference on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of boiler water, feedwater, and steam is central to ensuring component availability and reliability in fossil-fired plants. These conference proceedings address the state of the art in fossil plant and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry as well as international practices for control of corrosion and water preparation and purification.

None

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Proceedings: Sixth International Conference on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of boiler water, feedwater, and steam is central to ensuring component availability and reliability in fossil-fired plants. These conference proceedings address the state of the art in fossil plant and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) cycle chemistry as well as international practices for control of corrosion and water preparation and purification.

2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

All-to-all disjoint multipath routing using cycle embedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we evaluate the performance of disjoint multipath routing approaches for all-to-all routing in packet-switched networks with respect to packet overhead, path length, and routing table size. We develop a novel approach based on cycle embedding ... Keywords: All-to-all routing, Cycle embedding, Disjoint multipath routing

Sandeep K. Ahuja; Srinivasan Ramasubramanian

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

Petrovay, Kristóf

486

Life Cycle Management Sourcebooks — Volume 10: Feedwater Heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is producing a series of Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, each containing a compilation of industry experience and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). This sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost-effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for feedwater heaters.

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

487

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-7 by M. Wu, M. Wang ................................................................................ 6 2 Simplified Process Flow Diagram of Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol with Steam

Argonne National Laboratory

488

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and module manufacturing. · System/Plant Decommissioning · Disposal · PowerPlant Decommissioning · Waste life cycle GHG emissions from solar PV systems are similar to other renewables and nuclear energy.nrel.gov/harmonization. · Life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si and TF PV technologies appear broadly similar; the small number

489

Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, Volume 5: Main Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is producing a series of "Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks," each containing a compilation of industry experience and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific