Sample records for oscillating water column

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Floating Oscillating Water Column

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This model has ... Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  2. Wave Energy Extraction from an Oscillating Water Column in a Truncated Circular Cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Oscillating Water Column (OWC) device is a relatively practical and convenient way that converts wave energy to a utilizable form, which is usually electricity. The OWC is kept inside a fixed truncated vertical cylinder, which is a hollow structure...

  3. Stable thermal oscillations in columns of partially supercool water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    theoretical and experimental studies of the phenomenon described by Veronis, heat was supplied from below. Here we cool from below and used either heavy water (D2O) and or sugar as the solute. We show several of cooling or during cooling. However, the effects are quite different. The oscillations often (but

  4. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  5. PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment, have been specially designed to study PCB behavior during sediment resuspension, settling resuspension and settling. The sediment should then get more reduced due to the progressive bacterial

  6. Transformations of mercury in the marine water column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munson, Kathleen M. (Kathleen May)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylation of mercury (Hg) in the marine water column has been hypothesized to serve as the primary source of the bioaccumulating chemical species monomethylmercury (MMHg) to marine food webs. Despite decades of research ...

  7. Experimental study on hydrodynamic forces acting on an oscillating column with circular footing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoshino, Kunihiro; Sato, Hiroshi [Ministry of Transport, Mitaka (Japan). Ship Research Inst.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the in-line and lift forces acting on an oscillating column with circular footing. Forced surging tests were carried out using a column with circular footing of which ratio of diameter was varied from 1.25 to 2.5. The in-line and lift force have been measured concerning both the whole model and the parts of column and footing. The drag coefficients, inertia coefficients, coefficients of root-mean-square values of the in-line force and lift force coefficients in the range of Keulegan Carpenter number from 5 to 30 have been obtained. Those results have been compared with that of a straight finite length circular cylinder.

  8. Water column characterization of anchialine caves in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Brett Wayne

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH of the caves. Water columns were divided into three zones, brackish, transition, and saline, and a new method was employed to define these boundaries by using "best it" calculations and subsequent regression...

  9. Sandia Energy - Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46Energy StorageFirst-Ever Asian MELCOR

  10. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  11. Millennial-scale stable oscillations between sea ice and convective deep water formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Raj

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last ice age there were several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events. The climatic effects of the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest and most abrupt temperature anomalies. Similar but weaker oscillations also took place during the interglacial period. This paper proposes an auto-oscillatory mechanism between sea ice and convective deep water formation in the north Atlantic as the source of the persistent cycles. A simple dynamical model is constructed by coupling and slightly modifying two existing models of ocean circulation and sea ice. The model exhibits mixed mode oscillations, consisting of decadal scale small amplitude oscillations, and a large amplitude relaxation fluctuation. The decadal oscillations occur due to the insulating effect of sea ice and leads to periodic ventilation of heat from the polar ocean. Gradually an instability builds up in the polar column and results in an abrupt initiation of convection an...

  12. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

  13. Macroalgal-mediated transfers of water column nitrogen to intertidal sediments and salt marsh plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Katharyn

    ), fueling remineralization, and nutrient fluxes back to the water column (Lavery and McComb, 1991; Hansen the relationship between algae and benthic/pelagic nutrient exchanges. For example, benthic microalgae

  14. Free and forced motion in an asymmetric liquid-column oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    terrain produces drag and creates a boundary-layer effect, making the tallest buildings particularly is analogous to that of the tuned liquid-column damper used to suppress oscillatory motion in large semi are designed to counteract the oscillatory motion of the building with their own momentum. The first auxiliary

  15. Dynamic behavior of chemical exchange column in a water detritiation system for a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamanishi, T.; Iwai, Y. [Tritium Engineering Group, JAEA, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic behavior of a CECE column used for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) plant has been studied. In the case where the column was filled with natural water, the time required to achieve steady state was almost the same as that for the column operated under the total reflux mode. The manipulated variables were flow rate of the bottom stream for the control of the bottom tritium concentration, and flow rate of the hydrogen stream for the control of the top tritium concentration. For both the variables, the response curve was expressed by the first-order lag system, and a PID controller could be applied. (authors)

  16. The effects of mixing energy on water column oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Ellen Tiffany

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and format of Water Research. 2 makeup o f the oil such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, photochemical oxidation or microbial degradation may have different effects on the oil components (Ezra et al., 2000). The sun can evaporate the volatile... portion of the oil, thus changing its chemical nature. Light oils, which tend to volatilize and degrade more readily, disperse more quickly than heavy oils (Lee et al., 1992a). The heavy oils left behind may undergo further weathering or sink...

  17. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Peter C.

    1 1 Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column-coordinate), cylinder's main-axis following coordinate (M-coordinate), and hydrodynamic force following coordinate (F-coordinate system. The hydrodynamic forces (such as the drag and lift forces) and their moments are easily computed

  18. Hydro International Corals and Water Column Study for Gulf Oil Spill Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    of NOAA's response to the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill. "This is a major catastrophe," said Nelson of Mexico to gather baseline data against which to measure change if oil from the Deepwater Horizon spillHydro International Corals and Water Column Study for Gulf Oil Spill Response 14/07/2010 A science

  19. Oil production from thin oil columns subject to water and gas coning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chai, Kwok Kit

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO MATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KMOK KIT CHAI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO WATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KWOK KIT CHAI Approved as to style and content by airman of o t ee Member Member Head o Department May 1981 ABSTRACT Oil...

  20. Oil production from thin oil columns subject to water and gas coning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chai, Kwok Kit

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO MATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KMOK KIT CHAI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering OIL PRODUCTION FROM THIN OIL COLUMNS SUBJECT TO WATER AND GAS CONING A Thesis by KWOK KIT CHAI Approved as to style and content by airman of o t ee Member Member Head o Department May 1981 ABSTRACT Oil...

  1. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  2. In situ measurements of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the water column off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, E.Y.; Yu, C.C.; Tran, K. [Southern California Coastal Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States)] [Southern California Coastal Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial distributions of DDT and its primary metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, CA, were measured in the winter and summer of 1997 using an in situ sampling method. The concentrations of DDTs ranged from 0.6 to 15.8 ng/L, while those of PCBs ranged from 0.06 to 15.8 ng/L, while those of PCBs ranged from 0.06 to 1.14 ng/L at eight sampling stations. The spatial distribution patterns of DDTs and PCBs as well as the DDT/PCB concentration ratio in the water column were similar to those found in the sediment, and the vertical profiles of DDTs and PCBs at both sampling seasons exponentially decreased with increasing distance from the sea floor. In addition, the partitioning characteristics of DDTs and selected PCB congeners indicated a tendency of mobilization from sediment to water. All of these findings strongly suggest that contaminated sediments are a main source of DDT and PCB inputs to the water column surrounding the study site.

  3. The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column. As a result, a short-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

    The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column of this increased input is 8 kg of PCBs and 2200 kg of PAHs, which is ~57% and 55-610% of previous atmospheric compounds (SOCs) was investigated using a two-pronged sampling strategy. First, discrete air and water

  4. Water column structure during deposition of Middle DevonianLower Mississippian black and green/gray shales of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenig, Fabien

    26 August 2004 Abstract The extractable organic matter of organic-rich black shales and associated is analyzed to constrain the water column structure during their deposition. All black shale samples contain water euxinic conditions during black shale deposition. Analysis of green/gray shales also reveals

  5. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  6. The impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of Climate, 21, 638 Sriver & Huber, 2007, Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropicalThe impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on global climate is still debated. They rapidly mix the water column beneath them, bringing cold water to the surface. One way to parameterise this process

  7. Journal of Fluids and Structures 22 (2006) 135171 Water hammer with column separation: A historical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tijsseling, A.S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available online 13 October 2005 Abstract Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns. Gaseous cavitation and steam condensation are beyond the scope of the paper. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All vaporous cavitation model HGL hydraulic grade line MOC method of characteristics Scalars A cross

  8. Quantification of sediment bed - water column exchange processes in the South San Francisco Bay estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gladding, Steven Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Term Sediment Deposition and Resuspension in the Fox River,2010). "Wind- enhanced resuspension in the shallow waters ofFlocculation, Deposition, and Resuspension of Fine-Grained

  9. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  10. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  11. Prediction of net bedload transport rates obtained in oscillating water tunnels and applicability to real surf zone waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David

    Experimental studies of sediment transport rates due to near shore waves are often conducted in oscillating water tunnels (OWTs). In an OWT, the oscillatory motion produced by the piston propagates almost instantaneously ...

  12. Hydrologic and Vegetation Effects on Water Column Phosphorus in Wetland Mesocosms J. R. White,* K. R. Reddy, and J. Majer-Newman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Hydrologic and Vegetation Effects on Water Column Phosphorus in Wetland Mesocosms J. R. White,* K. The restoration plan for the Everglades includes construction of large stormwater treatment areas (STAs) decreased by 49% for the SAV treatments compared with 41% for the EAV treatments, irrespective of hydrology

  13. Kevin E. Trenberth John Fasullo Lesley Smith Trends and variability in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Kevin E. Trenberth Ã? John Fasullo Ã? Lesley Smith Trends and variability in column. E. Trenberth (&) Ã? J. Fasullo Ã? L. Smith National C

  14. Modeling of thermal processes in very high pressure liquid chromatography for column immersed in a water bath: Application of the selected models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof [University of Tennessee and Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, chromatographic analyses are carried out by operating columns packed with sub-2 {micro}m particles under very high pressure gradients, up to 1200 bar for 5 cm long columns. This provides the high flow rates that are necessary for the achievement of high column efficiencies and short analysis times. However, operating columns at high flow rates under such high pressure gradients generate a large amount of heat due to the viscous friction of the mobile phase stream that percolates through a low permeability bed. The evacuation of this heat causes the formation of significant or even large axial and radial gradients of all the physico-chemical parameters characterizing the packing material and the mobile phase, eventually resulting in a loss of column efficiency. We previously developed and successfully applied a model combining the heat and the mass balances of a chromatographic column operated under very high pressure gradients (VHPLC). The use of this model requires accurate estimates of the dispersion coefficients at each applied mobile phase velocity. This work reports on a modification of the mass balance model such that only one measurement is now necessary to accurately predict elution peak profiles in a wide range of mobile phase velocities. The conditions under which the simple equilibrium-dispersive (ED) and transport-dispersive (TD) models are applicable in VHPLC are also discussed. This work proves that the new combination of the heat transfer and the ED model discussed in this work enables the calculation of accurate profiles for peaks eluted under extreme conditions, like when the column is thermostated in a water bath.

  15. Influence of the pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns I. Measurement of the compressibility of methanol-water mixtures on a mesoporous silica adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressibilities of aqueous solutions of methanol or acetonitrile containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) organic solvent were measured with a dynamic chromatographic method. The elution volumes of thiourea samples (2 {micro} L) in these solutions were measured at different average column pressures, adjusted by placing suitable capillary restrictors on-line, after the detector. The reproducibility of the measurements was better than 0.2%. In the range of average pressures studied (10-350 bar), the maximum change in elution volume of thiourea is 1.3% (in pure water) and 4.0% (in pure methanol). This difference is due to the different compressibilities of these pure solvents. For mixtures, the plots of the elution volume of thiourea versus the pressure are convex downward, which is inconsistent with the opposite curvature predicted by the classical Tait model of liquid compressibility. This difference is explained by the variation of the amount of thiourea adsorbed with the pressure. The deconvolution of the two effects, adsorption of thiourea and solvent compressibility, allows a fair and consistent determination of the compressibilities of the methanol-water mixtures. A column packed with non-porous silica particles was also used to determine the compressibility of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures. A negative deviation by respect to ideal behavior was observed.

  16. Influence of the pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns I. Measurement of the compressibility of methanol-water mixtures on a mesoporous silica adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressibilities of aqueous solutions of methanol or acetonitrile containing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% (v/v) organic solvent were measured with a dynamic chromatographic method. The elution volumes of thiourea samples (2 {micro} L) in these solutions were measured at different average column pressures, adjusted by placing suitable capillary restrictors on-line, after the detector. The reproducibility of the measurements was better than 0.2%. In the range of average pressures studied (10-350 bar), the maximum change in elution volume of thiourea is 1.3% (in pure water) and 4.0% (in pure methanol). This difference is due to the different compressibilities of these pure solvents. For mixtures, the plots of the elution volume of thiourea versus the pressure are convex downward, which is inconsistent with the opposite curvature predicted by the classical Tait model of liquid compressibility. This difference is explained by the variation of the amount of thiourea adsorbed with the pressure. The deconvolution of the two effects, adsorption of thiourea and solvent compressibility, allows a fair and consistent determination of the compressibilities of the methanol-water mixtures. A column packed with non-porous silica particles was also used to determine the compressibility of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures. A negative deviation by respect to ideal behavior was observed.

  17. Knowledge base expert system control of spatial xenon oscillations in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alten, S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactor operators are required to pay special attention to spatial xenon oscillations during the load-follow operation of pressurized water reactors. They are expected to observe the axial offset of the core, and to estimate the correct time and amount of necessary control action based on heuristic rules given in axial xenon oscillations are knowledge intensive, and heuristic in nature. An expert system, ACES (Axial offset Control using Expert Systems) is developed to implement a heuristic constant axial offset control procedure to aid reactor operators in increasing the plant reliability by reducing the human error component of the failure probability. ACES is written in a production system language, OPS5, based on the forward chaining algorithm. It samples reactor data with a certain time interval in terms of measurable parameters, such as the power, period, and the axial offset of the core. It then processes the core status utilizing a set of equations which are used in a back of the envelope calculations by domain experts. Heuristic rules of ACES identify the control variable to be used among the full and part length control rods and boron concentration, while a knowledge base is used to determine the amount of control. ACES is designed as a set of generic rules to avoid reducing the system into a set of patterns. Instead ACES evaluates the system, determines the necessary corrective actions in terms of reactivity insertion, and provides this reactivity insertion using the control variables. The amount of control action is determined using a knowledge base which consists of the differential rod worth curves, and the boron reactivity worth of a given reactor. Having the reactor dependent parameters in its knowledge base, ACES is applicable to an arbitrary reactor for axial offset control purposes.

  18. The distribution of chitin in the water and sediment columns in the Gulf of Mexico and its geochemical significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Wai Kwok

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been greatly utilized in marine pollution survey work. Waste waters from irradiated fuel treatment plants contain fission products such as ruthenium-103 and ruthenium-106 whicl. should be decontaminated before discharge into rive s and the sea...

  19. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the water column of the patuxent river. Final technical report, 1 July 1989-31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capone, D.G.; Miller, V.; Love, J.; Duguay, L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was made of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in the water column of the Patuxent River, Maryland, over a 2 year cycle. Specifically, inorganic N and P assimilation were determined by isotopic tracer methods at 3 stations along the salinity gradient of the river on a monthly basis. The authors determined the concentrations of particulate N and P and the major dissolved species. Among inorganic species, nitrate showed the greatest seasonal variation, particularly at the upstream stations. Nitrate, which increased going upstream, tended to dominate the inorganic N pools. Ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake varied over a wide range among and within sites. Values tended to increase moving upstream. Nitrate uptake dominated inorganic N assimilation upstream while ammonium uptake was of greater importance at the most saline station. With respect to indicies of nutrient limitation, except for the summer, dissolved inorganic N was in excess relative to inorganic P, suggestive of P limitation.

  1. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  2. Five points on columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockland, Kathleen

    Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

  3. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design distillation column which was optimized to recover methanol and recycle water to the extraction column. Other

  4. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour (%24/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  5. Oscillator detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

  6. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  7. Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundee, University of

    Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non­ linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

  8. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  9. Nuclear reactor control column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  10. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  11. Tuna-Dolphin-Bird Feeding Assemblages in the Galapagos Islands and Their Response to the Physical Characteristics of the Upper Water Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Michelle

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , regardless of season or ENSO index. High salinity, cold water west of Isla Isabela indicated topographic upwelling of the Equatorial Undercurrent. Tropical Surface Waters from the Panama Current were detected north of the Equatorial Front to the east...

  12. Eruption column physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Technical Note Engineering Stratigraphic Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reference standard stratigraphic columns. EXAMPLES OF PREVIOUS WORK Standard stratigraphic columns typically, color, and sedimentary structures. Standard columns emphasize vertical changes in the rock sequence and ignore soil units. Very little work has been done on the use of strati- graphic columns to portray

  14. Heat Transfer Analysis for a Fixed CST Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. A series of the modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. Results for the baseline model indicate that transit times to reach 130 degrees Celsius maximum temperature of the CST-salt solution column are about 96 hours when the 20-in CST column with 300 Ci/liter heat generation source and 25 degrees Celsius initial column temperature is cooled by natural convection of external air as a primary heat transfer mechanism. The modeling results for the 28-in column equipped with water jacket systems on the external wall surface of the column and water coolant pipe at the center of the CST column demonstrate that the column loaded with 300 Ci/liter heat source can be maintained non-boiling indefinitely. Sensitivity calculations for several alternate column sizes, heat loads of the packed column, engineered cooling systems, and various ambient conditions at the exterior wall of the column have been performed under the reference conditions of the CST-salt solution to assess the impact of those parameters on the peak temperatures of the packed column for a given transient time. The results indicate that a water-coolant pipe at the center of the CST column filled with salt solution is the most effective one among the potential design parameters related to the thermal energy dissipation of decay heat load. It is noted that the cooling mechanism at the wall boundary of the column has significant impact on maximum and wall temperatures of the column. In addition, the results computed by the present model were verified by the theoretical results. The analysis results will provide quantitative information associated with the process heat control and management of the CST base design. For example, transient responses of the CST system under a loss-of-flow accident condition will provide safety design information for an emergency cooling system of the column.

  15. Proceedings of the US Hydrographic Conference, New Orleans, LA, 25-28 Mar 2013 WATER-COLUMN VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR UNDERWAY PROFILERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Proceedings of the US Hydrographic Conference, New Orleans, LA, 25-28 Mar 2013 1 WATER trials and from analysis of existing data sets are presented. #12;Proceedings of the US Hydrographic Conference, New Orleans, LA, 25-28 Mar 2013 2 Introduction The application of timely measurements of sound

  16. Diatom species composition and abundance in water column assemblages from five drill sites in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 119: distributional patterns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Sung-Ho

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1958; Frenguelli and Orlando, 1958; Manguin, 1960; Cassie, 1963, Hargraves, 1968; Hasle, 1969; Fenner e! al. , 1976). Quantitative diatom studies have become numemus, but there are still few available for the Antarctic region. Although phytoplankton... studies have covered extensive areas of the Southern Ocean (Hart, 1942; Boden, 1949; Hasle, 1956, 1969; Marumo, 1957; Kozlova, 1966; Zernova, 1970; Steyaert, 1973a, b, 1974; and Jacques er al. , 1979), while very few are related to inshore waters. Only...

  17. Optimal Operation of Kaibel Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Kaibel distillation column Loss method Control Structure Design Estimation Our estimation method Dynamic Is it necessary to manipulate RV ? Control of Kaibel distillation column Loss method Control Structure Design distillation column Loss method Control Structure Design Estimation Our estimation method Dynamic compensation

  18. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 2, 2002 ... Page 1. Selected Topics in Column Generation. Marco E. Lübbecke ... is an ever recurring concept in our “selected topics.” OR/MS Subject ...

  19. Power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  20. A long baseline RICH with a 27-kiloton water target and radiator for detection of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ypsilantis, T.; Seguinot, J.; Zichichi, A.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 27 kt water volume is investigated as a target for a long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. Charged secondaries from the neutrino interactions produce Cherenkov photons in water which are imaged as rings by a spherical mirror. The photon detector elements are 14 400 photomultipliers (PM`s) of 127 mm diameter or 3600 HPD`s of 250 mm diameter with single photon sensitivity. A coincidence signal of about 300 pixel elements in time with the SPS beam starts readout in bins of 1 ns over a period of 128 ns. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and mucons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum, direction, and velocity of hadrons and muons are determined from the width, center, and radius of the rings, respectively. Momentum is measured if multiple scattering dominates the ring width, as is the case for most of the particles of interest. Momentum resolutions of 1-10%, mass resolutions of 5-50 MeV, and direction resolutions of < 1 mrad are achievable. Thresholds in water for muons, pions, kaons, and protons are 0.12, 0.16, 0.55, and 1.05 GeV/c, respectively. Electrons and gammas can be measured with energy resolution {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx}8.5%/{radical}E(GeV) and with direction resolution {approx} 1 mrad. The detector can be sited either inside a Gran Sasso tunnel or above ground because it is directional and the SPS beam is pulsed; thus the rejection of cosmic ray background is excellent.

  1. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, W.K.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  2. airlift bubble column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    maximum bonding Lebendiker, Mario 73 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  3. Water Quality Modeling Hydraulics and Hydrology Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : ­ Streamflows ­ Lake basin ­ Meteorology (wind/sun/precip...) · Outputs: ­ Vertical Temperature distribution ­ E. Coli · Temperature changes ­ Long term and short term · Lake circulation ­ Lake circulation ­ Outputs: · Oxygen distribution in water column · Nutrient distribution in water column (N

  4. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the biological mechanisms responsible for wastewater treatment. The first part of the study, conducted on site93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France

  5. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problem. Multivariable design techniques are used to control the column. Some of the different multivariable techniques which have been used in the distillation column control include decoupling control, optimal control and internal model control [5...

  6. Temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by the integration of a resistive heating element and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Additionally, means are provided to thermally isolate the heated column from their surroundings. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  7. Process Svstems Enaineerina Instability of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Process Svstems Enaineerina , Instability of Distillation Columns Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd recognized, distillation columns, operating with reflux and boilup as independent inputs, may have The dynamic behavior of distillation columns has been stud- ied quite extensively over the past decades

  8. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Tshepo Sehole David Modise A thesis or in combination, such as distillation, extraction, crystallization, ect. Among these, distillation is by far profiles for the preliminary design of distillation columns. Residue curves and column profile are not only

  9. Fundamental chromatographic equations designed for columns packed with very fine particles and operated at very high pressures applications to the prediction of elution times and the column efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wall temperatures of three Acquity-BEH-C{sub 18}columns (2.1 mm x 50, 100, and 150 mm) and the temperature of the incoming eluent were maintained constant at 289 K, using a circulating water heat exchanger. The retention times and the band broadening of naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene were measured for each column as a function of the flow rate applied. Pure acetonitrile was used as the eluent. The flow rate dependence of neither elution volumes nor bandwidths can be accounted for by classical models of retention and HETP, respectively, since these models assume columns to be isothermal. Because the heat generated by friction of the eluent against the column bed increases with increasing flow rate, the column bed cannot remain isothermal at high flow rates. This heat is evacuated radially and/or longitudinally by convection, conduction, and radiation. Radial and axial temperature gradients are formed, which are maximum and minimum, respectively, when the temperature of the column wall is kept uniform and constant. The retention times that we measured match well with the values predicted based on the temperature distribution along and across the column, which we calculated and on the temperature dependence of the retention for the same column operated isothermally (i.e., at very low flow rate). The rate of band spreading varies along non-isothermal columns, so the HETP can only be defined locally. It is a function of the axial coordinate. A new contribution is needed to account for the radial thermal heterogeneity of the column, hence the radial distribution of the flow velocities, which warps the elution band. A new model, based on the general dispersion theory of Aris, allows a successful prediction of the unusually large bandwidths observed with columns packed with fine particles, operated at high flow rates, hence high inlet pressures.

  10. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Mirizzi; D. Montanino; P. D. Serpico

    2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ``vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle theta_23).

  11. INVITED PAPERS Transport and sawtooth oscillations from rotational pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    INVITED PAPERS Transport and sawtooth oscillations from rotational pumping of a magnetized electron measurements have been made of cross-field transport from ``rotational pumping'' of a magnetized electron column. Rotational pumping is the collisional dissipation of the axial compressions that are caused by E

  12. ARM - Measurement - Column Ozone Abundance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particle ARM DatagovMeasurementsColumn

  13. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  14. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  15. Roles of cavitation/column separation due to earthquake-induced hydraulic transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Y.D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The roles of cavitation/column separation due to earthquake-induced hydraulic transients in pipe flow were investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is known that when the system pressure during a hydraulic transient reaches the saturation pressure of the liquid, cavitation/column separation occurs. When the cavities collapse or when the separated liquid columns rejoin, very high pressures are produced. The experiment employed a pipe mounted between a constant-pressure tank and a piston-type excitation device. The resulting pressure variation at the piston was recorded continually. Comparison of pressure response for various test runs indicated that the peak pressures at/near resonance frequency were not affected significantly by the excitation velocity amplitude in cases of cavitation/column separation. These results were confirmed by comparison with theoretical analysis. A numerical method to simulate column separation/cavitation was developed. In order to eliminate numerical oscillation, the flux-correction method was introduced. Results obtained suggest that the cavitation/column separation due to earthquake-induced hydraulic transients is an important damage mechanism.

  16. A Study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Particle Separation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, S.

    1997-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-agitated multi-stage column was constructed and applied to wastewater treatment. Preliminary oil/water separation tests were performed. Excellent separation results verifies the multi-function feature of the multi-stage column. Hydrodynamic behavior is considered as the underlying cause for the separation performance. Therefore, a series of experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamic parameters, including gas holdups and liquid circulating velocities. The experimental data will be used to create a mathematical model to simulate the multi-stage column process. The model will further shed light on the future scale-up of the MSTLFLO process.

  17. A STUDY OF MULTISTAGE/MULTIFUNCTION COLUMN FOR FINE PARTICLE SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Shiao-Hung Chiang

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-agitated multi-stage column was constructed and applied to wastewater treatment. Preliminary oil/water separation tests were performed. Excellent separation results verifies the multi-function feature of the multi-stage column. Hydrodynamic behavior is considered as the underlying cause for the separation performance. Therefore, a series of experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamic parameters, including gas holdups and liquid circulating velocities. The experimental data will be used to create a mathematical model to simulate the multi-stage column process. The model will further shed light on the future scale-up of the MSTLFLO process.

  18. Column Asymmetric Catalysis for -Lactam Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lectka, Thomas

    Column Asymmetric Catalysis for -Lactam Synthesis Ahmed M. Hafez, Andrew E. Taggi, Harald Wack that constitute the packing of a series of "reaction columns". This process was applied to the catalytic- and diastereoselectivity. In the realm of chiral synthesis and drug discovery, asym- metric catalysis1 and solid

  19. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  20. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  1. Phenomenology of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Bilenky; C. Giunti; W. Grimus

    1999-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This review is focused on neutrino mixing and neutrino oscillations in the light of the recent experimental developments. After discussing possible types of neutrino mixing for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and considering in detail the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and matter, we review all existing evidence and indications in favour of neutrino oscillations that have been obtained in the atmospheric, solar and LSND experiments. We present the results of the analyses of the neutrino oscillation data in the framework of mixing of three and four massive neutrinos and investigate possibilities to test the different neutrino mass and mixing schemes obtained in this way. We also discuss briefly future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  2. Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

  3. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  4. Analytical Modeling of a Bubble Column Dehumidifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    Bubble column dehumidifiers are a compact, inexpensive alternative to conventional fin-tube dehumidifiers for humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination, a technology that has promising applications in small-scale ...

  5. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

  6. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Column Lap Splices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberson, Ryan M.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN LAP SPLICES A Thesis by RYAN ALBERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Civil Engineering PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN LAP SPLICES A Thesis by RYAN ALBERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  7. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    . The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps....

  8. affinity column mediated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 323 Active constraint...

  9. affinity chromatography columns: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 353 Active constraint...

  10. absorbing column densities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 485 Active constraint...

  11. antigen-specific immunoadsorption columns: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 78 Active constraint...

  12. activated charcoal column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 153 Development...

  13. alumina column purification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purification Columns. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??High-purity distillation columns are highly nonlinear systems. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of these...

  14. absorbent microcapsules column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 289 Active constraint...

  15. axisymmetric plasma columns: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 419 Active constraint...

  16. anaerobic aquifer column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 198 Active constraint...

  17. anion exchange column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 148 Active constraint...

  18. Neutrino oscillations: another physics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Vergeles

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the neutrino oscillations phenomenon may be attributed to the Wilson fermion doubling phenomenon. The Wilson fermion doubling exists only on the lattices, both periodic and non-periodic (simplicial complexes). Just the last case plays a key role here. Thereby, the neutrino oscillations may show for the existence of a space-time granularity.

  19. Active-bridge oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  20. Neutrino Oscillations and Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Dolgov

    2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in cosmological plasma is considered. Neutrino oscillations in vacuum are usually described in plane wave approximation. In this formalism there is an ambiguity if one should assume $\\delta p =0$ and correspondingly $\\delta E\

  1. Neutrino oscillations: another physics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergeles, S N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the neutrino oscillations phenomenon may be attributed to the Wilson fermion doubling phenomenon. The Wilson fermion doubling exists only on the lattices, both periodic and non-periodic (simplicial complexes). Just the last case plays a key role here. Thereby, the neutrino oscillations may show for the existence of a space-time granularity.

  2. Secret of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Zhuridov

    2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The new effect of partial and full destruction of the neutrino oscillation pattern due to the neutrino wave packets separation in the transverse plane to the direction of the neutrino propagation is investigated. It is shown that this effect is significant in the real oscillation data, in particular, for the solar neutrinos, and dramatically changes the extracted physical properties of neutrinos.

  3. Oscillations at low energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, D A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concise summary of the "Oscillation at low energies" parallel session at the 2014 Neutrino Oscillation Workshop is provided. Plans to use man-made neutrinos and antineutrinos to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, search for sterile neutrinos, and to observe coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering were discussed. Potential measurements of solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and geoneutrinos are also summarized.

  4. Neutrino oscillations beyond two flavours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Kh. Akhmedov

    2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    I review some theoretical aspects of neutrino oscillations in the case when more than two neutrino flavours are involved. These include: approximate analytic solutions for 3-flavour (3f) oscillations in matter; matter effects in nu_mu - nu_tau oscillations; 3f effects in oscillations of solar, atmospheric, reactor and supernova neutrinos and in accelerator long-baseline experiments; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; the problem of U_{e3}; 4f oscillations.

  5. Probing supernova physics with neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Minakata; H. Nunokawa; R. Tomas; J. W. F. Valle

    2002-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that solar neutrino oscillations with large mixing angle as evidenced in current solar neutrino data have a strong impact on strategies for diagnosing collapse-driven supernova (SN) through neutrino observations. Such oscillations induce a significant deformation of the energy spectra of neutrinos, thereby allowing us to obtain otherwise inaccessible features of SN neutrino spectra. We demonstrate that one can determine temperatures and luminosities of non-electron flavor neutrinos by observing bar{nu}_{e} from galactic SN in massive water Cherenkov detectors by the charged current reactions on protons.

  6. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, W.C.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say {bar {nu}}{sub e}). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations.

  7. Experimental studies of the transfer phenomena of tritium in an isotope exchange column for recovery tritium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental studies of the transfer phenomena of tritium in an isotope exchange column for recovery tritium Anisia Bornea, Ion Cristescu, Marius Zamfirache, Carmen Varlam National Institute of R processes for tritium separation, is the catalyst isotope exchange water-hydrogen. The main problem

  8. The effects of mixing energy on water column oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Ellen Tiffany

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential to deleteriously affect sensitive coral reefs, sea grasses, kelp beds, mangrove forests, salt marshes, swamps and river habitats (Burger, 1997). Economic losses will be suffered i f the slick reaches recreational areas, commercial fisheries...

  9. Property:Water Column Location | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This propertyVolume Jump to: navigation,Was

  10. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR, WATER SIDE SYSTEM, SERVICE HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Certified Water Heater §111, §113 (a) Water Heater Efficiency §113 (b) Service Water Heating Installation/A" in the column next to the measure. 2: For each water heater, pool heat and domestic water loop (or groupsSTATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR, WATER SIDE SYSTEM, SERVICE HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C

  11. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Haibing (Houston, TX); Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, TX)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  12. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  13. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  14. A COLUMN GENERATION APPROACH FOR GRAPH COLORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    set in the graph). We use a column generation method for implicit optimization of the linear program based on an integer programming formulation of the graph coloring problem. This formulation, called is an assignment of labels to each vertex such that the endpoints of any edge have different labels. A minimum

  15. Neutrino oscillations: theory and phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Kh. Akhmedov

    2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief overview of selected topics in the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is given. These include: oscillations in vacuum and in matter; phenomenology of 3-flavour neutrino oscillations and effective 2-flavour approximations; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; matter effects on \

  16. Neutrino oscillations and supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Ahluwalia-Khalilova

    2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In a 1996 JRO Fellowship Research Proposal (Los Alamos), the author suggested that neutrino oscillations may provide a powerful indirect energy transport mechanism to supernovae explosions. The principal aim of this addendum is to present the relevant unedited text of Section 1 of that proposal. We then briefly remind, (a) of an early suggestion of Mazurek on vacuum neutrino oscillations and their relevance to supernovae explosion, and (b) Wolfenstein's result on suppression of the effect by matter effects. We conclude that whether or not neutrino oscillations play a significant role in supernovae explosions shall depend if there are shells/regions of space in stellar collapse where matter effects play no essential role. Should such regions exist in actual astrophysical situations, the final outcome of neutrino oscillations on supernovae explosions shall depend, in part, on whether or not the LNSD signal is confirmed. Importantly, the reader is reminded that neutrino oscillations form a set of flavor-oscillation clocks and these clock suffer gravitational redshift which can be as large as 20 percent. This effect must be incorporated fully into any calculation of supernova explosion.

  17. The EUV Spectrum of the Quasi-Coherent Oscillations of the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher W. Mauche

    1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Data obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite are used to determine the EUV spectrum of the quasi-coherent oscillations of the dwarf nova SS Cygni. It is found that the spectrum of the oscillations is neither blue nor red nor grey relative to the net (oscillation-phase integrated) spectrum, and hence that the oscillations cannot be explained by variations in the effective temperature, absorbing column density, or effective area, respectively. Instead, it is found that the amplitude of the oscillations is high at the relative maxima of the net spectrum, and low to zero at the relative minima of the net spectrum. This behavior can be explained by either variations in the emission line flux atop a constant underlying continuum, or variations in the optical depth of a haze of overlapping absorption lines, in which case the optical depths must be $\\tau<1$ at the relative maxima of the net spectrum, and $\\tau\\gg 1$ at the relative minima.

  18. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  19. Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

  20. A New Neutrino Oscillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting in the late 1960s, neutrino detectors began to see signs that neutrinos, now known to come in the flavors electron ({nu}{sub e}), muon ({nu}{sub {mu}}), and tau ({nu}{sub {tau}}), could transform from one flavor to another. The findings implied that neutrinos must have mass, since massless particles travel at the speed of light and their clocks, so to speak, don't tick, thus they cannot change. What has since been discovered is that neutrinos oscillate at two distinct scales, 500 km/GeV and 15,000 km/GeV, which are defined by the baseline (L) of the experiment (the distance the neutrino travels) divided by the neutrino energy (E). Neutrinos of one flavor can oscillate into neutrinos of another flavor at both L/E scales, but the amplitude of these oscillations is different for the two scales and depends on the initial and final flavor of the neutrinos. The neutrino states that propogate unchanged in time, the mass eigenstates {nu}1, {nu}2, {nu}3, are quantum mechanical mixtures of the electron, muon, and tau neutrino flavors, and the fraction of each flavor in a given mass eigenstate is controlled by three mixing angles and a complex phase. Two of these mixing angles are known with reasonable precision. An upper bound exists for the third angle, called {theta}{sub 13}, which controls the size of the muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at an L/E of 500 km/GeV. The phase is completely unknown. The existence of this phase has important implications for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter we observe in the universe today. Experiments around the world have steadily assembled this picture of neutrino oscillation, but evidence of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at 500 km/GeV has remained elusive. Now, a paper from the T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment in Japan, reports the first possible observation of muon neutrinos oscillating into electron neutrinos at 500 km/GeV. They see 6 candidate signal events, above an expected background of 1.5 events. The probability that the 6 events are all background is only about 0.7%. Stated differently, this is a 2.7{sigma} indication that the parameter that controls the oscillation, the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}, is nonzero, just shy of the 3{sigma} requirement to claim 'evidence for.' Nevertheless, this experiment provides the strongest indication to date that this oscillation actually occurs in nature.

  1. Query execution in column-oriented database systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abadi, Daniel J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two obvious ways to map a two-dimension relational database table onto a one-dimensional storage interface: store the table row-by-row, or store the table column-by-column. Historically, database system implementations ...

  2. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  3. Kinetics of Oscillating Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Strack

    2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of core-collapse supernovae, Strack and Burrows (Phys. Rev. D 71, 093004 (2005)) have recently developed an extension of the classical Boltzmann kinetic formalism that retains all the standard neutrino oscillation phenomenology, including resonant flavor conversion (the MSW effect), neutrino self-interactions, and the interplay between neutrino-matter coupling and flavor oscillations. In this thesis, I extend the Strack & Burrows formalism to incorporate general relativity, spin degrees of freedom, and a possible neutrino magnetic-moment/magnetic-field interaction.

  4. Status of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. F. Valle

    2001-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar and atmospheric neutrino data require physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest, most generic, but not yet unique, interpretation of the data is in terms of neutrino oscillations. I summarize the results of the latest three-neutrino oscillation global fit of the data, in particular the bounds on the angle $\\theta_{13}$ probed in reactor experiments. Even though not implied by the data, bi-maximal neutrino mixing emerges as an attractive possibility either in hierarchical or quasi-degenerate neutrino scenarios.

  5. Quantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    , SCIAMACHY CO total column retrievals are of sufficient quality to provide useful new information]. Ground-based FTIR measurements provide high quality total column measurements but have very limitedQuantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements A. T. J. de Laat,1,2 A

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Monolithic Porous Capillary Columns Loaded with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of the octadecylsilica (ODS) stationary phase occur in a single step. The presence of the particles in the column greatly the particles and the sol-gel matrix. The perfor- mance of these sol-gel/ODS capillary columns was evalu- ated in columns with immobilized 3-µm ODS par- ticles. The efficiency and resolution are enhanced when 3-µm ODS

  7. Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns Magnus G. Jacobsen the control structure of distillation columns, with optimal operation in mind, it is important to know how for distillation columns change with variations in energy cost and feed flow rate. The production of the most

  8. Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd (e-mail: skoge@ntnu.no) Abstract: This is a simulation study on controlling a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared

  9. Economically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    : In this study, a control structure is designed for a 4-product dividing wall (Kaibel) distillation column, basedEconomically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate Maryam Ghadrdan distillation column; Vapour split manipulation; Self-optimizing control. 1. INTRODUCTION Thermally coupled

  10. Optimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    a review of recent work for the optimal design of distillation of individual columns using tray review of the area of optimal design and synthesis of distillation columns, emphasizing recentOptimal Synthesis of Complex Distillation ColumnsUsing Rigorous Models Ignacio E. Grossmann1 , Pío

  11. Effects of appendages and small currents on the hydrodynamic heave damping of TLP columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiagarajan, K.P. [Australian Maritime Engineering CRC Ltd., Launceston (Australia); Troesch, A.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous paper by the authors reported on the estimation of resonant heave (springing) damping of tension leg platforms (TLPs) and a method of scaling for full scale prototypes. The present paper is a sequel to this work, and examines the effect of adding an appendage in the form of a disk to TLP columns, and the influence of a small uniform current. Model tests conducted on a cylinder+disk in heave show that the heave damping induced by the disk is linear with the amplitude of oscillation. The disk is found to increase the form drag coefficient two-fold, in accordance with published results based on isolated edge theory. The effects of a small uniform current were also examined during the model tests. Results show an increase in heave damping ratio that is linear with the current velocity. In the presence of a disk, the damping induced by the current is doubled as well. Scaling laws are proposed in this paper that enable extrapolation of heave damping due to appendages and small currents to full scale. An example calculation shows that for a full scale TLP column the heavy damping is increased by about 300% due to addition of the disk, and by 87% due to a small current. The combination of the disk and the current increases the heave damping of the column by a factor of six.

  12. Quasivacuum solar neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; D. Montanino; A. Palazzo

    2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss in detail solar neutrino oscillations with \\delta m^2/E in the range [10^-10,10^-7] eV^2/MeV. In this range, which interpolates smoothly between the so-called ``just-so'' and ``Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein'' oscillation regimes, neutrino flavor transitions are increasingly affected by matter effects as \\delta m^2/E increases. As a consequence, the usual vacuum approximation has to be improved through the matter-induced corrections, leading to a ``quasi-vacuum'' oscillation regime. We perform accurate numerical calculations of such corrections, using both the true solar density profile and its exponential approximation. Matter effects are shown to be somewhat overestimated in the latter case. We also discuss the role of Earth crossing and of energy smearing. Prescriptions are given to implement the leading corrections in the quasi-vacuum oscillation range. Finally, the results are applied to a global analysis of solar nu data in a three-flavor framework.

  13. Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Lauren K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast Simulator Testing of Steel Columns and Components. ”Testing of Structural Steel Columns. ” 8 th Internationaland Analysis of Structural Steel Columns Subjected to Blast

  14. Oscillation-supported Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diba, Kamran

    , intrinsic currents of neurons, dendritic Ca2+ spikes, and other voltage-dependent membrane oscillations7 Oscillation-supported Information Processing and Transfer at the HippocampusÀected by macroscopic oscillations. In each oscillatory cycle, recruitment of principal neurons is temporally protracted

  15. INTEGRATED GHz VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinget, Peter

    INTEGRATED GHz VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS Peter Kinget Bell Labs - Lucent Technologies Murray Hill, NJ (USA) Abstract The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is a critical sub. We focus on the de- sign of a critical sub-block: the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). We review

  16. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a {plus_minus}2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  17. Improved focusing-and-deflection columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mui, P.H.; Szilagyi, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our earlier design procedures for constructing quadrupole columns are further expanded to include octupole corrector units and ``octupole`` deflectors with no third-order harmonics. The additional complications are finer partitioning of the plates and increased number of voltage controllers. Two sample designs, one having only the additional octupole deflectors and one having both the deflectors and the correctors, are presented and compared to our previous quadrupole system. The additional octupole components are shown to be capable of increasing the current density from 30% to more than 300% for a four-plate system, designed to focus and scan the electron beam over a circular area of 0.25 mm radius. The electron beam is assumed to have an initial divergence of {plus_minus}2.3 mrad, an initial energy of 6 kV, a total energy spread of 1 eV, and a final acceleration of 30 keV. These systems are then slightly reoptimized for a superficial comparison with the commercially available column by Micrion Corporation. The numerical results indicate a potential for substantial improvements, demonstrating the power of this design procedure. Finally, a discussion is presented on how the individual components can interact with each other to reduce the various aberrations. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  18. Flow induced vibration of a cantilever column jet: a spectral analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shilling, Roy Bryant

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , both the pump and the test di scharge pipe were mounted on a carriage whiLh oscil]ated on the track above a water sump. They were connected from the suction end by two-inch I. D. gal- vanized pipe joined in the center by a 1. 5 inch orifice plate... SPECTRUM AT 3. 5 HZ, EMPTY PIPE . FORCED VIBRATION SPECTRUM AT 3. 5 HZ, 47 fps FLOW VELOCITY- FROCED VIBRATION SPECTRUM AT 4. 58 HZ EMPTY PIPE . FORCED VIBRATION SPECTRUM AT 4. 58 HZ 10 fps FLOW VELOCITY . MIDRANGE DYNAMICS . INTENSITY RESPONSE...

  19. Evaluation of fluoride-induced metal mobilization in soil columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totsche, K.U.; Wilcke, W.; Koerber, M.; Kobza, J.; Zech, W.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride in soil solution may cause substantially increased leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Al, and heavy metals from soils. The authors objective was to examine whether increased metal solubility is attributable to formation of fluoro- or organo-complexes. The A horizon of a Slovak soil contaminated with heavy metals and F by Al smelter emissions was used to conduct two column experiments under saturated and steady-state water flow conditions. The columns were leached with 5 mM Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 mM NaCl, and 9 mM NaF solutions at pH 5.5 and an electrical conductivity of 1,000 {micro}S cm{sup {minus}1}. Samples were collected in 70-min intervals for approximately 7 d. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment (single F pulse), a fluoride (F) pulse was applied for 36 pore volumes (PVs), while in the second experiment (dual F pulse), two consecutive F pulses (each for 2.8 PVs) were applied. For both experiments, Cl breakthrough curves (BTCs) revealed a convection-dominated transport regime. The breakthrough of Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb paralleled DOC breakthrough in both experiments indicating metal leaching as organocomplex. In the dual F pulse experiment, peak separation of the DOC and the complexed F (F{sub bound}) breakthrough was achieved. The highest F{sub bound} concentration occurred 3.8 PVs later than that of DOC. The AlBTC paralleled that of F{sub bound} but showed tailing with a turning point simultaneous to the highest DOC concentration. Thus, the increase in Al solubility was mainly caused by fluoro-complexation and only to a lesser extent by organo-complexation.

  20. Technology in water conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  1. Technology in water conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  2. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Blasone; Fabio Dell'Anno; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks.

  3. Neutrino oscillations refitted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero, D V; Valle, J W F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we update our previous global fit of neutrino oscillations by including the recent results which have appeared since the Neutrino-2012 conference. These include the measurements of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance reported by Daya Bay and RENO, together with latest T2K and MINOS data including both disappearance and appearance channels. We also include the revised results from the third solar phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-III, as well as new solar results from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-IV. We find that the preferred global determination of the atmospheric angle $\\theta_{23}$ is consistent with maximal mixing. We also determine the impact of the new data upon all the other neutrino oscillation parameters with emphasis on the increasing sensitivity to the CP phase, thanks to the interplay between accelerator and reactor data.

  4. Oscillations of Mossbauer neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evgeny Kh. Akhmedov; Joachim Kopp; Manfred Lindner

    2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the probability of recoilless emission and detection of neutrinos (Mossbauer effect with neutrinos) taking into account the boundedness of the parent and daughter nuclei in the neutrino source and detector as well as the leptonic mixing. We show that, in spite of their near monochromaticity, the recoillessly emitted and captured neutrinos oscillate. After a qualitative discussion of this issue, we corroborate and extend our results by computing the combined rate of $\\bar{\

  5. Oscillations in glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prickett, Tom

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1950 CONTENTS Introduction ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 I. Review of Plasma Oscillations in Gas Discharges ? . . 2 II. Review of Relaxation Processes in Gas Discharges ? . 13 III. Report of Laboratory Investigation... 179540 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Sketch of Plasma Space in which Electrons are given Displacements in the X-direction ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 2* Early Circuit Arrangement of Discharge Study ? ? ? ? ? 19 3, Flow Diagram of the Experimental System...

  6. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; LSND Collaboration

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSND experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations using {anti v}{sub {mu}} from {mu}{sup +} decay at rest. The {anti v}{sub e} are detected via the reaction {anti v}{sub e} p {yields} e{sup +}n, correlated with the 2.2 MeV {gamma} from n p {yields} d {gamma}. The use of tight cuts to identify e{sup +} events with correlated {gamma} rays yielded 22 events with e{sup +} energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}. A {chi}{sup 2} fit to the entire e{sup +} sample results in a total excess of 51.8{sub {minus}16.9}{sup +18.7} {+-} 8.0 events with e{sup +} energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of 0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05%.

  8. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  9. Evaluation of Packed Columns in Supercritical Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathkamp, P. J.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    process. A 10 wt.% aqueous solution of etha nol was extracted in a spray column using super critical carbon dioxide. Mass transfer coefficients were determined to be more than ten times greater than those associated with conventional liquid extraction... form near the bottom when flooding occurs. The column was operated with countercurrent flow, with the more dense aqueous feed entering near the top of the column, and the less dense super critical carbon dioxide entering near the bottom. The light...

  10. accretion column structure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column Engineering Websites Summary: Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an...

  11. argon plasma column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon CERN Preprints Summary: We report on the...

  12. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  13. I. Introduction A. Neutrino oscillation results from solar and atmospheric neutrino data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    V. This scenario is motivated in part by the need for an admixture (20{40%) of hot dark matter|roughly 7 eV worth oscillations in the matter of the Sun, and that the e and the neutrino type into which it oscillates, possibly and IMB imaging water Cherenkov detectors suggest that the observed disappearance of muon type neutrinos

  14. The Arctic Oscillation, climate change and the effects on precipitation in Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    in the Mediterranean basin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Climate change Arctic Oscillation) investigated the effect of climate change on water resources of Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East regionThe Arctic Oscillation, climate change and the effects on precipitation in Israel Amir Givati b

  15. On The Harmonic Oscillator Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raquel M. Lopez; Sergei K. Suslov; Jose M. Vega-Guzman

    2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the maximum kinematical invariance group of the quantum harmonic oscillator from a view point of the Ermakov-type system. A six parameter family of the square integrable oscillator wave functions, which seems cannot be obtained by the standard separation of variables, is presented as an example. The invariance group of generalized driven harmonic oscillator is shown to be isomorphic to the corresponding Schroedinger group of the free particle.

  16. Baryogenesis via neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Kh. Akhmedov; V. A. Rubakov; A. Yu. Smirnov

    1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new mechanism of leptogenesis in which the asymmetries in lepton numbers are produced through the CP-violating oscillations of ``sterile'' (electroweak singlet) neutrinos. The asymmetry is communicated from singlet neutrinos to ordinary leptons through their Yukawa couplings. The lepton asymmetry is then reprocessed into baryon asymmetry by electroweak sphalerons. We show that the observed value of baryon asymmetry can be generated in this way, and the masses of ordinary neutrinos induced by the seesaw mechanism are in the astrophysically and cosmologically interesting range. Except for singlet neutrinos, no physics beyond the Standard Model is required.

  17. Lorentz Invariance of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giunti

    2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that, in spite of the appearances, the standard expression for the oscillation probability of ultrarelativistic neutrinos is Lorentz invariant.

  18. Gravitational Correction in Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasufumi Kojima

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the quantum mechanical oscillations of neutrinos propagating in weak gravitational field. The correction to the result in the flat space-time is derived.

  19. NEUTRINO OSCILLATION RESULTS FROM LSND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G.B.

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector took data during the years 1993 through 1998. The results of a final analysis of the data are reported here. In summary, the analysis resulted in a cleaner sample of decay-at-rest oscillation candidates and provided a strong constraint on beam related backgrounds. The oscillation probability is fitted to the correlated photon parameter in the inclusive electron sample. The fit yields an excess of 83.3 {+-} 21.2 events attributable to neutrino oscillations. This corresponds to an oscillation probability of (0.25 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.04)% for that detector and beam configuration.

  20. Feedback Induced Death in Coupled Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Luo

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate oscillation death in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators with feedback loop. We find that feedback results in oscillation death both in small sets or large ensembles. More importantly, the death zone in parameter space is significantly enlarged and oscillation death could occur even in coupled identical oscillators in the presence of feedback. We find that there are two different ways to oscillation death, namely desynchronization and completely synchronization induced oscillation death. Feedback induced oscillation death may be used to suppress unexpected oscillations, e.g., in chaotic laser arrays.

  1. DOE/SC0001389 Final technical report: Investigation of uranium attenuation and release at column and pore scales in response to advective geochemical gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, Kaye S. [Wofford College; Zhu, Wenyi [Wofford College; Barnett, Mark O. [Auburn University

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental approach Column experiments were devised to investigate the role of changing fluid composition on mobility of uranium through a sequence of geologic media. Fluids and media were chosen to be relevant to the ground water plume emanating from the former S-3 ponds at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFC) site. Synthetic ground waters were pumped upwards at 0.05 mL/minute for 21 days through layers of quartz sand alternating with layers of uncontaminated soil, quartz sand mixed with illite, quartz sand coated with iron oxides, and another soil layer. Increases in pH or concentration of phosphate, bicarbonate, or acetate were imposed on the influent solutions after each 7 pore volumes while uranium (as uranyl) remained constant at 0.1mM. A control column maintained the original synthetic groundwater composition with 0.1mM U. Pore water solutions were extracted to assess U retention and release in relation to the advective ligand or pH gradients. Following the column experiments, subsamples from each layer were characterized using microbeam X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence mapping and compared to sediment core samples from the ORIFC, at SSRL Beam Line 2-3. Results U retention of 55 â?? 67 mg occurred in phosphate >pH >control >acetate >carbonate columns. The mass of U retained in the first-encountered quartz layer in all columns was highest and increased throughout the experiment. The rate of increase in acetate- and bicarbonate-bearing columns declined after ligand concentrations were raised. U also accumulated in the first soil layer; the pH-varied column retained most, followed by the increasing-bicarbonate column. The mass of U retained in the upper layers was far lower. Speciation of U, interpreted from microbeam XANES spectra and XRF maps, varied within and among the columns. Evidence of minor reduction to U(IV) was observed in the first-encountered quartz layer in the phosphate, bicarbonate, and pH columns while only U(VI) was observed in the control and acetate columns. In the soil layer, the acetate and bicarbonate columns both indicate minor reduction to U(IV), but U(VI) predominated in all columns. In the ORIFC soils, U was consistently present as U(VI); sorption appears to be the main mechanism of association for U present with Fe and/or Mn, while U occurring with P appears in discrete particles consistent with a U mineral phase. U in soil locations with no other elemental associations shown by XRF are likely uranium oxide phases.

  2. On the harmonic oscillator realisation of q-oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gangopadhyay; A. P. Isaev

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The general version of the bosonic harmonic oscillator realisation of bosonic q-oscillators is given. It is shown that the currently known realisation is a special case of our general solution. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of theoretical Physics,JINR.

  3. Free Oscillations of a Linear Oscillator Eugene Butikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butikov, Eugene

    of a Linear Torsion Oscillator The linear oscillator simulated in this computer program is a balanced flywheel whose center of mass lies on the axis of rotation. Such a flywheel may consist, for example, of a rod that passes through its center. A spiral spring with one end fixed and the other attached to the flywheel

  4. Neutrino oscillations refitted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Forero; M. Tortola; J. W. F. Valle

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we update our previous global fit of neutrino oscillations by including the recent results which have appeared since the Neutrino-2012 conference. These include the measurements of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance reported by Daya Bay and RENO, together with latest T2K and MINOS data including both disappearance and appearance channels. We also include the revised results from the third solar phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-III, as well as new solar results from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-IV. We find that the preferred global determination of the atmospheric angle $\\theta_{23}$ is consistent with maximal mixing. We also determine the impact of the new data upon all the other neutrino oscillation parameters with emphasis on the increasing sensitivity to the CP phase, thanks to the interplay between accelerator and reactor data. In the appendix we present the updated results obtained after the inclusion of new reactor data presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference. We discuss their impact on the global neutrino analysis.

  5. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA); Regan, Brian C. (Los Angeles, CA); Aloni, Shaul (Albany, CA)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  6. Fine coal flotation of plant waste: An in-plant comparison - columns vs. sub-A cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.M.; Kohlenberger, L.; Rapp, D.M. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Stephenson, J.; Zipperian, D. (Deister Machine Co., Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)); Sterner, R.M.; Norris, D. (Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to compare the flotation effectiveness of the column flotation and the sub-aeration technology to clean very fine ({minus}100 mesh) coal in the waste streams of coal washing plants. Good concentrate grades along with a high recovery of energy content have been achieved while rejecting a large percentage of the ash forming minerals and pyrite. However, comparative data of columns vs. sub-aeration cells is not available from a single plant. This project was developed to install a small commercial size Deister Column beside the existing sub-aeration flotation cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia Plant so that a comparison of the flotation results can be made. A representative split of the fines which normally goes to sub-aeration cells can be diverted without reagent, to the column for continuous side by side flotation testing over an extended period. The Deister Column was installed during the quarter along with the sampling system and tailings volume measuring apparatus. Parts of several weeks were spent in assuring that realistic goals could be obtained. During the de-bugging period it was found that water pressure and air pressure within the plant was not constant due to cleanup hoses which were on the same fresh water line to assure constant water and air pressure to the column during testing periods. Most of the shakedown testing was completed in April and May. Preliminary tests have been run in which high grade concentrates have been made but with low Btu recoveries. Additional tests with increased reagent rates are planned to increase Btu recoveries and will be reported at the Contractors Conference and in the final report. 24 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  8. Behavior of the Mass Transfer Zone in a Biosorption Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    in a flow-through fixed-bed sorption column enabled the prediction of breakthrough curves for Cu2+ and Ca in a flow-through fixed-bed column. Copper has been chosen as a typical toxic heavy metal with simple

  9. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed these, the feasibility of using the distillate­bottom structure for control (which was believed

  10. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottomstructure for control which was believed to be impossible

  11. THE DOS AND DONTS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DOS AND DON·TS OF DISTILLATION COLUMN CONTROL S. Skogestadà Department of Chemical Engineering distillation column control within the general framework of plant- wide control. In addition, it aims at providing simple recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation

  12. The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron Oxyhydroxide Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron Oxyhydroxide Columns Including Studies of Weakly. (photo: Mr. J. Mähler, image editing Dr. D. Lundberg) #12;The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron of columns and iron content of the adsorbent material. Experiments have shown that adsorption does occur

  13. 2005 ASHRAE. 109 Groundwater heat pump systems using standing column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ©2005 ASHRAE. 109 ABSTRACT Groundwater heat pump systems using standing column wells the well through the heat pump in an open-loop pipe circuit. Standing column wells have been in use in growing numbers since the advent of geothermal heat pump systems and are recently receiving much more

  14. NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS Bjarne A. Foss1 , Song-Bo Cong established for a petroleum distillation column through first principle analysis, and its parameters have been-estimation and prediction in a MPC scheme. The controller has been applied to quality control of a FCCU fractionator

  15. THERMAL MODELING OF ION EXCHANGE COLUMNS WITH SPHERICAL RF RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal performance of RF columns fully loaded with radioactive cesium. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated during Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process upset conditions with a focus on implementation at Hanford. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results will provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on RF. The current full-scale design for the SCIX system includes a central cooling tube, and one objective of these calculations was to examine its elimination to simplify the design. Results confirmed that a column design without a central cooling tube is feasible for RF, allowing for the possibility of significant design simplifications if it can be assumed that the columns are always filled with liquid. With active cooling through the four outer tubes, the maximum column diameter expected to maintain the temperature below the assumed media and safety limits is 26 inches, which is comparable to the current design diameter. Additional analysis was conducted to predict the maximum column temperatures for the previously unevaluated accident scenario involving inadvertent drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, with retention of the ion exchange media and cesium in the column. As expected, much higher maximum temperatures are observed in this case due to the poor heat transfer properties of air versus liquid. For this hypothetical accident scenario involving inadvertent and complete drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, the modeling results indicate that the maximum temperature within a 28 inch diameter RF column with external cooling is expected to exceed 250 C within 2 days, while the maximum temperature of a 12 inch column is maintained below 100 C. In addition, the calculation results demonstrate that the cooling tube system external to an air-filled column is not highly effective at reducing the maximum temperature, but the baseline design using a central cooling tube inside the column provides sufficient cooling to maintain the maximum temperature near the assumed safety limit.

  16. Neutrino Oscillations Physics 135c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golwala, Sunil

    Neutrino Oscillations Gary Cheng Physics 135c 6/1/07 #12;Introduction: Theory Neutrinos have mass neutrinos are produced. The difference between the mass eigenstates and the flavor eigenstates of neutrinos is what causes neutrino oscillations. #12;Introduction: Theory 2 The mass eigenstates 1, 2, 3

  17. The Phase of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giunti

    2002-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an analogy with the well-known double-slit experiment, we show that the standard phase of neutrino oscillations is correct, refuting recent claims of a factor of two correction. We also improve the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillations taking into account explicitly the finite coherence time of the detection process.

  18. Neutrino oscillations and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Zuber

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance of light massive neutrinos as hot dark matter is outlined. The power of neutrino oscillation experiments with respect to detect such neutrinos in the eV-region is discussed. Present hints for neutrino oscillations in solar, atmospheric and LSND data are reviewed as well as future experiments and their potential.

  19. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

  20. Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column that the CO2 is in a dense phase (either liquid or supercritical). Accurate assessment of the storage capacity also requires an estimation of the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored beneath the reservoir seal

  1. Neutrino Oscillations and Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Mannheim

    1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Three independent predictions follow from postulating the existence of protons co-accelerated with electrons in extragalactic jets (i) multi-TeV gamma ray emission from nearby blazars, (ii) extragalactic cosmic ray protons up to 10^20 eV, and (iii) extragalactic neutrinos up to 5 10^18 eV. Recent gamma ray observations of Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 employing the air-Cerenkov technique are consistent with the predicted gamma ray spectrum, if one corrects for pair attenuation on the infrared background. Prediction (ii) is consistent with cosmic ray data, if one requires that jets are responsible for at least a sizable fraction of the extragalactic gamma ray background. With kubic kilometer neutrino telescopes, it will be possible to test (iii), although the muon event rates are rather low. Neutrino oscillations can increase the event rate by inducing tau-cascades removing the Earth shadowing effect.

  2. Particles in Surface Waters: Coagulation and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culkin, Gerald W.; Lawler, Desmond F.

    -averaged, unsteady particle transport were developed to approximate the size-dependent particle transport processes, which included advection, dispersion, and settling. Coupled exchange of discrete particles between the water column and sediment bed was modeled using...

  3. Column-by-column compositional mapping by Z-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Rubio, Sergio I [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Sales Lerida, David [ORNL; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Fuster, David [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Alen, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phenomenological method is developed to determine the composition of materials, with atomic column resolution, by analysis of integrated intensities of aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy images. The method is exemplified for InAsxP1-x alloys using epitaxial thin films with calibrated compositions as standards. Using this approach we have determined the composition of the two-dimensional wetting layer formed between self-assembled InAs quantum wires on InP (001) substrates. The method utilizes a series of B coefficients that models the background signal in Z-contrast images, which is unaccounted for by image simulations.

  4. Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

  5. Forced Oscillations in Fluid Tori and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The kilo-Hertz Quasi--Periodic Oscillations in X-ray binaries could originate within the accretion flow, and be a signature of non--linear fluid oscillations and mode coupling in strong gravity. The possibility to decipher these systems will impact our knowledge of fundamental parameters such as the neutron star mass, radius, and spin. Thus they offer the possibility to constrain the nuclear equation of state and the rotation parameter of stellar--mass black holes. We review the general properties of these oscillations from a hydrodynamical point of view, when the accretion flow is subject to external perturbations and summarize recent results.

  6. Active vapor split control for dividing-wall columns Journal: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    @ntnu.no Abstract Dividing-wall distillation columns offer large potential energy savings over conventional column column Introduction Dividing-wall distillation columns such as Petlyuk arrangements and the Kaibel column vapor fraction Purities (mol %): 97.6 % (D), 97.3 % (S); 99.6 % (B) Stages: 40 in prefractionator and 80

  7. THE EFFECT OF WATER TABLE ELEVATION ON ACID MINE DRAINAGE FROM REACTIVE TAILINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    . A free-draining control column with no sand cover was also used. The experimental results were compared with different water table elevations. Each column contained a layer of reactive tailings overlain by a sand column tests have been completed to establish the hydraulic and geochemical conditions which control

  8. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  9. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR SALTSTONE DISPOSAL UNIT COLUMN DEGRADATION ANALYSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting a Sensitivity Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) column degradation were performed. Previous analyses, Flach and Taylor 2014, used a model in which the SDU columns degraded in a piecewise manner from the top and bottom simultaneously. The current analyses employs a model in which all pieces of the column degrade at the same time. Information was extracted from the analyses which may be useful in determining the distribution of Tc-99 in the various SDUs throughout time and in determining flow balances for the SDUs.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

  11. Cyclic behavior and design of steel columns subjected to large drift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newell, James David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing. These deep columns have larger web width-to-that provided by the web of a deep column with a similarflange and web local buckling for the deep column sections.

  12. Optimization Online - Simultaneous Column-and-Row Generation ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim Muter

    2010-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 14, 2010 ... Abstract: In this paper, we develop a simultaneous column-and-row generation algorithm that could be applied to a general class of large-scale ...

  13. Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, S. A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed loop computer control of an ethylene column has been shown to save $350/day in improved ethylene recovery and $150/day in reduced energy consumption. These savings are achieved through material balance optimization and energy balance...

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. The past three months of research have been focused on two major areas of bubble column hydrodynamics: (1) pressure and temperature effects on gas holdup and (2) region transition using a sparger as a gas distributor.

  15. Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, S. A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closed loop computer control of an ethylene column has been shown to save $350/day in improved ethylene recovery and $150/day in reduced energy consumption. These savings are achieved through material balance optimization and energy balance...

  16. Quantum Mechanics of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giunti; C. W. Kim

    2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple but general treatment of neutrino oscillations in the framework of quantum mechanics using plane waves and intuitive wave packet principles when necessary. We attempt to clarify some confusing statements that have recently appeared in the literature.

  17. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND LIQUID now PATHS fOA IltO TltAYS I A number of engineering contractors and 1 operating companies have employed Union Carbide'\\s High Flux and Multiple Downcomer tray technolog~es to improve performance, decrease utilities and I lower operating costs... ? Fi,?'d as nll\\ximum within hf'l~ht n'!:-;tl'ie-tlon. The control scheme for a heat pump can be de signed to be no more complex than a conventional steam/cooling water system which relies on flow and level controllers to set the various column flow...

  18. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND LIQUID now PATHS fOA IltO TltAYS I A number of engineering contractors and 1 operating companies have employed Union Carbide'\\s High Flux and Multiple Downcomer tray technolog~es to improve performance, decrease utilities and I lower operating costs... ? Fi,?'d as nll\\ximum within hf'l~ht n'!:-;tl'ie-tlon. The control scheme for a heat pump can be de signed to be no more complex than a conventional steam/cooling water system which relies on flow and level controllers to set the various column flow...

  19. Transition between Two Oscillation Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz; Yves Pomeau

    2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the symmetric coupling of two self-oscillators is presented. The nonlinearities cause the system to vibrate in two modes of different symmetries. The transition between these two regimes of oscillation can occur by two different scenarios. This might model the release of vortices behind circular cylinders with a possible transition from a symmetric to an antisymmetric Benard-von Karman vortex street.

  20. Insitu expanding foam based carbon/epoxy sandwich jackets for column retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danyeur, Alicia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the construction and testing of 6 concrete columns and aUp Creating Gap with Concrete Base Column testing continuedagainst the concrete base was witnessed during testing and

  1. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients following an interruption of flow to the column were calculated. The transient calculations were terminated after the maximum resin bed temperature reached the Technical Standard of 60 C, which was set to prevent significant resin degradation. The LANL column differs from the FWR column in that it has a significantly smaller radius, 3.73 cm nominal versus approximately 28 cm. It follows that natural convection removes heat much more effectively from the LANL column, so that the column may reach thermal equilibrium. Consequently, the calculations for a flow interruption were extended until an approach to thermal equilibrium was observed. The LANL ion exchange process also uses a different resin than was used in the FWR column. The LANL column uses Reillex HPQ{trademark} resin, which is more resistant to attack by nitric acid than the Ionac 641{trademark} resin used in the FWR column. Heat generation from the resin oxidation reaction with nitric acid is neglected in this analysis since LANL will be treating the resin to remove the LTE prior to loading the resin in the columns. Calculations were performed using a finite difference computer code, which incorporates models for absorption and elution of plutonium and for forced and natural convection within the resin bed. Calculations for normal column operation during loading were performed using an initial temperature and a feed temperature equal to the ambient air temperature. The model for the normal flow calculations did not include natural convection within the resin bed. The no flow calculations were started with the temperature and concentration profiles at the end of the loading stage, when there would be a maximum amount of plutonium either adsorbed on the resin or in the feed solution in the column.

  2. Spectral Formation in X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Becker; Michael T. Wolff

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first self-consistent model for the dynamics and the radiative transfer occurring in bright X-ray pulsar accretion columns, with a special focus on the role of the shock in energizing the emerging X-rays. The pressure inside the accretion column of a luminous X-ray pulsar is dominated by the photons, and consequently the equations describing the coupled radiative-dynamical structure must be solved simultaneously. Spectral formation in these sources is therefore a complex, nonlinear phenomenon. We obtain the analytical solution for the Green's function describing the upscattering of monochromatic radiation injected into the column from the thermal mound located near the base of the flow. The Green's function is convolved with a Planck distribution to model the X-ray spectrum resulting from the reprocessing of blackbody photons produced in the thermal mound. These photons diffuse through the infalling gas and eventually escape out the walls of the column, forming the observed X-ray spectrum. We show that the resulting column-integrated, phase-averaged spectrum has a power-law shape at high energies and a blackbody shape at low energies, in agreement with the observational data for many X-ray pulsars.

  3. Symmetries in collective neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huaiyu Duan; George M. Fuller; Yong-Zhong Qian

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the relationship between a symmetry in the neutrino flavour evolution equations and neutrino flavour oscillations in the collective precession mode. This collective precession mode can give rise to spectral swaps (splits) when conditions can be approximated as homogeneous and isotropic. Multi-angle numerical simulations of supernova neutrino flavour transformation show that when this approximation breaks down, non-collective neutrino oscillation modes decohere kinematically, but the collective precession mode still is expected to stand out. We provide a criterion for significant flavour transformation to occur if neutrinos participate in a collective precession mode. This criterion can be used to understand the suppression of collective neutrino oscillations in anisotropic environments in the presence of a high matter density. This criterion is also useful in understanding the breakdown of the collective precession mode when neutrino densities are small.

  4. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  5. Real Oscillations of Virtual Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Grimus; P. Stockinger

    1996-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conditions for neutrino oscillations in a field theoretical approach by taking into account that only the neutrino production and detection processes, which are localized in space around the coordinates $\\vec{x}_P$ and $\\vec{x}_D$, respectively, can be manipulated. In this sense the neutrinos whose oscillations are investigated appear as virtual lines connecting production with detection in the total Feynman graph and all neutrino fields or states to be found in the discussion are mass eigenfields or eigenstates. We perform a thorough examination of the integral over the spatial components of the inner neutrino momentum and show that in the asymptotic limit $L=|\\vec{x}_D - \\vec{x}_P| \\rightarrow \\infty$ the virtual neutrinos become ``real'' and under certain conditions the usual picture of neutrino oscillations emerges without ambiguities.

  6. Real oscillations of virtual neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimus, Walter

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conditions for neutrino oscillations in a field theoretical approach by taking into account that only the neutrino production and detection processes, which are localized in space around the coordinates \\vec{x}_P and \\vec{x}_D, respectively, can be manipulated. In this sense the neutrinos whose oscillations are investigated appear as virtual lines connecting production with detection in the total Feynman graph and all neutrino fields or states to be found in the discussion are mass eigenfields or eigenstates. We perform a thorough examination of the integral over the spatial components of the inner neutrino momentum and show that in the asymptotic limit L=|\\vec{x}_D - \\vec{x}_P| \\rightarrow \\infty the virtual neutrinos become ``real'' and under certain conditions the usual picture of neutrino oscillations emerges without ambiguities.

  7. Magnetoatmospheric oscillations in sunspot umbrae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, S.S. (Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of umbral oscillations is investigated using an empirical model for the sunspot umbra, based on the model of Maltby et al. (1986). Approximating the sunspot as a thick flux tube of circular cross section, the axisymmetric normal modes of magnetoatmospheric waves were determined, and a diagnostic diagram was generated for different field strengths. The diagram shows the existence of avoided crossings in the solution of magnetoatmospheric modes in a sunspot atmosphere. It was found that, for low values of the radial wavenumber k, corresponding to observed oscillations, a simple global classification is not possible. The oscillations in the low photosphere and below are of either fast or mixed type, but tend to acquire a slow or acoustic character above the temperature minimum. 61 refs.

  8. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  9. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  10. Control Structure Design for Optimal Operation of 4-Product Thermally Coupled Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control Structure Design for Optimal Operation of 4-Product Thermally Coupled Columns Deeptanshu: distillation, thermal coupling, Kaibel column, Petlyuk column Prepared for presentation at the James R. Fair distillation arrangements like Kaibel and Petlyuk columns can be challenging. This paper discusses the control

  11. Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short-cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION- ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  12. Use of Shortcut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Use of Short­cut Methods to Analyse Optimal Operation of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Ivar J: Petlyuk distillation column, dividing wall column, optimizing control, minimum energy 1. INTRODUCTION­ ments for the level of automatic control and to the design of number of stages in each column section. 2

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  15. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  16. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  17. Short Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katori, Teppei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Series of short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments provided unexpected results, and now they are called short baseline anomalies, and all indicates an existence of sterile neutrinos with a mass scale around 1~eV. The signals of short baseline anomalies are reported from 4 different classes of experiments. However, at this moment, there is no convincing theoretical model to explain such sterile neutrinos, and a single experiment to confirm 1~eV sterile neutrinos may be challenging. In this short note, we describe classes of short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and their goals.

  18. Heat Transfer Calculations for a Fixed CST Bed Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange project of High-Level Waste (HLW) Process Engineering, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the CST column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. The modeling and calculations were performed using a computational heat transfer approach.

  19. Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, ground source heat pump-surface environment: · Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems (Closed-loop) · Surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems

  20. Sensitivity analysis of oscillating hybrid systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Vibhu Prakash

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many models of physical systems oscillate periodically and exhibit both discrete-state and continuous-state dynamics. These systems are called oscillating hybrid systems and find applications in diverse areas of science ...

  1. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  2. Lepton textures and neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Rohit

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systematic analyses of the textures arising in lepton mass matrices have been carried out using unitary transformations and condition of naturalness for the Dirac and Majorana neutrino possibilities. It is observed that the recent three neutrino oscillation data together with the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay provide vital clues in predicting the general structures of these lepton mass matrices.

  3. Pulsar kicks from neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Kusenko; Gino Segre

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino oscillations can explain the observed motion of pulsars. We show that two different models of neutrino emission from a cooling neutron star are in good quantitative agreement and predict the same order of magnitude for the pulsar kick velocity, consistent with the data.

  4. Lepton textures and neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohit Verma

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systematic analyses of the textures arising in lepton mass matrices have been carried out using unitary transformations and condition of naturalness for the Dirac and Majorana neutrino possibilities. It is observed that the recent three neutrino oscillation data together with the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay provide vital clues in predicting the general structures of these lepton mass matrices.

  5. A novel integrated concept of urban water management in a megalopolis from Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .g. treatment of high heavy metals waters and emulsified oil wastes ­ ZOUBOLIS et al., 2000). The impurities are moved to the upper layers of the water column by tinny air bubbles, with posterior sludge removal

  6. Do the Kamiokande results need neutrino oscillations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baillon, Paul

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino oscillations are a delicate and important subject. One needs to be sure that every aspect of it is well understood. The recent results of the Kamiokande experiment [1], indicate the possibility of -- neutrino oscillations. The period of oscillation observed by Kamiokande is not compatible with what one may deduce from the solar neutrino experiments [2]. In this letter, we examine if another mechanism could fake neutrino oscillations and could be measurement dependent

  7. Neutrino Oscillations and the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. P. Kirilova

    2003-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The observational and theoretical status of neutrino oscillations in connection with solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies is presented in brief. The effect of neutrino oscillations on the early Universe evolution is discussed in detail. A short review is given of the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the influence of resonant and nonresonant neutrino oscillations on active neutrinos and on primordial nucleosynthesis of He-4. BBN cosmological constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters are discussed.

  8. Neutrino oscillations: brief history and present status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilenky, S M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of the problem of neutrino masses and oscillations is given. In the beginning we present an early history of neutrino masses, mixing and oscillations. Then we discuss all possibilities of neutrino masses and mixing (neutrino mass terms). The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in vacuum is considered in some details. We present also the neutrino oscillation data and the seesaw mechanism of the neutrino mass generation.

  9. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  10. Oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation Geometry: Associating the oscillator to symplectic manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krysl, Svatopluk

    C -algebras Oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation Geometry: Associating the oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation Geometry: Associating the oscillator to symplectic manifolds Global and (x) = 0 implies x = 0 2 S. Krýsl #12;C -algebras Oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation

  11. Radiation reaction and quantum damped harmonic oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Kheirandish; M. Amooshahi

    2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking a Klein-Gordon field as the environment of an harmonic oscillator and using a new method for dealing with quantum dissipative systems (minimal coupling method), the quantum dynamics and radiation reaction for a quantum damped harmonic oscillator investigated. Applying perturbation method, some transition probabilities indicating the way energy flows between oscillator, reservoir and quantum vacuum, obtained

  12. Neutrino oscillations: Current status and prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    I summarize the status of neutrino oscillations from world neutrino oscillation data with date of October 2005. The results of a global analysis within the three-flavour framework are presented. Furthermore, a prospect on where we could stand in neutrino oscillations in ten years from now is given, based on a simulation of upcoming long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments.

  13. Neutrino oscillations: present status and outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    I summarize the status of three-flavour neutrino oscillations with date of Oct. 2007, and provide an outlook for the developments to be expected in the near future. Furthermore, I discuss the status of sterile neutrino oscillation interpretations of the LSND anomaly in the light of recent MiniBooNE results, and comment on implications for the future neutrino oscillation program.

  14. The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator C. David Sherrill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator C. David Sherrill School of Chemistry and Biochemistry Georgia Institute of Technology February 2002 1 Introduction The harmonic oscillator is extremely useful by coupled harmonic oscillators. The atoms are viewed as point masses which are connected by bonds which act

  15. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  16. IT Profession Column --November 2003 Communications of ACM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzdial, Mark

    IT Profession Column -- November 2003 Communications of ACM DRAFT 9/12/03 Great Principles and behavior, which I call mechanics, and principles of design. What we call principles are almost always distilled from recurrent patterns observed in practice. Do practices shape to underlying principles? Do

  17. How To Run a Flash Column Contributed by Jeffrey Bode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Shao Q

    toluene, this will remove the acid without exposing the neat compound to it. 2. Packing the Column a/methanol (100:1 - 100:10); ethyl acetate/acetone (100:0 - 50:50); and toluene with acetone, ethyl acetate. In these cases, the acetic acid can often be safely rotavaped away by adding portions of toluene

  18. Plastic Hinging Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firat Alemdar, Zeynep

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    of the seismic performance of four-span large-scale bridge systems at the University of Nevada Reno that details deformations in column hinging regions during response to strong shaking events. In order to evaluate the plastic hinging regions, a photogrammetric...

  19. U. L'Aquila INVERTING GOME FORMALDEHYDE COLUMN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    % of anthropogenic plus biomass burning contribution. Europe is the only continent where anthropogenic VOC emissionsU. L'Aquila CETEMPS INVERTING GOME FORMALDEHYDE COLUMN FOR BIOGENIC EMISSIONS OVER EUROPE Gabriele over Europe is generally overestimated by the state-of-the-art chemistry and transport model GEOS- CHEM

  20. Modeling of Immobilized Cell Columns for Bioconversion and Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    used in bioconversions to produce biological products as well as in wastewater treatmentModeling of Immobilized Cell Columns for Bioconversion and Wastewater Treatment Tingyue Gu* and Mei for wastewater treatment using oxidation-reduction potential. Cohen (10) reviewed bio- filtration

  1. Traveling water waves with point vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffer Varholm

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct small-amplitude solitary traveling gravity-capillary water waves with a finite number of point vortices along a vertical line, on finite depth. This is done using a local bifurcation argument. The properties of the resulting waves are also examined: We find that they depend significantly on the position of the point vortices in the water column.

  2. Recovery of coal from preparation plant effluents using a packed column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V.; Khan, L.; Yang, D.; Banerjee, D.D.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of recovering coal from coal preparation plant waste (or effluent) streams at the pilot scale using the packed column flotation process is demonstrated. In Phase I of the project, a total of four effluent samples were tested at the bench scale with the objective of recovering low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal products that were, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal produced by the preparation plants supplying the waste stream samples. Phase II of the project comprised demonstration of the technology at the pilot scale using a 4-in. I.D. {times} 20-ft tall column installed at the Applied Laboratory of the Illinois State Geological Survey. A large effluent sample was conducted, consisting of particle size distribution, proximate and complete analyses, and batch froth flotation testing. Ash, total and pyritic sulfur, and calorific value of the effluent sample were also determined. The effluent feed sample contained 50-55% ash and 2.2% total sulfur. Confirmatory tests were conducted at Michigan Technological University using a bench-scale packed column. A product containing 5.4% ash was obtained at 97.5% ash rejection and 71.8% combustible matter recovery. Changing the process operating parameters allowed the quality of the product to be controlled such that its ash content ranged between 6 and 10%, with combustible matter recoveries in the 71-77% range. Pilot testing was conducted using a test matrix designed to study the effects of primary variables (feed rate, percent solids, and reagent dosage) and operating variables (air rate, wash water, and pulp level) with the objective of optimizing the process performance. Feed rates of 20-108 lb/hour were tested, with very good performance being obtained at a feed rate of 32 lb/hour (374 lb/h/ft{sup 2}).

  3. Combustor oscillating pressure stabilization and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall S. (Morgantown, WV); Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Yip, Mui-Tong Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Robey, Edward H. (Westover, WV); Cully, Scott R. (Morgantown, WV); Addis, Richard E. (Smithfield, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dynamic pressure oscillations in hydrocarbon-fueled combustors typically occur when the transport time of the fuel to the flame front is at some fraction of the acoustic period. These oscillations are reduced to acceptably lower levels by restructuring or repositioning the flame front in the combustor to increase the transport time. A pilot flame front located upstream of the oscillating flame and pulsed at a selected frequency and duration effectively restructures and repositions the oscillating flame in the combustor to alter the oscillation-causing transport time.

  4. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhouse, Christopher James; /Oxford U.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters ({Delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub atm}). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the {nu}{sub {mu}}-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the {nu}{sub {mu}}-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.32{sub -0.08}{sup +0.12} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, sin {sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters {Delta}{bar m}{sup 2} = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat.) {+-} 0.06(syst.)) x 10{sup -3}eV{sup 2}, sin{sup 2} 2{bar {theta}} = 0.86{sub -0.12}{sup _0.11}(stat.) {+-} 0.01(syst.). The tension between these results is intriguing, and additional antineutrino data is currently being taken in order to further investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  6. The Quality of Oscillations in Overdamped Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan O. Hodas

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The second law of thermodynamics implies that no macroscopic system may oscillate indefinitely without consuming energy. The question of the number of possible oscillations and the coherent quality of these oscillations remain unanswered. This paper proves the upper-bounds on the number and quality of such oscillations when the system in question is homogeneously driven and has a discrete network of states. In a closed system, the maximum number of oscillations is bounded by the number of states in the network. In open systems, the size of the network bounds the quality factor of oscillation. This work also explores how the quality factor of macrostate oscillations, such as would be observed in chemical reactions, are bounded by the smallest equivalent loop of the network, not the size of the entire system. The consequences of this limit are explored in the context of chemical clocks and limit cycles.

  7. 2358 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 2358-2362 A New Bromite Oscillator. Large-Amplitude pH Oscillations in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    via two consecutive fast reactions, the first accompanied by a significant increase, the second and characterize a third member of the family of bromite oscillators. In a continuously fed stirred tank reactor contained about 15- 16% hygroscopic water. According to the literature,6 sodium bromite may be contaminated

  8. Berry Phase in Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Gang He; Xue-Qian Li; Bruce H. J. McKellar; Yue Zhang

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Berry phase in neutrino oscillations for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. In order to have a Berry phase, the neutrino oscillations must occur in a varying medium, the neutrino-background interactions must depend on at least two independent densities, and also there must be CP violation if the neutrino interactions with matter are mediated only by the standard model W and Z boson exchanges which implies that there must be at least three generations of neutrinos. The CP violating Majorana phases do not play a role in generating a Berry phase. We show that a natural way to satisfy the conditions for the generation of a Berry phase is to have sterile neutrinos with active-sterile neutrino mixing, in which case at least two active and one sterile neutrinos are required. If there are additional new CP violating flavor changing interactions, it is also possible to have a non-zero Berry phase with just two generations.

  9. Carnot cycle for an oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud, J; Philippe, F

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carnot established in 1824 that the efficiency of cyclic engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature Th and a cold bath at temperature Tc cannot exceed 1-Tc/Th. This result implies the existence of an entropy function S(U) with the property that d^2S/dU^2 less equal 0, where U denotes the average energy. Linear single-mode systems alternately in contact with hot and cold baths obey these principles. A specific expression of the work done per cycle by an oscillator is derived from a prescription established by Einstein in 1906: heat baths may exchange energy with oscillators at angular frequency omega only by amounts hbar *omega, where 2*pi*hbar denotes the Planck constant. Non-reversible cycles are illustrated. The paper is essentially self-contained.

  10. Ladder operators for isospectral oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Seshadri; V. Balakrishnan; S. Lakshmibala

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present, for the isospectral family of oscillator Hamiltonians, a systematic procedure for constructing raising and lowering operators satisfying any prescribed `distorted' Heisenberg algebra (including the $q$-generalization). This is done by means of an operator transformation implemented by a shift operator. The latter is obtained by solving an appropriate partial isometry condition in the Hilbert space. Formal representations of the non-local operators concerned are given in terms of pseudo-differential operators. Using the new annihilation operators, new classes of coherent states are constructed for isospectral oscillator Hamiltonians. The corresponding Fock-Bargmann representations are also considered, with specific reference to the order of the entire function family in each case.

  11. Oscillators: Old and new perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Roy, Jyotirmoy [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Santa Cruz(E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider some of the well known oscillators in literature which are known to exhibit interesting effects of nonlinearity. We review the Lindstedt-Poincare technique for dealing with with the nonlinear effects and then go on to introduce the relevance of the renormalization group for the oscillator following the pioneering work of Chen et al. It is pointed out that the traditional Lindstedt-Poincare and the renormalization group techniques have operational connections. We use this to find an unexpected mode softening in the double pendulum. This mode softening prompted us to look for chaos in the double pendulum at low energies-energies that are just sufficient to allow the outer pendulum to rotate (the double pendulum is known to be chaotic at high energies-energies that are greater than that needed to make both pendulums to rotate). The emergence of the chaos is strongly dependent on initial conditions.

  12. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  13. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yifang Wang; Zhi-zhong Xing

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects will also be addressed.

  14. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects will also be addressed.

  15. Graphene, neutrino mass and oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Y. Wang

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A resolution of the Abraham-Minkowski dilemma is presented that other constant velocities can play the role of c in the theory of relativity. For example, in 2005 electrons of graphene were discovered to behave as if the coefficient is a Fermi velocity. Then we propose a conjecture for neutrinos to avoid the contradiction among two-component theory, negative rest mass-square and oscillation.

  16. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, Dale R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Bivens, Hugh M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  17. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  18. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, Harvey R. (Ames, IA); Fanslow, Glenn E. (Ames, IA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  19. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  20. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  1. Using column lysimetry to evaluate acid-precipitation effects. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, A.R.; Stone, D.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the experimental design and approach used to solve problems encountered with soil column collection, instrumentation, materials and methods, and maintenance of natural soil temperatures. Some preliminary results are presented. Also, basic data on the soil and vegetation of the sampled sites are included to form a database for use by forest soil scientists and land managers. The specific objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity of soils with low base-saturation to increased anion loadings and the susceptibility of these soil solutions to pH depression and negative alkalinities. A secondary objective was to determine whether reduced sulfate deposition will reverse the acidification processes and return soil water alkalinities from negative to positive.

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single Column Model

  3. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  4. December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol in an ethylene glycol reactive distillation column. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 33:2738­2748, 1994. 3 #12;

  5. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  6. Preparation of Papers in Two-Column Format for Conference Proceedings Sponsored by IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    give you basic guidelines for preparing camera-ready papers for conference proceedings. I. INTRODUCTION column width is 88mm (3.45 in). The space between the two columns is 4mm (0.17 in). Paragraph indentation

  7. Experimental and Analytical Studies on Old Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Seismically Vulnerable Beam-Column Joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PARK, SANGJOON

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compression block in the beam section at the column jointcompression block in the column section at the beam jointblock Figure IV.17 Instrumentation for rotation at the beam-joint

  8. Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, ...

  9. Complete pattern of ocular dominance columns in human primary visual cortex.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Daniel L; Sincich, Lawrence C; Horton, Jonathan C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibit greater heterogeneity. dle of the cortex devoid oflarger V1 correlates with a dle of ocular dominance columns.

  10. Laboratory column experiments for radionuclide adsorption studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucero, D.A.; Heath, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, G.O. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Dept.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide transport experiments were carried out using intact cores obtained from the Culebra member of the Rustler Formation inside the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Air Intake Shaft. Twenty-seven separate tests are reported here and include experiments with {sup 3}H, {sup 22}Na, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Np, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 241}Pu, and two brine types, AIS and ERDA 6. The {sup 3}H was bound as water and provides a measure of advection, dispersion, and water self-diffusion. The other tracers were injected as dissolved ions at concentrations below solubility limits, except for americium. The objective of the intact rock column flow experiments is to demonstrate and quantify transport retardation coefficients, (R) for the actinides Pu, Am, U, Th and Np, in intact core samples of the Culebra Dolomite. The measured R values are used to estimate partition coefficients, (kd) for the solute species. Those kd values may be compared to values obtained from empirical and mechanistic adsorption batch experiments, to provide predictions of actinide retardation in the Culebra. Three parameters that may influence actinide R values were varied in the experiments; core, brine and flow rate. Testing five separate core samples from four different core borings provided an indication of sample variability. While most testing was performed with Culebra brine, limited tests were carried out with a Salado brine to evaluate the effect of intrusion of those lower waters. Varying flow rate provided an indication of rate dependent solute interactions such as sorption kinetics.

  11. Laboratory Glass Columns "Next Generation" technology for high-performance preparative chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    SNAP ® Laboratory Glass Columns "Next Generation" technology for high-performance preparative lesiones graves o la muerte! WARNING Glass SNAP® columns are intended for use in a liquid environment disassembly or cleaning for scratches, chips or defects, particularly on the glass surfaces. DO NOT use column

  12. Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one

  13. The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical discusses distillation column control within the general framework of plantwide control. In addition for distillation columns. The standard LV-configuration combined with a fast temperature loop is recommended

  14. Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product

  15. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is influenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  16. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is in uenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  17. A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns Ali distillation column with 7 steady-states show the robustness of the method. No published software known to the steady-state model of distillation columns as it returns the original system as a single large block

  18. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column Distributor Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    concepts for a liquid nitrogen distributor for a packed distillation column. The design team at Penn State distillation column design. Approach The design team first gathered customer specifications from Air ProductsPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column

  19. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...

  20. N=2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masterov, Ivan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct an N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for distinct frequencies of oscillation. A link to a set of decoupled N=2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators with alternating sign in the Hamiltonian is introduced. Symmetries of the model are discussed in detail. The investigation of a quantum counterpart of the constructed model shows that the corresponding Fock space contains negative norm states and the energy spectrum of the system is unbounded from below.

  1. N=2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Masterov

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct an N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for distinct frequencies of oscillation. A link to a set of decoupled N=2 supersymmetric harmonic oscillators with alternating sign in the Hamiltonian is introduced. Symmetries of the model are discussed in detail. The investigation of a quantum counterpart of the constructed model shows that the corresponding Fock space contains negative norm states and the energy spectrum of the system is unbounded from below.

  2. Coherent states for the nonlinear harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Subir [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata 700108 (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave packets for the quantum nonlinear oscillator are considered in the generalized coherent state framework. To first order in the nonlinearity parameter the coherent state behaves very similar to its classical counterpart. The position expectation value oscillates in a simple harmonic manner. The energy-momentum uncertainty relation is time independent as in a harmonic oscillator. Various features (such as the squeezed state nature) of the coherent state have been discussed.

  3. Oscillations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and Biofuels Biomass and OrganizationalOriginal  

  4. On the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: Might they be related?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, W. Richard

    ? Marc d'Orgeville1 and W. Richard Peltier1 Received 3 August 2007; revised 21 September 2007; accepted 1. Peltier (2007), On the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: Might

  5. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  6. Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column measurements by the OMI satellite sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column isoprene emission from North America. OMI HCHO columns for June-August 2006 are consistent distribution of OMI HCHO columns follows that of isoprene emission; anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions

  7. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Vogel; Liangjian Wen; Chao Zhang

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Vogel; Liangjian Wen; Chao Zhang

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  9. Pulsar kicks from neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Kusenko

    2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino oscillations in a core-collapse supernova may be responsible for the observed rapid motions of pulsars. Given the present bounds on the neutrino masses, the pulsar kicks require a sterile neutrino with mass 2-20 keV and a small mixing with active neutrinos. The same particle can be the cosmological dark matter. Its existence can be confirmed the by the X-ray telescopes if they detect a 1-10 keV photon line from the decays of the relic sterile neutrinos. In addition, one may be able to detect gravity waves from a pulsar being accelerated by neutrinos in the event of a nearby supernova.

  10. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  11. Carnot cycle for an oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Arnaud; L. Chusseau; F. Philippe

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Carnot established in 1824 that the efficiency of cyclic engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature $T_{hot}$ and a bath at a lower temperature $T_{cold}$ cannot exceed $1-T_{cold}/T_{hot}$. We show that linear oscillators alternately in contact with hot and cold baths obey this principle in the quantum as well as in the classical regime. The expression of the work performed is derived from a simple prescription. Reversible and non-reversible cycles are illustrated. The paper begins with historical considerations and is essentially self-contained.

  12. Making space for harmonic oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.

  13. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, P. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Kellog Radiation Lab.; Wen, L.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics (IHEP); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle ?13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  14. Neutrino oscillation studies at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for {anti v}{sub {mu}} {yields} {anti v}{sub e} oscillations has been made by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment at LAMPF after an initial month and a half run. The experiment observes eight events consistent with the reaction {anti v}{sub e}p {yields} e{sup +}n followed by np {yields} d{gamma} (2.2 MeV). The total estimated background is 0.9{plus_minus}0.2 events.

  15. Impact of Neutrino Oscillation Measurements on Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was an amazing year in neutrino physics. Before March, thetheorists have a very good track record in neutrino physics.results from neutrino oscillation physics had surprised

  16. High frequency and high wavenumber solar oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the frequencies of solar oscillations covering a wide range of degree (100< l <4000) and frequency (1.5 <\

  17. Shock propagation and neutrino oscillation in supernova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Takahashi; K. Sato; H. E. Dalhed; J. R. Wilson

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the shock propagation on neutrino oscillation in supernova is studied paying attention to evolution of average energy of $\

  18. Relaxed constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela P. Kirilova; Mariana P. Panayotova

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the cosmological constraints on active-sterile neutrino oscillations nu_e nu_s for the case when nu_s is partially filled initially, i.e. 0 nu_s oscillations, effective after neutrino decoupling, accounting for all known oscillations effects on cosmological nucleosynthesis. Cosmological constraints on oscillation parameters corresponding to higher than 5% He-4 overproduction and different non-zero initial populations of the sterile state delta N_s 0 are relaxed in comparison with the delta N_s = 0 case and the relaxation is proportional to delta N_s.

  19. Markovian evolution of strongly coupled harmonic oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaitanya Joshi; Patrik Ohberg; James D. Cresser; Erika Andersson

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate how to model Markovian evolution of coupled harmonic oscillators, each of them interacting with a local environment. When the coupling between the oscillators is weak, dissipation may be modeled using local Lindblad terms for each of the oscillators in the master equation, as is commonly done. When the coupling between oscillators is strong, this model may become invalid. We derive a master equation for two coupled harmonic oscillators which are subject to individual heat baths modeled by a collection of harmonic oscillators, and show that this master equation in general contains non-local Lindblad terms. We compare the resulting time evolution with that obtained for dissipation through local Lindblad terms for each individual oscillator, and show that the evolution is different in the two cases. In particular, the two descriptions give different predictions for the steady state and for the entanglement between strongly coupled oscillators. This shows that when describing strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, one must take great care in how dissipation is modeled, and that a description using local Lindblad terms may fail. This may be particularly relevant when attempting to generate entangled states of strongly coupled quantum systems.

  20. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgecock, T R; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Wildner, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hansen, C; Benedetto, E; Jensen, E; Kosmicki, A; Martini, M; Osborne, J; Prior, G; Stora, T; Melo-Mendonca, T; Vlachoudis, V; Waaijer, C; Cupial, P; Chancé, A; Longhin, A; Payet, J; Zito, M; Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Lepers, B; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Bielski, J; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrycka, A; Wroblewski, A; Marie-Jeanne, M; Balint, P; Fourel, C; Giraud, J; Jacob, J; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Mitrofanov, S; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, Th; Delbar, Th; Debray, F; Trophine, C; Veys, S; Daversin, C; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Cinausero, M; Gramegna, F; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Collazuol, G; Laveder, M; Mazzocco, M; Mezzetto, M; Signorini, C; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Migliozzi, P; Moro, R; Palladino, V; Gelli, N; Berkovits, D; Hass, M; Hirsh, T Y; Schaumann, M; Stahl, A; Wehner, J; Bross, A; Kopp, J; Neuffer, D; Wands, R; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, P; Agarwalla, S K; Villanueva, A Cervera; Donini, A; Ghosh, T; Cadenas, J J Gómez; Hernández, P; Martín-Albo, J; Mena, O; Burguet-Castell, J; Agostino, L; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Marafini, M; Patzak, T; Tonazzo, A; Duchesneau, D; Mosca, L; Bogomilov, M; Karadzhov, Y; Matev, R; Tsenov, R; Akhmedov, E; Blennow, M; Lindner, M; Schwetz, T; Martinez, E Fernández; Maltoni, M; Menéndez, J; Giunti, C; García, M C González; Salvado, J; Coloma, P; Huber, P; Li, T; López-Pavón, J; Orme, C; Pascoli, S; Meloni, D; Tang, J; Winter, W; Ohlsson, T; Zhang, H; Scotto-Lavina, L; Terranova, F; Bonesini, M; Tortora, L; Alekou, A; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Kurup, A; Jenner, L J; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Pozimski, J; Back, J J; Harrison, P; Beard, K; Bogacz, A; Berg, J S; Stratakis, D; Witte, H; Snopok, P; Bliss, N; Cordwell, M; Moss, A; Pattalwar, S; Apollonio, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  1. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  2. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Emily

    , Peking University, Beijing, China, 7 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (PÀ E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate

  3. Comparison of the CERN-MEMPHYS and T2HK neutrino oscillation experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I compare the physics potential of possible future neutrino oscillation experiments from CERN to a Mt scale water Cerenkov detector at Frejus (MEMPHYS) and of the T2HK proposal in Japan, where for the CERN experiments an SPL Superbeam and a $\\gamma=100$ Beta Beam are considered.

  4. Full three flavor oscillation analysis of atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Full three flavor oscillation analysis of atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande angles 12, 23, 13, and one CP phase parameter (cp), by the atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande. The Super-Kamiokande, a 50 kt water Cherenkov detector, started taking data in 1996 and has been observed

  5. Analytical and Experimental Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Beam-Column Joints without Transverse Reinforcement in Concrete Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan, Wael M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformations in Reinforced Concrete Beam–Column Joints?,P. , ?Update to ASCE/SEI 41 Concrete Provisions?, EarthquakeEffective Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Columns?, Pacific

  6. Separation specifications for complex columns of minimum reflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Hussein K

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    slightly different foras frow those of a conventional oolumn (18). A aaterial balanoe enolos- ing the top of the column (including the side-stream Wl) and any plate ($ 1) below plate p gives g-l, i i li di, wli di"i wli (4) Siaoe J (A )(v )) Equation... (4) aay be written as follows (6) The "rectifying pinch" is given by taking the following limit. i li i li i li (7) The existence of such limit and the proof that the Equation (7) tahoe the fora( ri 1 di + wli 1 - A i at the rectifying pinch...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1995 Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8LigovCampaignsCLEX-5 CampaignSP2govCampaignsFIRE-ArcticSingle Column

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Summer Single Column Model IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single Column Model IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data

  9. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative ? while the magnetization dynamics stops for ??=?0 or ??>?0, where ? is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative ? induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various ? were also studied by numerical simulation.

  10. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  11. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huaiyu Duan; Shashank Shalgar

    2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  12. Neutrino optics and oscillations in gravitational fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Lambiase; G. Papini; R. Punzi; G. Scarpetta

    2005-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the propagation of neutrinos in gravitational fields using wave functions that are exact to first order in the metric deviation. For illustrative purposes, the geometrical background is represented by the Lense-Thirring metric. We derive explicit expressions for neutrino deflection, helicity transitions, flavor oscillations and oscillation Hamiltonian.

  13. Umbral oscillations as a probe of sunspot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelatif, T.E.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of the solar five-minute oscillations with a sunspot is thoroughly explored, both on observational and theoretical grounds. Simple theoretical models are developed in order to understand the observations of umbral oscillations. Observations made at the National Solar Observatory detected both the three-minute and five-minute umbral oscillations at photospheric heights. The three-minute oscillations were found to have a kinetic energy density six times higher in the photosphere than in the chromosphere and to be concentrated in the central part of the umbra, supporting the photospheric resonance theory for the three-minute umbral oscillations. The five-minute oscillations are attenuated in the umbra, which appears to act as a filter in selecting some of the peaks in the power spectrum of five-minute oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The k-omega power spectrum of the umbral oscillations shows a shift of power to longer wavelengths. Theoretical models of the transmission of acoustic waves into a magnetic region explain both observed effects.

  14. Synthetic gene oscillators and their applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danino, Tal

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Spin down culture tubes in big centrifuge for 5 mins. [tubes can be spun down in big centrifuge up to 3g] 2. PourUse Blue spin columns; centrifuge rpm 14000 Pipette 1.5ml

  15. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Synchronous, Focally Modulated -Band Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graybiel, Ann M.

    , primarily synchronous -band voltage oscillations occur in the sensorimotor and frontal cortex of humansBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Synchronous, Focally Modulated -Band Oscillations Characterize Local oscillations in the -frequency band ( 15­30Hz

  16. Evolution of column density distributions within Orion~A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stutz, A M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the structure of star-forming molecular clouds in different regions of Orion A to determine how the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF) varies with environmental conditions such as the fraction of young protostars. A correlation between the N-PDF slope and Class 0 protostar fraction has been previously observed in a low-mass star-formation region (Perseus) by Sadavoy; here we test if a similar correlation is observed in a high-mass star-forming region. We use Herschel data to derive a column density map of Orion A. We use the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey catalog for accurate identification and classification of the Orion A young stellar object (YSO) content, including the short-lived Class 0 protostars (with a $\\sim$ 0.14 Myr lifetime). We divide Orion A into eight independent 13.5 pc$^2$ regions; in each region we fit the N-PDF distribution with a power-law, and we measure the fraction of Class 0 protostars. We use a maximum likelihood method to measure the N-PDF power-law ...

  17. Minimization of effluent discharge to the Soil Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dronen, V.R.; Hydzik, K.M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1987, the US Congress mandated that the US Department of Energy (DOE), cease discharge of contaminated effluents to the soil column at the Hanford Site by calendar year 1995. The plan and schedule for this activity can be found in The Plan and Schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquid into the Soil Column at the Hanford Site, (WHC 1987). Coupled with this mandate and DOE`s intent to cleanup Hanford (remediate and restore to the extent practicable), DOE entered into an agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). The agreement is called the ``Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order`` (Ecology et al. 1992) otherwise known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The Tri-Party Agreement established schedules and legally enforceable milestones for the Hanford cleanup mission. One such milestone was to cease discharge of effluent to Hanford`s 300 Area process trenches located approximately 100 m from the Columbia River, north of Richland, Washington.

  18. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

    2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

  19. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  20. Massless neutrino oscillations via quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hai-Long

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for different kinds of neutrino to transform into each other, the eigenvalues of energy of neutrino must be different. In the present theory of neutrino oscillations, this is guaranteed by the mass differences between the different eigenstates of neutrino. Thus neutrino cannot oscillate if it is massless. We suggest an explanation for neutrino oscillations by analogy with the oscillation of quantum two-state system, where the flipping of one state into the other may be regarded as a process of quantum tunneling and the required energy difference between the two eigenstates comes from the barrier potential energy. So neutrino with vanishing mass can also oscillate. One of the advantages of the explanation is that neutrino can still be described with Weyl equation within the framework of standard model.

  1. Massless neutrino oscillations via quantum tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hai-Long Zhao

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for different kinds of neutrino to transform into each other, the eigenvalues of energy of neutrino must be different. In the present theory of neutrino oscillations, this is guaranteed by the mass differences between the different eigenstates of neutrino. Thus neutrino cannot oscillate if it is massless. We suggest an explanation for neutrino oscillations by analogy with the oscillation of quantum two-state system, where the flipping of one state into the other may be regarded as a process of quantum tunneling and the required energy difference between the two eigenstates comes from the barrier potential energy. So neutrino with vanishing mass can also oscillate. One of the advantages of the explanation is that neutrino can still be described with Weyl equation within the framework of standard model.

  2. Collective behavior of coupled nonuniform stochastic oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir R. V. Assis; Mauro Copelli

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical studies of synchronization are usually based on models of coupled phase oscillators which, when isolated, have constant angular frequency. Stochastic discrete versions of these uniform oscillators have also appeared in the literature, with equal transition rates among the states. Here we start from the model recently introduced by Wood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96}, 145701 (2006)], which has a collectively synchronized phase, and parametrically modify the phase-coupled oscillators to render them (stochastically) nonuniform. We show that, depending on the nonuniformity parameter $0\\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$, a mean field analysis predicts the occurrence of several phase transitions. In particular, the phase with collective oscillations is stable for the complete graph only for $\\alpha \\leq \\alpha^\\prime collective oscillations were found in the model.

  3. Torsional oscillations of longitudinally inhomogeneous coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. V. Zaqarashvili; K Murawski

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the effect of an inhomogeneous mass density field on frequencies and wave profiles of torsional Alfven oscillations in solar coronal loops. Dispersion relations for torsional oscillations are derived analytically in limits of weak and strong inhomogeneities. These analytical results are verified by numerical solutions, which are valid for a wide range of inhomogeneity strength. It is shown that the inhomogeneous mass density field leads to the reduction of a wave frequency of torsional oscillations, in comparison to that of estimated from mass density at the loop apex. This frequency reduction results from the decrease of an average Alfven speed as far as the inhomogeneous loop is denser at its footpoints. The derived dispersion relations and wave profiles are important for potential observations of torsional oscillations which result in periodic variations of spectral line widths. Torsional oscillations offer an additional powerful tool for a development of coronal seismology.

  4. Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Jesse D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.

  5. Flavor Oscillation from the Two-Point Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Martone; Dean J. Robinson

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a formalism for the flavor oscillation of unstable particles that relies only upon the structure of the time Fourier-transformed two-point Green's function. We derive exact oscillation probability and integrated oscillation probability formulae, and verify that our results reproduce the known results for both neutrino and neutral meson oscillation in the expected regimes of parameter space. The generality of our approach permits us to investigate flavor oscillation in exotic parameter regimes, and present the corresponding oscillation formulae.

  6. Pulse combustor with controllable oscillations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Welter, Michael J. (Columbiana, OH); Morris, Gary J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulse combustor having thermally induced pulse combustion in a continuously flowing system is described. The pulse combustor is fitted with at lease one elongated ceramic body which significantly increases the heat transfer area in the combustion chamber of the combustor. The ceramic body or bodies possess sufficient mass and heat capacity to ignite the fuel-air charge once the ceramic body or bodies are heated by conventional spark plug initiated combustion so as to provide repetitive ignition and combustion of sequentially introduced fuel-air charges without the assistance of the spark plug and the rapid quenching of the flame after each ignition in a controlled manner so as to provide a selective control over the oscillation frequency and amplitude. Additional control over the heat transfer in the combustion chamber is provided by employing heat exchange mechanisms for selectively heating or cooling the elongated ceramic body or bodies and/or the walls of the combustion chamber.

  7. Oscillation of Capacitance inside Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [University of California, Riverside; Jin, Zhehui [University of California, Riverside

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for supercapacitors. Although great attention has been given to the anomalous increase of the capacitance as the pore size approaches the ionic dimensions, there remains a lack of full comprehension of the size dependence of the capacitance in nanopores. Here we predict from a classical density functional theory that the capacitance of an ionic-liquid electrolyte inside a nanopore oscillates with a decaying envelope as the pore size increases. The oscillatory behavior can be attributed to the interference of the overlapping electric double layers (EDLs); namely, the maxima in capacitance appear when superposition of the two EDLs is most constructive. The theoretical prediction agreeswell with the experiment when the pore size is less than twice the ionic diameter.Confirmation of the entire oscillatory spectruminvites future experiments with a precise control of the pore size from micro- to mesoscales.

  8. Are solar neutrino oscillations robust?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. G. Miranda; M. A. Tortola; J. W. F. Valle

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The robustness of the large mixing angle (LMA) oscillation (OSC) interpretation of the solar neutrino data is considered in a more general framework where non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) are present. Such interactions may be regarded as a generic feature of models of neutrino mass. The 766.3 ton-yr data sample of the KamLAND collaboration are included in the analysis, paying attention to the background from the reaction ^13C(\\alpha,n) ^16O. Similarly, the latest solar neutrino fluxes from the SNO collaboration are included. In addition to the solution which holds in the absence of NSI (LMA-I) there is a 'dark-side' solution (LMA-D) with sin^2 theta_Sol = 0.70, essentially degenerate with the former, and another light-side solution (LMA-0) allowed only at 97% CL. More precise KamLAND reactor measurements will not resolve the ambiguity in the determination of the solar neutrino mixing angle theta_Sol, as they are expected to constrain mainly Delta m^2. We comment on the complementary role of atmospheric, laboratory (e.g. CHARM) and future solar neutrino experiments in lifting the degeneracy between the LMA-I and LMA-D solutions. In particular, we show how the LMA-D solution induced by the simplest NSI between neutrinos and down-type-quarks-only is in conflict with the combination of current atmospheric data and data of the CHARM experiment. We also mention that establishing the issue of robustness of the oscillation picture in the most general case will require further experiments, such as those involving low energy solar neutrinos.

  9. accuracy neutrino oscillation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay. G. Rajasekaran 2000-04-17 22 Neutrino Mass and Oscillation HEP -...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: OWC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OWC Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: BBDB

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This model has ... Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Ireland's Hydraulics and Maritime...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Centre Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: HMRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HMRC Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia-developed BBDB performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance model Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: backward-bent duct buoy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This model has ... Joint Sandia-DOE-HMRC Testing of a Floating Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter Device On November 11, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  16. Ultrasonic effect on the bubble nucleation and heat transfer of oscillating nanofluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Nannan; Fu, Benwei [Institute of Marine Engineering and Thermal Science, College of Marine Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering of the Ministry of Transport, Dalian 116026 (China); Ma, H. B., E-mail: mah@missouri.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic sound effect on bubble nucleation, oscillating motion activated by bubble formation, and its heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid was experimentally investigated. Nanofluid consists of distilled water and dysprosium (III) oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles with an average size of 98?nm and a mass ratio of 0.5%. Visualization results demonstrate that when the nanoparticles are added in the fluid influenced by the ultrasonic sound, bubble nucleation can be significantly enhanced. The oscillating motion initiated by the bubble formation of nanofluid under the influence of ultrasonic sound can significantly enhance heat transfer of nanofluid in an interconnected capillary loop.

  17. Small Column Ion Exchange Design and Safety Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, T.; Rios-Armstrong, M.; Edwards, R.; Herman, D.

    2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) is a transformational technology originally developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-30) office and is now being deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to significantly increase overall salt processing capacity and accelerate the Liquid Waste System life-cycle. The process combines strontium and actinide removal using Monosodium Titanate (MST), Rotary Microfiltration, and cesium removal using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST, specifically UOP IONSIV{reg_sign}IE-911 ion exchanger) to create a low level waste stream to be disposed in grout and a high level waste stream to be vitrified. The process also includes preparation of the streams for disposal, e.g., grinding of the loaded CST material. These waste processing components are technically mature and flowsheet integration studies are being performed including glass formulations studies, application specific thermal modeling, and mixing studies. The deployment program includes design and fabrication of the Rotary Microfilter (RMF) assembly, ion-exchange columns (IXCs), and grinder module, utilizing an integrated system safety design approach. The design concept is to install the process inside an existing waste tank, Tank 41H. The process consists of a feed pump with a set of four RMFs, two IXCs, a media grinder, three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), and all supporting infrastructure including media receipt and preparation facilities. The design addresses MST mixing to achieve the required strontium and actinide removal and to prevent future retrieval problems. CST achieves very high cesium loadings (up to 1,100 curies per gallon (Ci/gal) bed volume). The design addresses the hazards associated with this material including heat management (in column and in-tank), as detailed in the thermal modeling. The CST must be size reduced for compatibility with downstream processes. The design addresses material transport into and out of the grinder and includes provisions for equipment maintenance including remote handling. The design includes a robust set of nuclear safety controls compliant with DOE Standard (STD)-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. The controls cover explosions, spills, boiling, aerosolization, and criticality. Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) including seismic event, tornado/high wind, and wildland fire are considered. In addition, the SCIX process equipment was evaluated for impact to existing facility safety equipment including the waste tank itself. SCIX is an innovative program which leverages DOE's technology development capabilities to provide a basis for a successful field deployment.

  18. Particle flux transformation in the mesopelagic water column: process analysis and global balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidi, Lionel

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    on size distribution of particulate matter have been collected in different oceanic provinces using an Underwater Video Profiler. The cruise data include simultaneous analyses of particle size distributions as well as additional physical and biological...

  19. Quantification of sediment bed - water column exchange processes in the South San Francisco Bay estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gladding, Steven Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic Mining 1.2.2. Dredging 1.2.3. Contaminants 1.2.4.of the sediment bed of the Bay (see Section Dredging Largescale dredging operations have occurred in the Bay for more

  20. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal outwelling of organic carbon from mangrove wetlands contributes to near-shore productivity and influences biogeochemical cycling of elements. I used a flume to measure fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between ...

  1. Potential role of inorganic polyphosphate in the cycling of phosphorus within the hypoxic water column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    accounted for at most 65 Ã? 33% of the diffusive SRP flux, leaving $25% unaccounted for. Thus, while redox

  2. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and adjacent tidal creek along Shark River, Florida. Shark RiverÂ?s hydrology is influenced by diurnal tides and seasonal rainfall and wind patterns. Samplings were made over multiple tidal cycles in 2003 to include dry, wet, and transitional seasons. Surface...

  3. Autonomous Gliders Reveal Features of the Water Column Associated with Foraging by Adelie Penguins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individ- ually mounted satellite tracking to limited understanding. Recent advances in auton- omous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed

  4. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton in stratified water columns Jarad P. Mellard a,, Kohei Yoshiyama b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of phytoplankton affects primary production as well as energy transfer to higher trophic levels (Leibold, 1990 layer on top of a poorly mixed deep layer and nutrients are supplied from multiple depth towards the surface, and increases total biomass. Increasing background light attenuation increases light

  5. Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Grace C.

    that contributed to the evolution of observed thermal structure and resuspension of particulate matter during resuspension processes. It is concluded that wave-current bottom shear stress was clearly the most important process for sediment resuspension during and following both hurricanes. Discrepancies between modeled

  6. ammonia-water rectifyng column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of static estimators Thesis Contributions Chapter 1 with fixed boilup minimizing energy with specified product purities Chapter 4 shortcut design of a Kaibel Skogestad,...

  7. New and Emerging Technology (Water Column) Glen Rice, Samuel Greenaway, Tom Weber and Jonathan Beaudion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    to offshore engineers siting wind turbines. In addition to high resolution bathymetry, these communities been shown to have decidedly non-linear response characteristics under certain high signal conditions sonar and monitoring the system during real-time acquisition to ensure the system is operating

  8. Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past online 22 June 2013 Abstract Here, we present sedimentological, trace metal, and molecular evidence underscores the value of combining sedimentological, geochemical, and microbiological approaches

  9. Measurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee and Colin S. Howat, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    . To overcome this limitation, a pilot plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested plant scale, packed distillation column was designed, built, and tested. This column can be operatedMeasurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee

  10. Oscillation modes of dc microdischarges with parallel-plate geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanovi?, Ilija; Škoro, Nikola; Mari?, Dragana; Petrovi?, Zoran Lj; Winter, Jörg

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different oscillation modes in microdischarge with parallel-plate geometry has been observed: relaxation oscillations with frequency range between 1.23 and 2.1 kHz and free-running oscillations with 7 kHz frequency. The oscillation modes are induced by increasing power supply voltage or discharge current. For a given power supply voltage, there is a spontaneous transition from one to other oscillation mode and vice versa. Before the transition from relaxation to free-running oscillations, the spontaneous increase of oscillation frequency of relaxation oscillations form 1.3 kHz to 2.1 kHz is measured. Fourier Transform Spectra of relaxation oscillations reveal chaotic behaviour of microdischarge. Volt-Ampere characteristics associated with relaxation oscillations describes periodical transition between low current, diffuse discharge and normal glow. However, free-running oscillations appear in subnormal glow only.

  11. DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION S-6--SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates soil column within 20 yr following culti- Carbon sequestration rates, with a change from CT to NT, can in approximately 40 to and returning to the original land cover or other peren- 60 yr. Carbon sequestration rates

  12. Neutrino Physics: Fundamentals of Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. W. Kim

    1996-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this lecture we review some of the basic properties of neutrinos, in particular their mass and the oscillation behavior. First we discuss how to describe the neutrino mass. Then, under the assumption that neutrinos are massive and mixed, the fundamentals of the neutrino oscillations are discussed with emphasis on subtle aspects which have been overlooked in the past. We then review the terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments in the framework of three generations of neutrinos with the standard mass hierarchy. Finally, a brief summary of the current status of the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems will be given.

  13. Measuring Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivone F. M. Albuquerque; George F. Smoot

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino telescopes with large detection volumes can demonstrate that the current indications of neutrino oscillation are correct or if a better description can be achieved with non-standard alternatives. Observations of contained muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos can better constrain the allowed region for oscillations or determine the relevant parameters of non-standard models. We analyze the possibility of neutrino telescopes measuring atmospheric neutrino oscillations. We suggest adjustments to improve this potential. An addition of four densely-instrumented strings to the AMANDA II detector makes observations feasible. Such a configuration is competitive with current and proposed experiments.

  14. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Arlee V. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Darrell J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  15. Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Christopher T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for any static magnetic dipole. Static electric dipoles do not produce oscillating magnetic moments. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency $m_a$ and strength $\\sim 10^{-32}$ e-cm, two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.

  16. Improving the Performance of a Two-Shell Column with Advanced Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, T. A.; Laflamme, D.

    IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF A TWO-SHELL COLUMN WITH ADVANCED CONTROL TIMOTHY A. MORRISON SENIOR PROJECT ENGINEER SETPOINT Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Application of advanced control techniques to a two-shell, two- pressure distillation... column has yielded stable operation with reduced utility consumption and increased capacity. Prior to the application of advanced controls this column was a plant capacity limit and composition control was very difficult. The advanced controls now...

  17. Influence of viscous friction heating on the efficiency of columns operated under very high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When columns packed with very fine particles are operated at high mobile phase velocities, the friction of the mobile phase percolating through the column bed generates heat. This heat dissipates along and across the column and axial and radial temperature gradients appear. The wall region of the column tends to be cooler than its center, and due to the influence of temperature on the mobile phase viscosity and on the equilibrium constant of analytes, the band velocity is not constant across the column. This radial heterogeneity of the temperature distribution across the column contributes to band broadening. This phenomenon was investigated assuming a cylindrically symmetrical column and using the general dispersion theory of Aris, which relates the height equivalent to the theoretical plate (HETP) contribution due to a radial heterogeneity of the column to the radial distribution of the linear velocities of a compound peak and to the radial distribution of its apparent dispersion coefficients in the column bed. The former is known from the temperature gradient across the column, the temperature dependencies of the mobile phase viscosity, and the retention factor of the compound. The latter is derived from the known expression of the transverse reduced HETP equation for the column. The values of the HETP calculated with the Aris model and a classical HETP equation were compared to those measured on a 2.1 x 50 mm Acquity BEH-C{sub 18} column, run at flow rates of 0.6, 0.95, 1.30, and 1.65 mL/min, with pure acetonitrile as the mobile phase and naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene as the retained compound. These two sets of data are in generally good agreement, although the experimental values of the HETP tend to increase faster with increasing mobile phase velocity than the calculated values.

  18. A2Prep HPLC-MS Available Phenomenex Column List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contractor, Anis

    .1% formic acid Organic: acetonitrile or acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid Type Dimension (mm) Particle Solvent Type Aqueous: water or water with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid Organic: acetonitrile, methanol: acetonitrile, methanol, isopropanol, (with/without 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) Type Dimension (mm) Particle

  19. Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Number C-04 Start Date 07/01/1997 End Date 06/30/1999 Research Category Water Quality Focus Category #1 Methods Focus Category #2 Water Quality Focus Category #3 Toxic Substances Lead Institution University column), and the blood plasma surrogate (growth media) maintained on the basolateral side (facing blood

  20. anion-exchange column chromatography: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BDNF 12 Grossberg, Stephen 339 The impact of technical specifications on the life cycle costs of process columns in petrochemical facilities. Open Access Theses and...

  1. Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Lauren K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate a testing series on concrete masonry walls suchand testing for steel columns with a simplified boundary design of a concrete

  2. A new warmstarting strategy for the primal-dual column generation ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacek Gondzio

    2012-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 24, 2012 ... Abstract: This paper presents a new warmstarting technique in the context of a primal-dual column generation method applied to solve a ...

  3. Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10 tx H2O Winter 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director COMPARING STRATEGIES State funding of capital projects versus water conservation The Texas Legislature seems intent on helping local water... purveyors #30;nance a portion of the water supply projects described in the #18;#25;#28;#18; state water plan (Water for Texas #31;#28;#29;#31;). #31;e plan says that #17;#18;#24;.#27; billion is needed from the state to meet our water needs...

  4. Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bouchiat

    2003-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.

  5. Sawtooth oscillations in shaped plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Luce, T. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Chu, M. S.; Ferron, J. R.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lao, L. L.; Lohr, J.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Prater, R.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Brennan, D. P. [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Jayakumar, R. J.; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of interchange and internal kink modes in the sawtooth oscillations is explored by comparing bean- and oval-shaped plasmas. The n=1 instability that results in the collapse of the sawtooth has been identified as a quasi-interchange in the oval cases and the internal kink in the bean shape. The ion and electron temperature profiles are followed in detail through the sawtooth ramp. It is found that electron energy transport rates are very high in the oval and quite low in the bean shape. Ion energy confinement in the oval is excellent and the sawtooth amplitude ({delta}T/T) in the ion temperature is much larger than that of the electrons. The sawtooth amplitudes for ions and electrons are comparable in the bean shape. The measured q profiles in the bean and oval shapes are found to be consistent with neoclassical current diffusion of the toroidal current, and the observed differences in q largely result from the severe differences in electron energy transport. For both shapes the collapse flattens the q profile and after the collapse return to q{sub 0} > or approx. 1. Recent results on intermediate shapes are reported. These shapes show that the electron energy transport improves gradually as the plasma triangularity is increased.

  6. Torsional oscillations of strange stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Mannarelli

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange {\\it collapsed} quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of $10^{45}$ erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.

  7. Four-Neutrino Oscillations at SNO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; C. Peña-Garay

    2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the potential of SNO to constraint the four-neutrino mixing schemes favoured by the results of all neutrino oscillations experiments. These schemes allow simultaneous transitions of solar $\

  8. Solar mass-varying neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marfatia, Danny; Huber, P.; Barger, V.

    2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose that the solar neutrino deficit may be due to oscillations of mass-varying neutrinos (MaVaNs). This scenario elucidates solar neutrino data beautifully while remaining comfortably compatible with atmospheric ...

  9. Oscillation damping means for magnetically levitated systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention presents a novel system and method of damping rolling, pitching, or yawing motions, or longitudinal oscillations superposed on their normal forward or backward velocity of a moving levitated system.

  10. The Case for Strategic Oscillation Fred Glover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Jin-Kao

    for Strategic Oscillation Fred Glover OptTek Systems, Inc., 1919 Seventh Street, Boulder, CO 80302 USA glover implications for future research. Manuscript Click here to download Manuscript: ANOR Glover and Jin

  11. Chimera States in Mechanical Oscillator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Fourrière, Antoine; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synchronization of coupled oscillators is a fascinating manifestation of self-organization that nature employs to orchestrate essential processes of life, such as the beating of the heart. While it was long thought that synchrony or disorder were mutually exclusive steady states for a network of identical oscillators, numerous theoretical studies in recent years revealed the intriguing possibility of 'chimera states', in which the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into a synchronous and an asynchronous part. However, a striking lack of empirical evidence raises the question of whether chimeras are indeed characteristic to natural systems. This calls for a palpable realization of chimera states without any fine-tuning, from which physical mechanisms underlying their emergence can be uncovered. Here, we devise a simple experiment with mechanical oscillators coupled in a hierarchical network to show that chimeras emerge naturally from a competition between two antagonistic synchronization patte...

  12. Chimeras in networks of planar oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo R. Laing

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Chimera states occur in networks of coupled oscillators, and are characterized by having some fraction of the oscillators perfectly synchronized, while the remainder are desynchronized. Most chimera states have been observed in networks of phase oscillators with coupling via a sinusoidal function of phase differences, and it is only for such networks that any analysis has been performed. Here we present the first analysis of chimera states in a network of planar oscillators, each of which is described by both an amplitude and a phase. We find that as the attractivity of the underlying periodic orbit is reduced chimeras are destroyed in saddle-node bifurcations, and supercritical Hopf and homoclinic bifurcations of chimeras also occur.

  13. A Torsional Oscillator Study Solid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    A Torsional Oscillator Study of Solid Helium George Edgar Marcus Nichols Royal Holloway College and Andy Nichols and Alexandra Zuckermann for theirs out of it. #12;Contents 1 Motivation 10 1.1 Helium

  14. Spatial xenon oscillation control with expert systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alten, S. (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey)); Danofsky, R.A. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial power oscillations were attributed to the xenon transients in a reactor core in 1958 by Randall and St. John. These transients are usually initiated by a local reactivity insertion and lead to divergent axial flux oscillations in the core at constant power. Several heuristic manual control strategies and automatic control methods were developed to damp the xenon oscillations at constant power operations. However, after the load-follow operation of the reactors became a necessity of life, a need for better control strategies arose. Even though various advanced control strategies were applied to solve the xenon oscillation control problem for the load-follow operation, the complexity of the system created difficulties in modeling. The strong nonlinearity of the problem requires highly sophisticated analytical approaches that are quite inept for numerical solutions. On the other hand, the complexity of a system and heuristic nature of the solutions are the basic reasons for using artificial intelligence techniques such as expert systems.

  15. CFD analysis of laminar oscillating flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C. W. Charles W.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Smith, B. L. (Barton L.); Martin, R. A. (Richard A.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a numerical simulations of oscillating flow in a constricted duct and compares the results with experimental and theoretical data. The numerical simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX4.2. The numerical model simulates an experimental oscillating flow facility that was designed to test the properties and characteristics of oscillating flow in tapered ducts, also known as jet pumps. Jet pumps are useful devices in thermoacoustic machinery because they produce a secondary pressure that can counteract an unwanted effect called streaming, and significantly enhance engine efficiency. The simulations revealed that CFX could accurately model velocity, shear stress and pressure variations in laminar oscillating flow. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and theoretical predictions with varying success. The least accurate numerical results were obtained when laminar flow approached transition to turbulent flow.

  16. Experimental investigation of a coaxial gyrotron oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advani, Rahul N

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents experimental results of a megawatt power level, 140 GHz coaxial gyrotron oscillator. The coaxial gyrotron has the potential to transport very high power electron beams and thus achieve higher microwave ...

  17. Evidence for Neutrino Oscillations I: Solar and Reactor Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. McDonald

    2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses evidence for neutrino oscillations obtained from measurements with solar neutrinos and reactor neutrinos.

  18. Newtonian gravity, red shift, confinement, asymptotic freedom and quarks oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Quznetsov

    2008-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Quarks oscillations give the Newtonian gravity law, the red shift, the confinement and the asymptotic freedom.

  19. Field-Theoretical Treatment of Neutrino Oscillations The Strength of the Canonical Oscillation Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimus, Walter; Stockinger, P

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss conceptual aspects of neutrino oscillations with the main emphasis on the field-theoretical approach. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source - detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes. We consider also the question why the canonical neutrino oscillation formula is so robust against corrections and discuss the nature of the oscillating neutrino state emerging in the field-theoretical approach.

  20. Field-Theoretical Treatment of Neutrino Oscillations: The Strength of the Canonical Oscillation Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Grimus; S. Mohanty; P. Stockinger

    1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss conceptual aspects of neutrino oscillations with the main emphasis on the field-theoretical approach. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source - detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes. We consider also the question why the canonical neutrino oscillation formula is so robust against corrections and discuss the nature of the oscillating neutrino state emerging in the field-theoretical approach.

  1. Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.

  2. Field-theoretical treatment of neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimus, Walter; Stockinger, P

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source -- detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes.

  3. Field-theoretical treatment of neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Grimus; S. Mohanty; P. Stockinger

    1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the field-theoretical approach to neutrino oscillations. This approach includes the neutrino source and detector processes and allows to obtain the neutrino transition or survival probabilities as cross sections derived from the Feynman diagram of the combined source -- detection process. In this context, the neutrinos which are supposed to oscillate appear as propagators of the neutrino mass eigenfields, connecting the source and detection processes.

  4. Dirac oscillators and the relativistic R matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Grineviciute; Dean Halderson

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dirac oscillators are shown to be an excellent expansion basis for solutions of the Dirac equation by $R$-matrix techniques. The combination of the Dirac oscillator and the $R$-matrix approach provides a convenient formalism for reactions as well as bound state problems. The utility of the $R$-matrix approach is demonstrated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations where exchange terms can be calculated exactly, and scattering waves made orthogonal to bound state wave functions.

  5. Oscillation dynamics of multi-well condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mossmann; C. Jung

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach to the macroscopic dynamics of three-well Bose-Einstein condensates, giving particular emphasis to self-trapping and Josephson oscillations. Although these effects have been studied quite thoroughly in the mean-field approximation, a full quantum description is desirable, since it avoids pathologies due to the nonlinear character of the mean-field equations. Using superpositions of quantum eigenstates, we construct various oscillation and trapping scenarios.

  6. Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tod E. Strohmayer

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

  7. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  8. aquifer column studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping...

  9. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a collaborative effort between the University of Akron, Illinois Institute of Technology and two industries: UOP and Energy International. The tasks involve the development of transient two and three dimensional computer codes for slurry bubble column reactors, optimization, comparison to data, and measurement of input parameters, such as the viscosity and restitution coefficients. To understand turbulence, measurements were done in the riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report summarizes the measurements and simulations completed as described in details in the attached paper, ''Computational and Experimental Modeling of Three-Phase Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor.'' The Particle Image Velocimetry method described elsewhere (Gidaspow and Huilin, 1996) was used to measure the axial and tangential velocities of the particles. This method was modified with the use of a rotating colored transparent disk. The velocity distributions obtained with this method shows that the distribution is close to Maxwellian. From the velocity measurements the normal and the shear stresses were computed. Also with the use of the CCD camera a technique was developed to measure the solids volume fraction. The granular temperature profile follows the solids volume fraction profile. As predicted by theory, the granular temperature is highest at the center of the tube. The normal stress in the direction of the flow is approximately 10 times larger than that in the tangential direction. The <{nu}{prime}{sub z}{nu}{prime}{sub z}> is lower at the center where the <{nu}{prime}{sub {theta}}{nu}{prime}{sub {theta}}> is higher at that point. The Reynolds shear stress was small, producing a restitution coefficient near unity. The normal Reynolds stress in the direction of flow is large due to the fact that it is produced by the large gradient of velocity in the direction of flow compared to the small gradient in the {theta} and r directions. The kinetic theory gives values of viscosity that agree with our previous measurements (Gidaspow, Wu and Mostofi, 1999). The values of viscosity obtained from pressure drop minus weight of bed measurements agree at the center of the tube.

  10. Modified sedimentation-dispersion model for solids in a three-phase slurry column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Shah, Y.T.; Badgujar, M.N.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solids distribution data for a three-phase, batch-fluidized slurry bubble column (SBC) are presented, using air as the gas phase, pure liquids and solutions as the liquid phase, and glass beads and carborundum catalyst powder as the solid phase. Solids distribution data for the three-phase SBC operated in a continuous mode of operation are also presented, using nitrogen as the gas phase, water as the liquid phase, and glass beads as the solid phase. A new model to provide a reasonable approach to predict solids concentration distributions for systems containing polydispersed solids is presented. The model is a modification of standard sedimentation-dispersion model published earlier. Empirical correlations for prediction of hindered settling velocity and solids dispersion coefficient for systems containing polydispersed solids are presented. A new method of evaluating critical gas velocity (CGV) from concentrations of the sample withdrawn at the same port of the SBC is presented. Also presented is a new mapping for CGV which separates the two regimes in the SBC, namely, incomplete fluidization and complete fluidization.

  11. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway The Vmin diagram is introduced to effectively visualize derivation of the Vmin diagram was based on computing pinch zone compositions for columns with an infinite 215 and 316 of this series. The behavior of composition profiles and pinch zones in a column and how

  12. Active Vapor Split Control for Dividing-Wall Columns Deeptanshu Dwivedi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , Norway ABSTRACT: Dividing-wall distillation columns offer large potential energy savings over the energy requirements. INTRODUCTION Dividing-wall distillation columns such as Petlyuk arrangements, where the vapor fraction or degree of subcooling in the feed is varied to achieve optimum operation.13

  13. Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

  14. Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may

  15. Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1 , Ivar J. Halvorsen2 of this work is to implement heterogeneous azeotropic distillation schemes in a dividing wall column (DWC distillation, Petlyuk arrangement, energy saving. 1. Introduction Distillation is one of the most energy

  16. Rigorous Separation Design. 1. Multicomponent Mixtures, Nonideal Mixtures, and Prefractionating Column Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    -integrated prefractionating columns. Our employed inverse design procedure enables the systematic design of physically process design with ecological or energy targets.1,2 Distillation is arguably the most significant suggested.4­12 For example, thermally coupled distillation columns known as Petlyuk configurations13 only

  17. Identification and analysis of possible splits for azeotropic mixtures. 2. Method for simple columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    disadvantages of the conventional cut-and-try method for the design of distillation columns used in commercial columns Felix Petlyuk a , Roman Danilov b,n , Stathis Skouras c , Sigurd Skogestad d a NYC, USA b ECT 6 October 2011 Available online 14 October 2011 Keywords: Azeotrope Distillation Phase equilibrium

  18. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column Daniel H. E. Dubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    plasma column with near-Maxwellian velocity distributions. We focus on the z-independent componentCyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column Daniel H. E. Dubin Citation: Phys. Plasmas 20. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http

  19. Cyclotron Waves in a Nonneutral Plasma Column Daniel H.E. Dubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    plasma column with near-Maxwellian velocity distributions. We focus on the z-independent componentCyclotron Waves in a Nonneutral Plasma Column Daniel H.E. Dubin Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (Dated: February 22, 2013 [submitted to Phys. Plasmas

  20. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column Daniel H. E. Dubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    plasma column with near-Maxwellian velocity distributions. We focus on the z-independent component#12;Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column Daniel H. E. Dubin Department of Physics April 2013; published online 25 April 2013) A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves

  1. Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Optogalvanic isotope enrichment of Cu ions in Cu-Ne positive column discharges M. J. Kushner The isotopic enrichment of copper ions in a positive column Cu-Ne discharge using optogalvanic excitation the 63-amu isotope of copper is enriched relative to the neutral abundance. Enrichment as large as 10

  2. A dusty plasma device for producing extended, steady state, magnetized, dusty plasma columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    A dusty plasma device for producing extended, steady state, magnetized, dusty plasma columns Wenjun with an existing Q machine, to produce extended, steady state, magnetized plasma columns. The dusty plasma device (DPD) is to be used for the investigation of waves in dusty plasmas and of other plasma/dust aspects

  3. The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: results from in situ soil column experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V; Stidson, Ruth T; Matucha, Miroslav; Cape, J Neil

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experiments with radioactively-labelled TCA and with irradiated (sterilised) soil columns. Control in situ forest soil columns showed evidence of net export (i.e. in situ production) of TCA, consistent with a net soil TCA production inferred from forest...

  4. Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhaohui

    Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence

  5. Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation). The controller is tested on a pilot-scale binary distillation column to track reference temperatures. A majorRIO) to control a pilot-scale binary distillation col- umn. Both the PI-controllers and the supervising online MPC

  6. THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR THE ACCELERATING COLUMN OF THE 2 MEV ELECTRON COOLER FOR COSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    a high-energy electron beam. The power supply for the accelerating column of the electron cooling systemTHE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR THE ACCELERATING COLUMN OF THE 2 MEV ELECTRON COOLER FOR COSY D controlled voltage source for 60 kV, 1mA and an additional supply for the solenoids of the magnetic system

  7. Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value ($0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit, J. Geophys. Res

  8. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete ColumnSteel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement Reversals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra-Montesinos, Gustavo J.

    Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Column­Steel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement study on the seismic response of two hybrid RC column-to-steel S beam RCS roof level T longitudinal bars; and 2 confinement requirements in RCS roof level T-connections. In the first subassembly

  9. Weak-Axis Behavior of Wide Flange Columns Subjected to Blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    the effect of blast loading on wide flange columns loaded perpendicular to the weak axis of bending field detonations. Furthermore, past studies investigating the effect of blast load- ing on wide flangeWeak-Axis Behavior of Wide Flange Columns Subjected to Blast Nagarjun Krishnappa1 ; Michel Bruneau

  10. RESEARCH NOTE: DEFLECTION EQUATION FOR THE BUCKLING OF AN ELASTIC COLUMN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newland, David E.

    13 RESEARCH NOTE: DEFLECTION EQUATION FOR THE BUCKLING OF AN ELASTIC COLUMN SUBJECTED TO SURFACE. Introduction THE EFFECT of pressure on the buckling of elastic columns has been studied for at least the last to axial load and lateral pressure. Other authors have considered the theoretical aspects (Handelman (4

  11. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  12. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves with frequencies near the cyclotron frequency {Omega}{sub c{sub s}} of a given plasma species s is developed for a multispecies non-neutral plasma column with general radial density and electric field profiles. Terms in the perturbed distribution function up to O(1/{Omega}{sub c{sub s}{sup 2}}) are kept, as are the effects of finite cyclotron radius r{sub c} up to O(r{sub c}{sup 2}). At this order, the equilibrium distribution is not Maxwellian if the plasma temperature or rotation frequency is not uniform. For r{sub c}{yields}0, the theory reproduces cold-fluid theory and predicts surface cyclotron waves propagating azimuthally. For finite r{sub c}, the wave equation predicts that the surface wave couples to radially and azimuthally propagating Bernstein waves, at locations where the wave frequency equals the local upper hybrid frequency. The equation also predicts a second set of Bernstein waves that do not couple to the surface wave, and therefore have no effect on the external potential. The wave equation is solved both numerically and analytically in the WKB approximation, and analytic dispersion relations for the waves are obtained. The theory predicts that both types of Bernstein wave are damped at resonances, which are locations where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local cyclotron frequency as seen in the rotating frame.

  13. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  14. Attenuation of Beaming Oscillations Near Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Coleman Miller

    2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations with RXTE have revealed kilohertz quasi-periodic brightness oscillations (QPOs) from nearly twenty different neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). These frequencies often appear as a pair of kilohertz QPOs in a given power density spectrum. In many models the higher-frequency of these QPOs is a beaming oscillation at the frequency of a nearly circular orbit at some radius near the neutron star. In such models it is expected that there will also be beaming oscillations at the stellar spin frequency and at overtones of the orbital frequency, but no strong QPOs have been detected at these frequencies. We therefore examine the processes that can attenuate beaming oscillations near neutron stars, and in doing so extend the work on this subject that was initiated by the discovery of lower-frequency QPOs from LMXBs. Among our main results are (1)in a spherical scattering cloud, all overtones of rotationally modulated beaming oscillations are attenuated strongly, not just the even harmonics, and (2)it is possible to have a relatively high-amplitude modulation near the star at, e.g., the stellar spin frequency, even if no peak at that frequency is detectable in a power density spectrum taken at infinity. We discuss the application of these results to modeling of kilohertz QPOs.

  15. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.; /Caltech

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |{Delta}{bar m}{sub atm}{sup 2}| = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}) = 0.860{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  16. Coupled Oscillator Systems Having Partial PT Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beygi, Alireza; Bender, Carl M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines chains of $N$ coupled harmonic oscillators. In isolation, the $j$th oscillator ($1\\leq j\\leq N$) has the natural frequency $\\omega_j$ and is described by the Hamiltonian $\\frac{1}{2}p_j^2+\\frac{1}{2}\\omega_j^2x_j^2$. The oscillators are coupled adjacently with coupling constants that are purely imaginary; the coupling of the $j$th oscillator to the $(j+1)$st oscillator has the bilinear form $i\\gamma x_jx_{j+1}$ ($\\gamma$ real). The complex Hamiltonians for these systems exhibit {\\it partial} $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry; that is, they are invariant under $i\\to-i$ (time reversal), $x_j\\to-x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ even). [They are also invariant under $i\\to-i$, $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to- x_j$ ($j$ even).] For all $N$ the quantum energy levels of these systems are calculated exactly and it is shown that the ground-state energy is real. When $\\omega_j=1$ for all $j$, the full spectrum consists of a real energy spectrum embedded in a complex one; the eigenfunctions correspondi...

  17. Organized Oscillations of Initially-Turbulent Flow Past a Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow past an open cavity is known to give rise to self-sustained oscillations in a wide variety of configurations, including slotted-wall, wind and water tunnels, slotted flumes, bellows-type pipe geometries, high-head gates and gate slots, aircraft components and internal piping systems. These cavity-type oscillations are the origin of coherent and broadband sources of noise and, if the structure is sufficiently flexible, flow-induced vibration as well. Moreover, depending upon the state of the cavity oscillation, substantial alterations of the mean drag may be induced. In the following, the state of knowledge of flow past cavities, based primarily on laminar inflow conditions, is described within a framework based on the flow physics. Then, the major unresolved issues for this class of flows will be delineated. Self-excited cavity oscillations have generic features, which are assessed in detail in the reviews of Rockwell and Naudascher, Rockwell, Howe and Rockwell. These features, which are illustrated in the schematic of Figure 1, are: (i) interaction of a vorticity concentration(s) with the downstream corner, (ii) upstream influence from this corner interaction to the sensitive region of the shear layer formed from the upstream corner of the cavity; (iii) conversion of the upstream influence arriving at this location to a fluctuation in the separating shear layer; and (iv) amplification of this fluctuation in the shear layer as it develops in the streamwise direction. In view of the fact that inflow shear-layer in the present investigation is fully turbulent, item (iv) is of particular interest. It is generally recognized, at least for laminar conditions at separation from the leading-corner of the cavity, that the disturbance growth in the shear layer can be described using concepts of linearized, inviscid stability theory, as shown by Rockwell, Sarohia, and Knisely and Rockwell. As demonstrated by Knisely and Rockwell, on the basis of experiments interpreted with the aid of linearized theory, not only the fundamental component of the shear layer instability may be present, but a number of additional, primarily lower frequency components can exist as well. In fact, the magnitude of these components can be of the same order as the fundamental component. These issues have not been addressed for the case of a fully-turbulent in-flow and its separation from the leading corner of the cavity.

  18. Porous Superhydrophobic Membranes: Hydrodynamic Anomaly in Oscillating Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajauria, Sukumar; Lawall, J; Yakhot, Victor; Ekinci, Kamil L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated and characterized a novel superhydrophobic system, a mesh-like porous superhydrophobic membrane with solid area fraction $\\Phi_s$, which can maintain intimate contact with outside air and water reservoirs simultaneously. Oscillatory hydrodynamic measurements on porous superhydrophobic membranes as a function of $\\Phi_s$ reveal surprising effects. The hydrodynamic mass oscillating in-phase with the membranes stays constant for $0.9\\le\\Phi_s\\le1$, but drops precipitously for $\\Phi_s < 0.9$. The viscous friction shows a similar drop after a slow initial decrease proportional to $\\Phi_s$. We attribute these effects to the percolation of a stable Knudsen layer of air at the interface.

  19. Porous Superhydrophobic Membranes: Hydrodynamic Anomaly in Oscillating Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukumar Rajauria; O. Ozsun; J. Lawall; Victor Yakhot; Kamil L. Ekinci

    2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated and characterized a novel superhydrophobic system, a mesh-like porous superhydrophobic membrane with solid area fraction $\\Phi_s$, which can maintain intimate contact with outside air and water reservoirs simultaneously. Oscillatory hydrodynamic measurements on porous superhydrophobic membranes as a function of $\\Phi_s$ reveal surprising effects. The hydrodynamic mass oscillating in-phase with the membranes stays constant for $0.9\\le\\Phi_s\\le1$, but drops precipitously for $\\Phi_s < 0.9$. The viscous friction shows a similar drop after a slow initial decrease proportional to $\\Phi_s$. We attribute these effects to the percolation of a stable Knudsen layer of air at the interface.

  20. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  1. Optimal control theory for xenon spatial oscillations in load follow of a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, N.Z.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple core control model has been developed for the control of xenon spatial oscillations in load-following operations of a current design commercial nuclear pressurized water reactor. The model has been formulated as a linear - quadratic - tracking problem in the context of moderm optimal control theory and the resulting two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP) has been solved directly by the techniques of initial value methods.

  2. Invent a Casserole Choose one ingredient from each column.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    or 1 can soup + cup milk or water Noodles Macaroni Rice spaghetti Bread Barley or bulgur Seasonings, or other herb Mixed vegetables Tomatoes Corn Green beans Acorn squash Peas Broccoli Green pepper Cabbage Zucchini Potatoes Turnip Sweet potatoes Tuna fish Cooked beans Pork and beans Split peas Lentils Canned

  3. Three-flavour neutrino oscillation update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz; Mariam Tortola; Jose W. F. Valle

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the present status of three-flavour neutrino oscillations, taking into account the latest available neutrino oscillation data presented at the Neutrino 2008 Conference. This includes the data released this summer by the MINOS collaboration, the data of the neutral current counter phase of the SNO solar neutrino experiment, as well as the latest KamLAND and Borexino data. We give the updated determinations of the leading 'solar' and 'atmospheric' oscillation parameters. We find from global data that the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is consistent with zero within $0.9\\sigma$ and we derive an upper bound of $\\sin^2\\theta_{13} < 0.035 (0.056)$ at 90% CL (3$\\sigma$).

  4. Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher T. Hill

    2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for {\\em any} static magnetic dipole. Static electric dipoles do not produce oscillating magnetic moments. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion in the limit that it is only locally time dependent $(\\overrightarrow{\\beta}=0)$. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency $m_a$ and strength $\\sim 10^{-32}$ e-cm, three orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.

  5. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  6. Design of slurry bubble column reactors: novel technique for optimum catalyst size selection contractual origin of the invention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamwo, Isaac K. (Murrysville, PA); Gidaspow, Dimitri (Northbrook, IL); Jung, Jonghwun (Naperville, IL)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining optimum catalyst particle size for a gas-solid, liquid-solid, or gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor such as a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) for converting synthesis gas into liquid fuels considers the complete granular temperature balance based on the kinetic theory of granular flow, the effect of a volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the liquid and the gas, and the water gas shift reaction. The granular temperature of the catalyst particles representing the kinetic energy of the catalyst particles is measured and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between the gas and liquid phases is calculated using the granular temperature. Catalyst particle size is varied from 20 .mu.m to 120 .mu.m and a maximum mass transfer coefficient corresponding to optimum liquid hydrocarbon fuel production is determined. Optimum catalyst particle size for maximum methanol production in a SBCR was determined to be in the range of 60-70 .mu.m.

  7. EVIDENCE OF CONTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING CLOUDS TO GAMMA-RAY BURST'S X-RAY COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J., E-mail: wj@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of excess of X-ray column density with respect to optical extinction in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a puzzle. A proposed explanation of the excess is the photoelectric absorption due to the intervening clouds along a GRB's line of sight. Here, we test this scenario by using the intervening Mg II absorption as a tracer of the neutral hydrogen column density of the intervening clouds. We identify a connection between the large X-ray column density (and large column density ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})?0.5) and large neutral hydrogen column density probed by the Mg II doublet ratio (DR). In addition, GRBs with large X-ray column density (and large ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})>0) tend to have multiple saturated intervening absorbers with DR < 1.2. These results therefore indicate an additional contribution from the intervening system to the observed X-ray column density in some GRBs, although the contribution from the host galaxy alone cannot be excluded based on this study.

  8. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  9. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  10. Neutrino oscillations in the early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kirilova; M. Chizhov

    2001-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the oscillations effects on neutrinos in the early Universe and update the cosmological constraints on the oscillation parameters. It is shown that sterile LOW solution to the solar neutrino problem is almost completely excluded from cosmological nucleosynthesis considerations. Two possibilities for the relaxation of this constraint are discussed: high primordial helium-4 yield and a relic lepton asymmetry present at nucleosynthesis epoch. The numerical analysis proved that Y_p=0.25 only relaxes the constraint on LOW solution, while L > 10^{-5} is capable to remove it.

  11. New parametrization of cosmic neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palladino, Andrea

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of neutrinos oscillations in vacuum, assuming the conventional three flavor scheme, is proposed and discussed. Applications of this parameterization are considered, that concern the study of the flavor ratios, of their uncertainties, the expectations for the signal due to Glashow resonance. It is shown that a Gaussian treatment describes to a good level of approximation the effects of the uncertainties on the mixing angles and on the CP violating phase. The recently obtained agreement of observations with the hypothesis of cosmic neutrino oscillations is confirmed.

  12. Large neutrino asymmetries from neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot; M. J. Thomson; R. R. Volkas

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-examine neutrino oscillations in the early universe. Contrary to previous studies, we show that large neutrino asymmetries can arise due to oscillations between ordinary neutrinos and sterile neutrinos. This means that the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mass and mixing of ordinary neutrinos with sterile neutrinos can be evaded. Also, it is possible that the neutrino asymmetries can be large (i.e. $\\stackrel{>}{\\sim} 10\\%$), and hence have a significant effect on BBN through nuclear reaction rates.

  13. Gravitationally Induced Neutrino-Oscillation Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Ahluwalia; C. Burgard

    2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this essay, we introduce a new effect of gravitationally induced quantum mechanical phases in neutrino oscillations. These phases arise from an hitherto unexplored interplay of gravitation and the principle of the linear superposition of quantum mechanics. In the neighborhood of a 1.4 solar-mass neutron star, gravitationally induced quantum mechanical phases are roughly 20% of their kinematical counterparts. When this information is coupled with the mass square differences implied by the existing neutrino-oscillation data we find that the new effect may have profound consequences for type-II supernova evolution.

  14. Variations on Four-Neutrino Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Barger; S. Pakvasa; T. J. Weiler; K. Whisnant

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We make a model-independent analysis of all available data that indicate neutrino oscillations. Using probability diagrams, we confirm that a mass spectrum with two nearly degenerate pairs of neutrinos separated by a mass gap of $\\simeq1$ eV is preferred over a spectrum with one mass eigenstate separated from the others. We derive some new relations among the four-neutrino mixing matrix elements. We design four-neutrino mass matrices with three active neutrinos and one sterile neutrino that naturally incorporate maximal oscillations of atmospheric $\

  15. Dirac oscillator interacting with a topological defect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, J.; Furtado, C.; Moraes, F. [Unidade Academica de Tecnologia de Alimentos, CCTA, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pereiros, 58840-000, Pombal, Paraiba (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Cidade Universitaria, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study the interaction problem of a Dirac oscillator with gravitational fields produced by topological defects. The energy levels of the relativistic oscillator in the cosmic string and in the cosmic dislocation space-times are sensible to curvature and torsion associated to these defects and are important evidence of the influence of the topology on this system. In the presence of a localized magnetic field the energy levels acquire a term associated with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues and see that in the nonrelativistic limit some results known in standard quantum mechanics are reached.

  16. Faceting oscillations in nano-ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, J. F., E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe periodic faceting of 8-nm diameter ferroelectric disks on a 10?s time-scale when thin Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film is exposed to constant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy beams. The oscillation is between circular disk geometry and sharply faceted hexagons. The behavior is analogous to that of spin structure and magnetic domain wall velocity oscillations in permalloy [Bisig et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013)], involving overshoot and de-pinning from defects [Amann et al., J. Rheol. 57, 149–175 (2013)].

  17. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R. [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  18. Harmonic-Oscillator-Based Effective Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. C. Haxton

    2006-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe harmonic-oscillator-based effective theory (HOBET) and explore the extent to which the effects of excluded higher-energy oscillator shells can be represented by a contact-gradient expansion in next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). I find the expansion can be very successful provided the energy dependence of the effective interaction, connected with missing long-wavelength physics associated with low-energy breakup channels, is taken into account. I discuss a modification that removes operator mixing from HOBET, simplifying the task of determining the parameters of an NNLO interaction.

  19. Analytical and Experimental Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of Beam-Column Joints without Transverse Reinforcement in Concrete Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan, Wael M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the upper block of the beam-column joint subassemblybeam-column joints. The third block of this research is theand corner joints. The second building block in the current

  20. Process for the production of ultrahigh purity silane with recycle from separation columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Larry M. (Tonawanda, NY)

    1982-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tri- and dichlorosilanes formed by hydrogenation in the course of the reaction of metallurgical silicon, hydrogen and recycle silicon tetrachloride are employed as feed into a separation column arrangement of sequential separation columns and redistribution reactors which processes the feed into ultrahigh purity silane and recycle silicon tetrachloride. A slip stream is removed from the bottom of two sequential columns and added to the recycle silicon tetrachloride process stream causing impurities in the slip streams to be subjected to reactions in the hydrogenation step whereby waste materials can be formed and readily separated.

  1. An investigation of the buckling criteria of columns that have large angles of initial twist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Basil Magee, Jr

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE August, 1962 Major Subject: Aeronautical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BUCKLING CRITERIA. OF COLUMNS THAT HAVE LARGE ANGLES OF INITIAL TWIST A Thesis BASIL MAGEE JORDAN, JR. Approved ss to style... for the stepped columns were 2120 and 1750 pounds. The longer stepped oolumn buckled at 1750 pounds whereas the shorter column buckled at 2120 pounds. The theoretical buckling loads were calculated from mEI2 cr 2 L where m is a function of the length...

  2. Sub-to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L.; Anderson, Lawrence F.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A sub- to super-ambient temperature programmable microfabricated gas chromatography column enables more efficient chemical separation of chemical analytes in a gas mixture by combining a thermoelectric cooler and temperature sensing on the microfabricated column. Sub-ambient temperature programming enables the efficient separation of volatile organic compounds and super-ambient temperature programming enables the elution of less volatile analytes within a reasonable time. The small heat capacity and thermal isolation of the microfabricated column improves the thermal time response and power consumption, both important factors for portable microanalytical systems.

  3. Influence of the gas-flow Reynolds number on a plasma column in a glass tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Dong Jun; Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-plasma generation inside a glass tube is influenced by gas stream behavior as described by the Reynolds number (Rn). In experiments with He, Ne, and Ar, the plasma column length increases with an increase in the gas flow rate under laminar flow characterized by Rn < 2000. The length of the plasma column decreases as the flow rate increases in the transition region of 2000 < Rn < 4000. For a turbulent flow beyond Rn > 4000, the length of the plasma column is short in front of the electrode, eventually leading to a shutdown.

  4. The oscillating two-cluster chimera state in non-locally coupled phase oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Zhu; Yuting Li; Mei Zhang; Junzhong Yang

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an array of identical phase oscillators non-locally coupled without time delay, and find that chimera state with two coherent clusters exists which is only reported in delay-coupled systems previously. Moreover, we find that the chimera state is not stationary for any finite number of oscillators. The existence of the two-cluster chimera state and its time-dependent behaviors for finite number of oscillators are confirmed by the theoretical analysis based on the self-consistency treatment and the Ott-Antonsen ansatz.

  5. Ion exchange columns for selective removal of cesium from aqueous radioactive waste using hydrous crystalline silico-titanates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, David Michael

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conscious society. In Hanford, WA, hundreds of underground storage tanks hold tens of millions of gallons of aqueous radioactive waste. This liquid waste, which has a very high sodium content, contains trace amounts of radioactive cesium 137. Since... the material for batch ion exchange of the nuclear waste solution. More research was needed to investigate the material's effectiveness in a column operation. An ion exchange column system was developed to study column performance. The column design...

  6. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  7. Controlling factors on the development and evolution of carbonate platforms: isostatic basement response to water-sediment loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mastrolorenzo, Maurizio

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the upper 50 to 100 meters of the water column, that is within the euphotic zone, in which there is sufficient infiluation of light to permit photosynthesis and growth of photosyntethic organisms (Schlager, 1981). Commonly the producmg organisms...

  8. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed (a primary heat transfer mechanism), inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The calculation results showed that for a wet CST column with active cooling through one central and four outer tubes and 35 C ambient external air, the peak temperature for the fully-loaded column is about 63 C under the loss of fluid flow accident, which is well below the supernate boiling point. The peak temperature for the naturally-cooled (no active, engineered cooling) wet column is 156 C under fully-loaded conditions, exceeding the 130 C boiling point. Under these conditions, supernate boiling would maintain the column temperature near 130 C until all supernate was vaporized. Without active engineered cooling and assuming a dry column suspended in unventilated air at 35 C, the fully-loaded column is expected to rise to a maximum of about 258 C due to the combined loss-of coolant and column drainage accidents. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. Results for the in-tank modeling calculations clearly indicate that when realistic heat transfer boundary conditions are imposed on the bottom surface of the tank wall, as much as 450 gallons of ground CST (a volume equivalent to two ion exchange processing cycles) in an ideal hemispherical shape (the most conservative geometry) can be placed in the tank without exceeding the 100 C wall temperature limit. Furthermore, in the case of an evenly-distributed flat layer, the tank wall reaches the temperature limit after the ground CST material reaches a height of approximately 8 inches.

  9. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back to SRNL for analysis to quantify the amount of fines that passed through the membrane. It should be noted that even though ground CST was tested, it will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank and is not expected to require filtration.

  10. Neutrino Oscillations and the Supernova 1987A Signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jegerlehner; F. Neubig; G. Raffelt

    1996-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impact of neutrino oscillations on the interpretation of the supernova (SN) 1987A neutrino signal by means of a maximum-likelihood analysis. We focus on oscillations between $\\overline\

  11. Geometric Solutions for the Neutrino Oscillation Length Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jason Pruet; George M. Fuller

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a geometric interpretation of the neutrino 'oscillation length resonance' recently discovered by Petcov. We use this picture to identify two new solutions for oscillation length resonances in a 3-layer earth model.

  12. Striatal origin of the pathologic beta oscillations in Parkinson's disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyden, Edward Stuart

    Enhanced oscillations at beta frequencies (8–30 Hz) are a signature neural dynamic pathology in the basal ganglia and cortex of Parkinson's disease patients. The mechanisms underlying these pathological beta oscillations ...

  13. Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Fawley, W.M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of start-up of the CUTE-FEL oscillator from shot noiseof passes required for the FEL to saturate is equivalent toSTART-UP OF FEL OSCILLATOR FROM SHOT NOISE V. Kumar ? , S.

  14. Maximum entropy method and oscillations in the diffraction cone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Dumbrajs; J. Kontros; A. Lengyel

    2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum entropy method has been applied to investigate the oscillating structure in the pbarp- and pp-elastic scattering differential cross-section at high energy and small momentum transfer. Oscillations satisfying quite realistic reliability criteria have been found.

  15. Improved Theory of Neutrino Oscillations in Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard S. Kisslinger

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This is revision of the S-Matrix theory of neutrino oscillations used for many years. We evaluate the transition probability of a $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino without an approximation used for many theoretical studies, and find important differences which could improve the extraction of neutrino parameters from experimental data in the future.

  16. Neutrino Oscillations and the Solar Neutrino Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. C. Haxton

    2000-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe the current status of the solar neutrino problem, summarizing the arguments that its resolution will require new particle physics. The phenomenon of matter-enhanced neutrino oscillations is reviewed. I consider the implications of current experiments -- including the SuperKamiokande atmospheric and LSND measurements -- and the need for additional constraints from SNO and other new detectors.

  17. Neutrino Mixing and Oscillations in Astrophysical Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF NEUTRINO MIXING AND OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    SOME ASPECTS OF NEUTRINO MIXING AND OSCILLATIONS THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA into the fascinating world of neutrinos and for being an excellent teacher and a perfect guide. I convey my regards everything I know about neutrino phenomenology, I owe to him. I consider myself very fortunate to have him

  19. Improved Theory of Neutrino Oscillations in Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is revision of the S-Matrix theory of neutrino oscillations used for many years. We evaluate the transition probability of a $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino without an approximation used for many theoretical studies, and find important differences which could improve the extraction of neutrino parameters from experimental data in the future.

  20. Vacuum Oscillations and Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoya Hata

    1994-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Vacuum oscillations are considered for the combined solar neutrino observations, including the Kamiokande II spectrum data and incorporating theoretical uncertainties and their correlations. Despite the conceptual difficulty of the fine tuning between the neutrino parameters and the Sun-Earth distance, 2-flavor vacuum oscillations provide phenomenologically acceptable solutions. There are allowed regions at 99\\% C.L. for $\\Delta m^2 = (0.45 - 1.2) \\times 10^{-10} \\; \\mbox{eV}\\,^2$ and $\\sin^22\\theta = 0.6 - 1$; the best fit solution is $\\chi^2 / \\mbox{d.f.} = 19.2 / 16$, which is acceptable at 16\\% C.L. Oscillations for sterile neutrinos are, however, excluded by the averaged data at 99.4\\% C.L. The vacuum oscillation solutions predict characteristic energy spectrum distortions and seasonal variations in Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Super-Kamiokande, and BOREXINO. Those predictions are given in detail, emphasizing that the vacuum solutions are distinguishable from the MSW solutions.

  1. Oscillations in Beta UMi - Observations with SMEI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Tarrant; W. J. Chaplin; Y. Elsworth; S. A. Spreckley; I. R. Stevens

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: From observations of the K4III star Beta UMi we attempt to determine whether oscillations or any other form of variability is present. Methods: A high-quality photometric time series of approximately 1000 days in length obtained from the SMEI instrument on the Coriolis satellite is analysed. Various statistical tests were performed to determine the significance of features seen in the power density spectrum of the light curve. Results: Two oscillations with frequencies 2.44 and 2.92 microhertz have been identified. We interpret these oscillations as consecutive overtones of an acoustic spectrum, implying a large frequency spacing of 0.48 microhertz. Using derived asteroseismic parameters in combination with known astrophysical parameters, we estimate the mass of Beta UMi to be 1.3 +/- 0.3 solar masses. Peaks of the oscillations in the power density spectrum show width, implying that modes are stochastically excited and damped by convection. The mode lifetime is estimated at 18 +/- 9 days.

  2. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Chuck

    2014-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  3. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  4. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Long, Chuck

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  5. PHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    presents analysis and measurements of phase noise in oscilla- tors and amplifiers. Low phase noise- multaneous small size, low phase noise, DC power consumption and thermal drift is presented. Design stepsPHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS by MILOS JANKOVI´C B.E., University of Arkansas

  6. Oscillator Architectures and Enhanced Frequency Synthesizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sang Wook

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    a narrow band condition such that A? << 1 rad, cos(A? sin(?mt)) ? 1 and sin(A? sin(?mt)) ? A? sin(?mt) that yields the output of the oscillator, (2-20) [2], ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )[ ]ttAVtV tAtVtVtV mm o o mooosc...

  7. Neutrino oscillations and neutrinoless double beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Falcone; F. Tramontano

    2001-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The relation between neutrino oscillation parameters and neutrinoless double beta decay is studied, assuming normal and inverse hierarchies for Majorana neutrino masses. For normal hierarchy the crucial dependence on U_{e3} is explored. The link with tritium beta decay is also briefly discussed.

  8. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, a feedback network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, the feedback network being configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and a tuning circuit connected to the input of the amplifier, wherein the tuning circuit is continuously variable and consists of solid state electrical components with no mechanically adjustable devices including a pair of diodes connected to each other at their respective cathodes with a control voltage connected at the junction of the diodes. Another oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, a feedback network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, the feedback network being configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and transmission lines connected to the input of the amplifier with an input pad and a perpendicular transmission line extending from the input pad and forming a leg of a resonant "T", and wherein the feedback network is coupled to the leg of the resonant "T".

  9. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, James M. (Union Lake, MI); Sereshteh, Ahmad (Union Lake, MI)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  10. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  11. Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Floß; Andrei Kamalov; Ilya Sh. Averbukh; Philip H. Bucksbaum

    2015-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localisation phenomena in quantum transport.

  12. Neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balantekin, A. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of the current status of neutrino mixing and oscillations in astrophysical environments, with particular emphasis on the Sun and core-collapse supernovae, is given. Implications of the existence of sterile states which mix with the active neutrinos are discussed.

  13. Analysis of sawtooth relaxation oscillations in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, K.; McGuire, K.; Okabayashi, M.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sawtooth relaxation oscillations are analyzed using the Kadomtsev's disruption model and a thermal relaxation model. The sawtooth period is found to be very sensitive to the thermal conduction loss. Qualitative agreement between these calculations and the sawtooth period observed in several tokamaks is demonstrated.

  14. Driven synchronization in random networks of oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jason Hindes; Christopher R. Myers

    2015-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchronization is a universal phenomenon found in many non-equilibrium systems. Much recent interest in this area has overlapped with the study of complex networks, where a major focus is determining how a system's connectivity patterns affect the types of behavior that it can produce. Thus far, modeling efforts have focused on the tendency of networks of oscillators to mutually synchronize themselves, with less emphasis on the effects of external driving. In this work we discuss the interplay between mutual and driven synchronization in networks of phase oscillators of the Kuramoto type, and resolve how the structure and emergence of such states depends on the underlying network topology for simple random networks with a given degree distribution. We provide a partial bifurcation analysis, centering on the appearance of a Takens-Bogdanov-Cusp singularity, which broadly separates homogeneous and heterogeneous network behavior in a weak coupling limit, and from which the number, stability and appearance of driven and mutually synchronized states can be determined, as a function of a few parameters. We find transitions such as Saddle-Node-Infinite-Periods, Limit-Point-of-Cycles, and Hopf bifurcations (both branches), as well as multiple bistability regions and dynamics that differ for the network types. This description is connected to the underlying dynamics of oscillator clusters for important states and transitions. Our results can provide a basis for studying the problem of frequency controlling disordered oscillator networks.

  15. Phenomenology of n - n ¯ oscillations revisited

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gardner, S.; Jafari, E.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the phenomenology of n-n¯ oscillations in the presence of external magnetic fields, highlighting the role of spin. We show, contrary to long-held belief, that the n-n¯ transition rate need not be suppressed, opening new opportunities for its empirical study.

  16. On the detection of neutrino oscillations with Planck surveyor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Popa; C. Burigana; F. Finelli; N. Mandolesi

    2000-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The imprint of neutrino oscillations on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy and polarization power spectra is evaluated in a $\\Lambda$CHDM model with two active neutrino flavors, consistent with the structure formation models and the atmospheric neutrino oscillations data. We show the existence of a significant overlap between the region of the oscillation parameter space that can be measured by sc Planck surveyor and that implied by the atmospheric neutrino oscillations data.

  17. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  18. A Network of Relaxation Oscillators that Finds Downbeats in Rhythms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eck, Doug

    & Kolen [8] and McAuley [12] provide oscillator models that work online to find downbeats in temporal

  19. Phase patterns of coupled oscillators with application to wireless communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, A.

    2008-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we study the plausibility of a phase oscillators dynamical model for TDMA in wireless communication networks. We show that emerging patterns of phase locking states between oscillators can eventually oscillate in a round-robin schedule, in a similar way to models of pulse coupled oscillators designed to this end. The results open the door for new communication protocols in a continuous interacting networks of wireless communication devices.

  20. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  1. Modeling of FRP-jacketed RC columns subject to combined axial and lateral loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-Sheng

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LOCATIONS #6 u-bars @ 4" 3" PVC for axial load and verticalsteel Steel jacket encasing load stub 2" PVC for clevisattatch 3" PVC for axial load A B Vertical tiedown Column

  2. Strategic Planning -College -Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Unit Assessment Report -Four Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    Strategic Planning - College - Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Unit Assessment Report - Four Column Texas Tech University Priorities Means of Assessment & Criteria / Tasks Results Action & Natural Resources - 2013 Priority 1_Increase Enrollment and Promote Student Success (CASNR - Outcome 1

  3. Bond-Slip Behavior and Development of Bridge Column Longitudinal Reinforcing Bars in Enlarged Pile Shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murcia-Delso, Juan

    embedded 1829 mm (6 ft) in the pile shaft. The transversebridge drilled-shaft RC pile/columns,” Journal of Structuraland ductility of extended pile-shafts I: Analytical model,”

  4. Preparation of Papers in Two-Column Format for Conference Proceedings Sponsored by IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    you basic guidelines for preparing papers for conference proceedings. 15 I. INTRODUCTION Your goal). The space between the two columns is 4mm (0.17 in). Paragraph indentation is 3.5 mm (0.14 in). Left

  5. A Decomposition Method for Synthesizing Complex Column Configurations Using Tray-by-Tray GDP Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    , complex distillation columns, initialization, discrete decision. Abstract This paper describes on the Reversible Distillation Sequence Model (RDSM) is proposed embedding all possible alternative designs using applied mathematical programming tools to rigorously solve the distillation design problem

  6. Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Joe Ray

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate Profiles and Product Distribution for Example 10 122 32. Convergence Characteri. sties for Example 10 124 33. Execution Time and Number of Trials Required to Solve Examples 7 Through 10 126 34. Column Specifications, Feed Conditions...

  7. Lateral behavior of reinforced concrete columns supported on Type II shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yujia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concrete strength reached the desired strength on the day of testingconcrete and reinforcing steel during the construction period and on the day of column-shaft assembly testing.during testing. However, the cracking of the concrete at the

  8. Simulation of microbial transport and carbon tetrachloride biodegradation in intermittently-fed aquifer columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulation of microbial transport and carbon tetrachloride biodegradation in intermittently associated with carbon tetrachloride (CT) biodegradation in laboratory aquifer columns operated with a pulsed Hydrology: Groundwater transport; KEYWORDS: biodegradation, carbon tetrachloride, microbial transport

  9. Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns, doi:10.1029/2007JD009378. [1] In the paper ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spec- trometer

  10. Constraining the Power Spectrum Using the Column Density Distribution: a Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui

    1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the arguments for how the slope of the column density distribution of the Lyman-alpha forest should depend on the matter power spectrum. The latest progress, presented by various groups in this conference and elsewhere, is summarized.

  11. A Column-Row-Parallel ASIC architecture for 3D wearable / portable medical ultrasonic imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kailiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a scalable Column-Row-Parallel ASIC architecture for 3D wearable / portable medical ultrasound. It leverages programmable electronic addressing to achieve linear scaling for both hardware interconnection ...

  12. Heat and mass transfer in bubble column dehumidifiers for HDH desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat and mass transfer processes governing the performance of bubble dehumidifier trays are studied in order to develop a predictive model and design rules for efficient and economical design of bubble column dehumidifiers ...

  13. Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Existing Multi-Column Bent Bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seismic Assessment and Retrofit of Existing Multi-Column Bent Bridges By Cole C. Mc ................................................................................................................................... 6 Seismic Activity in Western Washington State Approach ­ Bridge Modeling .............................................11 Seismic Excitations

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF A MULTI-COLUMN EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR KR/XE SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Tony Watson

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  15. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography column permeability and changes of the eluent properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1 mm i.d. x30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d{sub p} {approx} 1.7 {micro}m, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C{sub 18}, named BEH-C{sub 18}) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of C in still air and C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144 {+-} 3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured {Delta}T = 25-30 K, ({Delta}{eta}/{eta}) {approx_equal} 100%, and ({Delta}{rho}/{rho}) {approx_equal} 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in UPLC is discussed.

  16. Precision Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters and Investigation of Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Precision Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters and Investigation of Nuclear Georeactor thanks. #12;v Abstract A combined analysis of examining the neutrino oscillation parameters and investiga of the neutrino oscillation parame- ters, including the georeactor power as a free parameter, are tan2 12 = 0

  17. 13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS Updated May 2012 by K. Nakamura have provided compelling evidences for oscillations of neutrinos caused by nonzero neutrino masses of neutrino oscillations, the phenomenology of neutrino mixing, the problem of the nature - Dirac or Majorana

  18. 13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS Updated October 2011 by K compelling evidences for oscillations of neutrinos caused by nonzero neutrino masses and neutrino mixing. The data imply the existence of 3-neutrino mixing in vacuum. We review the theory of neutrino oscillations

  19. 13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    13. Neutrino mixing 1 13. NEUTRINO MASS, MIXING, AND OSCILLATIONS Written May 2010 by K. Nakamura for oscillations of neutrinos caused by nonzero neutrino masses and neutrino mixing. The data imply the existence of 3-neutrino mixing in vacuum. We review the theory of neutrino oscillations, the phenomenology

  20. Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 1. The harmonic oscillator solution: displacement as a function of time We wish to solve the equation of motion for the simple harmonic oscillator shall employ for solving this di#erential equation is called the method of inspired guessing. In class