National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for orn ers cascade

  1. ORN L/TM--

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ORN L/TM-- 1217 6 DE93 007837 Engineering Physics and Mathematics Division and Environmental Sciences Division_: ..0 Errata Report on Herbert Goldstein's Classical Mechanics, Second Edition hl. A. Unseren and F. NI. Hoffman:[: Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 3943 NOTICE This document contains information of e preliminary neture. - lt it subject to revition or correction end therefore does not represent * final report. DATE PUBLISHED--- January 1993 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE

  2. OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ORNLyRStC'45

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oml OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY ORNLyRStC'45 msmi U N I O N C A R B I D E Specific Gamma-Ray Dose Constants for Nuclides Important to Dosimetry and Radiological Assessment #* *«flr **. % i v f J . J Laurie M. Unger D. K. Trubey 1 -ip-^ ^ OPERATED BY UNION CARBIOE CORPORATION FOR THE UNITEO STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WSTWBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS W M M Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service U.S. Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal

  3. Categorical Excluslon DeterminatIon 11'orn1 Project Title: Bear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DeterminatIon 11'orn1 ...... Project Title: Bear Creek Road Deferred Maintenance Reduction Project (4550) Program or Program Office: Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge Tennessee Project...

  4. Village of Cascade | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Village of Cascade Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Village of Cascade Energy Purchaser Village of Cascade Location Cascade WI...

  5. Intra Nucleon Cascade Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-08-18

    The package consists of three programs ISABEL, EVA, and PACE-2. ISABEL and PACE-2 are part of the LAHET code. ISABEL is an intra-nucleon cascade program. The output cascades are used as directly as input files to the two evaporation programs EVA and PACE-2. EVA ignores the effect of the angular momentum of the excited nuclei on the deexcitation and also ignores the possibility of gamma emission as long as particle emission is energetically allowed. PACE-2more » takes full account of angular momentum effects including irast levels and gamma emission at all stages of the evaporation chain.« less

  6. Cascades Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cascades Geothermal Region (Redirected from Cascades) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cascades Geothermal Region Details Areas (2) Power Plants (0)...

  7. Cascaded thermoacoustic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2003-12-09

    A thermoacoustic device is formed with a resonator system defining at least one region of high specific acoustic impedance in an acoustic wave within the resonator system. A plurality of thermoacoustic units are cascaded together within the region of high specific acoustic impedance, where at least one of the thermoacoustic units is a regenerator unit.

  8. Categorical Exclusion Determination 1"orn1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exercises and simulation OB1.3 - Routine maintenance and custodial services DB 1.4 - Air conditioning installation for existing equipment DB I.S - Cooling water system...

  9. DJS CLAIM ER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    t c 5 "NEUTR DJS CLAIM ER This report was prepared a s an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

  10. OoEr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OoEr 1325.8 (MW . fR)W-001 United States Government memoranduln I~J-U Department of Energy II&& yz;; EH-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites froa the Formerly Utilized Sltes Remedial Actiorr Prograa Tb: The File In 1990, with the assistance of Hr. reviewed a nulaber of sites that had Doug Tonkay and Hs. Michelle LaWs, I services to the Fernald facility as fomerly provided goods and/or subcontractors. sites, recommendations were made to For 24 of.these _

  11. Cascade Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cascade-util Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCascade-Iowa1485913095031925?refaymthomepagepanel Outage Hotline: 563-852-3614 or 563-852-3114 References: EIA Form...

  12. Patent: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stirling thermodynamic units | DOEpatents Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Citation Details Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

  13. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers...

  14. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  15. Stringy Instantons and Cascading Quivers (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stringy Instantons and Cascading Quivers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stringy Instantons and Cascading Quivers No abstract prepared. Authors: Aharony, Ofer ; Kachru, ...

  16. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  17. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  18. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

  19. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 ?m, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  20. Nanowire terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grange, Thomas

    2014-10-06

    Quantum cascade lasers made of nanowire axial heterostructures are proposed. The dissipative quantum dynamics of their carriers is theoretically investigated using non-equilibrium Green functions. Their transport and gain properties are calculated for varying nanowire thickness, from the classical-wire regime to the quantum-wire regime. Our calculation shows that the lateral quantum confinement provided by the nanowires allows an increase of the maximum operation temperature and a strong reduction of the current density threshold compared to conventional terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

  1. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  2. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-09-01

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  3. Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Exploration Activity Details...

  4. PP-39 Boise Cascade Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boise Cascade Corporation PP-39 Boise Cascade Corporation Presidential Permit authorizing Boise Cascade Corporation to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada Border. PDF icon PP-39 Boise Cascade Corporation More Documents & Publications PP-96-1 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-39-1 Boise White Paper, L.L.C PP-96 Boise Cascade Corporation

  5. PP-96 Boise Cascade Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boise Cascade Corporation PP-96 Boise Cascade Corporation Presidental Permit authorizing Boise Cascade Corporation to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. Border. PDF icon PP-96 Boise Cascade Corporation More Documents & Publications PP-96-1 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-39 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-39-1 Boise White Paper, L.L.C

  6. PP-96-1 Boise Cascade Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-96-1 Boise Cascade Corporation Presidental Permit authorizing Boise Cascade Corporation to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. -Canada Border. PDF icon PP-96-1 Boise Cascade Corporation More Documents & Publications PP-96 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-39 Boise Cascade Corporation PP-85 Westmin Resources, Inc.

  7. Cascade photo production at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetz, John; Hicks, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-01

    The famous discovery of the Omega ? in 1964 put the quark model on firm ground and since then a lot of effort has been spent on mapping out the baryonic and mesonic states. Over the following decades, many excited baryons with light quarks (up, down and strange) have been measured, but by most predictions, only a small percentage of those expected have been found. In this talk, I will discuss a newly developing technique using an (unflavored) photon beam to excite protons to doubly-strange "Cascade" (Xi) states. Advantages of such an experiment and associated difficulties will be presented, along with recent results from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab in Virginia.

  8. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  9. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  10. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily...

  11. Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InPGaInP quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cascaded emission of linearly polarized ...

  12. Characterization of a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid broadband spectroscopy and sensing Title: Characterization of a swept external cavity quantum cascade...

  13. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: ...

  14. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  15. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  16. Cray to Install Cascade System at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray to Install Cascade System at NERSC Cray to Install Cascade System at NERSC June 27, 2012 by Richard Gerber Cray will install a next-generation supercomputer code-named "Cascade" and a next-generation Cray Sonexion storage system at NERSC. Read the press release. Subscribe via RSS Subscribe Browse by Date January 2016 December 2015 November 2015 October 2015 September 2015 August 2015 July 2015 April 2015 March 2015 January 2015 December 2014 November 2014 October 2014 August 2014

  17. CategorIcal ExcluSIon Determination 1,'orn1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OA 14 - Approval of technical exchange arrangements OA 15 - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and...

  18. Categorical ExclusIon Determination 1";'orn1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines DAI4 - Approval oftechnical exchange arrangements DAIS - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Eerations DB 1.2 - Training exercises and simulation...

  19. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  20. ER85773 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ER85773 Downhole Oxyfuel Steam/CO2 Generator for Production of Gas from Hydrates ER85773 Last Reviewed 11/1/2011 Project Goal The goal of this project is to demonstrate a novel, oxyfuel downhole steam generator (DSG) that will efficiently recover gas from methane hydrate deposits while simultaneously reducing emissions and also having the potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Success will lead to commercialization of a downhole combustor for natural gas production. Performer

  1. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  2. ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT Jump to: navigation, search Name: ErSol Thin Film GmbH (formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH (ENT)) Place: Germany...

  3. Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Vice, 2010)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Vice, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Field Mapping At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Exploration...

  6. Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon canby_cascaded_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project Advanced 3D Geophysical Imaging Technologies for Geothermal Resource

  7. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  8. Multiperiod quantum-cascade nanoheterostructures: Epitaxy and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, A. Yu. Brunkov, P. N.; Nikitina, E. V.; Pirogov, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Lazarenko, A. A.; Baidakova, M. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Konnikov, S. G.

    2014-12-15

    Advances in the production technology of multiperiod nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers with 60 cascades by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on an industrial multiple-substrate MBE machine are discussed. The results obtained in studying the nanoheterostructures of quantum-cascade lasers by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, and photoluminescence mapping are presented.

  9. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  10. DOE-ER-STD-6001-92

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research Canceled (January, 2003) This Implementation Guide is intended to assist management at DOE-ER sponsored facilities in the process of developing and implementing Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) that satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C.

  11. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  12. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  13. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Number: ER-FS-99-03 Eastern Regional Audit Office Date of Issue: May 1999 Oak ... IG Report No. ER-FS-99-03 CUSTOMER RESPONSE FORM The Office of Inspector General has a ...

  14. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-04

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DATE: May 27, 1999 REPLY TO: IG-36 (A98PR015) REPORT NUMBER: ER-FS-99-04 SUBJECT: Results ... Audit Liaison Division IG Report No. ER-FS-99-04 CUSTOMER RESPONSE FORM The Office ...

  15. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  16. Survey of tools for risk assessment of cascading outages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-01

    Abstract-This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers [1, 2] are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the second of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. The first paper reviews the state of the art in methodologies for performing risk assessment of potential cascading outages [3]. This paper describes the state of the art in cascading failure modeling tools, documenting the view of experts representing utilities, universities and consulting companies. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about presently available tools that deal with prediction of cascading failure events. This effort involves reviewing published literature and other documentation from vendors, universities and research institutions. The assessment of cascading outages risk evaluation is in continuous evolution. Investigations to gain even better understanding and identification of cascading events are the subject of several research programs underway aimed at solving the complexity of these events that electrical utilities face today. Assessing the risk of cascading failure events in planning and operation for power transmission systems require adequate mathematical tools/software.

  17. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  18. Microsoft Word - westwater_er.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment: Overview and Recent Results E.R. Westwater, D. Cimini, M. Klein, and V. Leuski Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Earth System Research Boulder, Colorado V. Mattioli Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettronica e dell'Informazione Università di Perugia Perugia, Italy A.J. Gasiewski Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

  19. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  20. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  1. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) This project implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort

  2. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet) This project implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort

  3. Cascade County, Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cascade County, Montana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 47.4688355, -111.5453228 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapp...

  4. Survey of Tools for Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papic, Milorad; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Dobson, Ian; Fonte, Louis; Haq, Enamul; Hines, Paul; Kirschen, Daniel; Luo, Xiaochuan; Miller, Stephen; Samaan, Nader A.; Vaiman, Marianna; Varghese, Matthew; Zhang, Pei

    2011-10-17

    Cascading failure can cause large blackouts, and a variety of methods are emerging to study this challenging topic. In parts 1 and 2 of this paper, the IEEE task force on cascading failure seeks to consolidate and review the progress of the field towards methods and tools of assessing the risk of cascading failure. Part 2 summarizes and discusses the state of the art in the available cascading failure modeling tools. The discussion integrates industry and research perspectives from a variety of institutions. Strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in current approaches are indicated.

  5. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the units. PDF icon Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit - Kent, WA More Documents & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing...

  6. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection and...

  7. EM to Proceed with Demolition Following Completion of Cascade...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... The cascade was placed in cold standby status in 2001 in the wake of newer technologies ... shutdown in 2005 as DOE began planning decontamination, decommissioning and site cleanup. ...

  8. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  9. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  10. DOE/ER--0547T DE92

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ER--0547T DE92 014826 II Chemical Contaminants on DOE Lands and Selection of Contaminant Mixtures for Subsurface Science Research R.G. Riley J.M. Zachara Pacific Northwest Laboratory In collaboration with F.J. Wobber April 1992 . L U.S. Department of Energy D_.:: :::;,:.::.::,;,_ <_'r._,_ L"_O'_UMf--N_ _S UNt.L,4,_L_ Office of Energy Research Subsurface Science Program W higt ....... -- aS n OI'I, U.L,. /..,UDOD 4_ This identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that

  11. DOE/ER/06035--7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    06035--7 DE85 014321 Technical Progress Report SUPERSONIC METAL CLUSTER BEAMS Department of Ene'rgy Contract No. DE-AS0548ER06035 For Period 3-16-w through 4-l-85 Principal Investigator: R. E. Smalley DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their emptoyecs, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or rcspond- bility for

  12. K DOE/ER/72018~9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    .^ay^4l.« XlUU..,^!^.:.^ K DOE/ER/72018~9 DE92 007472 Ninth Progress Report for the Division of Basic Energy Sciences Department of Energy, Contract DOE EY 76-S-03-0034, P.A. 218 (includes results of the last three years) MULTIHETEROMACROCYCLES THAT COMPLEX METAL IONS PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATION: REPORTING PERIOD: DATE OF THIS REPORT: Donald J. Cram, Professor of Chemistry Department of Chemistry University of California at Los Angeles 405 Hilgard Avenue Los Angeles,

  13. RECONFIGURING POWER SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE CASCADING FAILURES: MODELS AND ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2014-04-11

    the main goal of this project was to develop new scientific tools, based on optimization techniques, with the purpose of controlling and modeling cascading failures of electrical power transmission systems. We have developed a high-quality tool for simulating cascading failures. The problem of how to control a cascade was addressed, with the aim of stopping the cascade with a minimum of load lost. Yet another aspect of cascade is the investigation of which events would trigger a cascade, or more appropriately the computation of the most harmful initiating event given some constraint on the severity of the event. One common feature of the cascade models described (indeed, of several of the cascade models found in the literature) is that we study thermally-induced line tripping. We have produced a study that accounts for exogenous randomness (e.g. wind and ambient temperature) that could affect the thermal behavior of a line, with a focus on controlling the power flow of the line while maintaining safe probability of line overload. This was done by means of a rigorous analysis of a stochastic version of the heat equation. we incorporated a model of randomness in the behavior of wind power output; again modeling an OPF-like problem that uses chance-constraints to maintain low probability of line overloads; this work has been continued so as to account for generator dynamics as well.

  14. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  15. Dali Yang er Hydropower Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yang er Hydropower Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dali Yanger Hydropower Development Co Ltd Place: Dali Prefecture, Dali, Yunnan Province, China Zip: 625000...

  16. The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er{sub

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    13}Ni{sub 25}As{sub 19}: Crystal structures and magnetic properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er{sub 13}Ni{sub 25}As{sub 19}: Crystal structures and magnetic properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er{sub 13}Ni{sub 25}As{sub 19}: Crystal structures and magnetic properties The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er{sub 13}Ni{sub

  17. DOE/ER/13897--9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE/ER/13897--9 DE89 006617 THE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER UNDER NONEQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS: FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS AND APPLICATIONS P r o g r e s s Report A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 8 8 - A p r i l 1 4 , 1989 3 -s 8 tf » § § *" l & s t l i g S S Hya Prigogine * s l S s l g o s S Center for Studies in S t a t i s t i c a l IVfechanics g -s g. "..§' S .g g S The University of Texas S I 2 g 0..8 j g - Austin, Texas 78712 *a " I'^l s 1 s I l i - S s ^ | S l o . Thisdocumentis ^ 0 o § 5 g c ^ l

  18. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  19. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  20. Green, red and infrared Er-related emission in implanted GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, T.; Soares, J.; Correia, M. R.; Alves, E.

    2001-06-01

    Er-related luminescence near 1.54 {mu}m ({similar_to}805 meV) is observed under below band gap excitation at 4.2 K in GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O implanted samples. The spectrum of the recovered damage samples is a multiline structure. So far, these lines are the sharpest ones reported for GaN. Well-resolved green and red luminescences are observed in implanted samples. The dependence of luminescence on the excitation energy as well as the influence of different nominal fluence and annealing conditions is discussed. Combining the results obtained from photoluminescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, different lattice sites for the optical active Er-related centers are identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  2. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, Pier R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  3. Cascade-Fairwood, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cascade-Fairwood is a census-designated place in King County, Washington.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  4. Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega Hyperons atBaBar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the...

  5. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  6. Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concentrated Ni-based alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in concentrated Ni-based alloys This content will become publicly available on February 25, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades in concentrated Ni-based alloys Alloying of Ni with Fe or Co reduces primary damage production under ion irradiation. Similar results have been obtained from classical molecular dynamics

  7. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2011-07-31

    This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

  8. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures The goal of the DTRA project is to develop a mathematical framework that

  9. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Aker, Pam M.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-01-20

    Research done by the IR sensors team at PNNL is focused on developing advanced spectroscopic methods for detecting signatures of nuclear, chemical, biological and explosives weapons or weapons production. The sensors we develop fall into two categories: remote sensors that can be operated at distances ranging from 150 m to 10 km, and point sensors that are used for in-situ inspection and detection. FY03 has seen an explosion in FM DIAL progress with the net result being solid confirmation that FM DIAL is a technique capable of remote chemical monitoring in a wide variety of venues. For example, FM DIAL was used to detect a small plume of hydrogen sulfide, a candidate CW agent, released in the desert environment of the Hanford 200 Area site. These experiments were conducted over a range of physical conditions including outside temperatures ranging from 70 F to 105 F and turbulence conditions ranging from quiescent to chaotic. We are now rapidly developing the information needed to design prototype FM DIAL systems that are optimized for specific applications that include scenarios such as fixed position stand-off detection and mobile UAV mounted remote monitoring. Just as an example, in FY04 we will use FM DIAL to detect both in-facility and outdoor release of enriched UF6. The rapid progress in FM DIAL research made in FY03 is attributed to several advances. First, final construction of a custom-designed trailer allowed the instrument to be housed in a mobile temperature-controlled environment. This allowed the experiment to be transported to several locations so that data could be collected under a range of physical conditions. This has led to a better understanding of a variety of experimental noise sources. With this knowledge, we have been able to implement several changes in the way the FM DIAL data is collected and processed, with the net result being a drastic improvement in our confidence of analyte concentration measurement and an improvement i n the instrument detection limit. The range of chemicals detectable by FM DIAL has also been extended. Prior to FY03 only water and nitrous oxide (N2O) had been seen. Experiments on extending the tuning range of the quantum cascade laser (QCL) currently used in the experiments demonstrate that many more species are now accessible including H2S, C2F4H2, and CH4. We additionally demonstrated that FM DIAL measurements can be made using short wave infrared (SWIR) telecommunications lasers. While measurements made using these components are noisier because turbulence and particulate matter cause more interference in this spectral region, monitoring in this region enables larger species to be detected simply because these lasers have a greater tuning range. In addition, SWIR monitoring also allows for the detection of second-row hydride species such as HF and HCl, which are important nuclear and CWA proliferation signatures.

  10. Analysis of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotopes and optimal feed position

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuntong Ying; Hongjiang Wu; Mingsheng Zhou; Yuguang Nie; Guangjun Liu

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the concentration distribution in a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures is different from that in a cascade for separation of two-component mixtures. This paper presents the governing equations for a multicomponent isotope separation cascade. Numerically predicted separation factors for the gas centrifuge cascade agree well with the experimental data. A theoretical optimal feed position is derived for a short square cascade for a two-component mixture in a close-separation case. The optimal feed position for a gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent mixture is discussed.

  11. Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    InP/GaInP quantum dots (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InP/GaInP quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InP/GaInP quantum dots We report on the optical characterization of site-controlled InP/GaInP quantum dots (QDs). Spatially resolved low temperature cathodoluminescence proves the long-range ordering of the buried emitters,

  12. Cascades with Adjoint Matter: Adjoint Transitions (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Cascades with Adjoint Matter: Adjoint Transitions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cascades with Adjoint Matter: Adjoint Transitions Authors: Simic, Dusan ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC Publication Date: 2013-06-18 OSTI Identifier: 1084307 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15602 arXiv:1009.0023 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JHEP 1105:104,2011 Research Org: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC)

  13. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  14. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta βe = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in themore »inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.« less

  15. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade: Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta ?e = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  16. Assessment of Critical Events Corridors through Multivariate Cascading Outages Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Kumbale, Murali; Chen, Yousu; Singh, Ruchi; Green, Irina; Morgan, Mark P.

    2011-10-17

    Massive blackouts of electrical power systems in North America over the past decade has focused increasing attention upon ways to identify and simulate network events that may potentially lead to widespread network collapse. This paper summarizes a method to simulate power-system vulnerability to cascading failures to a supplied set of initiating events synonymously termed as Extreme Events. The implemented simulation method is currently confined to simulating steady state power-system response to a set of extreme events. The outlined method of simulation is meant to augment and provide a new insight into bulk power transmission network planning that at present remains mainly confined to maintaining power system security for single and double component outages under a number of projected future network operating conditions. Although one of the aims of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating network vulnerability to cascading outages, a more important goal has been to determine vulnerable parts of the network that may potentially be strengthened in practice so as to mitigate system susceptibility to cascading failures. This paper proposes to demonstrate a systematic approach to analyze extreme events and identify vulnerable system elements that may be contributing to cascading outages. The hypothesis of critical events corridors is proposed to represent repeating sequential outages that can occur in the system for multiple initiating events. The new concept helps to identify system reinforcements that planners could engineer in order to 'break' the critical events sequences and therefore lessen the likelihood of cascading outages. This hypothesis has been successfully validated with a California power system model.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - AERI-ER Intercomparison IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAERI-ER Intercomparison IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : AERI-ER Intercomparison IOP 2004.01.12 - 2006.06.29 Lead Scientist : David Turner Data Availability Data were collected and submitted to the ARM Archive for IOPs. For data sets, see below. Summary There were three, potentially four, phases to this experiment. The length of time required for each phase was the time

  18. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2011-12-01

    This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

  19. QUARTER SH OR T-T ER M EN ER GY OU TL OO K QUAR TERL Y PROJ

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 2 QUARTER SH OR T-T ER M EN ER GY OU TL OO K QUAR TERL Y PROJ ECTIO NS ENERGY INFORMA TION ADMINIST RATION May 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone,

  20. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

  1. Inner Mongolia Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Bayannao'er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind...

  2. Bosch Solar Energy AG former ErSol Solar Energy AG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AG former ErSol Solar Energy AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bosch Solar Energy AG (former ErSol Solar Energy AG) Place: Erfurt, Germany Zip: D-99099 Product: Germany-based...

  3. USACE ER 200-2-2 Procedures for Implementing NEPA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ER 200-2-2 Procedures for Implementing NEPA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: USACE ER 200-2-2...

  4. Audit Report: ER-B-99-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-99-05 April 8, 1999 Westinghouse Savannah River Company's Withdrawal ... (FY) 1997 and 1998. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-05 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  5. Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 June 5, 1997 Audit of Proposal to Acquire Land at the Fernald Environmental Management Project PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 More Documents & ...

  6. Audit Report: ER-B-98-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-98-03 November 7, 1997 Audit of the Union Valley Sample Preparation ... and cost effective. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-03 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  7. Audit Report: ER-B-98-09 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Audit Report: ER-B-98-09 July 15, 1998 Disposal of Tritium Residues at the Los Alamos ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-09 More Documents & Publications Semiannual Report to ...

  8. Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 April 23, 1996 Force Restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  9. Audit Report: ER-B-97-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ER-B-97-01 October 22, 1996 Audit of Economic Development Grants and a Cooperative Agreement with East Tennessee Not-For-Profit Organizations PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-97-01 More ...

  10. Audit Report: ER-B-98-04 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Audit Report: ER-B-98-04 November 24, 1997 Audit Of Selected Government-Funded Grants ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-04 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0524 ...

  11. Audit Report: ER-B-98-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Audit Report: ER-B-98-01 October 23, 1997 Audit of the Deactivation, Decontamination, ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-01 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0684 ...

  12. Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 August 3, 1995 Audit of Work Force Restructuring at the Oak Ridge Operations Office PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  13. Audit Report: ER-B-95-04 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Audit Report: ER-B-95-04 June 26, 1995 Audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-95-04 More Documents & Publications ...

  14. Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of Dynamos." Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of Dynamos." ...

  15. Audit Report: ER-B-98-08 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Audit Report: ER-B-98-08 May 29, 1998 The Cost Reduction Incentive Program at the ... of the CRIP. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-08 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  16. Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 June 11, 1996 Audit of Groundwater Remediation Plans at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 More Documents & Publications EIS-0120: Wetland ...

  17. Audit Report: ER-B-98-07 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Audit Report: ER-B-98-07 April 6, 1998 Personal Property at the Oak Ridge Operations ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-07 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0664 ...

  18. Audit Report: ER-B-00-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-00-03 June 19, 2000 Waste Characterization at Oak Ridge Waste ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-00-03 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0434 ...

  19. Audit Report: ER-L-02-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    L-02-01 Audit Report: ER-L-02-01 February 7, 2002 The Department of Energy's Strategy for ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-L-02-01 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0688 ...

  20. Audit Report: ER-B-99-08 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Audit Report: ER-B-99-08 May 12, 1999 Health Physics Technician Subcontracts at ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-08 More Documents & Publications Semiannual Report to ...

  1. Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 July 14, 1995 Audit of Acquisition of Scientific Research at Ames Laboratory PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  2. Audit Report: ER-B-99-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-99-03 January 25, 1999 Westinghouse Savannah River Company's Health ... January 1, 1997. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-03 More Documents & Publications ...

  3. Audit Report: ER-B-99-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9-01 Audit Report: ER-B-99-01 December 21, 1998 Decontamination and Decommissioning at the ... at the ETTP. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-01 More Documents & Publications Audit ...

  4. Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 October 24, 1997 Audit of Environmental Monitoring and Health ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0522 ...

  5. Audit Report: ER-B-00-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Audit Report: ER-B-00-02 June 21, 2000 Security Overtime at the Oak Ridge Operations ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-00-02 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0487 ...

  6. Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 x 1) compounds in low applied fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 x 1) compounds in ...

  7. Audit Report: ER-B-98-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-98-05 December 10, 1997 Audit Of The Department Of Energy's Contracts ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-05 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0426 ...

  8. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Siddharth Kamoua, Ridha

    2014-06-07

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85?kA/cm{sup 2} and 1.95?kA/cm{sup 2} at 77?K and 300?K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  9. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  10. Crystal Structure of Cascade | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystal Structure of Cascade Friday, January 30, 2015 Immune pathways protect all organisms from infection by genetic invaders such as viruses. It was recently discovered that prokaryotes protect against invasion by bacteriophages via an RNA based adaptive immune system, called the CRISPR system (1, 2). By acting as a barrier to the exchange of genetic information, a major route for the acquisition of antibiotic-resistance and virulence factors, the CRISPR system modulates the evolution of

  11. Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 June 11, 1996 Audit of Groundwater Remediation Plans at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0655 EIS-0120: Wetland Assessment EIS-0303: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

  12. Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8-06 Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 April 1, 1998 Fluor Daniel Fernald's Use of Temporary ... PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 ...

  13. Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2014-02-01

    The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

  14. ER85357_Phase2_Eltron | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unconventional High Temperature Nanofiltration for Produced Water Treatment Last Reviewed 6/25/2013 DE-10ER85357 Goal The project goal is to further develop a proprietary, high-temperature nanofiltration (NF) technology (DurafluxTM) to remove salt and other dissolved solids from produced water originating from domestic oil and gas production. Treated water can be re-used in the extraction process without cooling/re-heating costs or can be recycled as an acceptable supply of source water. Project

  15. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  16. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-02-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

  17. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  18. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Charles E.; Furu, Laurence H.

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  19. X-ray and neutron diffraction of Er-hydride films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew

    2004-10-01

    The outline of this report is: (1) structures of hexagonal Er meal, ErH{sub 2} fluorite, and molybdenum; (2) texture issues and processing effects; (3) idea of pole figure integration; and (4) promising neutron diffraction work. Summary of this report are: (1) ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} film microstructures are strongly effected by processing conditions; (2) both x-ray and neutron diffraction are being pursued to help diagnose structure/property issues regarding ErT{sub 2} films and these correlations to He retention/release; (3) texture issues are great challenges for determination of site occupancy; and (4) work on pole-figure-integration looks to have promise addressing texture issues in ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} films.

  20. COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

  1. EA-1893: Canby Cascaded Geothermal Development System, Canby, California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal by Modoc Contracting Company to use DOE grant funds to fulfill its plan to expand its reliance on geothermal resources by producing more hot water and using it to produce power as well as thermal energy. The goal of the project is to complete a cascaded geothermal system that generates green power for the local community, provides thermal energy to support greenhouse and aquaculture operation, provide sustainable thermal energy for residential units, and eliminate the existing geothermal discharge to a local river. NOTE: This EA has been cancelled.

  2. Flat 3-brane with Tension in Cascading Gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew

    2009-10-16

    In the cascading gravity brane-world scenario, our 3-brane lies within a succession of lower-codimension branes, each with their own induced gravity term, embedded into each other in a higher-dimensional space-time. In the (6+1)-dimensional version of this scenario, we show that a 3-brane with tension remains flat, at least for sufficiently small tension that the weak-field approximation is valid. The bulk solution is singular nowhere and remains in the perturbative regime everywhere.

  3. Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in 3C-SiC:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of interatomic potentials (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in 3C-SiC: Comparison of interatomic potentials This content will become publicly available on June 3, 2016 « Prev Next » Title: Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in 3C-SiC: Comparison of interatomic potentials We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in

  4. Performance of the biose cascade-INEL manufactured solar home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A S; Liebelt, K H; Scofield, M P; Shinn, N R

    1980-01-01

    Two manufactured active solar homes using air collectors and rock storage were designed, bult and are being tested. The cooperative, DOE-funded project involves. Boise Cascade Corporation and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The two primary goals of the project are to develop an active solar heating system that is cost-effective now, and to provide significant market penetration through the involvement of Boise Cascade, a major manufacturer of factory built houses. A brief discussion of the houses and solar systems is included, with more detailed discussion of the desktop-computer based data acquisition system and initial performance results. The 1979 cooling season data indicated a need for modifications to achieve adequate cooling system performance. Data from the heating season showed good agreement with calculations, especially the house heat loss coefficient. However, solar heating fractions were lower than predicted and an examination of the collector operating efficiency showed the collector losses to be approximately three times higher than predicted. Tests are underway to better understand the large collection losses. Comparison of the performance data and f-chart predictions shows significant differences, with predicted solar fractions being lower than actual. The solar domestic hot water preheating system performed reasonably well, with significant thermal losses noticed from the auxiliary hot water heater. Recommendations are made for the design of solar air-heating systems.

  5. Deterministic and cascadable conditional phase gate for photonic qubits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudzicki, Christopher; Chuang, Isaac; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2014-12-04

    Previous analyses of conditional ?{sub NL}-phase gates for photonic qubits that treat crossphase modulation (XPM) in a causal, multimode, quantum field setting suggest that a large (?? rad) nonlinear phase shift is always accompanied by fidelity-degrading noise [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006); J. Gea-Banacloche, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)]. Using an atomic V-system to model an XPM medium, we present a conditional phase gate that, for sufficiently small nonzero ?{sub NL}, has high fidelity. The gate is made cascadable by using a special measurement, principal mode projection, to exploit the quantum Zeno effect and preclude the accumulation of fidelity-degrading departures from the principal-mode Hilbert space when both control and target photons illuminate the gate. The nonlinearity of the V-system we study is too weak for this particular implementation to be practical. Nevertheless, the idea of cascading through principal mode projection is of potential use to overcome fidelity degrading noise for a wide variety of nonlinear optical primitive gates.

  6. CNSS Papers CI Siegfried S. Hecl^er

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNSS Papers CI Siegfried S. Hecl^er m Center for National Security Studies Los Alamos National Laboratory 0!STffl?UlSUrf J? THIS iiOCy^fttMi cS l-^LI^iTEfi CENTER FOR NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES The Center for National Security Studies is a studies and analysis or- ganization of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Drawing on the broad knowledge at Los Alamos of science and engineering relevant to national security issues, the Center's research focuses on the interaction between technology and

  7. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999 (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999 This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-8-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  10. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_July-September 2015_January 2016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John R.

    2016-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the July, August, and September 2015 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. The work completed during this quarter is reported below in Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities (SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502, and three groundwater AOCs). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has issued a certificate of completion and the site is in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL, SWMU 76) is the only site in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities have been deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these are active mission facilities.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  12. Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database CY 1995 releases and supporting data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-05

    This document is a hard copy of the CY 1995 airborne and liquid effluent data contained in the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) computer database.

  13. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  14. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  15. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  16. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  17. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  18. INVERSE CASCADE OF NONHELICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN A RELATIVISTIC FLUID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zrake, Jonathan [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum P{sub M} (k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and 2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t {sup 2/5}, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula.

  19. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. S. Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  20. On the modified active region design of interband cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, M.; Ryczko, K.; Dyksik, M.; S?k, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Weih, R.; Dallner, M.; Kamp, M.; Hfling, S.

    2015-02-28

    Type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaSb or InAs substrates and designed to be integrated in the active region of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the mid infrared have been investigated. Optical spectroscopy, combined with band structure calculations, has been used to probe their electronic properties. A design with multiple InAs QWs has been compared with the more common double W-shaped QW and it has been demonstrated that it allows red shifting the emission wavelength and enhancing the transition oscillator strength. This can be beneficial for the improvements of the ICLs performances, especially when considering their long-wavelength operation.

  1. PULSAR PAIR CASCADES IN A DISTORTED MAGNETIC DIPOLE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P- P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.

  2. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  4. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  5. Completion Report for Well ER-18-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-12-01

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  7. Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega Hyperons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atBaBar (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega Hyperons atBaBar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega Hyperons atBaBar We employ Runs 1-4 off-peak data sample (about 21.5 fb{sup -1}) to produce the current world-best spectra and production rates measurements for three strangely-flavored baryons: the {Lambda} hyperon, the cascade hyperon, and

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  9. Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-04-01

    A hyperspectral infrared microscope using external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination and a microbolometer focal plane array is used to characterize nanogram-scale particles of the explosives RDX, tetryl, and PETN at fast acquisition rates.

  10. Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow From Four New...

  11. High-efficiency cascaded up and down conversion in nonlinear Kerr cavities

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES High-efficiency cascaded up and down conversion in nonlinear Kerr cavities « Prev Next » Title: High-efficiency cascaded up and down conversion in nonlinear Kerr cavities Authors: Zhou, Chao ; Bermel, Peter Publication Date: 2015-09-09 OSTI Identifier: 1222224 Grant/Contract Number: DEEE0004946 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087 Publisher:

  12. Characterization of a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    broadband spectroscopy and sensing (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: Characterization of a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid broadband spectroscopy and sensing Title: Characterization of a swept external cavity quantum cascade laser for rapid broadband spectroscopy and sensing Authors: Brumfield, Brian E. ; Taubman, Matthew S. ; Suter, Jonathan D. ; Phillips, Mark C. Publication Date: 2015-09-21 OSTI Identifier: 1222229 Grant/Contract Number: AC05-76RL01830

  13. Completion Report for Well ER-7-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

  14. Astrophysical Gyrokinetics: Kinetic and Fluid Turbulent Cascades In Magentized Weakly Collisional Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.

    2009-04-23

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations become the slow and entropy modes of the conventional MHD). In the "dissipation range" below ion gyroscale, there are again two cascades: the kinetic-Alfven-wave (KAW) cascade governed by two fluid-like Electron Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (ERMHD) equations and a passive cascade of ion entropy fluctuations both in space and velocity. The latter cascade brings the energy of the inertial-range fluctuations that was Landau-damped at the ion gyroscale to collisional scales in the phase space and leads to ion heating. The KAWenergy is similarly damped at the electron gyroscale and converted into electron heat. Kolmogorov-style scaling relations are derived for all of these cascades. The relationship between the theoretical models proposed in this paper and astrophysical applications and observations is discussed in detail.

  15. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  16. Audit Report: ER-B-99-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    submit offers. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-02 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - al2004-03.doc Chapter 19 - Small Business Programs Acquisition Letter: AL2005-08...

  17. Audit Report: ER-B-99-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Audit Report: ER-B-99-06 April 14, 1999 Bechtel Jacobs Payroll Creation The Oak Ridge Operations Office (Operations Office) awarded a contract to the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC...

  18. Audit Report: ER-B-99-07 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Audit Report: ER-B-99-07 May 4, 1999 Maintenance Activities at the Y-12 Plant Department of Energy (Department) policy requires the use of performance measures to assess the...

  19. Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 October 24, 1997 Audit of Environmental Monitoring and Health Physics Laboratories at the Savannah River Site The Environmental Monitoring and Health...

  20. Multistep cascade annihilations of dark matter and the Galactic Center excess

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2015-05-26

    If dark matter is embedded in a non-trivial dark sector, it may annihilate and decay to lighter dark-sector states which subsequently decay to the Standard Model. Such scenarios - with annihilation followed by cascading dark-sector decays - can explain the apparent excess GeV gamma-rays identified in the central Milky Way, while evading bounds from dark matter direct detection experiments. Each 'step' in the cascade will modify the observable signatures of dark matter annihilation and decay, shifting the resulting photons and other final state particles to lower energies and broadening their spectra. We explore, in a model-independent way, the effect ofmore » multi-step dark-sector cascades on the preferred regions of parameter space to explain the GeV excess. We find that the broadening effects of multi-step cascades can admit final states dominated by particles that would usually produce too sharply peaked photon spectra; in general, if the cascades are hierarchical (each particle decays to substantially lighter particles), the preferred mass range for the dark matter is in all cases 20-150 GeV. Decay chains that have nearly-degenerate steps, where the products are close to half the mass of the progenitor, can admit much higher DM masses. We map out the region of mass/cross-section parameter space where cascades (degenerate, hierarchical or a combination) can fit the signal, for a range of final states. In the current paper, we study multi-step cascades in the context of explaining the GeV excess, but many aspects of our results are general and can be extended to other applications.« less

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

  2. Completion Report for Well ER-12-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

  3. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2002-03-01

    Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-09-01

    Well ER-EC-4 was drilled for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 263.7 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,062.8 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 228.3 meters, two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 35 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 286.5 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well was collared in basalt and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon, and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from this well helps pinpoint the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southern Nevada volcanic field.

  5. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

  6. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-8 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 129.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 609.6 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 98.4 meters, 24 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on evaluation of composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 20 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 157.9 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Drilling began in Tertiary-age tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, and penetrated tuffs of the Beatty Wash Formation, tuff of Buttonhook Wash, and the upper portion of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from this well helps define the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Geologic and hydrologic data from the well will aid in development of models to predict groundwater flow and contaminant migration within and near the Nevada Test Site.

  8. Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and

  9. Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior Point Algorithms

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Optimization Problems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior Point Algorithms for Optimization Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior Point Algorithms for Optimization Problems Over the period of this award we developed an algorithmic framework for constraint reduction in linear programming (LP) and convex quadratic programming (QP), proved convergence of our

  10. DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER).

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). The realization of a paradigm chaotic system, namely the harmonically driven oscillator, in the quantum domain using cold trapped ions driven by lasers is theoretically investigated. The simplest characteristics of regular and chaotic dynamics

  11. Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of

  12. Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Terahertz (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Authors: Lu, Hong ; Ouellette, Daniel G. ; Preu, Sascha ; Watts, Justin D. ; Zaks, Benjamin ; Burke, Peter G. ; Sherwin, Mark S. ; Gossard, Arthur C. Publication Date: 2014-03-12 OSTI Identifier: 1160953 DOE Contract Number:

  13. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  14. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-4, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff and Sam Marutzky

    2012-09-01

    Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 were drilled during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY 2010 (NNSA/NSO, 2011a and b). The closest underground nuclear test detonations to the area of investigation are TYBO (U-20y), BELMONT (U-20as), MOLBO (U-20ag), BENHAM (U-20c), and HOYA (U-20 be) (Figure 1-1). The TYBO, MOLBO, and BENHAM detonations had working points located below the regional water table. The BELMONT and HOYA detonation working points were located just above the water table, and the cavity for these detonations are calculated to extend below the water table (Pawloski et al., 2002). The broad purpose of Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 is to determine the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater, the geologic formations, groundwater geochemistry as an indicator of age and origin, and the water-bearing properties and hydraulic conditions that influence radionuclide migration. Well development and testing is performed to determine the hydraulic properties at the well and between other wells, and to obtain groundwater samples at the well that are representative of the formation at the well. The area location, wells, underground nuclear detonations, and other features are shown in Figure 1-1. Hydrostratigraphic cross sections A-A, B-B, C-C, and D-D are shown in Figures 1-2 through 1-5, respectively.

  15. Excitonic enhancement of nonradiative energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization of cascaded quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeltik, Aydan; Guzelturk, Burak; Akhavan, Shahab; Ludwig Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro; Volkan Demir, Hilmi

    2013-12-23

    We report enhanced sensitization of silicon through nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) of the excitons in an energy-gradient structure composed of a cascaded bilayer of green- and red-emitting CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on bulk silicon. Here NRET dynamics were systematically investigated comparatively for the cascaded energy-gradient and mono-dispersed QD structures at room temperature. We show experimentally that NRET from the QD layer into silicon is enhanced by 40% in the case of an energy-gradient cascaded structure as compared to the mono-dispersed structures, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis based on the excited state population-depopulation dynamics of the QDs.

  16. Including the Effects of Electronic Excitations and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Dorothy |

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has traditionally been modeled using cascade simulations however such simulations generally neglect the effects of electron-ion interactions, which may be significant in high energy cascades. A model has been developed which includes the effects of electronic stopping and electron-phonon coupling in Molecular Dynamics simulations by means of an inhomogeneous Langevin thermostat. The energy lost by the atoms to electronic excitations is gained by the electronic system and the energy evolution of the electronic system is modeled by the heat diffusion equation. Energy is exchanged between the electronic system and the atoms in the Molecular Dynamics simulation by means of a Langevin thermostat, the temperature of which is the local electronic temperature. The model is applied to a 10 keV cascade simulation for Fe. (authors)

  17. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  18. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY BURSTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS A fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few tens of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true

  19. Inverse Cascade of Non-helical Magnetic Turbulence in a Relativistic Fluid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Inverse Cascade of Non-helical Magnetic Turbulence in a Relativistic Fluid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inverse Cascade of Non-helical Magnetic Turbulence in a Relativistic Fluid Authors: Zrake, Jonathan ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park Publication Date: 2014-10-23 OSTI Identifier: 1160305 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16129 Journal ID: ISSN 2041--8213; arXiv:1407.5626 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Single and Polycrystalline Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Jincheng

    2009-03-10

    Displacement cascades in zirconia have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Polycrystalline zirconia with nano-meter grains were created using Voronoi polyhedra construction and studied in comparison with single crystalline zirconia. The results show that displacement cascades with similar kinetic energy generated larger number of displaced atoms in polycrystalline than in the single crystal structure. The fraction of atoms with coordination number change was also higher in polycrystalline zirconia that was explained to be due to the diffusion of oxygen and relaxation at grain boundaries.

  1. CASCADED USES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Paul Brophy EGS, Inc. & GRC President

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CASCADED USES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Paul Brophy EGS, Inc. & GRC President John W. Lund Emeritus Geo-Heat Center Tonya "Toni" Boyd Emeritus Geo-Heat Center INTRODUCTION * Cascading is not a new concept * Combining heat and/or power provides - Increased net efficiency - Improved economics * Thermodynamics of geothermal plants - Lower than conventional plants - Due to lower working fluid temperatures * (550 o C vs <200 o C - 1,200 vs <390°F) INTRODUCTION 2 * 1 MWe geothermal

  2. ARRA: Reconfiguring Power Systems to Minimize Cascading Failures - Models and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Hiskens, Ian; Linderoth, Jeffrey; Wright, Stephen

    2013-12-16

    Building on models of electrical power systems, and on powerful mathematical techniques including optimization, model predictive control, and simluation, this project investigated important issues related to the stable operation of power grids. A topic of particular focus was cascading failures of the power grid: simulation, quantification, mitigation, and control. We also analyzed the vulnerability of networks to component failures, and the design of networks that are responsive to and robust to such failures. Numerous other related topics were investigated, including energy hubs and cascading stall of induction machines

  3. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  4. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  5. A Ka-band TM{sub 02} mode relativistic backward wave oscillator with cascaded resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Yan; Cao, Yinbin; Song, Zhimin; Ye, Hu; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua; Sun, Jun

    2014-12-15

    By combining the Cerenkov-type generator with the cascaded resonators, this paper proposes a Ka-band relativistic backward wave oscillator operating under the guide magnetic field 1.0?T with high power handling capability and high conversion efficiency. It is found that TM{sub 02} can be selected as the operation mode in order to increase the power handling capability and provide sufficient coupling with the electron beam. In slow wave structure (SWS), ripples composed of semicircle on top of the rectangle enhance the wave-beam interaction and decrease the intensity of the electric field on the metallic surface. Taking advantage of the resonator cascades, the output power and the conversion efficiency are promoted greatly. The front cascaded resonators efficiently prevent the power generated in SWS from leaking into the diode region, and quicken the startup of the oscillation due to the premodulation of the beam. However, the post cascade slightly postpones the startup because of the further energy extraction from the electron beam. The numerical simulation shows that generation with power 514?MW and efficiency 41% is obtained under the diode voltage 520?kV and current 2.4?kA. And the microwave with the pure frequency spectrum of 29.35 GHz radiates in the pure TM{sub 01} mode.

  6. Phase 1 Feasibility Study, Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project, April 2, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrick, Dale E

    2013-04-02

    A small community in Northern California is attempting to use a local geothermal resource to generate electrical power and cascade residual energy to an existing geothermal district heating system, greenhouse, and future fish farm and subsequent reinjection into the geothermal aquifer, creating a net-zero energy community, not including transportation.

  7. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 The existence of species within the plant genus Flaveria with differing leaf cell arrangements and photosynthetic schemes (C3, C4, C3-C4) enabled us to identify genetic elements (promoters, 3'UTRs) that are responsible for the regulation of pre-existing metabolic genes in the pattern required for the

  8. DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER).

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  9. Final Technical Report of Project DE-FG02-96ER14647 (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Final Technical Report of Project DE-FG02-96ER14647 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report of Project DE-FG02-96ER14647 This is the final technical report of work completed under DOE support over the period Sept. 1, 1996 until May 31, 2015. The title of the project was "Ion/Excited Atom Collision Studies with a Rydberg Target and a CO2 Laser" from 9/1/96 to 10/31/06, and "Properties of Actinide Ions from Measurements of Rydberg Ion

  10. The photoluminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays prepared by anodization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xixin; Zhao, Jianling; Du, Peng; Guo, Limin; Xu, Xuewen; Tang, Chengchun

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of ZrEr alloy. ? Small tetragonal zirconia crystallites are tended to be formed due to the doping of Er{sup 3+}. ? Under excitation at 317 nm, the ZrO{sub 2} nantube arrays have strongest photoluminescence intensity. -- Abstract: Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of ZrEr alloy which was obtained by melting zirconium with 1.0 wt% erbium. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analyzer. X-ray diffraction results indicate that doping of Er{sup 3+} affects the crystal structure and grain size obviously and the Er{sup 3+}-doped samples tend to form small tetragonal grains. Photoluminescence analyses show that when Er{sup 3+}-doped zirconia nanotube arrays are excited at 317 nm, there are two strong photoluminescence emission peaks at 373 nm and 415 nm. When the excitation wavelength is 257 nm, a photoluminescence emission peak appears at 363 nm. Under same measurement conditions, emission peaks of the undoped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are very weak.

  11. Electrically active Er doping in InAs, In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically active Er doping in InAs, Insub 0.53Gasub 0.47As, and GaAs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrically active Er doping in InAs, Insub 0.53Gasub ...

  12. Final Report on Research Conducted under Grant DE-FG02-98ER14857

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Barry,K.; Davis, H., Floyd

    2008-01-28

    Work in the Carpenter laboratory under the aegis of grant DE-FG02-98ER14857 concerned the formation, properties, and reactions of organic free radicals known or believed to be important in hydrocarbon combustion. Both computational and experimental methods were employed in these studies.

  13. FOEU-iERLY UTILIZED SITES REKEDIAL ACTION PROG%AM ELIMINATION REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    y ((-' q ' c - ,' .* FOEU-iERLY UTILIZED SITES REKEDIAL ACTION PROG%AM ELIMINATION REPORT FORMERERATOOLAND ENGINEERING COMPANY 4555 UEST ADDISON STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS NOVEMBER 14, 1989 Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology Facility and Site Decommissioning . . CONTENTS Page INTRODU~ION......................... 1 BAcI(GROuND.......................... 1 Site Function. ...................... 1 Site Description ..................... 2

  14. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe; Chen, Qin

    2014-04-14

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  15. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombinationmore » when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.« less

  16. THE TURBULENT CASCADE AND PROTON HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Joshua.Stawarz@Colorado.edu

    2012-08-01

    The recently protracted solar minimum provided years of interplanetary data that were largely absent in any association with observed large-scale transient behavior on the Sun. With large-scale shear at 1 AU generally isolated to corotating interaction regions, it is reasonable to ask whether the solar wind is significantly turbulent at this time. We perform a series of third-moment analyses using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer. We show that the solar wind at 1 AU is just as turbulent as at any other time in the solar cycle. Specifically, the turbulent cascade of energy scales in the same manner proportional to the product of wind speed and temperature. Energy cascade rates during solar minimum average a factor of 2-4 higher than during solar maximum, but we contend that this is likely the result of having a different admixture of high-latitude sources.

  17. Turbulent Cascade at 1 AU in High Cross-Helicity Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Charles W.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Forman, Miriam A.; MacBride, Benjamin T.

    2009-11-13

    Analysis of the scaling of the mixed third moments of velocity and magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind plasma, and the energy cascade rates derived from the scaling, reveal a strong dependence on the amount of cross-field correlation between the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. When the correlation is greater than about 75%, the cascade rate of the outward-propagating (majority) component, and of the total energy and the cross-helicity are surprisingly negative. This indicates a back transfer of energy from small to large scales within the inertial range of the dominant outward-propagating component. It is clear that the transfer of energy acts to reinforce the dominance of the outward-propagating (majority) component and may explain, in part, the persistent observations of large cross-field correlations that have been a defining aspect of solar wind physics for almost 40 years.

  18. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  19. A high carrier injection terahertz quantum cascade laser based on indirectly pumped scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavipour, S. G. Xu, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Ban, D.; Dupont, E.; Laframboise, S. R.; Chan, C. W. I.; Hu, Q.

    2014-01-27

    A Terahertz quantum cascade laser with a rather high injection coupling strength based on an indirectly pumped scheme is designed and experimentally implemented. To effectively suppress leakage current, the chosen quantum cascade module of the device is based on a five-well GaAs/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As structure. The device lases up to 151?K with a lasing frequency of 2.67 THz. This study shows that the effect of higher energy states in carrier transport and the long-range tunnel coupling between states that belong to non-neighbouring modules have to be considered in quantum design of structures with a narrow injector barrier. Moreover, the effect of interface roughness scattering between the lasing states on threshold current is crucial.

  20. MAGNETIC ENERGY CASCADE IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRY. I. THE STELLAR CONVECTIVE DYNAMO CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.

    2013-02-20

    We present a method to characterize the spectral transfers of magnetic energy between scales in simulations of stellar convective dynamos. The full triadic transfer functions are computed thanks to analytical coupling relations of spherical harmonics based on the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. The method is applied to mean field {alpha}{Omega} dynamo models as benchmark tests. From a physical standpoint, the decomposition of the dynamo field into primary and secondary dynamo families proves very instructive in the {alpha}{Omega} case. The same method is then applied to a fully turbulent dynamo in a solar convection zone, modeled with the three-dimensional MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonics code. The initial growth of the magnetic energy spectrum is shown to be non-local. It mainly reproduces the kinetic energy spectrum of convection at intermediate scales. During the saturation phase, two kinds of direct magnetic energy cascades are observed in regions encompassing the smallest scales involved in the simulation. The first cascade is obtained through the shearing of the magnetic field by the large-scale differential rotation that effectively cascades magnetic energy. The second is a generalized cascade that involves a range of local magnetic and velocity scales. Non-local transfers appear to be significant, such that the net transfers cannot be reduced to the dynamics of a small set of modes. The saturation of the large-scale axisymmetric dipole and quadrupole is detailed. In particular, the dipole is saturated by a non-local interaction involving the most energetic scale of the magnetic energy spectrum, which points to the importance of the magnetic Prandtl number for large-scale dynamos.

  1. Validation of the Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisson Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Against Cloud Cascade Models T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Background Starting from a very simple stochastic cloud model by Mullamaa et al. (1972), several different stochastic models have been developed to describe radiative transfer regime in single-layer broken clouds (Kargin 1984; Titov 1990; Malvagi and

  2. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  3. Mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade laser by direct phase synchronization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maussang, K.; Maysonnave, J.; Jukam, N.; Freeman, J. R.; Cavali, P.; Dhillon, S. S.; Tignon, J.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2013-12-04

    Mode-locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is achieved using multimode injection seeding. Contrary to standard methods that rely on gain modulation, here a fixed phase relationship is directly imprinted to the laser modes. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of 9 ps phase mode-locked pulses around 2.75 THz. A direct measurement of the emitted field phase shows that it results from the phase of the initial injection.

  4. Fundamental Frequency Switching Control of Seven-Level Hybrid Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter that can be implemented using only a single dc power source and capacitors. Standard cascaded multilevel inverters require n dc sources for 2n + 1 levels. Without requiring transformers, the scheme proposed here allows the use of a single dc power source (e.g., a battery or a fuel cell stack) with the remaining n-1 dc sources being capacitors, which is referred to as hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (HCMLI) in this paper. It is shown that the inverter can simultaneously maintain the dc voltage level of the capacitors and choose a fundamental frequency switching pattern to produce a nearly sinusoidal output. HCMLI using only a single dc source for each phase is promising for high-power motor drive applications as it significantly decreases the number of required dc power supplies, provides high-quality output power due to its high number of output levels, and results in high conversion efficiency and low thermal stress as it uses a fundamental frequency switching scheme. This paper mainly discusses control of seven-level HCMLI with fundamental frequency switching control and how its modulation index range can be extended using triplen harmonic compensation.

  5. Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and self-organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2007-01-01

    We give an overview of a complex systems approach to large blackouts of electric power transmission systems caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics and dynamics of series of blackouts with approximate global models. Blackout data from several countries suggest that the frequency of large blackouts is governed by a power law. The power law makes the risk of large blackouts consequential and is consistent with the power system being a complex system designed and operated near a critical point. Power system overall loading or stress relative to operating limits is a key factor affecting the risk of cascading failure. Power system blackout models and abstract models of cascading failure show critical points with power law behavior as load is increased. To explain why the power system is operated near these critical points and inspired by concepts from self-organized criticality, we suggest that power system operating margins evolve slowly to near a critical point and confirm this idea using a power system model. The slow evolution of the power system is driven by a steady increase in electric loading, economic pressures to maximize the use of the grid, and the engineering responses to blackouts that upgrade the system. Mitigation of blackout risk should account for dynamical effects in complex self-organized critical systems. For example, some methods of suppressing small blackouts could ultimately increase the risk of large blackouts.

  6. DOE-ER-STD-6001-92; Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and applied Research

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    D9E-ER-STD--6001 -92 DE92 016352 DOE STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAMS FOR BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 AREA-QCIC -~ This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161. DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Office of Energy Research (ER) wishes to acknowledge

  7. Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo Savio, R.; Galli, M.; Liscidini, M.; Andreani, L. C.; Franz, G.; Iacona, F.; Miritello, M.; Irrera, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Piana, A.; Priolo, F.

    2014-03-24

    We report on the design, fabrication, and electro-optical characterization of a light emitting device operating at 1.54??m, whose active layer consists of silicon oxide containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance the light extraction in the vertical direction, and thus the external efficiency of the device. This occurs if a photonic mode of the PhC slab is resonant with the Er emission energy, as confirmed by theoretical calculations and experimental analyses. We measure an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 3 with a high directionality of light emission in a narrow vertical cone. External quantum efficiency and power efficiency are among the highest reported for this kind of material. These results are important for the realization of CMOS-compatible efficient light emitters at telecom wavelengths.

  8. Cw laser action of Er/sup 3 +/ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heumann, E.; Ledig, M.; Ehrt, D.; Seeber, W.; Duczynski, E.W.; Heide, H.v.; Huber, G.

    1988-01-25

    cw lasing at 1.6 ..mu..m was obtained for the first time in Cr, Yb, Er:fluoroaluminate glass. Double step pumping via Cr/sup 3 +/ and Yb/sup 3 +/ with a krypton laser yields a threshold pump power of 80 mW. Efficient lasing can be expected using glass samples of optimized dopant concentration and improved optical quality.

  9. 10/8/2014Final Report for Award # ER64999Page 1

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0/8/2014Final Report for Award # ER64999Page 1 Title of Project: Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species Institution: University of Illinois Date Received: 6-14-2010 Principal Investigator: William W. Metcalf Co-PIs: Nathan Price, Rachel Whitaker, Ping Ma Project Results: The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the

  10. Final Report Department of Energy Grant FG02-06ER64189

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    26 Final Report Department of Energy Grant FG02-06ER64189 Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil under Transient Conditions by Joseph N. Ryan1, Sanjay Mohanty1, and James E. Saiers2 1 Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado Boulder UCB 428 Boulder, Colorado 80309 2 School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Yale University 195 Prospect Street New Haven, Connecticut 06511 January 31, 2015 Abstract Rainfall

  11. Microsoft Word - Final Technical Report DE-FG02-07ER15891 Tien PSU REVISED

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ER15891 Principal Investigator: Dr. Ming Tien Project Title: Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of Biofuels From Poplar The limited supply of fossil fuels and the associated environmental issues associated with their utilization has resulted in much effort put forth to promote renewable resources of energy. Switching to renewable fuels for energy will allow us to become carbon neutral by recycling carbon from plants and reduce carbon from dioxide emissions,

  12. Microsoft Word - FinalReport DE-FG02-08ER46494

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS DE-FG02-08ER46494 Period of Performance: June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2012 Submitted to Mechanical Behavior and Radiation Effects Program Division of Materials Science and Engineering/Office of Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy Program Manager: Dr. John S. Vetrano Principal Investigator Anter El-Azab, Professor Current Affiliation and Contact Information: School of Nuclear Engineering and School of Materials Engineering

  13. Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds in low applied

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fields (Conference) | SciTech Connect properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds in low applied fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds in low applied fields Low field magnetic properties of the Laves phase RAl{sub 2} compounds (where R is a mixture of Er and Dy, i.e., Er{sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} and x = 0, 0.1, 0.14, 0.18, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 1) have been studied. These compounds order ferromagnetically, and the

  14. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  15. Proton and gamma irradiation of Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers for space qualification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Hansen, Stewart; Crowther, Blake

    2015-01-20

    Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were characterized following irradiation by high energy (64 MeV) protons and Cobalt-60 gamma rays. Seven QCLs were exposed to radiation dosages that are typical for a space mission in which the total accumulated dosages from both radiation sources varied from 20 krad(Si) to 46.3 krad(Si). The QCLs did not show any measurable changes in threshold current or slope efficiency suggesting the suitability of QCLs for use in space-based missions.

  16. Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-12-26

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 m in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  17. Nuclear Reactions X-Sections By Evaporation Model, Gamma-Cascades

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-27

    Calculation of energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and gamma ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. Major improvement to the 1976 STAPRE program (NEA 0461) relates to level density approach, implemwnted in subroutine ZSTDE. Generalized superfluid model is incorporated, Boltzman-gas modelling of intrinsic state density and semi-empirical modelling ofmore » a few quasiparticle effects in total level density in equilibrium and saddle deformations of actinide nuclei.« less

  18. Integration of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03

    The present invention is directed to the integration of a quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide on a chip to improve both the beam pattern and manufacturability. By coupling the QCL output into a single-mode rectangular waveguide the radiation mode structure can be known and the propagation, manipulation, and broadcast of the QCL radiation can then be entirely controlled by well-established rectangular waveguide techniques. By controlling the impedance of the interface, enhanced functions, such as creating amplifiers, efficient coupling to external cavities, and increasing power output from metal-metal THz QCLs, are also enabled.

  19. Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezzapesa, F. P. Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2014-01-27

    To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  20. Comparison of binary collision approximation and molecular dynamics for displacement cascades in GaAs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foiles, Stephen Martin

    2011-10-01

    The predictions of binary collision approximation (BCA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of displacement cascades in GaAs are compared. There are three issues addressed in this work. The first is the optimal choice of the effective displacement threshold to use in the BCA calculations to obtain the best agreement with MD results. Second, the spatial correlations of point defects are compared. This is related to the level of clustering that occurs for different types of radiation. Finally, the size and structure of amorphous zones seen in the MD simulations is summarized. BCA simulations are not able to predict the formation of amorphous material.

  1. Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Hayton, Darren J.; Gao, Jian -Rong; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the generation of optical frequency combs from quantum cascade lasers. We discuss how fast detectors can be used to demonstrate the mutual coherence of such combs, and present an inequality that can be used to quantitatively evaluate their performance. We discuss several technical issues related to shifted wave interference Fourier Transform spectroscopy (SWIFTS), and show how such measurements can be used to elucidate the time-domain properties of such combs, showing that they can possess signatures of both frequency-modulation and amplitude-modulation.

  2. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  3. Defect structures induced by high-energy displacement cascades in ? uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Yinbin; Beeler, Benjamin; Deo, Chaitanya; Baskes, Michael I.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Displacement cascade simulations were conducted for the c uranium system based on molecular dynamics. A recently developed modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was employed to replicate the atomic interactions while an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was adopted to help characterize the defect structures induced by the displacement cascades. The atomic displacement process was studied by providing primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 50 keV. The influence of the PKA incident direction was examined. The defect structures were analyzed after the systems were fully relaxed. The states of the self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) were categorized into various types of dumbbells, the crowdion, and the octahedral interstitial. The voids were determined to have a polyhedral shape with {110} facets. The size distribution of the voids was also obtained. The results of this study not only expand the knowledge of the microstructural evolution in irradiated c uranium, but also provide valuable references for the radiation-induced defects in uranium alloy fuels.

  4. Cascade annealing simulations of bcc iron using object kinetic Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Haixuan; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of displacement cascade annealing were carried out using object kinetic Monte Carlo based on an extensive MD database including various primary knock-on atom energies and directions. The sensitivity of the results to a broad range of material and model parameters was examined. The diffusion mechanism of interstitial clusters has been identified to have the most significant impact on the fraction of stable interstitials that escape the cascade region. The maximum level of recombination was observed for the limiting case in which all interstitial clusters exhibit 3D random walk diffusion. The OKMC model was parameterized using two alternative sets of defect migration and binding energies, one from ab initio calculations and the second from an empirical potential. The two sets of data predict essentially the same fraction of surviving defects but different times associated with the defect escape processes. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the first phase of long-term defect evolution in bcc iron and generates information that can be used as input data for mean field rate theory (MFRT) to predict the microstructure evolution of materials under irradiation. In addition, the limitations of the current OKMC model are discussed and a potential way to overcome these limitations is outlined.

  5. Short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors operating above room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lotfi, Hossein; Li, Lu; Lei, Lin; Jiang, Yuchao; Yang, Rui Q.; Klem, John F.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2016-01-13

    High temperature operation (250–340 K) of short-wavelength interband cascade infrared photodetectors (ICIPs) with InAs/GaSb/Al0.2In0.8Sb/GaSb superlattice absorbers has been demonstrated with a 50% cutoff wavelength of 2.9 μm at 300 K. Two ICIP structures, one with two and the other with three stages, were designed and grown to explore this multiple-stage architecture. At λ = 2.1 μm, the two- and three-stage ICIPs had Johnson-noise-limited detectivities of 5.1 × 109 and 5.8 ×109 cm Hz1/2/W, respectively, at 300 K. The better device performance of the three-stage ICIP over the two-stage ICIP confirmed the advantage of more stages for this cascade architecture. Furthermore,more » an Arrhenius activation energy of 450 meV is extracted for the bulk resistance-area product, which indicates the dominance of the diffusion current at these high temperatures.« less

  6. Variable cascade dynamics and intermittency in the solar wind at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Forman, Miriam A.; Stawarz, Julia E. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Miriam.Forman@sunysb.edu

    2014-05-01

    In recent studies by ourselves and others of third-moment expressions for the rate of energy cascade in the solar wind, it has been shown that relatively large volumes of data are needed to produce convergent averages. These averages are in good agreement with independently obtained estimates for the average heating rate for a solar wind plasma under those conditions. The unanswered question has been whether the convergence issue is the result of intermittent dynamics or simple measurement uncertainties. In other words, is the difficulty in obtaining a single result that characterizes many similarly prepared samples due to in situ dynamics that create physically real variations or simple statistics? There have been publications showing evidence of intermittent dynamics in the solar wind. Here we show that the third-moment expressions and the computed energy cascade for relatively small samples of data comparable to the correlation length are generally well-formed estimates of the local dynamics. This leads us to conclude that intermittency and not simple measurement uncertainties are responsible for the slow convergence to expected heating rates. We partially characterize the scale size of the intermittency to be comparable to or smaller than the correlation length of the turbulence and we attempt to rephrase the discussion of third moments in terms of intermittent dynamics.

  7. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Alexander V; Golubov, Stanislav I; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

  8. Modelling on dynamics properties of a stationary argon cascaded arc plasma flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, G. D.; Qi, X.; Yang, L.

    2014-03-15

    The gas dynamics properties of a stationary arc plasma flows are studied through the numerical simulations. A two dimensional axis-symmetric turbulent magneto-hydrodynamic plasma model is developed with the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT. The reliable ?-? model is used to account for turbulence. In this paper, the plasma is assumed to be a fluid following NavierStokes equations, respecting local thermodynamic equilibrium, and described by only one temperature. Distributions of the pressure, velocity, temperature, density, and electric potential inside of thus cascaded arc are obtained for an arc current density of 10{sup 6}?A/m{sup 2}. The pressure inside the arc varies from 10{sup 5}?Pa to 100?Pa. The temperature at the arc axis can reach as high as 13?600?K. The electric potential drops uniformly along the axis with a magnitude of 160?V. In addition, distributions of the sonic velocity and Mach number are shown to describe supersonic behavior of thus cascaded arc, which have a good agreement with the analytical formula.

  9. Trace-gas sensing using the compliance voltage of an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2013-06-04

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are increasingly being used to detect, identify, and measure levels of trace gases in the air. External cavity QCLs (ECQCLs) provide a broadly-tunable infrared source to measure absorption spectra of chemicals and provide high detection sensitivity and identification confidence. Applications include detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, monitoring building air quality, measuring greenhouse gases for atmospheric research, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, analyzing chemicals in exhaled breath for medical diagnostics, and many more. Compact, portable trace gas sensors enable in-field operation in a wide range of platforms, including handheld units for use by first responders, fixed installations for monitoring air quality, and lightweight sensors for deployment in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We present experimental demonstration of a new chemical sensing technique based on intracavity absorption in an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL). This new technique eliminates the need for an infrared photodetector and gas cell by detecting the intracavity absorption spectrum in the compliance voltage of the laser device itself. To demonstrate and characterize the technique, we measure infrared absorption spectra of chemicals including water vapor and Freon-134a. Sub-ppm detection limits in one second are achieved, with the potential for increased sensitivity after further optimization. The technique enables development of handheld, high-sensitivity, and high-accuracy trace gas sensors for in-field use.

  10. Final Technical Report: DE-FG02-08ER41562

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report: DE-FG02-08ER41562 (2008-2010) Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae PI: Prof. Saurabh W. Jha Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 1 Journal Articles Produced This award supported PI Jha and his postdoc Benjamin Dilday, and resulted in the following 16 refereed journal publications: 1. "Luminosity Indicators in the Ultraviolet Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae, " Foley, R. J., A. V. Filippenko, and S. W. Jha, 2008, The

  11. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 4 -- Users guide to CASCADR9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9.

  12. Absence of exchange interaction between localized magnetic moments and conduction-electrons in diluted Er{sup 3+} gold-nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesseux, G. G. Urbano, R. R.; Iwamoto, W.; Garca-Flores, A. F.; Rettori, C.

    2014-05-07

    The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of diluted Er{sup 3+} magnetic ions in Au nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The NPs were synthesized by reducing chloro triphenyl-phosphine gold(I) and erbium(III) trifluoroacetate. The Er{sup 3+} g-value along with the observed hyperfine splitting indicate that the Er{sup 3+} impurities are in a local cubic symmetry. Furthermore, the Er{sup 3+} ESR spectra show that the exchange interaction between the 4f and the conduction electrons (ce) is absent or negligible in Au{sub 1x}Er{sub x} NPs, in contrast to the ESR results in bulk Au{sub 1x}Er{sub x}. Therefore, the nature of this interaction needs to be reexamined at the nano scale range.

  13. Electrical Properties of Er-doped In0.53Ga0.47As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Peter G.; Lu, Hong; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Stemmer, Susanne; Gossard, Arthur C.; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.

    2011-03-03

    The electrical properties of In0.53Ga0.47As As thin films Er-doped to concentrations of 1.51017 7.21020 cm-3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 490 C on (001) InP substrates were studied. Electrical conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility as a function of Er doping were measured by Hall effect at temperatures of 20750 K. Additionally, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy confirmed the presence of epitaxially embedded ErAs nanoparticles at Er concentrations ?81019 cm-3. The observed electrical properties are discussed in terms of the dependence of ErAs nanoparticle formation with Er doping.

  14. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}co-doped bismuth molybdate nanosheets upconversion photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Cho, Sung Hun; Narro-Garca, R.; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we report the microwave hydrothermal synthesis of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst. Crystal structure, morphology, elemental composition, optical properties and BET surface area were analyzed in detail. Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence at 532 nm and 546 nm of the co-doped samples was investigated under excitation at 980 nm. The results revealed that the co-doping of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the energy transfer between Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} via infrared to visible upconversion from Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} ion and higher surface area of the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets. Therefore, this synthetic approach may exhibit a better alternative to fabricate upconversion photocatalyst for integral solar light absorption. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the upconversion photocatalysis. Display Omitted - Highlights: Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst is successfully synthesized. We obtained the nanosheets having high surface area. Upconversion of IR to visible light was confirmed. Upconversion phenomena can be utilized for effective photocatalysis.

  15. Development of bubble microstructure in ErT2 films during aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Gillian; Snow, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Helium bubbles form in metal tritide films as tritium decays into 3He, influencing mechanical properties and long-term film stability. The bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms comprise an active research area, but there has been only one previous systematic experimental study of helium bubble growth in metal tritides, on zirconium tritides. There have been no such studies on tritides such as ErT2 that form plate-like bubbles and lack a secondary bubble population on a network of line dislocations, and yet such a study is needed to inform the modeling of helium-bubble microstructure development in a broader range of metal tritides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the growth and evolution of helium bubbles in ErT2 films over a four-year period. The results have been used to test the present models of helium bubble nucleation and growth in metal tritides, particularly those forming plate-like bubbles. The results support the models of Trinkaus and Cowgill. The observations of non-uniform bubble thicknesses and the pattern of grain-boundary bubble formation, however, indicate that these models could be strengthened by closer attention to details of interfacial energy. It is strongly recommended that efforts be made (either experimentally or by calculation) to determine anisotropy of tritide/helium interfacial energy, both for clean, stoichiometric interfaces, and also allowing for such factors as non-stoichiometry and segregation.

  16. The role of Nb in intensity increase of Er ion upconversion luminescence in zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, K. Sarakovskis, A.; Grigorjeva, L.; Millers, D.; Grabis, J.

    2014-06-07

    It is found that Nb co-doping increases the luminescence and upconversion luminescence intensity in rare earth doped zirconia. Er and Yb-doped nanocrystalline samples with or without Nb co-doping were prepared by sol-gel method and thermally annealed to check for the impact of phase transition on luminescence properties. Phase composition and grain sizes were examined by X-ray diffraction; the morphology was checked by scanning- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopes. Both steady-state and time-resolved luminescence were studied. Comparison of samples with different oxygen vacancy concentrations and different Nb concentrations confirmed the known assumption that oxygen vacancies are the main agents for tetragonal or cubic phase stabilization. The oxygen vacancies quench the upconversion luminescence; however, they also prevent agglomeration of rare-earth ions and/or displacement of rare-earth ions to grain surfaces. It is found that co-doping with Nb ions significantly (>20 times) increases upconversion luminescence intensity. Hence, ZrO{sub 2}:Er:Yb:Nb nanocrystals may show promise for upconversion applications.

  17. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  18. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto utilizing cascade feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Highland Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution supply system for use with a fuel cell having a wicking medium for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells or groups thereof in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells or groups of cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by individual tubes, the ends of the respective tubes terminating on the wicking medium in each of the respective fuel cells. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow such as in a cascading fashion thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments. The individual compartments can also contain packed carbon fibers to provide a three stage electrolyte distribution system.

  19. Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy of Thin Films Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-02-04

    We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.

  20. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-06-13

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  1. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for broadband radiation production using a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-10-02

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. It was pointed out, however, that such \\micro-bunching instabilities" could be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we augment these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program elegant. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We then employ the developed model to optimize the performance of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab

  2. Deformed rotational cascades in {sup 152}Dy: Further evidence for shape coexistence at high spin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. B.; Department of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Paisley, Paisley PA1 2BE, ; Appelbe, D. E.; Twin, P. J.; Beausang, C. W.; Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 ; Beck, F. A.; Bentley, M. A.; Cullen, D. M.; Curien, D.; Dagnall, P. J.; De France, G.

    2000-03-01

    Two new rotational bands have been observed in the {sup 152}Dy nucleus following experiments performed using the EUROGAM {gamma}-ray spectrometer. Several transitions have been observed that link these new bands into the known single-particle states. Using the Doppler shift attenuation method, the quadrupole moment of the previously-known rotational sequence has been measured. The value of Q{sub band}=3.85{+-}0.06 e b confirms the deformed nature of this cascade. The structures of the three bands are discussed in terms of the occupation of both paired and unpaired orbitals, and are found to be in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The observation of two new bands further extends the concept of shape coexistence in the {sup 152}Dy nucleus. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Coherent detection of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with improved emission characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Anthony; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A. [Semiconductor Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Freeman, Joshua R., E-mail: j.r.freeman@leeds.ac.uk; Cavali, Pierrick; Maysonnave, Jean; Tignon, Jrme; Dhillon, Sukhdeep S. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Suprieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universit P. et M. Curie, Universit D. Diderot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-02-24

    Coherent detection of emission from quantum cascade lasers with metal-metal waveguides is demonstrated through free-space coupling of a THz pulse to the sub-wavelength waveguide. We implement a simple, monolithic planar horn antenna design on the metal-metal waveguide that reduces the impedance mis-match to the waveguide. The resulting devices show up to 10 times more directed output power than conventional metal-metal waveguides. This enhanced coupling to free-space allows a more efficient injection of broad-band THz pulses into the waveguide. Through this, we are able to seed the laser emission and coherently detect the laser emission by electro-optic sampling.

  4. High detectivity short-wavelength II-VI quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P. Gmachl, Claire F.; Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jesus, Joel De

    2014-08-11

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe-based short-wavelength photovoltaic Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The QCD operates in two spectral bands centered around 2.6??m and 3.6??m. Calibrated blackbody measurements yield a peak responsivity of 0.1?mA/W or 2400?V/W at 80?K, and a corresponding 300?K background radiation limited infrared performance detectivity (BLIP) of ?2.5??10{sup 10?}cm ?Hz/W. Comparison of background illuminated and dark current-voltage measurements demonstrates a BLIP temperature of 200?K. The device differential resistance-area product, decreases from about 10{sup 6} ? cm{sup 2} at 80?K to about 8000 ? cm{sup 2} at 300?K, indicative of the ultra-low Johnson noise in the detectors.

  5. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, Mil'shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan

    2013-12-04

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.120.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.060.08 / kW-hr.

  6. Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-02-08

    We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 µm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate.

  7. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Cascade Apartments- Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units.

  8. Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in 3C-SiC: Comparison of interatomic potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samolyuk, German D.; Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in 3C-SiC. We demonstrated that the most commonly used interatomic potentials are inconsistent with ab initio calculations of defect energetics. Both the Tersoff potential used in this work and a modified embedded-atom method potential reveal a barrier to recombination of the carbon interstitial and carbon vacancy which is much higher than the density functional theory (DFT) results. The barrier obtained with a newer potential by Gao and Weber is closer to the DFT result. This difference results in significant differences in the cascade production of point defects. We have completed both 10 keV and 50 keV cascade simulations in 3C-SiC at a range of temperatures. In contrast to the Tersoff potential, the Gao-Weber potential produces almost twice as many C vacancies and interstitials at the time of maximum disorder (~0.2 ps) but only about 25% more stable defects at the end of the simulation. Only about 20% of the carbon defects produced with the Tersoff potential recombine during the in-cascade annealing phase, while about 60% recombine with the Gao-Weber potential.

  9. Evidence of energy transfer in an aluminosilicate glass codoped with Si nanoaggregates and Er{sup 3+} ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enrichi, F.; Mattei, G.; Sada, C.; Trave, E.; Pacifici, D.; Franzo, G.; Priolo, F.; Iacona, F.; Prassas, M.; Falconieri, M.; Borsella, E.

    2004-10-01

    The enhancement of the Er{sup 3+} ions' photoluminescence (PL) emission at 1.54 {mu}m in a Si and Er coimplanted aluminosilicate glass is investigated in detail. A postimplantation thermal treatment has been performed to recover the damage induced by the implantation process and to promote Si aggregation. It will be shown that 1 h treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere is not sufficient to induce Si precipitation for temperatures up to 500 deg. C. Nevertheless, the most intense Er{sup 3+} PL emission at 1.54 {mu}m is achieved after a thermal treatment at 400 deg. C. Such emission has been investigated by pumping in and out of resonance, showing a very efficient energy transfer process in the whole excitation wavelength range (360-515 nm). These results suggest that good energy transfer mediators could be small Si aggregates and not only crystalline clusters. For the best performing sample, the effective Er excitation cross section has been measured to be higher than 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} at 379 and 390 nm and about 2x10{sup -16} cm{sup 2} at 476 nm, that is, several orders of magnitude higher than the Er direct absorption cross section (of the order of 10{sup -21} cm{sup 2} in this glass). Moreover the coefficient of cooperative upconversion has been evaluated to be 2.7x10{sup -18} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. The structural and optical properties of this material are discussed and compared to those found for Si and Er codoped silica.

  10. Controlling n-Type Carrier Density from Er Doping of InGaAs with MBE Growth

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Controlling n-Type Carrier Density from Er Doping of InGaAs with MBE Growth Temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling n-Type Carrier Density from Er Doping of InGaAs with MBE Growth Temperature Authors: Burke, Peter G. ; Buehl, Trevor E. ; Gilles, Pernot ; Lu, Hong ; Shakouri, Ali ; Palmstrom, C. J. ; Bowers, John E. ; Gossard, Arthur C. Publication Date: 2012-04-04 OSTI Identifier: 1066154 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamos." (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of Dynamos." Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of Dynamos." Laboratory Studies of Dynamos: Executive Summary. The self-generation of magnetic #12;fields by astrophysical bodies like planets, stars, accretion disks, galaxies, and even galaxy clusters arises

  12. Final Report for Grant # DE-FG02-02ER46000 Simulations of Self-Assembly of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tethered Nanoparticle Shape Amphiphiles (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Final Report for Grant # DE-FG02-02ER46000 Simulations of Self-Assembly of Tethered Nanoparticle Shape Amphiphiles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for Grant # DE-FG02-02ER46000 Simulations of Self-Assembly of Tethered Nanoparticle Shape Amphiphiles × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  13. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed

  14. Electrical flicker-noise generated by filling and emptying of impurity states in injectors of quantum-cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamanishi, Masamichi Hirohata, Tooru; Hayashi, Syohei; Fujita, Kazuue; Tanaka, Kazunori

    2014-11-14

    Free running line-widths (>100?kHz), much broader than intrinsic line-widths ?100?Hz, of existing quantum-cascade lasers are governed by strong flicker frequency-noise originating from electrical flicker noise. Understanding of microscopic origins of the electrical flicker noises in quantum-cascade lasers is crucially important for the reduction of strength of flicker frequency-noise without assistances of any type of feedback schemes. In this article, an ad hoc model that is based on fluctuating charge-dipoles induced by electron trappings and de-trappings at indispensable impurity states in injector super-lattices of a quantum-cascade laser is proposed, developing theoretical framework based on the model. The validity of the present model is evaluated by comparing theoretical voltage-noise power spectral densities based on the model with experimental ones obtained by using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers with designed impurity-positioning. The obtained experimental results on flicker noises, in comparison with the theoretical ones, shed light on physical mechanisms, such as the inherent one due to impurity states in their injectors and extrinsic ones due to surface states on the ridge-walls and due to residual deep traps, for electrical flicker-noise generation in existing mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers. It is shown theoretically that quasi-delta doping of impurities in their injectors leads to strong suppression of electrical flicker noise by minimization of the dipole length at a certain temperature, for instance ?300?K and, in turn, is expected to result in substantial narrowing of the free running line-width down below 10?kHz.

  15. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-22

    Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in August 2012 as part of a model evaluation program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radionuclide data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to provide data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test PIN STRIPE, conducted in borehole U-11b in 1966. Well ER-11-2 will provide information that can be used to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The main 31.1-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 399.6 meters (m). A completion casing string was not set in Well ER-11-2. However, a piezometer string was installed in the 31.1-cm open hole. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing hung on 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. The piezometer string was landed at 394.5 m, for monitoring the lower tuff confining unit. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other test-related radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 42.7 m of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium and 356.9 m of Tertiary volcanic rock. The water-level measured in the piezometer string on September 25, 2012, was 353.8 m below ground surface. No tritium above levels detectable by field methods were encountered in this hole. No well development or hydrologic testing was conducted in this well immediately after completion, and future well development, sampling, and hydrologic testing planned for this well will be limited due to the diameter of the piezometer string. The stratigraphy, general lithology, and the water level are as expected, but the section of geology encountered is higher than expected due to faulting. No tritium above the minimum detection limit of the field equipment was detected because the target aquifer (the Topopah Spring aquifer) at Well ER-11-2 is structurally higher than expected and thus unsaturated.

  16. Concentration effect of Er{sup 3+} ions on structural and spectroscopic properties of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafouri, Sanaz Aian; Erdem, Murat; Ekmeki, M. Kaan; Mergen, Ayhan; zen, Gnl

    2014-12-15

    Excitation and emission spectra of a visible room-temperature Er{sup 3+} ions luminescence from powders. - Highlights: This is the first report on spectroscopic properties of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Er{sup 3+}. The crystalline sizes are affected as the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions increased. Quenching of the luminescence was observed to be above 1.0 mol% Er{sup 3+}. - Abstract: This study is focused on the synthesis and characterization of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds doped with of Er{sup 3+} ions. Powders were synthesized by using the molten salt method and annealed at 900 C for 4 h. The synthesized particles were structurally characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. A single phase of the CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was determined and the size of the particles was found to be affected by the presence and the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions. Luminescence properties of each sample were investigated by measuring accurately the emission and excitation spectra at room temperature in the wavelength range of 2001700 nm by exciting the Er{sup 3+} ions at 379 nm and 805 nm. Quenching of the luminescence in both visible and near infrared spectral regions was observed to be above 1.0 mol% Er{sup 3+} concentration.

  17. The structural and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2015-05-07

    We report on the effect of Er addition to PrAl{sub 2} on the lattice parameters, magnetic behavior, heat capacity, and magnetocaloric effect by using x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Unlike Pr{sub 0.6}Er{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2}, other alloys we studied in the pseudobinary (Pr{sub 1−x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} system do not exhibit a sharp peak in heat capacity with the application of magnetic field. Both the cubic lattice parameter and the Curie temperature decrease with increasing Er concentration. The nuclear specific heat coefficient decreases from 660 mJ K mol{sup −1} for x = 0.05 to a nearly negligible value for x = 0.95. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature change varies from 2 to 4 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 2.5 to 5 K at ΔH = 20 kOe for x = 0.05 to 0.95, respectively. These values of the magnetocaloric effect are comparable to those of the other rare-earth dialuminides systems.

  18. The crystal structure of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3}: New single-crystal data for an old problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitscheider, Almut [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Oeckler, Oliver [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Single crystals of the orthoborate {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were synthesized from Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 2 GPa and 800 {sup o}C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic pseudowollastonite-type structure, space group C2/c, with the lattice parameters a=1128.4(2) pm, b=652.6(2) pm, c=954.0(2) pm, and {beta}=112.8(1){sup o} (R{sub 1}=0.0124 and wR{sub 2}=0.0404 for all data). -- graphical abstract: The first satisfying single-crystal structure determination of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} sheds light on the extensively discussed structure of {pi}-orthoborates. The application of light pressure during the solid state synthesis yielded in high-quality crystals, due to pressure-induced crystallization. Research highlights: {yields} High-quality single crystals of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were prepared via high-pressure-induced crystallization. {yields} At least five different space groups for the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are reported. {yields} {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} is isotypic to the pseudowollastonite-type CaSiO{sub 3}. {yields} Remaining ambiguities regarding the structure of the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are resolved.

  19. Characterization of a Swept External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Rapid Broadband Spectroscopy and Sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-09-17

    The performance of a rapidly swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system combined with an open-path Herriott cell was evaluated for time-resolved measurements of chemical species with broad and narrow absorption spectra. A spectral window spanning 1278 1390 cm-1 was acquired at a 200 Hz acquisition rate, corresponding to a tuning rate of 2x104 cm-1/s, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. The capability of the ECQCL to measure morethe ECQCL system exhibited noise-equivalent absorption coefficients of 5x10-9 cm-1Hz-1/2. For a spectrum acquisition time of 5 ms, noise-equivalent concentrations (NEC) for N2O and F134A were measured to be 70 and 16 ppbv respectively, which improved to sub-ppbv levels with averaging to 100 s. Noise equivalent column densities of 0.64 and 0.25 in 1 sec are estimated for N2O and F134A.less

  20. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Dry-vault storage of spent fuel at the CASCAD facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillif, L.; Guay, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new modular dry storage vault concept using vertical metallic wells cooled by natural convection has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles to accommodate special fuels for high-level wastes. Basic specifications and design criteria have been followed to guarantee a double containment system and cooling to maintain the fuel below an acceptable temperature. The double containment is provided by two static barriers: At the reactor, fuels are placed in containers playing the role of the first barrier; the storage wells constitute the second barrier. Spent fuel placed in wells is cooled by natural convection: a boundary layer is created along the outer side of the well. The heated air rises along the well leading to a thermosiphon flow that extracts the heat released. For heat transfer, studies, computations, and experimental tests have been carried out to calculate and determine the temperature of the containers and the fuel rod temperatures in various situations. The CASCAD vault storage can be applied to light water reactor (LWR) fuels without any difficulties if two requirements are satisfied: (1) Spend fuels have to be inserted in tight canisters. (2) Spent fuels have to be received only after a minimum decay time of 5 yr.

  2. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  3. Long wave infrared cavity-enhanced sensors using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2005-12-30

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming well known as convenient and stable semiconductor laser sources operating in the mid- to long-wave infrared, and are able to be fabricated to operate virtually anywhere in the 3.5 to 25 micron region. This makes them an ideal choice for infrared chemical sensing, a topic of great interest at present, spanning at least three critical areas: national security, environmental monitoring and protection, and the early diagnosis of disease through breath analysis. There are many different laser-based spectroscopic chemical sensor architectures in use today, from simple direct detection through to more complex and highly sensitive systems. Many current sensor needs can be met by combining QCLs and appropriate sensor architectures, those needs ranging from UAV-mounted surveillance systems, through to larger ultra-sensitive systems for airport security. In this paper we provide an overview of various laser-based spectroscopic sensing techniques, pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each. As part of this process, we include our own results and observations for techniques under development at PNNL. We also present the latest performance of our ultra-quiet QCL control electronics now being commercialized, and explore how using optimized supporting electronics enables increased sensor performance and decreased sensor footprint for given applications.

  4. Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van; Schram, D. C.

    2008-09-15

    The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

  5. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  6. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Riley, Cameron; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak

    2013-01-01

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  7. An inverted AlGaAs/GaAs patterned-Ge tunnel junction cascade concentrator solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R. )

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work to develop inverted-grown Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascades. Several significant developments are reported on as follows: (1) The AM1.5 1-sun total-area efficiency of the top Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As cell for the cascade was improved from 11.3% to 13.2% (NREL measurement [total-area]). (2) The cycled'' organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth (OMVPE) was studied in detail utilizing a combination of characterization techniques including Hall-data, photoluminescence, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (3) A technique called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB) was developed by strain-free mounting of thin GaAs-AlGaAs films (based on lattice-matched growth on Ge substrates and selective plasma etching of Ge substrates) onto Si carrier substrates. Minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs double-heterostructure was measured as high as 103 nsec, the highest lifetime report for a freestanding GaAs thin film. (4) A thin-film, inverted-grown GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 active-area efficiency of 20.3% was obtained. This cell was eutectic-metal-bonded onto Si. (5) A thin-film inverted-grown, Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiency of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, was obtained. This represents an important milestone in the development of an AlGaAs/GaAs cascade by OMVPE utilizing a tunnel interconnect and demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the inverted-growth approach.

  8. Selection of potential IAEA inspection strategies involving cascade access at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-13

    This report has been prepared as a US contribution to Team 4 of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project. It provides to the Team 4 participants one example of an approach, which has been used in the United States, to developing a range of safeguards strategies involving differing degrees of access to cascade areas of centrifuge enrichment plants. Its purpose is to facilitate the work of other Hexapartite participants in completing Task II of Team 4's terms of reference. The scope of this report is limited to identifying safeguards approaches for the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) which involve differing degrees of access to the cascade area. This report provides a method for selecting cascade access inspection strategies at GCEP which appear promising for more detailed evaluation. It is quite important to note, however, that the effectiveness and practicability of these strategies have not been established at the present. In addition, some strategies have been included on the basis of very preliminary calculations and considerations which have not been validated. Thus, some of these strategies may ultimately be rejected because they prove to be impracticable. Considerations of cost and the possible transfer of information and technology related to the production of enriched uranium will also be pertinent in considering the degrees and frequency of access to the cascade areas of centrifuge enrichment plants. This report describes the process for combining technical measures, implementation approaches and objectives to arrive at the total number of theoretically possible combinations. It then describes how these combinations may be reduced in a series of steps to a number that is more manageable for detailed evaluation. The process is shown schematically.

  9. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, B.E. (ed.)

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  10. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asano, Katsuaki; Inoue, Susumu; Meszaros, Peter E-mail: inoue@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j

    2010-12-20

    A fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few tens of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true for the prompt optical emission observed in several bursts. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we model such low-energy spectral excess components as hadronic cascade emission initiated by photomeson interactions of ultra-high-energy protons accelerated within GRB outflows. Synchrotron radiation from the cascading, secondary electron-positron pairs can naturally reproduce the observed soft spectra in the X-ray band, and in some cases the optical spectra as well. These components can be directly related to the higher energy radiation at GeV energies due to the hadronic cascades. Depending on the spectral shape, the total energy in protons is required to be comparable to or appreciably larger than the observed total photon energy. In particular, we apply our model to the excess X-ray and GeV emission of GRB 090902B, and the bright optical emission of the 'naked-eye' GRB 080319B. Besides the hard GeV components detected by Fermi, such X-ray or optical spectral excesses are further potential signatures of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray production in GRBs.

  11. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  12. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervia, Davide; Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano ; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cellcell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the ? and ? subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the ? subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2R? subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ? Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ? Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ? Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ? The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  13. Helium release and microstructural changes in Er(D,T)2-x3Hex films).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D. S.; Browning, James Frederick; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Banks, James Clifford; Mangan, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Brewer, Luke N.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    Er(D,T){sub 2-x} {sup 3}He{sub x}, erbium di-tritide, films of thicknesses 500 nm, 400 nm, 300 nm, 200 nm, and 100 nm were grown and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Ion Beam Analysis to determine variations in film microstructure as a function of film thickness and age, due to the time-dependent build-up of {sup 3}He in the film from the radioactive decay of tritium. Several interesting features were observed: One, the amount of helium released as a function of film thickness is relatively constant. This suggests that the helium is being released only from the near surface region and that the helium is not diffusing to the surface from the bulk of the film. Two, lenticular helium bubbles are observed as a result of the radioactive decay of tritium into {sup 3}He. These bubbles grow along the [111] crystallographic direction. Three, a helium bubble free zone, or 'denuded zone' is observed near the surface. The size of this region is independent of film thickness. Four, an analysis of secondary diffraction spots in the Transmission Electron Microscopy study indicate that small erbium oxide precipitates, 5-10 nm in size, exist throughout the film. Further, all of the films had large erbium oxide inclusions, in many cases these inclusions span the depth of the film.

  14. Final Technical Report for Award DE-FG02-98ER41080

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Alan

    2014-11-14

    The prime motivation of the project at McMaster University was to carry out the critical evaluation and compilation of Nuclear Structure and Decay data, and of nuclear astrophysics data with continued participation in the United States Nuclear Data Program (US-NDP). A large body of evaluated and compiled structure data were supplied for databases such as ENSDF, XUNDL, NSR, etc. residing on webpage of National Nuclear Data Center of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA. Thermonuclear reaction rates of importance to stellar explosions, such as novae, x-ray bursts and supernovae, were evaluated as well. This effort was closely coupled to our ongoing experimental effort, which took advantage of radioactive ion beam and stable beam facilities worldwide to study these key reaction rates. This report contains brief descriptions of the various activities together with references to all the publications in peer-reviewed journals which were the result of work carried out with the award DE-FG02-98-ER41080, during 1998-2013.

  15. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUELS - FINAL LDRD-ER REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P

    2011-11-28

    This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear fuel that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear fuels in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.

  16. Analysis of Well ER-6-2 Testing, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2005-07-01

    This report documents the analysis of data collected for Well ER-6-2 during fiscal year (FY) 2004 Yucca Flat well development and testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program''). Participants in Well ER-6-2 field development and hydraulic testing activities were: Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), Bechtel Nevada (BN), Desert Research Institute (DRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center (UNLV-HRC). The analyses of data collected from the Well ER-6-2 testing program were performed by the SNJV.

  17. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosovmore » vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.« less

  18. Completion Report for the Well ER-6-2 Site Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat - Climax Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-03-01

    Well ER-6-2 and its satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1, were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Well ER-6-2 was drilled in two stages in 1993 and 1994; the satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled nearby in 1993 but was abandoned. The wells were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit Number 97, in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. The wells are located in Yucca Flat, within Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. The wells provided information regarding the radiological and hydrogeological environment in a potentially down-gradient position from tests conducted in northern and central Yucca Flat. Construction of Well ER-6-2 began with a 1.2-meter-diameter surface conductor hole, which was drilled and cased off to a depth of 30.8 meters below the surface. A 50.8-centimeter diameter surface hole was then rotary drilled to the depth of 578.5 meters and cased off to the depth of 530.4 meters. The hole diameter was then reduced to 27.0 centimeters, and the borehole was advanced to a temporary depth of 611.4 meters. The borehole was conventionally cored to a total depth of 1,045 meters with a diameter of 14.0 centimeters. Borehole sloughing required cementing and re-drilling of several zones. The open-hole completion accesses the lower carbonate aquifer, the CP thrust fault, and the upper clastic confining unit. A fluid level depth of 543.2 meters was most recently measured in the open borehole in September 2007. No radionuclides were encountered during drilling. The satellite hole Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled approximately 15.2 meters north of Well ER-6-2 on the same drill pad. This was planned to be used as an observation well during future hydrologic testing at Well ER-6-2; however, the satellite hole was abandoned at the depth of 399 meters due to stuck drill pipe, and was subsequently cemented to the surface. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments in this report are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, cores taken between the depths of 619.3 and 1,042.4 meters, and geophysical log data. Stratigraphic assignments within the Paleozoic section are based on paleontological analyses. The well was collared in alluvium and at 30.8 meters penetrated Paleozoic carbonate rocks. These consisted of dolostone with minor shale and limestone of the Bonanza King Formation, and limestone with minor quartzite, sandstone, and dolostone assigned to the Guilmette Formation. The borehole reached total depth in a shale unit assigned to the Chainman Shale. The units below the Bonanza King Formation are overturned due to faulting and folding and, therefore, are stratigraphically upside-down.

  19. Microsoft Word - DOE Final Report 2013 - GTL ER64516-1031199-0013966 Chisholm-Polz-Alm.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, Metagenomics, Horizontal Gene Transfer, and Natural Diversity of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio PIs Sallie Chisholm, Eric Alm and Martin Polz MIT Our overarching goal with this proposal was to develop a deep understanding of the design of Prochlorococcus and Vibrio cells, the variations in their designs, and the constraints that have shaped this variation at the cell-environment interface. That is, we wanted to develop our

  20. Audit of Work Force Restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, ER-B-96-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General AUDIT OF WORK FORCE RESTRUCTURING AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT Report Number: ER-B-96-01 Eastern Regional Audit Office Date of Issue: April 23, 1996 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 AUDIT OF WORK FORCE RESTRUCTURING AT THE FERNALD ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PART I - APPROACH AND OVERVIEW 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Scope and

  1. ER2 Instrumentation and Measurements for CLASIC (Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign) June-2007 SGP {Author-Jimmy Voyles}

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ER2 Desired Measurements for CLASIC June 2007 SGP May 31, 2007 1 MEASUREMENT SOURCE DESIRED MEASUREMENTS AND PRODUCTS INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Cloud Radar System (CRS), W-Band (95 GHz) 1) Vertical profiles of calibrated radar reflectivity 2) Vertical profiles of Doppler velocity 3) Vertical profiles of estimated IWC 4) Vertical profiles of linear depolarization ratio 5) (ASCII files and quick look plots for all of the above quantities) Resolution: 5 sec resolution? Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) (1064,

  2. Close-Out Report of DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40682 for November 1, 2009 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulini, Manfred

    2013-07-20

    This document is the close-out report of Grant DE-FG02-91ER40682 from the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) High-Energy Physics (HEP) Group to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-18

    Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in July and August 2012 as part of a model evaluation well program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radiological data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to obtain data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test MILK SHAKE, conducted in Emplacement Hole U-5k in 1968, which were considered to be uncertain due to the unknown extent of a basalt lava-flow aquifer present in this area. Well ER-5-5 is expected to provide information to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The 31.1-centimeter (cm) diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 331.3 meters (m). The completion string, set at the depth of 317.2 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval open to the basalt lava-flow aquifer and limited intervals of the overlying and underlying alluvial aquifer. A piezometer string was also installed in the annulus between the completion string and the borehole wall. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing suspended from 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing. The piezometer string was landed at 319.2 m, to monitor the basalt lava-flow aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, preliminary water quality measurements, and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 331.3 m of Quaternary–Tertiary alluvium, including an intercalated layer of saturated basalt lava rubble. No well development or hydrologic testing was conducted in this well immediately after completion; however, a preliminary water level was measured in the piezometer string at the depth of 283.4 m on September 25, 2012. No tritium above the minimum detection limit of the field instruments was detected in this hole. Future well development, sampling, and hydrologic testing planned for this well will provide more accurate hydrologic information for this site. The stratigraphy, general lithology, and water level were as expected, though the expected basalt lava-flow aquifer is basalt rubble and not the dense, fractured lava as modeled. The lack of tritium transport is likely due to the difference in hydraulic properties of the basalt lava-flow rubble encountered in the well, compared to those of the fractured aquifer used in the flow and transport models.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada Corporation

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

  5. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  6. Long-range ferromagnetic order induced by a donor impurity band exchange in SnO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragn, F. H.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Chitta, V. A.; Hidalgo, P.; Brito, H. F.

    2013-11-28

    In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Er-doped SnO{sub 2} (SnO{sub 2}:Er) nanoparticles are reported. The SnO{sub 2}:Er nanoparticles have been synthesized by a polymer precursor method with Er content from 1.0% to 10.0%. X-ray diffraction results indicate the formation of only the rutile-type structure in all samples. The estimated mean crystallite size shows a decrease from ?10 to ?4?nm when the Er content is increased from 1.0% to 10.0%. The particle size values have been corroborated by transmission electron microscopy technique. The thermal dependence of the magnetization is consistent with the 3+ oxidation state of erbium ions for all samples. A strong paramagnetic-like behavior coexisting with a ferromagnetic phase has been determined for samples with Er content below 5.0%. Above this concentration, only a paramagnetic behavior has been determined. Isothermal magnetization curves are consistent with the occurrence of long-range ferromagnetic order mediated by donor electrons forming bound magnetic polarons which overlap to produce a spin-split impurity band.

  7. Real-Time Trace Gas Sensing of Fluorocarbons using a Swept-wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Stahl, Robert D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2014-05-04

    We present results demonstrating real-time sensing of four different fluorocarbons at low-ppb concentrations using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) operating in a swept-wavelength configuration. The ECQCL was repeatedly swept over its full tuning range at a 20 Hz rate with a scan rate of 3535 cm-1/s, and a detailed characterization of the ECQCL scan stability and repeatability is presented. The sensor was deployed on a mobile automotive platform to provide spatially resolved detection of fluorocarbons in outdoor experiments. Noise-equivalent detection limits of 800-1000 parts-per-trillion (ppt) are demonstrated for 1 s integration times.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-16-1 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Geology Services

    2006-12-01

    Well ER-16-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit, Number 99. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of the Shoshone Mountain area, especially in the older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary strata. The main 46.99-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 702.9 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 663.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 1,220.7 meters. A completion string set at the depth of 1,162.4 meters consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless-steel casing, with one continuous slotted interval open to the lower carbonate aquifer. The fluid level in the borehole soon dropped, so the borehole was deepened in July 2006. To deepen the borehole, the slotted section was cemented and a 12.1-centimeter hole was drilled through the bottom of the completion string to the new total depth of 1,391.7 meters, which is 171.0 meters deeper than the original borehole. A string of 6.03-centimeter carbon-steel tubing with one continuous slotted interval at 1,361.8 to 1,381.4 meters, and open to the lower carbonate aquifer, was installed in the well with no gravel packing or cement, to serve as a monitoring string. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 37 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 646.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 744.9 meters of Paleozoic dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone. Three weeks after the monitoring string was installed, the water level was tagged at the drill hole depth of 1,271.9 meters, which equates to an estimated elevation of 761.7 meters, accounting for the borehole angle.

  9. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993--March 15, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL.

  10. FinaI Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 PI: Timothy Nelson

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FinaI Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 PI: Timothy Nelson Yale University "Spatial Regulation of C4 Genes in C3, C4 and C3/C4 Intermediate Flaveria Species" AIMS The long-range goal of this project was to understand the control of plant cell differentiation in spatial patterns, using the differentiation of BS and M cells surrounding veins of C4 leaves as a model. Based on our prior studies on the structure and regulation of BS- and M-specific C4 genes and on cellular

  11. Final Final Scientific_tech_reprt_closeout DE-FG02-05ER46223 02.18.15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL REPORT 1. Grant details a Office of Science/ Department of Energy b DE-FG02-05ER46223, University of Pennsylvania c. Modular Designed Proteins Constructions for Solar Generated H2 from Water, d. P. Leslie Dutton (PI), Director Johnson Research Fdn., Univ. of Pennsylvania, Stellar-Chance Labs, Ste 1005, 422 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104-6059; dutton@ mail.med.upenn.edu; 215-898-0991 e. Submitting Official, title, and contact information: P. Leslie Dutton (PI), Director

  12. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  13. Increased efficiency in multijunction solar cells through the incorporation of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles into the tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zide, J.M.O.; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A.; Strandwitz, N.C.; Zimmerman, J.D.; Steenblock-Smith, T.; Gossard, A.C.; Forman, A.; Ivanovskaya, A.; Stucky, G.D.

    2006-04-17

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs multijunction solar cells with epitaxial, semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles at the interface of the tunnel junction. The states provided by these nanoparticles reduce the bias required to pass current through the tunnel junction by three orders of magnitude, and therefore drastically reduce the voltage losses in the tunnel junction. We have measured open-circuit voltages which are 97% of the sum of the constituent cells, which result in nearly double the efficiency of our multijunction cell with a conventional tunnel junction.

  14. FInal Report: DE-FG02-04ER41310 "Elementary Particle Physics"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izen, Joseph M.; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha

    2013-10-18

    ATLAS and the LHC are delivering on the promise of discovery physics at the high energy frontier. Using 4.8 fb^-1 of 2011 √s=7 TeV data and the first 5.8 fb?1 of 2012 √s=8 TeV data, ATLAS published the observation of a new particle with a mass of 126 GeV with a significance of 5.9σ that is compatible with a Standard Model (SM) Higgs. The LHC is outperforming intial projections for the 2012 run, and ATLAS is on track to integrate ~20 fb^(-1) of proton-proton collisions in 2012 before Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) begins in Spring 2013. University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) physicists will complete work on two ATLAS analyses this fall. The first is the search for the gauge bosons of a hypothesized dark sector. For 2011 data, UTD is responsible for the ?dark photon?search in the electron-jet channel, and we are looking forward to an expanded leadership role in the dark photon search using the full 2012 data set. Our second analysis interest is the study of X/Y/Z exotic states having cc ̅ content, which builds on our experience in this field from the BABAR experiment After completing a measurement of the Xc(3872) production cross section this fall, we will search for evidence of the Z(4430)+ which is reported by Belle but not confirmed by BABAR. The UTD group has played a strong role in ATLAS operations, with group members serving as Pixel Run Coordinator, ATLAS Shift Leader, and Pixel/Inner Detector Shifter. For most of the current 3-year funding cycle, a group member coordinated the development of the Pixel DAQ code, and another continues to build and maintain the data quality monitoring (DQM) application that is used by the Inner Detector control room shifter. Additionally, members of our group take Pixel on-call expert shifts for DQM and DAQ. We led an optoboard lifetime study to assess concerns of premature on-detector VCSEL failure using the Pixel working prototype detector at CERN. Physicists based at UTD participated through Pixel Offline DQM and ATLAS Distributed Computing Operations Shifts (ADCoS) During Summer 2012, UTD joined upgrade activities in preparation for LS1. We took a major role in the testing of Electro-Readout (ER) Bundle testing for new Service Quarter Panels (nSQP?s), and we developed two utilities to measure the timing jitter and bit error rate of the Pixel readout chain for use commissioning Pixel detector upgrades. During BABAR?s heyday, the UTD group pioneered the use of e^+ e^- annihilation events with hard Initial State Radiation (ISR) to study the charm threshold region, and we carried out the first BABAR double-cc ̅ analysis. Our most recent ISR paper, written in collaboration with A. Palano (Bari) is Exclusive Production of Ds^+ Ds^-, D_S^(*+) Ds^-, and Ds^(*+) Ds^(*-) via e+ e- Annihilation with Initial-State-Radiation was published in Physical Review D 82, 052004 (2010). Work continues on a study of ISR Λc^+ Λc^- production, and a new search to establish and study double-ss ̅ production is starting.

  15. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and 709.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rocks. The stratigraphy and general lithology were not as expected due to the position of Well ER-EC-14 relative to the buried caldera margins of the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The well is located inside the Rainier Mesa caldera, but outside the younger Ammonia Tanks caldera. On November 5, 2012, a preliminary fluid level in the shallow piezometer string was measured at the depth of 311.8 m. This water level depth was taken before installation of the bridge plug (to be placed within the main completion casing to separate the two slotted zones). Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling, will be conducted at a later date. No tritium above levels detectable by field methods were encountered in this hole. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-EC-14 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-EC-14 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. All sanitary and hydrocarbon waste generated was properly handled and disposed of.

  16. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction of ErD2 (beta phase) formation during D2 loading.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, James Frederick; Llobet, Anna; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.

    2008-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the structural changes occurring during hydrogen loading of erbium target materials, we have performed D{sub 2} loading of erbium metal (powder) with simultaneous neutron diffraction analysis. This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the {alpha} erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the {beta} (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD{sub 2.0} was accomplished at 10 Torr D{sub 2} pressure with deuterium fully occupying the tetrahedral sites in the fluorite lattice. Increased D{sub 2} pressure (up to 500 Torr at 450 C) revealed {approx}10 % deuterium occupation of the octahedral sites. Subsequent vacuum pumping of the sample at 450 C removed octahedral site occupancy while maintaining tetrahedral deuterium occupancy, thereby yielding stoichiometric ErD{sub 2.0} {beta} phase.

  17. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Lalanne, Elaine; Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Anthony M.

    2014-05-26

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60?GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  18. Saturated absorption in a rotational molecular transition at 2.5 THz using a quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consolino, L. Campa, A.; Ravaro, M.; Mazzotti, D.; Bartalini, S.; De Natale, P.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2015-01-12

    We report on the evidence of saturation effects in a rotational transition of CH{sub 3}OH around 2.5?THz, induced by a free-running continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (QCL). The QCL emission is used for direct-absorption spectroscopy experiments, allowing to study the dependence of the absorption coefficient on gas pressure and laser intensity. A saturation intensity of 25??W/mm{sup 2}, for a gas pressure of 17??bar, is measured. This result represents the initial step towards the implementation of a QCL-based high-resolution sub-Doppler THz spectroscopy, which is expected to improve by orders of magnitude the precision of THz spectrometers.

  19. Model-Predictive Cascade Mitigation in Electric Power Systems With Storage and Renewables-Part II: Case-Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almassalkhi, MR; Hiskens, IA

    2015-01-01

    The novel cascade-mitigation scheme developed in Part I of this paper is implemented within a receding-horizon model predictive control (MPC) scheme with a linear controller model. This present paper illustrates the MPC strategy with a case-study that is based on the IEEE RTS-96 network, though with energy storage and renewable generation added. It is shown that the MPC strategy alleviates temperature overloads on transmission lines by rescheduling generation, energy storage, and other network elements, while taking into account ramp-rate limits and network limitations. Resilient performance is achieved despite the use of a simplified linear controller model. The MPC scheme is compared against a base-case that seeks to emulate human operator behavior.

  20. Atomistic Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Fused Silica: It is Compared with Different Concentration of H in the Bulk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mota, Fernando; Perlado, Jose Manuel; Caturla, Maria Jose; Ibarra, Angel; Molla, Joaquin

    2008-07-01

    Amorphous Silica is one of candidate materials for both final focusing optics of lasers for NIF and future inertial fusion reactors and diagnostics of the Safety and Control Systems of the ITER machine as well as DEMO magnetic fusion reactors. In operation, these materials will be exposed to high neutron irradiation fluxes and it can result in point defect and vary the optical absorption, that is, degradation of the optical properties. In this paper we present molecular dynamic simulation of displacement cascade due to energetic recoils in amorphous silica without hydrogen atoms and with 1% of hydrogen atoms trying to identify defects formation. We have made a statistics of the different kind of defects at different energy of primary knock-on atoms (PKA). The range of studied PKA energies are from 400 eV to 3.5 keV and it is made to both component of this material Silicon and Oxygen. (authors)

  1. Cascaded emission of linearly polarized single photons from positioned InP/GaInP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, T.; Unsleber, S.; Baumann, V.; Schneider, C.; Hfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Gschrey, M.; Rodt, S.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2013-11-04

    We report on the optical characterization of site-controlled InP/GaInP quantum dots (QDs). Spatially resolved low temperature cathodoluminescence proves the long-range ordering of the buried emitters, revealing a yield of ?90% of optically active, positioned QDs and a strong suppression of emitters on interstitial positions. The emission of single QDs shows a pronounced degree of linear polarization along the [0,?1,1] crystal axis with an average degree of polarization of 94%. Photon correlation measurements of the emission from a single QD indicate the single-photon character of the exciton and biexciton emission lines as well as the cascaded nature of the photon pair.

  2. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  3. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1−x}Ga (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Wang, L. C.; Wu, R. R.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.; Chen, J.

    2014-05-07

    We carefully studied the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ga (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds. The Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ga compounds undergo two magnetic transitions with temperature increasing: spin-reorientation or antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic (FM) transition and FM-to-paramagnetic transition. As the content of Gd increases from 0 to 1, the transition temperature in low temperature region changes from 15 K to 66 K and the Curie temperature increases obviously from 30 K to 181.9 K. Although the maximum value of magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) for Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1−x}Ga decreases with the increase of x, the refrigerant capacity (RC) improves remarkably compared with that of ErGa compound. Table-like ΔS{sub M} curves are observed for the compounds with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4, which are very useful for real cooling applications. And Gd{sub 0.2}Er{sub 0.8}Ga and Gd{sub 0.3}Er{sub 0.7}Ga compounds show better magnetocaloric features than others in this series under considerations of both ΔS{sub M} and RC. The results of this series of compounds show us a possible way to design and improve the magnetic refrigerant materials by making some substitutions.

  4. DE-FG02-08ER64658 (OASIS) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharman, Jonathan

    2013-09-05

    Project OASIS (Operation of Advanced Structures, Interfaces and Sub-components for MEAs) was a 12 month project that ran from 1st September 2008 to 31st August 2009, and was managed by the Department of Energy Office of Science, Chicago Office, as Award No DE-FG02-08ER64658, with Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Inc. as the sole contractor. The project was completed on schedule, with technical successes (details below) and payment of the full grant award made by DOE. The aim of the project was the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for H2/air polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells that would give higher performance under hot/dry and dry operating conditions, ideally with no loss of performance under wet conditions. Reducing or eliminating the need for humidifying the incoming gases will allow significant system cost and size reduction for many fuel cell applications including automotive, stationary and back-up power, and portable systems. Portable systems are also of particular interest in military markets. In previous work Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells had developed very stable, corrosion-resistant catalysts suitable for resisting degradation by carbon corrosion in particular. These materials were applied within the OASIS project as they are considered necessary for systems such as automotive where multiple start-stop events are experienced. These catalysts were contrasted with more conventional materials in the design of catalyst layers and novel microporous layers (MPLs) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) combinations were also explored. Early on in the work it was shown how much more aggressive high temperature operation is than dry operation. At the same humidity, tests at 110?C caused much more dehydration than tests at 80?C and the high temperature condition was much more revealing of improvements made to MEA design. Alloy catalysts were introduced and compared with Pt catalysts with a range of particle sizes. It was apparent that the larger particle sizes of the alloy catalysts led to a reduction in performance that offset much of their kinetic advantage. The Pt-only materials clearly showed that small particles are beneficial to good performance under hot/dry conditions, because of their higher surface area, although they are known to be less stable to cyclic operation. An ex-situ water vapour sorption technique was developed that showed a very clear correlation with in-cell performance: catalyst powders that absorbed more water gave better performance in-cell. It was shown that alloy catalysts could give a 25 mV advantage over Pt-only at 1 Acm-2. GDL design was also shown to influence performance and more permeable GDLs on the anode allowed better membrane hydration and therefore conductivity. A very impermeable GDL on the cathode caused cathode flooding even under dry conditions, but a novel cathode MPL incorporating ionomer and operating at 110?C, 33/17% RH showed a 150 mV gain at 800 mAcm-2 over the conventional MPL. This project has increased the understanding of the factors that influence performance loss under dry conditions, including the development of an insightful ex-situ characterisation technique (Dynamic Vapour Sorption). All the approaches investigated can be readily implemented in state-of the-art MEAs, although optimisation would be needed to integrate the new designs with existing MEA types and to tune to the exact range of operating conditions. The work is thus expected to benefit the public by feeding through more condition-tolerant production MEAs to a range of applications and thereby accelerate the commercialisation of fuel cell technology. In summary, a number of specific catalyst, catalyst layer, MPL and GDL improvements were made during this project. Often the best designs under dry conditions translated to some performance loss under wet conditions, but compromise situations were also found where dry performance was improved with no loss of wet performance.

  5. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-12 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-EC-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters for volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from historic underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  6. Magnetic and dielectric behavior of the spin-chain compound Er?BaNiO? well below its Nel temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Tathamay; Singh, Kiran; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Mohapatra, N.

    2014-09-21

    We have recently reported that the Haldane spin-chain system, Er?BaNiO?, undergoing antiferromagnetic order below (T{sub N}=) 32 K, is characterized by the onset of ferroelectricity near 60 K due to magnetoelectric coupling induced by short-range magnetic-order within spin-chains. We have carried out additional magnetic and dielectric studies to understand the properties well below T{sub N}. We emphasize here on the following: (i) A strong frequency dependent behaviors of ac magnetic susceptibility and complex dielectric properties have been observed at much lower temperatures (<8 K), that is, reentrant multiglass-like phenomenon, naturally suggesting the existence of an additional transition well below T{sub N}. (ii) Magnetoelectric phase coexistence is observed at very low temperature (e.g., T=2 K), where the high-field magnetoelectric phase is partially arrested on returning to zero magnetic field after a cycling through metamagnetic transition.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-13 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-13 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite unit hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. This well may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-15 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-15 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October and November 2010, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters of volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-12-4, Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain (includes Errata Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in May 2005, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit in the north-central portion of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located on Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, northwest of Yucca Flat, within Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The well provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in U12t Tunnel, information on the pre-Tertiary rocks in the area, and depth to the regional water table.

  10. Well Completion Report for Well ER-20-11, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-27

    Well ER-20-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September 2012 as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-11 was constructed to further investigate the nature and extent of radionuclidecontaminated groundwater encountered in two nearby UGTA wells, to help define hydraulic and transport parameters for the contaminated Benham aquifer, and to provide data for the UGTA hydrostratigraphic framework model. The 44.5-centimeter (cm) surface hole was drilled to a depth of 520.0 meters (m) and cased with 34.0-cm casing to 511.5 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 cm, and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 915.6 m. The hole was completed to allow access for hydrologic testing and sampling in the target aquifer, which is a lava-flow aquifer known as the Benham aquifer. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 904.3 m, consists of a string of 6?-inch (in.) stainless-steel casing hanging from a string of 7?-in. carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval at 796.3 to 903.6 m. One piezometer string was installed, which consists of 2?-in. stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 2?-in. carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 903.8 m and is slotted in the interval 795.3 to 903.1 m. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 915.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rock, including one saturated lava flow aquifer. Measurements on samples taken from the undeveloped well indicated elevated tritium levels within the Benham aquifer. The maximum tritium level measured with field equipment was 146,131 picocuries per liter from a sample obtained at the depth of 912.0 m. The fluid level was measured in the piezometer string at a depth of 504.5 m on September 26, 2012. All Fluid Management Plan (FMP) requirements for Well ER-20-11 were met. Analysis of monitoring samples and FMP confirmatory samples indicated that fluids generated during drilling at Well ER-20-11 met the FMP criteria for discharge to an unlined sump or designated infiltration area. Well development, hydrologic testing, and sampling will be conducted at a later date.

  11. Relativistic energy density functionals: Low-energy collective states of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 166}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2010-06-15

    The empirical relativistic density-dependent, point-coupling energy density functional, adjusted exclusively to experimental binding energies of a large set of deformed nuclei with Aapprox =150-180 and Aapprox =230-250, is tested with spectroscopic data for {sup 166}Er and {sup 240}Pu. Starting from constrained self-consistent triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations of binding energy maps as functions of the quadrupole deformation in the beta-gamma plane, excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated as solutions of the corresponding microscopic collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and compared with available data on low-energy collective states.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Y and Er) pyrochlores oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martnez-Coronado, R.; Alonso, J.A.; Fernndez, M.T.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: New pyrochlore-like phases of composition R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Er and Y) have been synthesized by a soft-chemistry procedure involving citrates of the different metal ions followed by thermal treatments at moderate temperatures (850 C for 12 h in air). A characterization by X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been carried out in order to determine the crystal structure features: these phyrochlores are cubic, space group Fd-3m, defining an intrinsically frustrated three-dimensional system. The Rietveld-refinement from NPD data at room temperature evidences an antisite cation disorder (distribution of Mn between A and B positions) that is accompanied by an increment of the oxygen-vacancy concentration due to the reduction of Mn{sup 4+} at the B position to Mn{sup 2+} at the A position. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was useful to evaluate the stability of these oxides in reducing conditions up to 500 C. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a ferromagnetic behavior, due to the random distribution of Mn{sup 4+} ions in the octahedral sublattice. At lower temperatures there is a polarization of the R{sup +3} magnetic moments, which also participate in the magnetic structure. Aiming to evaluate these materials as possible electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) we determined that the thermal expansion coefficients between 100 and 900 C perfectly match with those of the usual electrolytes; however, these pyrochlore oxides display a semiconductor-like behavior with poor conductivity values, e.g. 6 10{sup ?3} cm{sup ?1} at 850 C for Er, which would prevent its use as MIEC (mixed ionic-electronic conductors) oxides in SOFC devices.

  13. K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker J.E.

    2009-05-13

    K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

  14. Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-91ER40690 for the period 12/1/2010 to 4/30/2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkin, Stan; Hill, Chris; Kass, Richard; Braaten, Eric; Mathur, Samir; Raby, Stuart; Shigemitsu, Junko; Gan, K. K.; Kagan, Harris; Hughes, Richard E.; Winer, Brian L.; Honscheid, Klaus

    2014-07-22

    This is the #12;final report for The Ohio State University high energy physics grant DE-FG02- 91ER40690. The activities of the various Tasks are briefy summarized over the previous grant period. The support from the Department of Energy is greatly appreciated.

  15. Audit of Economic Development Grants and a Cooperative Agreement with East Tennessee Not-For-Profit Organizations, ER-B-97-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AUDIT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GRANTS AND A COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT WITH EAST TENNESSEE NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Report Number: ER-B-97-01 Eastern Regional Audit Office Date of Issue: October 22, 1996 AUDIT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GRANTS AND A COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT WITH EAST TENNESSEE NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SUMMARY..................................................... 1 PART I - APPROACH AND OVERVIEW............................. 3

  16. Exposure of Jurkat cells to bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) induces transcriptomics changes indicative for ER- and oxidative stress, T cell activation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katika, Madhumohan R.; Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Loveren, Henk van; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2011-08-01

    Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) is an organotin compound that is widely used as a biocide in agriculture and as an antifouling agent in paints. TBTO is toxic for many cell types, particularly immune cells. The present study aimed to identify the effects of TBTO on the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat. Cells were treated with 0.2 and 0.5 {mu}M TBTO for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h and then subjected to whole genome gene expression microarray analysis. The biological interpretation of the gene expression profiles revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the earliest effects of TBTO. Simultaneously or shortly thereafter, oxidative stress, activation of NFKB and NFAT, T cell activation, and apoptosis are induced. The effects of TBTO on genes involved in ER stress, NFAT pathway, T cell activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Activation and nuclear translocation of NFATC1 and the oxidative stress response proteins NRF2 and KEAP1 were confirmed by immunocytology. Taking advantage of previously published microarray data, we demonstrated that the induction of ER stress, oxidative stress, T cell activation and apoptosis by TBTO is not unique for Jurkat cells but does also occur in mouse thymocytes both ex vivo and in vivo and rat thymocytes ex vivo. We propose that the induction of ER stress leading to a T cell activation response is a major factor in the higher sensitivity of immune cells above other types of cells for TBTO. - Research Highlights: > The human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat was exposed to TBTO. > Whole-genome microarray experiments were performed. > Data analysis revealed the induction of ER stress and activation of NFAT and NFKB. > Exposure to TBTO also led to T cell activation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  17. Up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 by ER stress facilitates cell death of brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kito, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Daiju; Department of Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto; Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya ; Ohya, Susumu; Yamamura, Hisao; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We found that application of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) induced cell death. {yields} The ER stress facilitated the expression of inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and induced sustained membrane hyperpolarization. {yields} The membrane hyperpolarization induced sustained Ca{sup 2+} entry through voltage-independent nonspecific cation channels and consequently facilitated cell death. {yields} The K{sub ir}2.1 up-regulation by ER stress is, at least in part, responsible for cell death of BCECs under pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form blood brain barrier (BBB) to maintain brain homeostasis. Cell turnover of BCECs by the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is critical for maintaining the integrity of BBB. Here we found that stimuli with tunicamycin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, up-regulated inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and facilitated cell death in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The activation of K{sub ir} channels contributed to the establishment of deeply negative resting membrane potential in t-BBEC117. The deep resting membrane potential increased the resting intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration due to Ca{sup 2+} influx through non-selective cation channels and thereby partly but significantly regulated cell death in t-BBEC117. The present results suggest that the up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 is, at least in part, responsible for cell death/cell turnover of BCECs induced by a variety of cellular stresses, particularly ER stress, under pathological conditions.

  18. 21 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-07-22

    A 2.1 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) based on a scattering-assisted injection and resonant-phonon depopulation design scheme is demonstrated. The QCL is based on a four-well period implemented in the GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As material system. The QCL operates up to a heat-sink temperature of 144 K in pulsed-mode, which is considerably higher than that achieved for previously reported THz QCLs operating around the frequency of 2 THz. At 46 K, the threshold current-density was measured as ~745 A/cm2 with a peak-power output of ~10 mW. Electrically stable operation in a positive differential-resistance regime is achieved by a careful choice of design parameters. The results validate the robustness of scattering-assisted injection schemes for development of low-frequency (? < 2.5 THz) QCLs.

  19. 21 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-07-22

    A 2.1 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) based on a scattering-assisted injection and resonant-phonon depopulation design scheme is demonstrated. The QCL is based on a four-well period implemented in the GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As material system. The QCL operates up to a heat-sink temperature of 144 K in pulsed-mode, which is considerably higher than that achieved for previously reported THz QCLs operating around the frequency of 2 THz. At 46 K, the threshold current-density was measured as ~745 A/cm2 with a peak-power output of ~10 mW. Electrically stable operation in a positive differential-resistance regime is achieved by a careful choice of design parameters.more » The results validate the robustness of scattering-assisted injection schemes for development of low-frequency (ν < 2.5 THz) QCLs.« less

  20. Ion cascade acceleration from the interaction of a relativistic femtosecond laser pulse with a narrow thin target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Feng; Xu Han; Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Li Ruxin

    2006-07-15

    Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study the acceleration of ions due to the interaction of a relativistic femtosecond laser pulse with a narrow thin target. The numerical results show that ions can be accelerated in a cascade by two electrostatic fields if the width of the target is smaller than the laser beam waist. The first field is formed in front of the target by the central part of the laser beam, which pushes the electron layer inward. The major part of the abaxial laser energy propagates along the edges to the rear side of the target and pulls out some hot electrons from the edges of the target, which form another electrostatic field at the rear side of the target. The ions from the front surface are accelerated stepwise by these two electrostatic fields to high energies at the rear side of the target. The simulations show that the largest ion energy gain for a narrow target is about four times higher than in the case of a wide target.

  1. Cascading elastic perturbation in Japan due to the 2012 Mw 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorey, A. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Chao, K.; Obara, K.

    2015-10-02

    Since the discovery of extensive earthquake triggering occurring in response to the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, it is now well established that seismic waves from earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes, tremor, slow slip, and pore pressure changes. Our contention is that earthquake triggering is one manifestation of a more widespread elastic disturbance that reveals information about Earths stress state. Earths stress state is central to our understanding of both natural and anthropogenic-induced crustal processes. Here we present that seismic waves from distant earthquakes may perturb stresses and frictional properties on faults and elastic moduli of the crust in cascading fashion. Transient dynamic stresses place crustal material into a metastable state during which material recovers through a process termed slow dynamics. This observation of widespread, dynamically induced elastic perturbation, including systematic migration of offshore seismicity, strain transients, and velocity transients, presents a new characterization of Earths elastic system that will advance our understanding of plate tectonics, seismicity, and seismic hazards.

  2. An inverted AlGaAs/GaAs patterned-Ge tunnel junction cascade concentrator solar cell. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes work to develop inverted-grown Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascades. Several significant developments are reported on as follows: (1) The AM1.5 1-sun total-area efficiency of the top Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As cell for the cascade was improved from 11.3% to 13.2% (NREL measurement [total-area]). (2) The ``cycled`` organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth (OMVPE) was studied in detail utilizing a combination of characterization techniques including Hall-data, photoluminescence, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (3) A technique called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB) was developed by strain-free mounting of thin GaAs-AlGaAs films (based on lattice-matched growth on Ge substrates and selective plasma etching of Ge substrates) onto Si carrier substrates. Minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs double-heterostructure was measured as high as 103 nsec, the highest lifetime report for a freestanding GaAs thin film. (4) A thin-film, inverted-grown GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 active-area efficiency of 20.3% was obtained. This cell was eutectic-metal-bonded onto Si. (5) A thin-film inverted-grown, Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiency of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, was obtained. This represents an important milestone in the development of an AlGaAs/GaAs cascade by OMVPE utilizing a tunnel interconnect and demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the inverted-growth approach.

  3. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  4. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit Kent, Washington PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Multifamily, affordable Builder: King County Housing Authority, Kent, Washington http://www.kcha.org/ Size: 108 units in 27 four-plexes Rent: 30% of household income Date completed: 2010 Climate Zone: Marine PERFORMANCE DATA State low-income weatherization investment: $385,850 for all 108 units $15,850 per 4-plex $3,858 per unit Site savings per unit: Billing analysis:

  5. Cascade reactions with Technische UniversitätMünchen (TUM) and University of Toronto Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5.4.407.Cascade reactions with Technische Universität München (TUM) and University of Toronto (U of T) March 24, 2015 Conversion R&D JOHANNES LERCHER YA-HUEI (CATHY) CHIN TUM U OF T CORINNE DRENNAN MARIEFEL V. OLARTE PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Problem Statement How can liquid transportation fuel from biomass be economically competitive? 2 Parameter Contribution to TEA Pressure

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-20-7: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-04-28

    Well ER-20-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to further investigate migration of radionuclides from the nearby, up-gradient TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests, which originally was discovered at Well Cluster ER-20-5. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 44.45-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 681.8 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 671.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.12 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 894.9 meters. The completion string, set to the depth of 890.0 meters, consists of 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.37-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing has one continuous slotted interval open to the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, sidewall core samples from 20 depth intervals, various geophysical logs, water quality (primarily tritium) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 894.9 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including two saturated welded-tuff aquifers. A fluid level measurement was obtained during open-hole geophysical well logging for the upper, Tiva Canyon, aquifer at the depth of 615.7 meters on June 19, 2009. The fluid level measured in the open hole on June 27, 2009,after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off, was also at the depth of 615.7 meters. Preliminary field measurements indicated 1.5 to 4.5 million picocuries per liter of tritium in the Tiva Canyon aquifer and 20 to 61 million picocuries per liter in the underlying Topopah Spring aquifer.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-11 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-12-01

    Well ER-EC-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to investigate radionuclide migration down-gradient from Well Cluster ER-20-5 and Well ER-20-7 and across the northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone into the area referred to as the Bench, between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex. A secondary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the shallow- to intermediate-depth Tertiary volcanic section in the Bench area. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section to reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada, 2002). The main 52.1-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 507.5 meters and then opened to a diameter of 66.0 centimeters. It was cased with 50.8-centimeter casing to 504.9 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 47.0 centimeters, and drilling continued to a total depth of 979.3 meters. It was then cased with 34.0-centimeter casing set at 965.5 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 1,264.3 meters. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 1,262.5 meters, consists of 19.4-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring aquifers. Four piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-11. A string of carbon-steel 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 50.8-centimeter casing, within the 66.0-centimeter borehole for access to the Timber Mountain aquifer, and landed at 475.3 meters. A second string of 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 34.0-centimeter casing, within the 47.0-centimeter borehole for access to the Benham aquifer, and landed at 911.7 meters. A third piezometer string consists of 7.3-centimeter stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 6.0-centimeter carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 1,029.5 meters to monitor the Tiva Canyon aquifer. The deepest string of 7.3-centimeter tubing was landed at 1,247.8 meters to monitor the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, 67 percussion gun and rotary sidewall core samples, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 1,264.3 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including three saturated welded-tuff aquifers and one saturated lava-flow aquifer. A water level was measured in the Timber Mountain aquifer at 449.6 meters, during open-hole geophysical logging on September 20, 2009. The fluid level measured after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off was 450.0 meters when measured in the open borehole on October 17, 2009. Measurements on samples taken from the undeveloped well indicated that tritium levels averaging approximately 12,430 picocuries per liter (less than Safe Drinking Water Act levels) were encountered within the Benham aquifer. Tritium was below the minimum detectable activity concentration for samples collected from the Tiva Canyon aquifer and the Topopah Spring aquifer.

  8. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  9. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst utilizing upconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Design and synthesis of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} based on upconversion. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. Coreshell structure benefits the properties. Upconversion contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Helps to understand the functionality of new type photocatalysts. - Abstract: NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite was designed and prepared for the first time based on upconversion. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results revealed that the as-synthesized NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} consisted of spheres with a core diameter of about 26 nm and a shell diameter of around 6 nm. The core was upconversion illuminant NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb and the shell was Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} around the core, which was confirmed by EDS. The NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodecomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the irradiation of Xe lamp and green light emitting diode (g-LED). The mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity was discussed by photoluminescence spectra (PL), which is mainly attributed to upconversion of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb in the NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite and the coreshell structure.

  10. Enzymatic cascade bioreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2007-09-04

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  11. A Five-Level Three-Phase Cascade Multilevel Inverter Using a Single DC Source for a PM Synchronous Motor Drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak; Chiasson, John N; Tolbert, Leon M

    2007-01-01

    The interest here is in using a single DC power source to construct a 3-phase 5-level cascade multilevel inverter to be used as a drive for a PM traction motor. The 5-level inverter consists of a standard 3-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg, which use a capacitor as a DC source. It is shown that one can simultaneously maintain the regulation of the capacitor voltage while achieving an output voltage waveform which is 25% higher than that obtained using a standard 3-leg inverter by itself.

  12. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 2, User`s manual for CASCADR8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Been, K.B.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. This is volume two to the CASCADER series, titled CASCADR8. It embodies the concepts presented in volume one of this series. To properly understand how the CASCADR8 model works, the reader should read volume one first. This volume presents the input and output file structure for CASCADR8, and a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas.

  13. DOE/ER-0442

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Executive Summary: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan ... The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was developed to supply an improved ...

  14. VNI version 4.1. Simulation of high-energy particle collisions in QCD: Space-time evolution of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}...A + B collisions with parton-cascades, cluster-hadronization, final-state hadron cascades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, K.; Longacre, R.; Srivastava, D.K.

    1999-02-01

    VNI is a general-purpose Monte-Carlo event-generator, which includes the simulation of lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron, lepton-nucleus, hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. It uses the real-time evolution of parton cascades in conjunction with a self-consistent hadronization scheme, as well as the development of hadron cascades after hadronization. The causal evolution from a specific initial state (determined by the colliding beam particles) is followed by the time-development of the phase-space densities of partons, pre-hadronic parton clusters, and final-state hadrons, in position-space, momentum-space and color-space. The parton-evolution is described in terms of a space-time generalization of the familiar momentum-space description of multiple (semi)hard interactions in QCD, involving 2 {r_arrow} 2 parton collisions, 2 {r_arrow} 1 parton fusion processes, and 1 {r_arrow} 2 radiation processes. The formation of color-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons, on the other hand, is treated by using a spatial criterion motivated by confinement and a non-perturbative model for hadronization. Finally, the cascading of produced prehadronic clusters and of hadrons includes a multitude of 2 {r_arrow} n processes, and is modeled in parallel to the parton cascade description. This paper gives a brief review of the physics underlying VNI, as well as a detailed description of the program itself. The latter program description emphasizes easy-to-use pragmatism and explains how to use the program (including simple examples), annotates input and control parameters, and discusses output data provided by it.

  15. Development of an IR-transparent, inverted-grown, thin-film, Al[sub 0. 34]Ga[sub 0. 66]As/GaAs cascade solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M.L.; Sharps, P.R.; Colpitts, T.S.; Hills, J.S.; Hancock, J.; Hutchby, J.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Inverted growth and the development of associated cell processing, are likely to offer a significant degree of freedom for improving the performance of many III-V multijunction cascades and open new avenues for advanced multijunction concepts. This is especially true for the development of high-efficiency Al[sub 0.37]Ga[sub 0.63]As/GaAs cascades where the high growth temperatures required for the AlGaAs top cell growth can cause the deterioration of the tunnel junction interconnect. In the approach of inverted-grown AlGaAs/GaAs cascade cells, the AlGaAs top cell is grown first at 780 [degree]C and the GaAs tunnel junction and bottom cell are grown at 675 [degree]C. After the inverted growth, the AlGaAs/GaAs cascade structure is selectively removed from the parent substrate. The feasibility of inverted growth is demonstrated by a fully-processed, inverted-grown, thin film GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 efficiency of 20.3%. Also, an inverted-grown, thin-film, Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiencies of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, has been obtained.

  16. Pumping-route-dependent concentration quenching and temperature effect of green up- and down-conversion luminescence in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingjing; Sun, Jiashi [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Liu, Jutao [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Fu, Shaobo; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Xia, Haiping [Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Materials, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A comparative study on the concentration quenching behaviors of green down- and up-conversion emissions was carried out for the first time, and the different concentration quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Secondly, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration. Highlights: ? Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er/Yb phosphors were prepared via a co-precipitation reaction. ? Morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? Concentration quenching mechanisms for down and up emissions were studied. ? Thermal effect induced by laser irradiation was studied via temperature sensing tech. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors with various Er{sup 3+} concentrations and fixed Yb{sup 3+} concentration were synthesized via a co-precipitation method, and their crystal structure and morphology were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration quenching behaviors of green up- and down-conversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} were analyzed, and it was confirmed that the difference between quenching concentration for up- and down-conversion emissions resulted from the different population routes. The temperature sensing properties of the Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors were studied, and it was found that the Er{sup 3+} doping concentration slightly affected the sensitivity, and Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors could be used in a broad temperature region for detecting temperature. Finally, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration.

  17. Well ER-6-1 Tracer Test Analysis: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-09-01

    The ER-6-1 multiple-well aquifer test-tracer test (MWAT-TT) investigated groundwater flow and transport processes relevant to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU). The LCA, which is present beneath much of the NTS, is the principal aquifer for much of southern Nevada. This aquifer consists mostly of limestone and dolomite, and is pervasively fractured. Groundwater flow in this aquifer is primarily in the fractures, and the hydraulic properties are primarily related to fracture frequency and fracture characteristics (e.g., mineral coatings, aperture, connectivity). The objective of the multiple-well aquifer test (MWAT) was to determine flow and hydraulic characteristics for the LCA in Yucca Flat. The data were used to derive representative flow model and parameter values for the LCA. The items of specific interest are: Hydraulic conductivity; Storage parameters; Dual-porosity behavior; and Fracture flow characteristics. The objective of the tracer transport experiment was to evaluate the transport properties and processes of the LCA and to derive representative transport parameter values for the LCA. The properties of specific interest are: Effective porosity; Matrix diffusion; Longitudinal dispersivity; Adsorption characteristics; and Colloid transport characteristics. These properties substantially control the rate of transport of contaminants in the groundwater system and concentration distributions. To best support modeling at the scale of the corrective action unit (CAU), these properties must be investigated at the field scale. The processes represented by these parameters are affected by in-situ factors that are either difficult to investigate at the laboratory scale or operate at a much larger scale than can be reproduced in the laboratory. Measurements at the field scale provide a better understanding of the effective average parameter values. The scale of this tracer test is still small compared to the scale of a CAU, but is of sufficient scale to be generally representative of the processes that affect in-situ transport. The scale of the tracer test undertaken is limited by the rate of transport in the formation and the resultant time frame required for completing such a test. The measurements at the field scale will provide information for relating laboratory measurements for transport processes to the larger scale. This report describes the analysis of the tracer test data and development of a conceptual model of transport in the LCA in Yucca Flat.

  18. As you may kn&<' the~de&tment of &~er& (D&j 1s involved'in'a pronram

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    As you may kn&<' the~de&tment of &~er& (D&j 1s involved'in'a pronram '. to'chiiracterlze the radjologital cbndif~on of ,sites formerly used byythe . . . ., Manhattan Engineer Dlstrlct (NED) and/or Atomjc Energy Co$n~~lssiqq (AEC); in.. the development of 'nuclear energy.. As part..of this -programi' DOE is 1~ I+ preparing, ,a' series of. brJef~ summaries ,-of .the' history:. of' tho ,#D/AEC~ : : ..; 'i ..relatecl activities and 'Conditions at .thc. sneclfic. sites. The

  19. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast cancer model. Letrozole or tamoxifen treatment is used to inhibit ER-dependent breast tumor growth. Phytoestrogens induce in vitro tumor cell growth, even in combination with LET or TAM. Use of phytoestrogens during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided.

  20. Preparation and thermophysical properties of (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides for thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoge, Chen; Shusen, Yang; Hongsong, Zhang; Gang, Li; Zhenjun, Li.; Bo, Ren; Xudan, Dang; Haoming, Zhang; An, Tang

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: These ceramic materials with fluorite structure were synthesized. Defect points lead to their lower thermal conductivities. The lower ionic radius of Er{sup 3+} ion leads to the reduction of thermal expansion coefficient of (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides. - Abstract: (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics were synthesized by solgel method and sintered at 1600 C for 10 h in air. The influence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-substitution on the phase structure and thermophysical properties of Sm{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} was investigated. The phase structures of these ceramics were identified by X-ray diffraction showing that all synthesized ceramics have fluorite-type structure. The measurements for thermophysical properties of these ceramics show that their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients remarkably decreased through Er-substitution. However, the thermal expansion coefficients were higher than that of YSZ and their thermal conductivities were much lower than that of 8YSZ. The excellent thermophysical property implies that these solid solutions are potential materials for the ceramics layer in thermal barrier coatings.

  1. The breakdown of de Gennes Scaling in TbxEr1-xNi2B2C and its mean field theory explanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Chunwang

    2005-05-01

    The Neel temperatures, T{sub N}, of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C samples have been determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. A breakdown of the de Gennes scaling of T{sub N} with a clear turning point around x = 0.45 has been observed. The T{sub N} values of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C do not change much within the range of O < x < 0.45 and then, for larger x they increase almost linearly with concentration until T{sub N} = 14.9K is reached for x = 1, TbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The clear change in the x-dependence of T{sub N} around x = 0.45 can be linked to a change in the local moment ordering direction from transverse to longitudinal, a change which is consistent with recent resonant X-ray scattering data. These features in T{sub N}(x) can be explained using a mean field model.

  2. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the application of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.

  3. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the applicationmore » of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.« less

  4. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors previous work [K. Taguchi et al., Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects, Med. Phys. 38(2), 10891102 (2011)]. The agreement between the x-ray spectra calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model and the measured spectra was evaluated for various levels of deadtime loss ratios (DLR) and incident spectral shapes, realized using different attenuators, in terms of the weighted coefficient of variation (COV{sub W}), i.e., the root mean square difference weighted by the statistical errors of the data and divided by the mean. Results: At low count rates, when DLR < 10%, the distorted spectra measured by the DXMCT-1 were in agreement with those calculated by SRE only, with COV{sub W}'s less than 4%. At higher count rates, the measured spectra were also in agreement with the ones calculated by the cascaded SRE+PPE model; with PMMA as attenuator, COV{sub W} was 5.6% at a DLR of 22% and as small as 6.7% for a DLR as high as 55%. Conclusions: The x-ray spectra calculated by the proposed model agreed with the measured spectra over a wide range of count rates and spectral shapes. The SRE model predicted the distorted, recorded spectra with low count rates over various types and thicknesses of attenuators. The study also validated the hypothesis that the complex spectral distortions in a PCD can be adequately modeled by cascading the count-rate independent SRE and the count-rate dependent PPE.

  5. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  6. Effect of Mn doping on structural and magnetic susceptibility of C-type rare earth nano oxides Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department ; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Fuess, H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.0 ? x ? 0.20) prepared by solgel method. ? The change in lattice parameter is not linear with x due to the change in crystallite size with doping. ? Anomalous concentration dependence is found in magnetic susceptibility. ? The effective magnetic moment ?{sub eff} is found to decrease with composition parameter x. ? Superexchange interactions between Er ions depending on the amount of Mn or Er in different sites. -- Abstract: The manganese doped rare earth oxides Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x} O{sub 3} (0.0 ? x ? 0.20) were synthesized by a solgel process and analyzed by X-ray diffraction using Rietveld refinement methods. A single phase solid solution is formed up to x = 0.15 while for x ? 0.2 a manganese oxide phase appears in the diffraction pattern. Preferential cationic distribution between the non-equivalent sites 8b and 24d of space group Ia3{sup } is found for all samples but to a different extent. The octahedral volume and average bond length of Er{sub 1}-O for 8b site decrease while both octahedral volume and bond length of Er{sub 2}-O for 24d site increase. Magnetization measurements were done in the temperature range 5300 K. The effective magnetic moment ?{sub eff} is found to decrease with composition parameter x, except for sample x = 0.05 where the magnetization is enhanced. The Curie-Weiss paramagnetic temperatures indicate antiferromagnetic interaction.

  7. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20-40 keV.

  8. Laser-induced magnetic fields in ICF capsules, Final Report, DE-FG02-08ER85128, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindman, Erick L

    2009-11-05

    Laser-induced magnetic fields in ICF capsules Final Report, DE-FG02-08ER85128, Phase 1 E. L. LINDMAN, Otowi Technical Services, Los Alamos, NM. The performance of an inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsule can be improved by inserting a magnetic field into it before compressing it [Kirkpatrick, et al., Fusion Technol. 27, 205 (1995)]. To obtain standoff in an ICF power generator, a method of inserting the field without the use of low-inductance leads attached to the capsule is desired. A mechanism for generating such a field using a laser was discovered in Japan [Sakagami, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 839 (1979), Kolodner and Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1402 (1979)] and studied at Los Alamos in the 1980s [M. A. Yates, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1702 (1982); Forslund and Brackbill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1614 (1982)]. In this mechanism, a p-polarized laser beam strikes a solid target producing hot electrons that are accelerated away from the target surface by resonant absorption. An electric field is created that returns the hot electrons to the target. But, they do not return to the target along the same trajectory on which they left. The resulting current produces a toroidal magnetic field that was observed to spread over a region outside the hot spot with a radius of a millimeter. No experimental measurements of the magnetic field strength were performed. Estimates from computer simulation suggest that field strengths in the range of 1 to 10 Mega gauss (100 to 1000 Tesla) were obtained outside of the laser spot. To use this mechanism to insert a magnetic field into an ICF capsule, the capsule must be redesigned. In one approach, a central conductor is added, a toroidal gap is cut in the outer wall and the DT fuel is frozen on the inner surface of the capsule. The capsule is dropped into the reaction chamber and struck first with the laser that generates the magnetic field. The laser hot spot is positioned at the center of the toroidal gap. As the magnetic field spreads from the hot spot over the surface that contains the toroidal gap, it will propagate through the gap and set up a steady state in the capsule. The main compression is then initiated. First, it closes the gap and crow-bars the field, then it compresses the fuel to ignition. In addition to this application, we discuss the use of this mechanism to induce Mega-gauss fields in laboratory apparatus for measurements of the effects of large magnetic fields on material samples. A preliminary target design for this purpose is presented. It is made of high-density material with no hydrogen surface contamination to minimize fast ion losses and to minimize x-ray preheat of the sample (the material, whose magnetic properties are to be measured). In it, the gap is designed to allow the magnetic field to move into the interior of the target while minimizing the flow of hot electrons into the interior. By adjusting the size of the gap as well as its configuration, the hot electron effects can be minimized. Since the strength of the magnetic field depends on the radial distance to the sample from the center of the conductor carrying the return current, the sample is located at a point of minimum conductor radius. This location also minimizes the effects on the measurement of any hot electrons that flow into the interior. Useful experiments can be accomplished with the seed field alone in this geometry. Compressing the capsule after the insertion of the seed field may allow experiments with even larger magnetic fields. We have used computer-simulation techniques to address a number of issues. Our conclusions include: This magnetic-field generating mechanism is a viable method for generating magnetic fields in ICF targets and for laboratory experiments. Useful experiments on material samples can be done with the seed field of 1 to10 Mega gauss (100 to 1000 Tesla) and higher magnetic fields can be obtained by subsequently compressing the capsule. The results reported here can be studied experimentally with a modest CO2 laser that emits 4.5 J of ene

  9. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  10. High-resolution study of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excitations in {sup 168}Er with the (p,t) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucurescu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Mahgoub, M. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lo Iudice, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Monte S Angelo, Via Cintia I-80126 Naples (Italy); Sushkov, A.V.; Shirikova, N.Yu. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221009 (China); Jolie, J.; Brentano, P. von; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Moeller, O.; Muecher, D.; Scholl, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Casten, R.F.; Meyer, D.A. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Excited states in the deformed nucleus {sup 168}Er have been studied with high-energy resolution, in the (p,t) reaction, with the Munich Q3D spectrograph. A number of 25 excited 0{sup +} states (four tentative) and 63 2{sup +} states have been assigned up to 4.0 MeV excitation energy. This unusually rich characterization of the 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states in a deformed nucleus, close to a complete level scheme, offers a unique opportunity to check, in detail, models of nuclear structure that incorporate many excitation modes. A comparison of the experimental data is made with two such models: the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM), and the projected shell model (PSM). The PSM wave functions appear to contain fewer correlations than those of the QPM and than required by the data.

  11. Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud Microphysics from M-PACE Final Report, DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Poellot

    2009-01-09

    This report summarizes the findings and accomplishments of work performed under DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168. The focus of the work was the analysis of in situ observations collected by the University of North Dakota Citation research aircraft during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). This project was conducted in 2004 along the North Slope of Alaska. The objectives of the research were: to characterize certain microphysical properties of clouds sampled during M-PACE, including spatial variability, precipitation formation, ice multiplication; to examine instrument performance and certain data processing algorithms; and to collaborate with other M-PACE investigators on case study analyses. A summary of the findings of the first two objectives is given here in parts 1 and 2; full results are contained in reports listed in part 3 of this report. The collaborative efforts are described in the publications listed in part 3.

  12. Rare-earth-rich tellurides: Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Co, Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magliocchi, Carmela; Meng, Fanqin; Hughbanks, Timothy . E-mail: trh@mail.chem.tamu.edu

    2004-11-01

    Three new rare earth metal-rich compounds, Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2}, and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Ni, Co), were synthesized in direct reactions using R, R{sub 3}M, and R{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (R=Gd, Er; M=Co, Ni) and single-crystal structures were determined. Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} is orthorhombic and crystallizes in space group Pnma with four formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=15.548(9), b=4.113(2), c=11.7521(15)A. Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Te{sub 2} are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm with two formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=3.934(1), b=14.811(4), c=14.709(4)A, and a=3.898(1), b=14.920(3), c=14.889(3)A, respectively. Metal-metal bonding correlations were analyzed using the empirical Pauling bond order concept.

  13. The Cascaded Arc: High Flows of Rovibrationally Excited H{sub 2} and its Impact on H{sup -} Ion Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, O.; Harskamp, W. E. N. van; Schram, D. C.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Engeln, R.

    2009-03-12

    The cascaded arc is a plasma source providing high fluxes of excited and reactive species such as ions, radicals and rovibrationally excited molecules. The plasma is produced under pressures of some kPa in a direct current arc with electrical powers up to 10 kW. The plasma leaves the arc channel through a nozzle and expands with supersonic velocity into a vacuum-chamber kept by pumps at low pressures. We investigated the case of a pure hydrogen plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field that confines ions and electrons in the jet. Highly excited molecules and atoms were detected by means of laser-induced fluorescence and optical emission spectroscopy. In case of an applied magnetic field the atomic state distribution of hydrogen atoms shows an overpopulation between the electronic states p = 5, 4 and 3. The influence of the highly excited hydrogen molecules on H{sup -} ion formation and a possible mechanism involving this negative ion and producing atomic hydrogen in state p = 3 will be discussed.

  14. Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 ?? 14 May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon Bouffler; Christophe Badie; Natalie Brown; Rosemary Finnon

    2010-07-28

    This report provides a full summary of the results obtained under grant DE-FG02-05ER63947, Radiation Leukaemogenesis at low doses. The studies employed an experimental model of radiation leukaemogenesis with the main aim of identifying key events that convert normal cells into leukaemic cells follwoing exposure to radiation. Important aspect of the work was to understand dose-response relationships and time course relationships for leakaemogenis events. The studies performed provided evidence for direct radiation-induced losses of the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene being critical for induction of the disease. No threshold below 0.1 Gy in the induction of the gene losses was observed. The critical cell type in which the myeloid lekaemias arise has been identified and point mutations in the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene are common in leukaemias. The consequences of the genetic losses and mutation have been examined and these provide evidence of a disruption of differentiation in leukaemic cells. Additional pathways to leukaemogenesis have been identified also. Overall the study provides quantitiative data suitable for testing approaches to modelling of leukaemia rosk at low doses.

  15. Thermoelectric power generator module of 16x16 Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 0.6%ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} segmented elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Gehong; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Singer, Suzanne L.; Majumdar, Arun; Bian, Zhixi; Zebarjadi, Mona; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-08-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power generator modules of 16x16 segmented elements consisting of 0.8 mm thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 50 {mu}m thick ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} with 0.6% ErAs by volume. An output power up to 6.3 W was measured when the heat source temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of (InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} were characterized from 300 up to 830 K. The finite element modeling shows that the performance of the generator modules can further be enhanced by improving the thermoelectric properties of the element materials, and reducing the electrical and thermal parasitic losses.

  16. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2006-01-01

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 min of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  17. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2005-07-13

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  18. Fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence from glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}:NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals under excitation of two near infrared femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Wenjing; Zhou, Kan; Ma, Jing; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Jia, Tianqing; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-08-14

    In this paper, we report fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence of glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}: NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals excited simultaneously by two near infrared femtosecond lasers. When the glass ceramic was irradiated by 800?nm femtosecond laser, weak red emission centered at 670?nm was detected. Bright red light was observed when the fs laser wavelength was tuned to 1490?nm. However, when excited by the two fs lasers simultaneously, the sample emitted bright green light centered at 550?nm, while the red light kept the same intensity. The dependences of the red and the green light intensities on the two pump lasers are much different, which enables us to manipulate the color emission by adjusting the two pump laser intensities, respectively. We present a theoretical model of Er{sup 3+} ions interacting with two fs laser fields, and explain well the experimental results.

  19. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Shen, Jun E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn; Wu, Jian-Feng; Yan, Li-Qin; Wang, Li-Chen; Sun, Ji-rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Gao, Xin-Qiang; Tang, Cheng-Chun E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn

    2014-02-21

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds have been investigated. All these compounds possess an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-paramagnetic (PM) transition around their respective Neel temperatures. The RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compounds undergo spin-glassy behavior above Neel temperature. Furthermore, a field-induced metamagnetic transition from AFM to ferromagnetic (FM) states is observed in these compounds. The calculated magnetic entropy changes show that all RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds, especially, ErCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} exhibits large MCEs with no thermal hysteresis and magnetic hysteresis loss. The value of −ΔS{sub M}{sup max} reaches 22.8 J/Kg K for magnetic field changes from 0 to 5 T. In particular, for field changes of 1 and 2 T, the giant reversible magnetic entropy changes −ΔS{sub M}{sup max} are 8.3 and 15.8 J/kg K at 2.5 K, which is lower than the boiling point of helium. The low-field giant magnetic entropy change, together with ignorable thermal hysteresis and field hysteresis loss of ErCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compound is expected to have effective applications in low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  20. Analysis of Hydraulic Responses from the ER-6-1 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2005-06-01

    This report documents the interpretation and analysis of the hydraulic data collected for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test-Tracer Test (MWAT-TT) conducted at the ER-6-1 Well Cluster in Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The MWAT-TT was performed to investigate CAU-scale groundwater flow and transport processes related to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the NTS through the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) Hydrostratigraphic Unit (HSU). The ER-6-1 MWAT-TT was planned and executed by contractor participants for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the Environmental Restoration (ER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Participants included Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor; Bechtel Nevada (BN); the Desert Research Institute (DRI); Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center. The SNJV team consists of the S.M. Stoller Corporation, Navarro Research and Engineering, Battelle Memorial Institute, INTERA Inc., and Weston Solutions, Inc. The MWAT-TT was implemented according to the ''Underground Test Area Project, ER-6-1 Multi-Well Aquifer Test - Tracer Test Plan'' (SNJV, 2004a) issued in April 2004. The objective of the aquifer test was to determine flow processes and local hydraulic properties for the LCA through long-term constant-rate pumping at the well cluster. This objective was to be achieved in conjunction with detailed sampling of the composite tracer breakthrough at the pumping well, as well as with depth-specific sampling and logging at multiple wells, to provide information for the depth-discrete analysis of formation hydraulic properties, particularly with regard to fracture properties.

  1. Bifunction in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghui; Yu, Jianding; Pan, Xiuhong; Cheng, Yuxing; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Novel BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} based glasses have been prepared by aerodynamic levitation. The obtained glasses show high thermal stability with T{sub g} = 763.3 C. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glasses show strong upconversion based on a two-photon process. Red emission is stronger than green emissions for EBT by high Yb{sup 3+} concentration. Magnetic ions are paramagnetic and the distribution is homogeneous in the glasses. - Abstract: Novel Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical glasses have been fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method. The thermal stability, upconversion luminescence, and magnetic properties of the present glass have been studied. The glasses show high thermal stability with 763.3 C of the onset temperature of the glass transition. Red and green emissions centered at 671 nm, 548 nm and 535 nm are obtained at 980 nm excitation. The upconversion is based on a two-photon process by energy transfer, excited-state absorption, and energy back transfer. Yb{sup 3+} ions are more than Er{sup 3+} ions in the glass, resulting in efficient energy back transfer from Er{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. So the red emission is stronger than the green emissions. Magnetization curves indicate that magnetic rare earth ions are paramagnetic and the distribution is homogeneous and random in the glass matrix. Aerodynamic levitation method is an efficient way to prepare glasses with homogeneous rare earth ions.

  2. Final report (Grant No. DOE DE-FG02-97ER62366) [Retrieval of cloud fraction and type using broadband diffuse and total shortwave irradiance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clothiaux, Eugene

    2001-05-17

    The primary research effort supported by Grant No. DOE DEFG02-97ER62366 titled ''Retrieval of Cloud Fraction and Type Using Broadband Diffuse and Total Shortwave Irradiance Measurements'' was application of clear-sky identification and cloud fraction estimation algorithms developed by Charles N. Long and Thomas P. Ackerman to the downwelling total, direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance measurements made at all of the central, boundary, and extended facilities of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SOP) site. Goals of the research were finalization and publication of the two algorithms in the peer-reviewed literature and operational application of them to all of aforementioned data streams from the ARM SGP site. The clear-sky identification algorithm was published as Long and Ackerman (2000) in the Journal of Geophysical Research, while a description of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm made it to the scientific literature as Long et al. (1999) in the Proceedings of the 10th American Meteorological Association Conference on Atmospheric Radiation held in Madison, Wisconsin. The cloud fraction estimation algorithm relies on empirical relationships between the outputs of the clear-sky identification algorithm and cloud fraction; as such, the cloud fraction estimation algorithm requires significant amounts of data both to properly develop the empirical relationships and to thoroughly test them. With this perspective in mind the major focus of our research efforts in the later half of the project became the operational implementation of the clear-sky identification algorithm on DOE ARM SGP data so that we could develop the data set necessary for final tuning of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm in research extending beyond the lifetime of the project.

  3. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  4. Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

    2010-06-01

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

  5. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses high kVp.

  6. miller-er-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction for Dry Bias in Vaisala Radiosonde RH Data E. R. Miller, J. Wang, and H. L. Cole National Center for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Technology Division Boulder, Colorado Abstract Extensive data analysis of sounding data from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) and other research projects coupled with supporting evidence from other sources have lead to the conclusion that there is a dry bias in Vaisala radiosonde relative

  7. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER25579; Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Miller, Gregory Hale

    2012-10-14

    Much of the work conducted under the auspices of DE-FG02-03ER25579 was characterized by an exceptionally close collaboration with researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). For example, Andy Nonaka, one of Professor Miller's graduate students in the Department of Applied Science at U. C. Davis (UCD) wrote his PhD thesis in an area of interest to researchers in the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG), which is a part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. Dr. Nonaka collaborated closely with these researchers and subsequently published the results of this collaboration jointly with them, one article in a peer reviewed journal article and one paper in the proceedings of a conference. Dr. Nonaka is now a research scientist in the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE), which is also part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. This collaboration with researchers at LBNL also included having one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the Graduate Group in Applied Mathematics (GGAM) at UCD, Sarah Williams, spend the summer working with Dr. Ann Almgren, who is a staff scientist in CCSE. As a result of this visit Sarah decided work on a problem suggested by the head of CCSE, Dr. John Bell, for her PhD thesis. Having finished all of the coursework and examinations required for a PhD, Sarah stayed at LBNL to work on her thesis under the guidance of Dr. Bell. Sarah finished her PhD thesis in June of 2007. Writing a PhD thesis while working at one of the University of California (UC) managed DOE laboratories is long established tradition at UC and Professor Puckett has always encouraged his students to consider doing this. Another one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the GGAM at UCD, Christopher Algieri, was partially supported with funds from DE-FG02-03ER25579 while he wrote his MS thesis in which he analyzed and extended work originally published by Dr. Phillip Colella, the head of ANAG, and some of his colleagues. Chris Algieri is now employed as a staff member in Dr. Bill Collins' Climate Science Department in the Earth Sciences Division at LBNL working with computational models of climate change. Finally, it should be noted that the work conducted by Professor Puckett and his students Sarah Williams and Chris Algieri and described in this final report for DOE grant # DE-FC02-03ER25579 is closely related to work performed by Professor Puckett and his students under the auspices of Professor Puckett's DOE SciDAC grant DE-FC02-01ER25473 An Algorithmic and Software Framework for Applied Partial Differential Equations: A DOE SciDAC Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC). Dr. Colella was the lead PI for this SciDAC grant, which was comprised of several research groups from DOE national laboratories and five university PI's from five different universities. In theory Professor Puckett tried to use funds from the SciDAC grant to support work directly involved in implementing algorithms developed by members of his research group at UCD as software that might be of use to Puckett's SciDAC CoPIs. (For example, see the work reported in Section 2.2.2 of this final report.) However, since there is considerable lead time spent developing such algorithms before they are ready to become `software' and research plans and goals change as the research progresses, Professor Puckett supported each member of his research group partially with funds from the SciDAC APDEC ISIC DE-FC02-01ER25473 and partially with funds from this DOE MICS grant DE-FC02-03ER25579. This has necessarily resulted in a significant overlap of project areas that were funded by both grants. In particular, both Sarah Williams and Chris Algieri were supported partially with funds from grant # DE-FG02-03ER25579, for which this is the final report, and in part with funds from Professor Puckett's DOE SciDAC grant # DE-FC02-01ER25473. For example, Sarah Williams received support from DE-FC02- 01ER25473 and DE-FC02-03ER25579, both while at UCD taking cla

  8. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  9. Syntheses, structure and rare earth metal photoluminescence of new and known isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohitkar, Shrikant A.; Kalpana, G.; Vidyasagar, K.

    2011-04-15

    Nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. They are isostructural with six reported analogues of yttrium and other lanthanides and the monoclinic unit cell parameters of all fifteen of them vary linearly with the size of A{sup 3+} ion. Single crystal X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds have been determined. Neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit characteristic rare earth metal photoluminescence. -- Graphical abstract: Among the fifteen isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=rare earth metal) molybdoantimonites, eight (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit neat characteristic lanthanide photoluminescence in the 200-800 nm range at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Syntheses of nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds. {yields} X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds. {yields} Photoluminescence of neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds.

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Liquid-Solid and Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Metals and Alloys, Grant DE-FG02-06ER46321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Stuart

    2012-09-27

    The research supported by ER46321 was designed to understand in microscopic detail the structures of the interfaces between liquid metals and alloys and solid media. The system chosen for study, because of detailed knowledge of the structure of the corresponding liquid alloy-vapor interface, was the interface between a Si crystal and a dilute alloy of Pb in Ga. Experimental study of the Si:PbGa interface was anticipated to be very difficult; it requires preparation of an interface between a liquid metal and a solid surface that is flat to better than a nanometer on the scale length of the x-ray coherence, alignment of the x-ray beam and the surface in the sub-micro radian regime, and the use of high energy x-rays to penetrate the window and reach the interface without disastrous loss of intensity. The experimental design was subject to compromises forced by the limit to the highest x-ray energy available at the ChemMatCARS beam-line, namely 30 keV, which reduced the scattered signal relative to what can be obtained with higher x-ray energy. Although considerable progress was achieved during the support period and its no-cost extension, the difficulties encountered prevented completion of the studies and the data collected are incomplete. These data hint at the existence of unexpected structural features of the interface, in particular that Pb dimers play an important role in the interfacial structure. These data provide a different picture of the interface from the pentagonal structure inferred to be present in the interface between pure Pb and Si 001 (Nature 408, 839 (2000)), but much like the Ga dimers in the interface between liquid Ga and the 100 face of diamond (Nature 390, 379 (1997), J. Chem. Phys. 123, 104703 (2005)). However, during the latter part of the support period significant progress was made in the theoretical description of the liquid metal-crystal interface. In particular, stimulated by the results of an experimental study of the interface between liquid Hg and the reconstructed (0001) face of sapphire, we developed an extension of the self-consistent quantum Monte Carlo scheme previously used to study the structure of the liquid metal-vapor interface. The calculated density distribution is in very good agreement with that inferred from the experimental data. We conclude, contrary to the original interpretation offered by Tamam et al (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, I, 1041-1045), thast to account for the difference in structure between the liquid Hg-vapor and liquid Hg-reconstructed (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces it is not necessary to assume there is charge transfer from the Hg to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Rather, the available experimental data are adequately reproduced when the van der Waals interaction of the Al and O atoms with Hg atoms and the exclusion of the electron density from the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via repulsion of the electrons from the closed shells of the ions in the solid are accounted for. We believe this interpretation will be applicable to a wide range of liquid metal-crystal interfaces.

  11. Luminescence properties of light-emitting diodes based on GaAs with the up-conversion Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Er,Yb luminophor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzintsev, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Microelectronics Technology (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gran@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Barthou, C.; Benalloul, P. [Institute des NanoSciences (France)

    2008-03-15

    Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S luminophors doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are produced by means of solid-phase synthesis and deposited onto standard AL123A infrared light-emitting diodes. When excited with 940 nm radiation from a light-emitting diode, the structures exhibit intense visible up-conversion luminescence. A maximal brightness of 2340 cd/m{sup 2} of green and red up-conversion luminescence at corresponding wavelengths around 550 and 600 nm is observed for the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S compound doped with 2 at % Er{sup 3+} ions and 6 at % Yb{sup 3+} ions. The ratio of the intensity of green (or red) up-conversion luminescence to the intensity of infrared Stokes luminescence increases with increasing applied voltage. The efficiency of visible emission of the light-emitting diode structures is {eta} = 1.2 lm/W at an applied voltage of 1.5 V.

  12. Final report for Texas A&M University Group Contribution to DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data (and ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A&M University and University of Utah)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas, Joseph Maurice

    2013-02-27

    We summarize the contributions of the Texas A\\&M University Group to the project (DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data - an ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A\\&M U, and U Utah) during 6/9/2011 -- 2/27/2013.

  13. Final Report for U.S. DOE GRANT No. DEFG02-96ER41015 November 1, 2010 - April 30, 2013 entitled HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATOR AND COLLIDING BEAM USER GROUP at the UNIVERSITY of MARYLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Nicholas; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Eno, Sarah C; Skuja, Andris; Baden, Andrew; Roberts, Douglas

    2013-07-26

    We have #12;finished the third year of a three year grant cycle with the U.S. Department of Energy for which we were given a #12;five month extension (U.S. D.O.E. Grant No. DEFG02-96ER41015). This document is the fi#12;nal report for this grant and covers the period from November 1, 2010 to April 30, 2013. The Maryland program is administered as a single task with Professor Nicholas Hadley as Principal Investigator. The Maryland experimental HEP group is focused on two major research areas. We are members of the CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN working on the physics of the Energy Frontier. We are also analyzing the data from the Babar experiment at SLAC while doing design work and R&D towards a Super B experiment as part of the Intensity Frontier. We have recently joined the LHCb experiment at CERN. We concluded our activities on the D#31; experiment at Fermilab in 2009.

  14. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth ? and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosov vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.

  15. Cascade Sierra Solutions CSS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    organization dedicated to saving fuel and reducing emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. Coordinates: 50.263202, 10.966202 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  17. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William R.; Cassano, Anthony A.; Dunbobbin, Brian R.; Rao, Pradip; Erickson, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange.

  18. Cascade Natural Gas- Commercial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Incentives are only valid if the new equipment provides a significant efficiency increase over existing equipment. Customers requesting site-specific energy efficiency measures must submit...

  19. Cascades Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    years) thick mafic lava flows, primarily of andesitic composition are associated with ash flows, tuffs, and silicic intrusive bodies and stocks that decrease in age eastward to...

  20. Quantum cascade laser investigations of CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} interconversion in hydrocarbon/H{sub 2} gas mixtures during microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jie; Cheesman, Andrew; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Hay, Kenneth G.; Wright, Stephen; Langford, Nigel; Duxbury, Geoffrey; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2009-08-01

    CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules (and their interconversion) in hydrocarbon/rare gas/H{sub 2} gas mixtures in a microwave reactor used for plasma enhanced diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been investigated by line-of-sight infrared absorption spectroscopy in the wavenumber range of 1276.5-1273.1 cm{sup -1} using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer. Parameters explored include process conditions [pressure, input power, source hydrocarbon, rare gas (Ar or Ne), input gas mixing ratio], height (z) above the substrate, and time (t) after addition of hydrocarbon to a pre-existing Ar/H{sub 2} plasma. The line integrated absorptions so obtained have been converted to species number densities by reference to the companion two-dimensional (r,z) modeling of the CVD reactor described in Mankelevich et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113304 (2008)]. The gas temperature distribution within the reactor ensures that the measured absorptions are dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules in the cool periphery of the reactor. Nonetheless, the measurements prove to be of enormous value in testing, tensioning, and confirming the model predictions. Under standard process conditions, the study confirms that all hydrocarbon source gases investigated (methane, acetylene, ethane, propyne, propane, and butane) are converted into a mixture dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The interconversion between these two species is highly dependent on the local gas temperature and the H atom number density, and thus on position within the reactor. CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion occurs most efficiently in an annular shell around the central plasma (characterized by 1400CH{sub 4} is favored in the more distant regions where T{sub gas}<1400 K. Analysis of the multistep interconversion mechanism reveals substantial net consumption of H atoms accompanying the CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion, whereas the reverse C{sub 2}H{sub 2}->CH{sub 4} process only requires H atoms to drive the reactions; H atoms are not consumed by the overall conversion.

  1. doe-er-0494t.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  2. Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/64323

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valocchi, Albert J. University of Illinois, Dept of Civil & Environ Engr

    2013-06-05

    The DOE SciDAC program funded a team that developed PFLOTRAN, the next-generation (â??peta-scaleâ??) massively parallel, multiphase, multicomponent reactive flow and transport code. These codes are required to improve understanding and risk management of subsurface contaminant migration and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The important fate and transport processes occurring in the subsurface span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and involve nonlinear interactions among many different chemical constituents. Due to the complexity of this problem, modeling subsurface processes normally requires simplifying assumptions. However, tools of advanced scientific computing that have been used in other areas such as energy and materials research can also help address challenging problems in the environmental and geoscience fields. The overall project was led by Los Alamos National Laboratory and included Argonne, Oak Ridge and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, in addition to the University of Illinois. This report summarizes the results of the research done at the University of Illinois, which focused on improvements to the underlying physical and computational modeling of certain transport and mixing processes.

  3. Final Report for DOE Award ER25756

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesselman, Carl

    2014-11-17

    The SciDAC-funded Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) was established to address technical challenges that arise due to the frequent geographic distribution of data producers (in particular, supercomputers and scientific instruments) and data consumers (people and computers) within the DOE laboratory system. Its goal is to produce technical innovations that meet DOE end-user needs for (a) rapid and dependable placement of large quantities of data within a distributed high-performance environment, and (b) the convenient construction of scalable science services that provide for the reliable and high-performance processing of computation and data analysis requests from many remote clients. The Center is also addressing (c) the important problem of troubleshooting these and other related ultra-high-performance distributed activities from the perspective of both performance and functionality

  4. NASA is operating two Lockheed ER-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mis- sion Directorate. The aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources,...

  5. FinalReport_01ER41190.dvi

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. ...

  6. Final Scientific Report for ER41087

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiller, John R.

    2013-08-23

    The primary focus of the work was the development of methods for the nonperturbative solution of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in a form that yields wave functions for the eigenstates, from which hadronic properties can be computed. The principal approach was to use a light-front Hamiltonian formulation. In light-front coordinates, t+z/c plays the role of time, with t the ordinary time, z a space direction, and c the speed of light. This leads to a relativistic formulation that retains useful characteristics of nonrelativistic treatments. A bound state of many constituents can be represented by wave functions that define probabilities for each possible arrangement of internal momenta. These functions satisfy integral equations that can be approximated numerically to yield a matrix representation. The matrix problem can be solved by iterative methods. The approximate wave functions can then be used to compute properties of the bound state. Methods have been developed for model theories and gauge theories, including quantum electrodynamics and theories that are supersymmetric. The work has required the development of new numerical algorithms and computer codes for singular integral equations and eigenvalue problems. A key aspect of the work is the construction of practical procedures for nonperturbative regularization and renormalization. Two methods of regularization have been studied. One is the addition of heavy Pauli--Villars (PV) particles to the Lagrangian, with their metrics and couplings tuned to provide the necessary cancellations in the regularization. The other method of regularization is the addition of supersymmetric partners, to extend a theory to a supersymmetric form. The supersymmetric theories were solved by the supersymmetric discrete light-cone quantization (SDLCQ) method. The most significant accomplishments of the project were the SDLCQ calculation of direct evidence for a Maldacena duality conjecture, construction of a practical light-front quantization for QED in an arbitrary covariant gauge, and invention of the light-front coupled-cluster method, designed to eliminate the need for Fock-space truncations.

  7. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lindberg, Mary E.; Wei Qingyi; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  8. Size and charge effects of dopant M on the unit-cell parameters of monoclinic zirconia solid solutions Zr{sub 0.98}M{sub 0.02}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} (M = Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Y, Er, Yb, Sc, Mg, Ca)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Kakihana, Masato; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Hirose, Teruo; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of monoclinic phase [P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4] has been refined by the Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data to study the size and charge effects of dopant M{sup n+} on the unit-cell parameters of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}-2 mol% MO{sub n/2} solid solutions (n = 4 for M = Ce; n = 3 for M = La, Nd, Sm, Y, Er, Yb, Sc; and n = 2 for M = Mg and Ca). For trivalent dopant (n = 3), the unit-cell parameters a{sub m}, b{sub m}, c{sub m} and unit-cell volume increase and {beta}{sub m} decreases with an increase of dopant size. Unit-cell volume increases with increasing of dopant charge n.

  9. Cascade Natural Gas- Conservation Incentives for Existing Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying measures must be purchased and installed by December 31 of the current calendar year and applications must be postmarked no later than March 1 of the following calendar year.

  10. Cascade Natural Gas- Conservation Incentives for New Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying measures must be purchased and installed by December 31 of the current calendar year and applications must be postmarked no later than March 1 of the following calendar year.

  11. CASCADED USES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Paul Brophy EGS, Inc. & GRC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2,700 TJyr (2,500 GBtuyr) * Blue Lagoon visited by 200,000 touristyr BAD BLUMAU, AUSTRIA * Well water at 110 o C (230 o F) * 250 kW binary (ORMAT) cycle plant * 180 kW net * ...

  12. Canby Cascaded Project Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ectangles":,"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":,"controls":"pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview","zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoi...

  13. Gyrokinetic turbulence cascade via predator-prey interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email...

  14. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 97 MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND COMPUTING; ALGORITHMS; FORECASTING; MATHEMATICS; COMPUTER...

  15. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D. (Vernon, CT); Biederman, Bruce P. (West Hartford, CT); Brasz, Joost J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  16. Inclusive Rates and Spectra of the Lambda, Cascade, and Omega...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    process, currently one of the unresolved problem areas in the standard model of particle physics. This analysis was conducted using codes from release 16 series. We...

  17. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent EnergyInfrastructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Natural Gas(03) Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full Text View Full...

  18. Cascade-Chipita Park, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chipita Park, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 38.9498727, -105.0031457 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  19. High-efficiency cascaded up and down conversion in nonlinear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 23; Journal ... Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text Publisher's ...

  20. Molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Samolyuk, German D. 1 ; Osetskiy, Yury N. 1 ; Stoller, Roger E. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States) ...

  1. Features of primary damage by high energy displacement cascades...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for ORCID "0000000153327128" ; Lu, Chenyang 2 ; Osetskiy, Yuri N. 1 ; Samolyuk, German D. 1 ; Caro, Alfredo 3 ; Wang, Lumin 2 ; Stoller, Roger E. 1 + Show Author ...

  2. MHK Technologies/Oscillating Cascade Power System OCPS | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    current A 60 overall water to wire efficiency was demonstrated at the proof of concept test and 65 or better overall efficiency is projected using the new engineering advances...

  3. Cascades with Adjoint Matter: Adjoint Transitions (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stanford U., Phys. Dept. SLAC Publication Date: 2013-06-18 OSTI Identifier: 1084307 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15602 arXiv:1009.0023 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource...

  4. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  5. An interaction model for simulation and mitigation of cascading...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors Qi, J, Sun, K, S., M Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Volume 30 Start Page 804 Issue 2 Pagination 15 Abstract...

  6. Using Cascade Multilevel Inverters Fang Zheng Peng, Senior Member...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inverters Fang Zheng Peng, Senior Member, IEEE University of Tennessee, Knoxville Oak ... with phase Jih-Sheng Lai, Senior Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Engineering ...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Cascades Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  8. Parametric reflection upon cascade interaction of focused optical beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanov, V E; Sukhorukov, A P; Sukhorukova, A K

    2008-10-31

    The parametric reflection of a signal beam in the waist of the reference pump beam upon mismatched three-frequency interaction in a quadratically nonlinear medium is discussed. The critical angle of total internal reflection from the induced defocusing channel is found as a function of the beam waist parameters. It is shown that when the reference beam is focused, this angle increases and some distortions are introduced into the reflected wave due to a finite length of the waist. The modification of the cross section of a wave reflected from a convex parametric mirror is analysed. The optimal beam focusing geometry is found at which the distortions of the shape and divergence of the reflected wave are minimal. Under certain conditions, the signal wave also flows around a cylindrical inhomogeneity produced by the axially symmetric pump beam. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are in good agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Duality cascade of softly broken supersymmetric theories (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan) Department of...

  10. Nonlinear Trivelpiece--Gould waves: Recurrence, harmonic cascade, and sidebands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.C.; Lapao, L.M.; Mendonca, J.T. )

    1993-03-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of Trivelpiece--Gould waves propagating in a magnetized plasma column is presented in this paper. In the experiments, these waves are excited by a radio frequency (rf) source, which also serves to create the plasma. Observation of nonlinear effects includes space and time recurrence effects, a wave spectrum containing a large number (up to 25) harmonics, and low-frequency sidebands. The theoretical model explains the recurrence effects as a consequence of multiple nonlinear interactions between the fundamental wave and its harmonics. A good agreement is found between theory and the experiments.

  11. Electrorheological (ER) fluids: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, I.M.; Collins, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report consists of seven sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Introduction, (3) Overview, (4) Recommendations, (5) Panelist Reports, (6) Overseas Research and Development, and (7) Extended Bibliography. The Appendix contains the reports of site visits and contacts and other supplementary documents.

  12. Final Technical Report. FG02-06ER54881

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Peter; Larbalestier, David

    2014-09-26

    For over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center has been integral to the successful development of superconductors for magnetic confinement fusion reactors, culminating in being a part of the dream team assembled by the ITER Organization to address the failure of prototype ITER cable-in-conduit conductors to pass testing in the SULTAN facility, an issue that if not addressed successfully would have limited the useful lifetime of the reactor. While being called on through the years to address the immediate needs of facility construction we also continued fundamental studies of fusion applicable superconductors so that magnet designers could make use of improved performance, reliability and cost. The annual Low Temperature Superconductors workshops, jointly organized with LBNL, became the most important meeting for dissemination of data between university laboratories, national laboratories and industry.

  13. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is to inform Chicago Operations Office management concerning matters that came to the attention of the Office of Inspector General during the audit at the Chicago Operations...

  14. Final report on DOE ASCR Grant DESC0001862 (ER25894)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tits, Andre L; O'Leary, Dianne P

    2013-08-28

    As was outlined in the proposal, the overall objective of this project is to investigate advanced optimization algorithms for solving entropy maximization problems. Entropy maximization is a general tool for reconstructing the least biased estimate of the state of a complex system, based on available information. In transport and kinetic theory, entropy maximization is used to derive closures for moment models in order to reduce the complexity of a kinetic description while maintaining many of its fundamental features. Application areas include gas dynamics, charged-particle transport, thermal radiative transfer, and neutron transport. Some such applications are of prime importance to the Department of Energy.

  15. CX-00042_ER52_Fire_Station_Warning_Signals.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. DOE Award # FC02-07ER25812 Final ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... benefits of a CCA environment, and showed interest in using CCA tools and techniques. However, that work was never performed because of the early termination of the TASCS project. ...

  17. Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: solar (photovoltaic), solid state lighting, phonons, thermoelectric, bio-inspired, energy storage (including ...

  18. DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change

  19. DOE Grant DE-FG02-01ER45931

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Korea University, Seoul, Korea, April 27, 2010. V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein, Organic Spintronics, Colloquium, Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 21, 2010. V.N. ...

  20. 02-10ER85986 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of oil from water-wet Osorb. The project team demonstrated that other low boiling gases (LPG liquefied petroleum gas and refrigerant R134a) are suitable for use in the...

  1. ER85357_Phase2_Eltron | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solids from produced water originating from domestic oil and gas production. Treated water can be re-used in the extraction process without coolingre-heating costs or can be...

  2. DOE DE-FG02-07ER64341

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer were analyzed for gene expression using ... Ionizing Radiation Exposure," Clinical Cancer Research, 12, 3723-3729. Lehmann, Joerg, ...

  3. Microsoft Word - ER64694_FInalScientificRpt.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... C. To validate predicted metabolic potentials by 13C based metabolic flux analysis. II. To develop genetic tools for facile metabolic manipulation of Cyanothece. III.To use ...

  4. Audit Report: ER-B-99-04

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Credit Card Usage at the Ohio Field Office and the Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects

  5. final.ER41452.az.burrows.2007.pdf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    i n a l R e p o r t o n t h e A r i z o n a P h a s e o f S c i D A C a w a r d D E - F C 0 2 - 0 6 E R 4 1 4 5 2 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a A . B u r r o w s 1 1 . I N T R O D U C T I O N T h i s d e c u r a n t s e r \ e s a s t h e f i n a l r e p c c t f o r t h e A r i z o n a p h a s e ( D E - F Q 3 2 - 0 6 E R 4 1 4 5 2 ) o f m y S c iD A C a w a r d ( e n title d " S c iD A C C o m p u t a t i o n a l A s t r o p h y s i c s C o n s o r t i u m " ( C A C )

  6. Audit report: ER-FS-99-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Matters Identified At The Oak Ridge Operations Office During the Audit Of The Department's Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  7. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Matters Identified at the Savannah River Operations Office During the Audit of the Department of Energy's Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  8. ERS 14.2 Emissions Monitoring, 4/3/95

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to verify that the contractor is monitoring emissions of radioactive materials and chemicals.  The Facility Representative will verify operability of equipment...

  9. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-01

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of Audit Procedures Performed at Chicago Operations Office During the Audit of the Department’s Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  10. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-04

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of Audit Procedures Performed at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve During the Audit of the Department’s Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  11. HOt Water SavEr (HOWSE) Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, W.R.

    1981-12-31

    The dishwasher effluent is pumped into the flue of the exchange tank by the normal dishwasher pump (or auxiliary pump). The effluent is stored in this tank until next operation of the dishwasher. Thus, thermal equilibrium can be reached between the tank and the effluent, promoting high efficiency. The output from the exchange tank feeds the household normal hot water tank, reducing its requirement for fuel as the input water temperature is higher. Counterflow exchangers may be used for other hot water users where the flow and drain is continuous. In this case the discharged hot (or warm) water flows counter to the flow of cold water into the hot water heater. The two flows are closely coupled thermally but not in direct contract so they cannot mix. Counter flow exchangers and storage type exchangers may be used in the same installation.

  12. Grant No. DE-FG03-86ER-13469

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 J Vibrational Spectra of Isomers of C1&: The Role of the Chlorine Oxide Dimer in A - -tic Ozone Depleting Mechanisms", J. Phys. Chem, 94,6126 (1990). McGrath, M. P. and Rowland,...

  13. ER CXD-Form-2011_Ver2a.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Refining Project (4624 (Rev.1)) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge Anderson County Tennessee The purpose of this project is to install and turnover to operations a process...

  14. FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-07ER15894

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neurock, Matthew

    2013-05-31

    One of the greatest technological hurdles to deployment of fuel cells relates to the sluggish activity, low durability and the high cost of the catalysts that are currently employed. For automotive PEM fuel cells to become commercially viable, the Pt-specific power density would need to be reduced to less than 0.2gPt/kW (at cell voltages >0.65 V). This would require the Pt loadings to be less than 0.15 mgPt/cm2MEA within the membrane electrode assembly. This could be achieved by enhancing the catalytic activity at the cathode, thus lowering its overpotential. Various different Pt-alloys have shown 2-4 times enhanced activities over Pt alone but still suffer some of the same durability issues as that of the pure Pt. There is a general loss of active Pt due to dissolution and sintering. While there have been a number of elegant fundamental experimental and theoretical studies on ideal single crystal Pt and Pt alloy surfaces which have helped to elucidate the factors that control the activity, there have been very few fundamental studies focused on the stability, reactivity and durability of well-defined Pt nanoparticles. We carried out ab initio density functional theory together with a novel double reference method that we developed to simulate constant potential electrochemical systems in order to model the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen over model Pt alloy surfaces and nanoparticles. These simulations were used to probe the factors that control the electrocatalytic activity, guide the potential selection of new materials and test their stability under reaction conditions. Ab initio calculations were used to determine the reaction energies and activation barriers for a comprehensive array of different elementary adsorption, desorption, surface reaction and diffusion steps over Pt and Pt alloys involved in the electroreduction of oxygen as a function of surface coverage, the electrochemical potential and temperature. The calculations were used to simulate the potential dependent adsorption and surface reaction energies along with activation barriers in order to determine the kinetics for different surface structures and structural features (step edge and corner sites) to provide the necessary input for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to follow the rates of reaction. More coarse-grained simulated annealing methods were used to help establish the lowest energy structures and morphologies for different Pt and Pt-alloy nanoparticles that form. The results from the DFT calculations were used to establish an ab initio-derived kinetic database that was used in both 2D and 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that were used to follow the electrocatalytic performance over different particle sizes, shapes and compositions. The ab initio calculations together with the kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to complete the following objectives: 1) Determine the controlling elementary reaction pathways and intrinsic kinetics involved in ORR and their potential dependent behavior; 2) Establish the influence of the extrinsic reaction environment including surface structure, alloy composition and spatial arrangement and the humidity on ORR kinetics; 3) Elucidate the effects of particle size and morphology as well as the atomic structure and composition of nanoparticles of Pt, Pt3Co, Pt3Ni, Pt3Fe and other Pt-alloys on the electrocatalytic activity and reaction selectivity; 5) Construct surface Pourbaix phase diagrams for different Pt and Pt-alloys in order to map out the most stable surface phases for different material compositions and reaction conditions; 6) Elucidate the mechanisms that control dissolution and re-deposition of Pt.

  15. The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (c) 2010 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved. Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ...

  16. Final Technical Report: DE-FG03-01ER63099/DE-FG02-01ER63099

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Seinfeld

    2005-02-23

    Organic material contributes {approx}20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes (Saxena and Hildemann, 1996; Murphy et al., 1998; Peterson and Tyler, 2002; Putaud et al., 2004) and as much as 90% in tropical forested areas (Andreae and Crutzen, 1997; Artaxo et al., 2002). Significant amounts of carbonaceous aerosols are also observed in the free troposphere (Heald et al., 2005). A substantial fraction of the organic component of atmospheric particles consists of water-soluble, possibly multifunctional compounds (Saxena and Hildemann, 1996; Kavouras et al., 1998). It is critical that we understand how organic aerosols and their precursors are transformed in the atmosphere and the dependence of the transformation on the chemical and thermodynamic conditions of the ambient environment: (1) to accurately forecast how changing emissions will impact atmospheric organic aerosol concentrations and properties on the regional to global scale, and (2) to relate atmospheric measurements to sources. A large (but as yet unquantified) fraction of organic aerosol is formed in the atmosphere by precursor gases. In addition, both primary and secondary organic aerosol interact with other gas and aerosol species in the atmosphere so that their properties (i.e., size, hygroscopicity, light absorption and scattering sphere efficiency) can change significantly with time and distance from their source. Organic aerosols (OA) are composed of complex mixtures of different organic species from less-polar organics (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, etc.) to highly polar organics such as dicarboxylic acids and multi-functional organic acids. Studies employing FTIR spectroscopy and NEXAFS have demonstrated the presence of different functional groups such as ketonic and carboxylic groups. Humic-like substances (HULIS) have been identified in aerosols. Field observation and laboratory smog chamber studies have demonstrated that oxidative reactions of biogenic and anthropogenic precursors in the gas phase produce low molecular weight organic acids such as oxalic and other dicarboxylic acids, dicarbonyls and multi-functional organics. Oxidation reactions in the particle phase may also produce oxygenated species, including aldehydes, organic acids, and large molecules such as HULIS. Despite this progress, a significant fraction of atmospheric OA still remains poorly characterized.

  17. Anticancer effect of genistein on BG-1 ovarian cancer growth induced by 17 ?-estradiol or bisphenol A via the suppression of the crosstalk between estrogen receptor alpha and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Kang, Nam-Hee; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of and resistance to endocrine therapy to estrogen dependent cancers. Estrogen (E2) upregulates the expression of components of IGF-1 system and induces the downstream of mitogenic signaling cascades via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). In the present study, we evaluated the xenoestrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA) and antiproliferative activity of genistein (GEN) in accordance with the influence on this crosstalk. BPA was determined to affect this crosstalk by upregulating mRNA expressions of ER? and IGF-1R and inducing phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in protein level in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells as E2 did. In the mouse model xenografted with BG-1 cells, BPA significantly increased a tumor burden of mice and expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and cyclin D1 in tumor mass compared to vehicle, indicating that BPA induces ovarian cancer growth by promoting the crosstalk between ER and IGF-1R signals. On the other hand, GEN effectively reversed estrogenicity of BPA by reversing mRNA and protein expressions of ER?, IGF-1R, pIRS-1, and pAkt induced by BPA in cellular model and also significantly decreased tumor growth and in vivo expressions of ER?, pIRS-1, and pAkt in xenografted mouse model. Also, GEN was confirmed to have an antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptotic signaling cascades. Taken together, these results suggest that GEN effectively reversed the increased proliferation of BG-1 ovarian cancer by suppressing the crosstalk between ER? and IGF-1R signaling pathways upregulated by BPA or E2.

  18. Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 ???????????????¢???????????????????????????????? 14 May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon Bouffler

    2010-07-28

    This report provides a complete summary of the work undertaken and results obtained under US Department of Energy grant DF-FG02-05 ER 63947, Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses. There is ample epidemiological evidence indicating that ionizing radiation is carcinogenic in the higher dose range. This evidence, however, weakens and carries increasing uncertainties at doses below 100-200 mSv. At these low dose levels the form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancer cannot be determined reliably or directly from studies of human populations. Therefore animal, cellular and other experimental systems must be employed to provide supporting evidence on which to base judgements of risk at low doses. Currently in radiological protection a linear non-threshold (LNT) extrapolation of risk estimates derived from human epidemiological studies is used to estimate risks in the dose range of interest for protection purposes. Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation (eg UNSCEAR 2006; IARC 2000). Good animal models of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are available including strains such as CBA, RFM and SJL (eg Major and Mole 1978; Ullrich et al 1976; Resnitzky et al 1985). Early mechanistic studies using cytogenetic methods in these mouse models established that the majority of radiation-induced AMLs carried substantial interstitial deletions in one copy of chromosome (chr) 2 (eg Hayata et al 1983; Trakhtenbrot et al 1988; Breckon et al 1991; Rithidech et al 1993; Bouffler et al 1996). Chr2 aberrations are known to occur in bone marrow cells as early as 24 hours after in vivo irradiation (Bouffler et al 1997). Subsequent molecular mapping studies defined a distinct region of chr2 that is commonly lost in AMLs (Clark et al 1996; Silver et al 1999). Further, more detailed, analysis identified point mutations at a specific region of the Sfpi1/PU.1 haemopoietic transcription factor gene which lies in the commonly deleted region of chr2 (Cook et al 2004; Suraweera et al 2005). These lines of evidence strongly implicate the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene as a tumour suppressor gene, dysregulation of which leads to myeloid leukaemia. The main focus of this project was to utilize the CBA mouse model of radiation leukaemogenesis to explore mechanisms of low dose and low dose-rate leukaemogenesis. A series of mechanistic investigations were undertaken, the central aim of which was to identify the events that convert normal cells into myeloid leukaemia cells and explore the dose-response relationships for these. Much of the work centred on the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene and its role in leukaemogenesis. Specific studies considered the dose-response and time-course relationships for loss of the gene, the functional consequences of Sfpi1/PU.1 loss and mutation on transcriptional programmes and developing an in vivo reporter gene system for radiation-induced alterations to PU.1 expression. Additional work sought further genetic changes associated with radiation-induced AMLs and a better characterization of the cell of origin or 'target cell' for radiation-induced AML. All the information gathered is of potential use in developing biologically realistic mathematical models for low dose cancer risk projection.

  19. Inverse Cascade of Non-helical Magnetic Turbulence in a Relativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: National Science Foundation (NSF);US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Astrophysics,ASTRO Word Cloud ...

  20. Localness of energy cascade in a hydrodynamic turbulence, I. Smooth coarse-graining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to scale-decomposition of the fluid kinetic energy (or other quadratic integrals) into band-pass contributions from a series of length-scales. Our decomposition is based on a multiscale generalization of the 'Germano identity' for smooth, graded filter kernels. We employ this method to derive a budget equation that describes the transfers of turbulent kinetic energy both in space and in scale. It is shown that the inter-scale energy transfer is dominated by local triadic interactions, assuming only the scaling properties expected in a turbulent inertial-range. We derive rigorous upper bounds on the contributions of non-local triads, extending the work of Eyink (2005) for low-pass filtering. We also propose a physical explanation of the differing exponents for our rigorous upper bounds and for the scaling predictions of Kraichnan (1966,1971). The faster decay predicted by Kraichnan is argued to be the consequence of additional cancellations in the signed contributions to transfer from non-local triads, after averaging over space. This picture is supported by data from a 512 pseudospectral simulation of Navier-Stokes turbulence with phase-shift dealiasing.

  1. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, William R. [Orinda, CA

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  2. Inverse Cascade of Non-helical Magnetic Turbulence in a Relativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Astrophysics,ASTRO Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View...

  3. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures. Gas-Grid Coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Lebedev, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2014-09-05

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  4. High average power scaling of optical parametric amplification through cascaded difference-frequency generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-09-14

    A first pump pulse and a signal pulse are injected into a first optical parametric amplifier. This produces a first amplified signal pulse. At least one additional pump pulse and the first amplified signal pulse are injected into at least one additional optical parametric amplifier producing an increased power coherent optical pulse.

  5. Role of {Sigma}5, (210), [001] CSL boundary on displacement cascade in bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandi, Prithwish K.; Dholakia, Manan; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2012-06-05

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand the role of grain boundaries (GB) on radiation damage in bcc Fe bicrystal. The calculations were performed for a {Sigma}5, (210), [001] symmetric tilt grain boundary for different cases where the primary knock-on atom (PKA) is placed at distances of a{sub csl}, to 15a{sub csl}, from the grain boundary plane. Here, a{sub csl}, is lattice parameter of the coincidence site lattice. Present study shows that the influence of GB on the numbers of surviving defects within a grain is confined within a distance, d{sub opt} < 9a{sub csl}. Our studies also indicate that the grain boundary acts as a reservoir for defects.

  6. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true for the prompt optical emission observed in several bursts. ...

  7. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer; Chen, Gang; Chen, I-chun Anderson

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N{sub 2}O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10?ppb, which corresponds to a 15?pg of HMX.

  8. Cascading elastic perturbation in Japan due to the 2012 Mw 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Delorey, A. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Chao, K.; Obara, K.

    2015-10-02

    Since the discovery of extensive earthquake triggering occurring in response to the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, it is now well established that seismic waves from earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes, tremor, slow slip, and pore pressure changes. Our contention is that earthquake triggering is one manifestation of a more widespread elastic disturbance that reveals information about Earth’s stress state. Earth’s stress state is central to our understanding of both natural and anthropogenic-induced crustal processes. Here we present that seismic waves from distant earthquakes may perturb stresses and frictional properties on faults and elastic moduli of the crust in cascadingmore » fashion. Transient dynamic stresses place crustal material into a metastable state during which material recovers through a process termed slow dynamics. This observation of widespread, dynamically induced elastic perturbation, including systematic migration of offshore seismicity, strain transients, and velocity transients, presents a new characterization of Earth’s elastic system that will advance our understanding of plate tectonics, seismicity, and seismic hazards.« less

  9. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors. 1 fig.

  10. Final Report for DOE Project Number: DE-FG02-05ER46241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang Chen; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Costas P. Grigoropoulos; Samuel S. Mao; Xiaodong Xiang; Taofang Zeng

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen storage is the most challenging task for the hydrogen economy. We established a multidisciplinary research program for high throughput combinatorial synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous and metastable complex hydrides, coupled to fundamental material studies including electronic, structural and kinetic transport modeling, and pump-probe experiments. Our research is based the concept of hybrid nanostructures that store hydrogen by a combination of chemi- and physorption: atomic hydrogen is stored in metastable hydrides while molecule hydrogen is stored in the nanometer pores of the hydrides. Metastable nanostructured hydride has been achieved by introducing structural and compositional disorders through high throughput elemental substitution/doping, catalyst addition, and nonequilibrium processing. Fast screening compatible with the combinatorial synthesis was achieved by combining X-ray structural characterization with the development of a laser-based microbalance. Manufacturing of nanoporous metahydrides that are identified as promising by the combinatorial synthesis has been explored along with the materials search.

  11. Materials Data on Er3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. FINAL REPORT Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon DE-FG03-94ER20151

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and in the interactions between plants and their environment, including gravity, wind, microorganisms, and insects. Having produced the first quantitative evidence of...

  13. Final technical report on Award No. DE-FG02-92ER45465

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, C. Barry

    2003-06-18

    The motivation of the previous program was to develop methods which could be used in a systematic study of the interface between glass and crystalline oxides. It was recognized that since the mechanical properties of glass-containing oxides are particularly important, it would be desirable to have a method which would also allow a systematic comparison of the mechanical properties of the materials. We found that the geometry of a glass film on a crystalline surface gave several new possibilities: we could develop methods for examining the mechanical properties of the films and the interfaces and we could examine both the crystallization of glass films and their wetting/dewetting behavior. Also, the samples are amenable to examination by the characterization techniques which give information on the chemistry and structure over a wide range of length scales: both chemistry and crystallography can be controlled and changes monitored.

  14. Tunable cw laser action of Er sup 3+ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heumann, E.; Ledig, M.; Ehrt, D.; Seeber, W. ); Duczynski, E.W.; v.d. Heide, H.J.; Huber, G. )

    1989-10-20

    An efficient energy transfer from chromium via ytterbium to erbium are reported together with the first observation of lasing in fluoroaluminate glass. Lasing can be obtained in only low erbium concentrations. (AIP)

  15. Materials Data on ErGe (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Audit Report: ER-B-00-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a make-or-buy analysis, whether their services could be obtained at a lower cost by outsourcing to commercial entities. The objective of the audit was to determine whether...

  17. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry & Biophysics, P. Leslie Dutton Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United ...

  18. SERDP ER-1421 Abiotic and Biotic Mechanisms Controlling In Situ Remediation of NDMA: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.; Thompson, Karen T.

    2009-09-30

    This laboratory-scale project was initiated to investigate in situ abiotic/biotic mineralization of NDMA. Under iron-reducing conditions, aquifer sediments showed rapid abiotic NDMA degradation to dimethylamine (DMA), nitrate, formate, and finally, CO2. These are the first reported experiments of abiotic NDMA mineralization. The NDMA reactivity of these different iron phases showed that adsorbed ferrous iron was the dominant reactive phase that promoted NDMA reduction, and other ferrous phases present (siderite, iron sulfide, magnetite, structural ferrous iron in 2:1 clays) did not promote NDMA degradation. In contrast, oxic sediments that were biostimulated with propane promoted biomineralization of NDMA by a cometabolic monooxygenase enzyme process. Other monooxygenase enzyme processes were not stimulated with methane or toluene additions, and acetylene addition did not block mineralization. Although NDMA mineralization extent was the highest in oxic, biostimulated sediments (30 to 82%, compared to 10 to 26% for abiotic mineralization in reduced sediments), large 1-D column studies (high sediment/water ratio of aquifers) showed 5.6 times higher NDMA mineralization rates in reduced sediment (half-life 410 147 h) than oxic biomineralization (half life 2293 1866 h). Sequential reduced/oxic biostimulated sediment mineralization (half-life 3180 1094 h) was also inefficient compared to reduced sediment. These promising laboratory-scale results for NDMA mineralization should be investigated at field scale. Future studies of NDMA remediation should focus on the comparison of this in situ abiotic NDMA mineralization (iron-reducing environments) to ex situ biomineralization, which has been shown successful in other studies.

  19. Materials Data on ErInAu (SG:189) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on ErZn12 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Final Project Report for ER15351 A Study of New Actinide Zintl Ion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter K. Dorhout

    2007-11-12

    The structural chemistry of actinide main-group metal materials provides the fundamental basis for the understanding of structural coordination chemistry and the formation of materials with desired or predicted structural features. The main-group metal building blocks, comprising sulfur-group, phosphorous-group, or silicon-group elements, have shown versatility in oxidation state, coordination, and bonding preferences. These building blocks have allowed us to elucidate a series of structures that are unique to the actinide elements, although we can find structural relationships to transition metal and 4f-element materials. In the past year, we investigated controlled metathesis and self-propagating reactions between actinide metal halides and alkali metal salts of main-group metal chalcogenides such as K-P-S salts. Ternary plutonium thiophosphates have resulted from these reactions at low temperature in sealed ampules. we have also focused efforts to examine reactions of Th, U, and Pu halide salts with other alkali metal salts such as Na-Ge-S and Na-Si-Se and copper chloride to identify if self-propagating reactions may be used as a viable reaction to prepare new actinide materials and we prepared a series of U and Th copper chalcogenide materials. Magnetic measurements continued to be a focus of actinide materials prepared in our laboratory. We also contributed to the XANES work at Los Alamos by preparing materials for study and for comparison with environmental samples.

  2. Materials Data on ErSeI (SG:59) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Er(SiPd)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on ErGaPd (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on ErTlPd (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on ErSiPd2 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-27

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on Er2Pd2Pb (SG:127) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on Er2CdS4 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Er10Ti6O27 (SG:8) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on Er(CoSi)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Halley

    2009-05-20

    This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

  12. Yearly Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46026

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane D. Johnson

    2012-05-25

    We propose a unique, all-electron, thermodynamic density functional theory (DFT) code that directly predicts full or partial long-range order in crystalline (defected) solids and their effect on electronic properties via a first-principles mean-field theory, scales linear with number of atoms N per unit-cell [i.e. O(N), due to use of a mathematical-based screening in k-space], and addresses up to 1 million atoms using parallel architectures. Novel O(N) algorithms will be developed to permit this for an all-electron KKR Green's functional density-functional theory code.

  13. Materials Data on Er(NiGe)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on ErAl4Ni (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on ErAl2Ni (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on ErInNi (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on ErNi7B3 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Er2Ni17 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on ErHCl (SG:166) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-29

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on ErB2Ru3 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations