National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oriente gabon rabi-kouanga

  1. Gabon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Gabon Population 1,475,000 GDP 20,664,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.05 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GA 3-letter ISO code GAB Numeric ISO...

  2. Gabon-World Bank Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Bank Climate Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name Gabon-World Bank Climate Activities AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics...

  3. New Employee Orientation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) orientation website.   As a newly appointed Federal and/or DOE employee, you are required to attend a one day New Employee Orientation (NEO) session on...

  4. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    009 ARM Orientation 1 Warren Wiscombe ARM Chief Scientist Brookhaven & NASA ARM Orientation: ARM Orientation: Overview and History Overview and History Mar 2009 ARM Orientation 2 Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 2 ARM Chief Scientist Team ARM Chief Scientist Team Ric Cederwall Andy Vogelmann Sharon Zuhoski Yangang Liu Pavlos Kollias Mar 2009 ARM Orientation 3 Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 3 ARM in a nutshell ARM in a nutshell * Created to improve cloud and radiation physics and cloud simulation

  5. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  6. Universally oriented renewable liquid mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2004-07-20

    A universally oriented liquid mirror. A liquid and a penetrable unit are operatively connected to provide a mirror that can be universally oriented.

  7. New Employee Orientation Packet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Southwestern Employee Orientation Packet (Revised June 2014) IMPORTANT: Please click on the links below; print the forms; complete them before you report for duty; and, bring them with you on your first day of employment. This information is needed to process your appointment and issue your first paycheck. Answers on forms should be truthful and complete. A false statement on any form may be grounds for not hiring you, or for firing you after you begin work. If you have any questions, contact

  8. ARM Orientation Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data from the Getting Data from the ARM Archive ARM Archive Orientation for new Science Team Members ARM Shopping Cart Tutorial ARM Shopping Cart Tutorial Available at: Available at: http://dev.www.arm.gov/data/arm_orderData_tutorial.html http://dev.www.arm.gov/data/arm_orderData_tutorial.html Types of Quality Information Types of Quality Information Automated products Automated products QC flags QC flags inserted in data files during processing inserted in data files during processing Summaries

  9. ARM Orientation Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding Finding " " Stuff Stuff " " from from ARM Web Site and Data ARM Web Site and Data Archive Archive Orientation for new Science Team Members Topics Topics Navigating ARM web site Navigating ARM web site - - finding ARM information finding ARM information Demo of Archive access Demo of Archive access - - Finding and requesting ARM data files Finding and requesting ARM data files - - (with web shopping cart interface) (with web shopping cart interface) Other Archive

  10. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Warren Wiscombe ARM Chief Scientist Brookhaven & NASA ARM Orientation: ARM Orientation: Overview and History Overview and History Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 2 ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Chief Scientist Team ARM Chief Scientist Team Ric Cederwall Andy Vogelmann Sharon Zuhoski Yangang Liu Pavlos Kollias ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 3 Mar 2007 ARM Orientation ARM in a nutshell ARM in a nutshell *

  11. Hanford Advisory Board Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Member Orientation February 7, 2013 Jeff Frey, Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office Tifany Nguyen, Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office Dennis Faulk, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Jane Hedges, WA State Department of Ecology Steve Hudson, Hanford Advisory Board Chair Susan Hayman, EnviroIssues D020713-2 QUIZ 1. How does the DDFO support the HAB? 2. What does the Federal Coordinator do? D020713-3 Who We Are... * Department of Energy - DOE-RL and DOE-ORP - Jeffrey

  12. ARM Orientation Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Obtaining Data from the ACRF Archive Orientation for new Science Team Members One click to the ACRF Data Archive ACRF Data Archive - Newly Designed Home Page Emphasis on guiding users in their selection of data access tools Accessing ARM Data: Options Comparison of Browser/Interface Options Interface name Accessible data "Shopping" approach (armarchive@ornl.gov, 1-888-ARM-DATA) ARM Data Browser Routine ARM data "I know what I want. Do you have it?" Searching with predefined

  13. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation...

  14. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orientation: Overview and History Warren Wiscombe ARM Chief Scientist Brookhaven & NASA ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2 Mar 2006 ARM Orientation You want me to be Chief Scientist? Can you believe this guy? ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 3 Mar 2006 ARM Orientation ARM in a nutshell ARM in a nutshell * * Largest global change research program Largest global change research program funded by the U.S.

  15. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

  16. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Thompson, Carl V.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

  17. New Employee Orientation- Forms Checklist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Listing of the forms to be issued and collected at a new employee's orientation. Please review the checklist to ensure that you bring all of the needed forms.

  18. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmierer, Eric N.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  19. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  20. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  1. New Employee Orientation | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Employee Orientation There is much to know at Jefferson Lab. It's a creative, diverse, energizing place uniting more than 800 staff and 1,300 user scientists representing all 50 states and many nations around the world. Happily, there's no need to know everything at once. Take your time and enjoy the orientation process. You can come back to this site again and again at your own pace. We've put together a website to share everything you might need or want to know about life in this

  2. All-Optical Molecular Orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Keita; Hita, Masafumi; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    We report clear evidence of all-optical orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules with an intense nonresonant two-color laser field in the adiabatic regime. The technique relies on the combined effects of anisotropic hyperpolarizability interaction and anisotropic polarizability interaction and does not rely on the permanent dipole interaction with an electrostatic field. It is demonstrated that the molecular orientation can be controlled simply by changing the relative phase between the two wavelength fields. The present technique brings researchers a new steering tool of gaseous molecules and will be quite useful in various fields such as electronic stereodynamics in molecules and ultrafast molecular imaging.

  3. MOOSE: Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gaston, Derek

    2014-05-30

    An overview of Idaho National Laboratory's MOOSE: Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment

  4. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar, call slides and discussion summary, September 11, 2014.

  5. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  6. RCRA orientation manual, 1990 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the manual to provide introductory information on the solid and hazardous waste management programs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The manual outlines the basic framework of the regulatory program for new EPA and State employees, those persons new to RCRA assignments, and others interested in the Act. The manual is not, however, meant to replace in-depth analysis of the statute and its associated regulations and Agency guidance. The manual is an update of the original RCRA Orientation Manual issued in 1986. Revisions contained in the update reflect the many regulatory changes that have resulted from both the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984 and the Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 (RCRA Subtitle J).

  7. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  8. New Supervisor Orientation Classes Offered | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supervisor Orientation Classes Offered New Supervisor Orientation Classes Offered JLab has provided training for its supervisors and managers for many years but, until recently, we lacked a comprehensive approach geared specifically to employees new to supervising others. In 2015, we launched a program aimed at this key target audience. The Supervisor Orientation curriculum offers useful skills to any supervisor or manager and is mandated for anyone supervising for the first time. Now, it is

  9. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 14, 2015. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network...

  10. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summary, March 27, 2014. Call Slides and Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network...

  11. Object-Oriented Programming in Fortran 2003

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Conventional programming costs and complexity; Alternative programming paradigms; How ... Object---Oriented Design (OOD). Unified Modeling Language (UML): use case and class ...

  12. Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-12

    The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software library developed at Idaho National Laboratory is a tool. MOOSE, like other tools, doesn’t actually complete a task. Instead, MOOSE seeks to reduce the effort required to create engineering simulation applications. MOOSE itself is a software library: a blank canvas upon which you write equations and then MOOSE can help you solve them. MOOSE is comparable to a spreadsheet application. A spreadsheet, by itself, doesn’t do anything. Only once equations are entered into it will a spreadsheet application compute anything. Such is the same for MOOSE. An engineer or scientist can utilize the equation solvers within MOOSE to solve equations related to their area of study. For instance, a geomechanical scientist can input equations related to water flow in underground reservoirs and MOOSE can solve those equations to give the scientist an idea of how water could move over time. An engineer might input equations related to the forces in steel beams in order to understand the load bearing capacity of a bridge. Because MOOSE is a blank canvas it can be useful in many scientific and engineering pursuits.

  13. Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-02-12

    The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software library developed at Idaho National Laboratory is a tool. MOOSE, like other tools, doesn’t actually complete a task. Instead, MOOSE seeks to reduce the effort required to create engineering simulation applications. MOOSE itself is a software library: a blank canvas upon which you write equations and then MOOSE can help you solve them. MOOSE is comparable to a spreadsheet application. A spreadsheet, by itself, doesn’t do anything.more » Only once equations are entered into it will a spreadsheet application compute anything. Such is the same for MOOSE. An engineer or scientist can utilize the equation solvers within MOOSE to solve equations related to their area of study. For instance, a geomechanical scientist can input equations related to water flow in underground reservoirs and MOOSE can solve those equations to give the scientist an idea of how water could move over time. An engineer might input equations related to the forces in steel beams in order to understand the load bearing capacity of a bridge. Because MOOSE is a blank canvas it can be useful in many scientific and engineering pursuits.« less

  14. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for deformation mechanisms (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms Authors: Kaercher, Pamela M. ; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. ; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntora ; Smith, Jesse S. ; Sinogeikin,

  15. Optical orientation of holes in strained nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkiev, N. S.; Sablina, N. I.

    2008-03-15

    A theory describing the optical orientation and Hanle effect for holes in quantum wells or quantum dots based on cubic semiconductors is developed. It is demonstrated that the presence of internal or external strain in quantum-confinement heterostructures leads to the dependence of the Hanle effect on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the heterostructure growth axis.

  16. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orientation Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Better Buildings Residential Network (BBRN) Orientation Call Slides and Summary, March 27, 2014. PDF icon Call Slides and Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar How Can the Network Meet Your Needs?

  17. NOX: An Object-Oriented Nonlinear Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-11-15

    NOX is a C++ object-oriented library for the solving nonlinear equations. It can be used with an linear algebra package and includes interfaces to Epetra and PETSc.

  18. Jefferson Lab Human Resources - Initial Lab Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    first day 8:00 Arrive in Support Service Center (bldg 28) Lobby; met by Training Consultant 9:00 Initial Paperwork 10:00 JLab's Mission, Culture, Policies 11:00 Training begins SAF100 ES&H Orientation (30 min) GEN101Standards of Conduct (30 min) GEN034 Security Awareness (30 min) 12:00 Release for lunch 1:00 Benefits Orientation 2:00 Badges 3:00 Begin Windshield tour of Campus/Site

  19. Rigorous theory of molecular orientational nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Chong Hoon Kim, Gun Yeup

    2015-01-15

    Classical statistical mechanics of the molecular optics theory proposed by Buckingham [A. D. Buckingham and J. A. Pople, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 68, 905 (1955)] has been extended to describe the field induced molecular orientational polarization effects on nonlinear optics. In this paper, we present the generalized molecular orientational nonlinear optical processes (MONLO) through the calculation of the classical orientational averaging using the Boltzmann type time-averaged orientational interaction energy in the randomly oriented molecular system under the influence of applied electric fields. The focal points of the calculation are (1) the derivation of rigorous tensorial components of the effective molecular hyperpolarizabilities, (2) the molecular orientational polarizations and the electronic polarizations including the well-known third-order dc polarization, dc electric field induced Kerr effect (dc Kerr effect), optical Kerr effect (OKE), dc electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) and third harmonic generation (THG). We also present some of the new predictive MONLO processes. For second-order MONLO, second-order optical rectification (SOR), Pockels effect and difference frequency generation (DFG) are described in terms of the anisotropic coefficients of first hyperpolarizability. And, for third-order MONLO, third-order optical rectification (TOR), dc electric field induced difference frequency generation (EFIDFG) and pump-probe transmission are presented.

  20. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  1. Grain orientation dependence of lattice strains and intergranular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Grain orientation dependence of lattice strains and intergranular damage rates in polycrystals under cyclic loading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Grain orientation ...

  2. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy May 14, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation

  3. Orient Green Power Company Ltd OGPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Orient Green Power Company Ltd OGPL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Orient Green Power Company Ltd (OGPL) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 095 Sector: Biomass, Hydro,...

  4. Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-30

    The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

  5. Controlled placement and orientation of nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex K; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Fennimore, Adam M

    2014-04-08

    A method for controlled deposition and orientation of molecular sized nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) on substrates is disclosed. The method comprised: forming a thin layer of polymer coating on a substrate; exposing a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer to alter a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer; forming a suspension of nanostructures in a solvent, wherein the solvent suspends the nanostructures and activates the nanostructures in the solvent for deposition; and flowing a suspension of nanostructures across the layer of polymer in a flow direction; thereby: depositing a nanostructure in the suspension of nanostructures only to the selected portion of the thin layer of polymer coating on the substrate to form a deposited nanostructure oriented in the flow direction. By selectively employing portions of the method above, complex NEMS may be built of simpler NEMSs components.

  6. Microsoft Word - ISDAC_orientation_pkt.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORIENTATION PACKAGE ISDAC Field Campaign March 29 - May 2 Fairbanks, Alaska 1 Welcome to Alaska! This information package is to help you become familiar with the area and answer some questions you might have as you arrive. If you have any questions please feel free to contact Debbie at 509.392.1854. Contents Cell Phone Numbers Fairbanks * Campaign Info Site Locations in Fairbanks Badging and Access Mission Schedule Safety Network and Communications Office Equipment * Local Information * Map Cell

  7. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  8. SAF 114O Laser Safety Orientation Training | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAF 114O Laser Safety Orientation Training For staff and students: Course: SAF 114O Laser Safety Orientation Date: Tuesday, July 14, 2015 Time: 10:30 - noon Location: CEBAF Center,...

  9. DOE Challenge Home: Orientation Training – October 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A publication of the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home program: Orientation Training – October 2012.

  10. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  11. Orientation imaging microscopy of polycrystalline sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, M.P.; Kolbeinsson, I.; Newman, J.; Woodfield, T.; Sato, T.

    2010-04-15

    A novel preparation technique is described that makes possible grain size analysis of polycrystalline NaCl using orientation imaging microscopy via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The preparation methodology is specifically developed to overcome difficulties in preparing microporous NaCl for microscopy. The grain size and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline NaCl samples, prepared via solution pressure and sintered in the range of 650-780 deg. C, were able to be measured successfully with EBSD. The limitations of the preparation technique for EBSD analysis of NaCl are also discussed.

  12. Jefferson Lab Human Resources - Initial Lab Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    second day - New Employee International Orientation (foreign nationals only) 8:00 New foreign national employees arrives in Support Service Center Lobby 8:05 Communications liaison introduced - Language Class Information 8:15 Introduction to International Services Staff - Types of Visas 9:30 "What to do First," Social Security Numbers 10:15 Bank Accounts, Driving, Buying a Car 11:15 Tax Information and General Questions 12:00 Supervisors arrive and escort new employees back to work

  13. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Ray E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  14. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live datamore » streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.« less

  15. Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodwin, Edwin H.; Meyne, Julianne

    2000-01-01

    Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

  16. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides formore » dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.« less

  17. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Title: ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095575 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak

  18. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS Beamlines 11.0.1.2, 7.3.3, and 5.3.2.2. reveals that preferential orientation of polymer chains with respect to the fullerene domain leads to a high photovoltaic performance. Featured on the cover of Nature Photonics 8. Article link

  19. The influence of field-free orientation on the predissociation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the predissociation dynamics is studied in detail. We calculate the radial and angular distributions, the molecular orientation degrees, and the time-dependent populations...

  20. Influence of Surface Orientation and Defects on Early Stage Oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Surface Orientation and Defects on Early Stage Oxidation and Ultrathin Oxide Growth on Pure Copper Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Surface ...

  1. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    angle and thus dominated by contributions from the PEMair surface contained well-defined spots, indicating the presence of hydrophilic channels oriented perpendicular to the...

  2. Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming Polycrystals. Abstract not provided. Authors: Buchheit, Thomas Edward ; Lim, Hojun ; Carroll, Jay ; Clark, ...

  3. On the predictability of the orientation of protein domains joined...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of protein domains joined by a spanning alpha-helical linker Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the predictability of the orientation of protein domains ...

  4. Qinhuangdao Orient Science and Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Science and Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Qinhuangdao Orient Science and Technology Co., Ltd Place: Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, China Zip: 660004 Product:...

  5. A Target-Oriented Magnetotelluric Inversion Approach For Characterizin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Target-Oriented Magnetotelluric Inversion Approach For...

  6. 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3-dimensional control over lamella ...

  7. Forum des Jeuns du Gabon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    drought and land degradation, Environmentally sound technologies, Gender, Human rights and Sustainable development plans References "UNEP Major Groups Directory"...

  8. Gabon-Supporting Low Carbon Development and Climate Resilient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategies in Africa AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of Development (AFD) Partner ADETEF Sector Climate Focus Area People and Policy Topics Low emission...

  9. Gabon-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  10. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  11. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel

    2015-06-07

    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils.

  12. Orientation-dependent binding energy of graphene on palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kappes, Branden B.; Ebnonnasir, Abbas; Ciobanu, Cristian V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kodambaka, Suneel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-02-04

    Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the binding strength of a graphene monolayer on Pd(111) can vary between physisorption and chemisorption depending on its orientation. By studying the interfacial charge transfer, we have identified a specific four-atom carbon cluster that is responsible for the local bonding of graphene to Pd(111). The areal density of such clusters varies with the in-plane orientation of graphene, causing the binding energy to change accordingly. Similar investigations can also apply to other metal substrates and suggests that physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of graphene may be controlled by changing its orientation.

  13. Nonadiabatic molecular orientation by polarization-gated ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Cheng; Wu Jian; Zeng Heping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2010-09-15

    We show that the nonadiabatic orientation of diatomic polar molecules can be controlled by polarization-gated ultrashort laser pulses. By finely adjusting the time interval between two circularly polarized pulses of different wavelengths but the same helicity, the orientation direction of the molecules can be twirled. A cloverlike potential is created by using two circularly polarized laser pulses of different wavelengths and opposite helicity, leading to multidirectional molecular orientation along the potential wells, which can be well revealed by a high-order statistics metric of <>.

  14. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  15. Geologic and thermochronologic constraints on the initial orientation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and thermochronologic constraints on the initial orientation of the Raft River detachment and footwall shear zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  17. SAF 114O Laser Safety Orientation Training | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Safety Orientation (SAF114 O) training opportunity. Date: Friday, October 23 Time: 10:30 - noon Location: CEBAF Center Room A110 Read JLab EH&S Manual Chapter 6410 Laser...

  18. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS...

  19. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Lightsource Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to unravel the orientation of organic molecules on surfaces or in thin films. This information on the alignment of - most often - highly anisotropic molecules can become crucial if an epitaxial or even crystalline organic growth is desired, if such thin film should serve

  20. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the

  1. Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polycrystals. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming Polycrystals. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming Polycrystals. Abstract not provided. Authors: Buchheit, Thomas Edward ; Lim, Hojun ; Carroll, Jay ; Clark, Blythe ; Battaile, Corbett Chandler. ; Boyce, Brad Lee Publication Date: 2014-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140310 Report Number(s): SAND2014-1263C 499256 DOE

  2. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number: SC0003996 Type: Publisher's

  3. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloy Nickel-Titanium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 20, 2017 Title: Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape memory alloy Nickel-Titanium Authors: Kimiecik, Michael ; Wayne Jones, J. ; Daly, Samantha Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1251238 Grant/Contract Number:

  4. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation (Program Document) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Program Document: Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety

  5. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and comparedmore » to those of other techniques available.« less

  6. Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1982-05-07

    Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

  7. Continuous method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Edwin D.; Verhoeven, John D.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; McMasters, O. Dale

    1988-01-01

    The invention comprises a continuous casting and crystallization method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies. A magnetostrictive alloy is melted in a crucible having a bottom outlet. The melt is discharged through the bottom of the crucible and deposited in an elongated mold. Heat is removed from the deposited melt through the lower end portion of the mold to progressively solidify the melt. The solid-liquid interface of the melt moves directionally upwardly from the bottom to the top of the mold, to produce the axial grain orientation.

  8. Use of Oriented Crystals at High-Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotov, V.I.; Afonin, A.G.; Baranov, V.T.; Biryukov, V.M.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Kardash, A.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Terekhov, V.I.; Troyanov, E.F.; Fedotov, Yu.S.; Chepegin, V.N.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.

    2005-06-01

    The application of bent crystals for extracting accelerated beams from high-energy accelerators is reviewed. The results of realizing highly efficient extraction of protons from the IHEP accelerator are presented. Proposals on using oriented crystals for designing efficient positron sources at linear colliders and on developing new undulators are discussed.

  9. Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) in biopysical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yan; Ha, Ji Won; Augspurger, Ashley E.; Chen, Kuangcai; Zhu, Shaobin; Fang, Ning

    2013-08-02

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport.

  10. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  11. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; Stone, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  12. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  13. Method for selectively orienting induced fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-02-01

    The orientation of hydraulically-induced fractures in relatively deep subterranean earth formations is normally confined to vertical projections along a plane parallel to the maximum naturally occurring (tectonic) compressive stress field. It was found that this plane of maximum compressive stress may be negated and, in effect, re-oriented in a plane projecting generally orthogonal to the original tectonic stress plane by injecting liquid at a sufficiently high pressure into a wellbore fracture oriented in a plane parallel to the plane of tectonic stress for the purpose of stressing the surrounding earth formation in a plane generally orthogonal to the plane of tectonic stress. With the plane of maximum compressive stress re-oriented due to the presence of the induced compressive stress, liquid under pressure is injected into a second wellbore disposed within the zone influenced by the induced compressive stress but at a location in the earth formation laterally spaced from the fracture in the first wellbore for effecting a fracture in the second wellbore along a plane generally orthogonal to the fracture in the first wellbore.

  14. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  15. Fabrication of oriented zeolite L monolayer via covalent molecular linkers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yige; Li Huanrong Liu Binyuan; Gan Quanying; Dong Qinglin; Calzaferri, Gion; Sun Zheng

    2008-09-15

    For the first time, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane (DICB) was used as the covalent molecular linker in this study to prepare the uniformly oriented zeolite L monolayer with relatively high coverage degree and close packing degree. This could be ascribed to substantial amounts of DICB self-assemble and standing on the substrate surface instead of folding up into a U-shape. This point has been further verified by the quality of oriented zoelite L monolayers obtained from the procedure involving DICB, 1, 4-bis (triethoxysilyl) benzene (BTSEB) and 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTMSE) as covalent molecular linkers. - Graphical abstract: 1, 4-diisocyanatobutane (DICB) was used as the covalent molecular linker in this study to prepare the uniformly oriented zeolite L monolayer with a relatively high coverage degree and close packing degree. This could be ascribed to substantial amounts of DICB self-assemble and standing on the substrate surface instead of folding up into a U-shape. This point has been further verified by the quality of oriented zoelite L monolayers obtained from the procedure involving DICB, 1, 4-bis (triethoxysilyl) benzene (BTSEB) and 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTMSE) as covalent molecular linkers.

  16. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2003-05-13

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  17. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn?? acetate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lendinez, S.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Zarzuela, R.; Tejada, J.; Terban, M. W.; Espin, J.; Imaz, I.; Maspoch, D.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-01-06

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn?? acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, X-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn?? acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis.Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for amoresingle crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by re-analyzing the old data on a powdered sample of non-oriented micron-size crystals of Mn?? acetate. Our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.less

  18. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  19. A possible oriented attachment growth mechanism for silver nanowire formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Murphy, Catherine J.; Leach, Austin; Gall, Kenneth

    2015-04-06

    Electron microscopy studies suggest that silver nanowires prepared by an approach reported earlier by us (Caswell, K. K., Bender, C. M., Murphy, C. J. Nano Lett.,2003, 3, 667–669) form through a coarsening process via an oriented attachment mechanism. Initially, silver nucleation centers were produced by chemical reduction of silver ions in boiling water, with sodium citrate and sodium hydroxide as additives in solution. These nucleation centers, with a twinned crystallographic orientation, ultimately merge into fully grown silver nanowires. This is a completely different mechanism from the seed-mediated growth approach, which has also been used to produce silver nanowires. Furthermore, companionmore » molecular dynamics performed with the embedded atom method are in agreement with our experimental data.« less

  20. A possible oriented attachment growth mechanism for silver nanowire formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Murphy, Catherine J.; Leach, Austin; Gall, Kenneth

    2015-04-06

    Electron microscopy studies suggest that silver nanowires prepared by an approach reported earlier by us (Caswell, K. K., Bender, C. M., Murphy, C. J. Nano Lett.,2003, 3, 667–669) form through a coarsening process via an oriented attachment mechanism. Initially, silver nucleation centers were produced by chemical reduction of silver ions in boiling water, with sodium citrate and sodium hydroxide as additives in solution. These nucleation centers, with a twinned crystallographic orientation, ultimately merge into fully grown silver nanowires. This is a completely different mechanism from the seed-mediated growth approach, which has also been used to produce silver nanowires. Furthermore, companion molecular dynamics performed with the embedded atom method are in agreement with our experimental data.

  1. Nanomembrane structures having mixed crystalline orientations and compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G.; Scott, Shelley A.; Savage, Donald E.

    2014-08-12

    The present nanomembrane structures include a multilayer film comprising a single-crystalline layer of semiconductor material disposed between two other single-crystalline layers of semiconductor material. A plurality of holes extending through the nanomembrane are at least partially, and preferably entirely, filled with a filler material which is also a semiconductor, but which differs from the nanomembrane semiconductor materials in composition, crystal orientation, or both.

  2. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  3. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  4. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  5. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  6. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  7. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  8. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  9. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.

    1990-11-27

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities. 3 figs.

  10. Structural Orientations Adjacent to Some Colorado Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard,

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Structural Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Structural orientations (fractures, joints, faults, lineaments, bedding orientations, etc.) were collected with a standard Brunton compass during routine field examinations of geothermal phenomena in Colorado. Often multiple orientations were taken from one outcrop. Care was taken to ensure outcrops were "in place". Point data was collected with a hand-held GPS unit. The structural data is presented both as standard quadrant measurements and in format suitable for ESRI symbology Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4491528.924999 m Left: 207137.983196 m Right: 432462.310324 m Bottom: 4117211.772001 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard Rick Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0<.times.<0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu--O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities.

  12. Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China...

  13. Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) System Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    2000-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) will use the Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) as a tool to assist in identifying, capturing, and maintaining the necessary and sufficient set of requirements for accomplishing the ORP mission. By managing requirements as one integrated set, the ORP will be able to carry out its mission more efficiently and effectively. DOORS is a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) requirements management tool. The tool has not been customized for the use of the PIO, at this time.

  14. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  15. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dunlap, B.D.; Veal, B.W.

    1990-07-17

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) exhibits superconducting properties and is capable of conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. The highly anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of the polycrystalline metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state. 4 figs.

  16. Magnetorheological effect in the magnetic field oriented along the vorticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzhir, P. Magnet, C.; Fezai, H.; Meunier, A.; Bossis, G.; Rodríguez-Arco, L.; López-López, M. T.; Zubarev, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we have studied the magnetorheological (MR) fluid rheology in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity. Experimentally, the MR fluid flow was realized in the Couette coaxial cylinder geometry with the magnetic field parallel to the symmetry axis. The rheological measurements were compared to those obtained in the cone-plate geometry with the magnetic field perpendicular to the lower rheometer plate. Experiments revealed a quasi-Bingham behavior in both geometries with the stress level being just a few dozens of percent smaller in the Couette cylindrical geometry at the same internal magnetic field. The unexpectedly high MR response in the magnetic field parallel to the fluid vorticity is explained by stochastic fluctuations of positions and orientations of the particle aggregates. These fluctuations are induced by magnetic interactions between them. Once misaligned from the vorticity direction, the aggregates generate a high stress independent of the shear rate, and thus assimilated to the suspension apparent (dynamic) yield stress. Quantitatively, the fluctuations of the aggregate orientation are modeled as a rotary diffusion process with a diffusion constant proportional to the mean square interaction torque. The model gives a satisfactory agreement with the experimental field dependency of the apparent yield stress and confirms the nearly quadratic concentration dependency σ{sub Y}∝Φ{sup 2.2}, revealed in experiments. The practical interest of this study lies in the development of MR smart devices with the magnetic field nonperpendicular to the channel walls.

  17. Channels, reservoir orientation, and paleocurrents - Theory and exploitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, L.M.; Pirie, R.G. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Channels, from a few up to hundreds of meters thick, occur in virtually all the major sandy and carbonate environments. The fill of channels varies greatly and includes stream deposits, delta distributaries, tidal deposits, debris flows, marine detritus washed both longitudinally and laterally into shelf channels, deep-water turbidites, glacial deposits, and volcanic rocks. Landslide blocks from collapsing channel margins can also be incorporated in the fill. Most of these occur in combinations, although a few combinations are very common and some are rare. Reservoirs in channels are increasingly significant in mature basins. The authors propose a general set of rules for predicting reservoir orientation in channels. The rules are independent of depositional environment and scale, and depend only on the physical processes of channel filling. This set of rules is based on studies of outcrop and electrical images from well bores and includes channel sinuosity, type of accretion, and the orientation of paleocurrent structures. A key concept is compactional dip, which mirrors the channel's bottom morphology. These rules are illustrated with case histories of successful offset wells from basins of all ages throughout the world.

  18. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Dunlap, Bobby D.; Veal, Boyd W.

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  19. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  20. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  1. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  2. An object-oriented extension for debugging the virtual machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizzi, R.G. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    A computer is nothing more then a virtual machine programmed by source code to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs which are compiled into some lower level target language. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low-level target implementation information to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design and data into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented extension to programming languages that allows programmers to specify a virtual environment by describing the meaning of the design and data of a virtual machine. This specification is translated into symbolic information such that an augmented debugger can present engineers with a programmable debugging environment specifically tailored for the virtual machine that is to be debugged.

  3. MORE operating system: a message oriented resource environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Poggio, M.

    1986-07-15

    The operating system, MORE (Message Oriented Resource Environment), is designed for a software engineering environment built on the VAXstation II micro-computer. The MORE operating system is based on the message passing model. The hardware configuration of the VAXstation II is described, including a thorough discussion of the hardware operating system support features of the VAX architecture. The software engineering environment that MORE will provide for the user is discussed. The operating system as the application programmer will see it is presented in the form of a system services manual for MORE. The concept of a server in MORE and the objects or resources manipulated by the servers are included. The high level implementation and organization of MORE, the device managers and drivers, and the kernel of MORE are detailed. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Process and apparatus for making oriented crystal layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springer, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of single crystal-like materials are made by using flow-through ion beam deposition during specific substrate rotation around an axis in a clocking action. The substrate is quickly rotated to a selected deposition position, paused in the deposition position for ionized material to be deposited, then quickly rotated to the next selected deposition position. The clocking motion can be achieved by use of a lobed cam on the spindle with which the substrate is rotated or by stopping and starting a stepper motor at long and short intervals. Other symmetries can be programmed into the process, allowing virtually any oriented inorganic crystal to be grown on the substrate surface.

  5. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  6. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  7. Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, Sonia Radulaski, Marina; Vučković, Jelena; Biermann, Klaus

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. We fabricate 30 photonic crystal structures in both (111)- and (100)-oriented GaAs and observe an increase in generated second harmonic power in the (111) orientation, with the mean power increased by a factor of 3, although there is a large scatter in the measured values. We discuss possible reasons for this increase, in particular, the reduced two photon absorption for transverse electric modes in (111) orientation, as well as a potential increase due to improved mode overlap.

  8. Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiN/Ge complementary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiNGe complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible light emitting microstructures by quick x-ray nano-diffraction microscopy ...

  9. JeoViewer: Object-Oriented GIS Framework | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JeoViewer: Object-Oriented GIS Framework JeoViewer: Object-Oriented GIS Framework JeoViewer is an intelligent, object-oriented geographical information system (GIS) framework written in Java. It can provide links to any object's data and behaviors, and is optimized for spatial geometry representation. Unlike traditional "static" GIS systems, JeoViewer is dynamic and can be dynamically linked to objects, models and other live data streams. JeoViewer's object-oriented approach provides a

  10. STEADY TWIN-JETS ORIENTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR FORMATION MECHANISM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soker, Noam; Mcley, Liron E-mail: lironmc@tx.technion.ac.il

    2013-08-01

    We compare the structures of the jets of the pre-planetary nebulae (pre-PNe) CRL618 and the young stellar object (YSO) NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 and propose that in both cases the jets are launched near periastron passages of a highly eccentric binary system. The pre-PN CRL618 has two ''twin-jets'' on each side, where by ''twin-jets'' we refer to a structure where one side is composed of two very close and narrow jets that were launched at the same time. We analyze the position-velocity diagram of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2, and find that it also has the twin-jet structure. In both systems, the orientation of the two twin-jets does not change with time. By comparing these two seemingly different objects, we speculate that the constant relative direction of the two twin-jets is fixed by the direction of a highly eccentric orbit of a binary star. For example, a double-arm spiral structure in the accretion disk induced by the companion might lead to the launching of the twin-jets. We predict the presence of a low-mass stellar companion in CRL618 that accretes mass and launches the jets, and a substellar (a planet of a brown dwarf) companion to the YSO NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 that perturbed the accretion disk. In both cases the orbit has a high eccentricity.

  11. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  12. THE CURIOUS MORPHOLOGY AND ORIENTATION OF ORION PROPLYD HST-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Kassis, Marc; Bally, John; Morris, Mark R.

    2014-02-01

    HST-10 is one of the largest proplyds in the Orion Nebula and is located approximately 1' SE of the Trapezium. Unlike other proplyds in Orion, however, the long-axis of HST-10 does not align with ?{sup 1}C, but is instead aligned with the rotational axis of the HST-10 disk. This cannot be easily explained using current photoevaporation models. In this Letter, we present high spatial resolution near-infrared images of the Orion proplyd HST-10 using Keck/NIRC2 with the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system, along with multi-epoch analysis of HH objects near HST-10 using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and Advanced Camera for Surveys cameras. Our narrowband near-IR images resolve the proplyd ionization front (IF) and circumstellar disk down to 23AU at the distance to Orion in Br ?, He I, H{sub 2}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission. Br ? and He I emission primarily trace the IF (with the disk showing prominently in silhouette), while the H{sub 2} and PAH emission trace the surface of the disk itself. PAH emission also traces small dust grains within the proplyd envelope which is asymmetric and does not coincide with the IF. The curious morphology of the PAH emission may be due to UV heating by both ?{sup 1}COri and ?{sup 2} AOri. Multi-epoch HST images of the HST-10 field show proper motion of three knots associated with HH 517, clearly indicating that HST-10 has a jet. We postulate that the orientation of HST-10 is determined by the combined ram pressure of this jet and the FUV-powered photo-ablation flow from the disk surface.

  13. CORE SHAPES AND ORIENTATIONS OF CORE-SRSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Graham, Alister W., E-mail: Bdullo@astro.swin.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The inner and outer shapes and orientations of core-Srsic galaxies may hold important clues to their formation and evolution. We have therefore measured the central and outer ellipticities and position angles for a sample of 24 core-Srsic galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and data. By selecting galaxies with core-Srsic break radii R{sub b} a measure of the size of their partially depleted corethat are ? 0.''2, we find that the ellipticities and position angles are quite robust against HST seeing. For the bulk of the galaxies, there is a good agreement between the ellipticities and position angles at the break radii and the average outer ellipticities and position angles determined over R {sub e}/2 < R < R {sub e}, where R {sub e} is the spheroids' effective half light radius. However there are some interesting differences. We find a median ''inner'' ellipticity at R{sub b} of ?{sub med}= 0.13 0.01, rounder than the median ellipticity of the ''outer'' regions ?{sub med}= 0.20 0.01, which is thought to reflect the influence of the central supermassive black hole at small radii. In addition, for the first time we find a trend, albeit weak (2? significance), such that galaxies with larger (stellar deficit-to-supermassive black hole) mass ratiosthought to be a measure of the number of major dry merger eventstend to have rounder inner and outer isophotes, suggesting a connection between the galaxy shapes and their merger histories. We show that this finding is not simply reflecting the well known result that more luminous galaxies are rounder, but it is no doubt related.

  14. Orientation effects of deformed nuclei on the production of superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Nan; Li Junqing; Zhao Enguang

    2008-11-15

    Within the dinuclear system model, the effects of the relative orientations of interacting deformed nuclei on the interaction potential energy surfaces, the evaporation residue cross sections of some cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy elements are investigated. The competition between fusion and quasifission is studied to show the effect of the orientation. It turns out that the belly-belly orientation is in favor of the production of superheavy nuclei, because in the case a barrier has suppressed the quasifission and thus helped fusion.

  15. High Current-Carrying Capability in c -Axis-Oriented Superconducting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MgB{sub 2} Thin Films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High Current-Carrying Capability in c -Axis-Oriented Superconducting MgB{sub 2} Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Current-Carrying Capability in c -Axis-Oriented Superconducting MgB{sub 2} Thin Films In high-quality c -axis-oriented MgB{sub 2} thin films, we observed high critical current densities (J{sub c} ) of {approx}16 MA/cm{sup 2} at 15K under self-fields comparable to those of cuprate high-temperature

  16. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  17. New x-ray technique to study molecular orientation through non-crystalline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin films | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome New x-ray technique to study molecular orientation through non-crystalline thin films

  18. Ultrafast electron transfer at organic semiconductor interfaces: Importance of molecular orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayzner, Alexander L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Kim, Do -Hwan; Bao, Zhenan; Toney, Michael F.

    2014-12-04

    Much is known about the rate of photoexcited charge generation in at organic donor/acceptor (D/A) heterojunctions overaged over all relative arrangements. However, there has been very little experimental work investigating how the photoexcited electron transfer (ET) rate depends on the precise relative molecular orientation between D and A in thin solid films. This is the question that we address in this work. We find that the ET rate depends strongly on the relative molecular arrangement: The interface where the model donor compound copper phthalocyanine is oriented face-on with respect to the fullerene C60 acceptor yields a rate that is approximately 4 times faster than that of the edge-on oriented interface. Our results suggest that the D/A electronic coupling is significantly enhanced in the face-on case, which agrees well with theoretical predictions, underscoring the importance of controlling the relative interfacial molecular orientation.

  19. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  20. Ultrafast electron transfer at organic semiconductor interfaces: Importance of molecular orientation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ayzner, Alexander L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Kim, Do -Hwan; Bao, Zhenan; Toney, Michael F.

    2014-12-04

    Much is known about the rate of photoexcited charge generation in at organic donor/acceptor (D/A) heterojunctions overaged over all relative arrangements. However, there has been very little experimental work investigating how the photoexcited electron transfer (ET) rate depends on the precise relative molecular orientation between D and A in thin solid films. This is the question that we address in this work. We find that the ET rate depends strongly on the relative molecular arrangement: The interface where the model donor compound copper phthalocyanine is oriented face-on with respect to the fullerene C60 acceptor yields a rate that is approximatelymore » 4 times faster than that of the edge-on oriented interface. Our results suggest that the D/A electronic coupling is significantly enhanced in the face-on case, which agrees well with theoretical predictions, underscoring the importance of controlling the relative interfacial molecular orientation.« less

  1. High Current-Carrying Capability in c -Axis-Oriented Superconducting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Current-Carrying Capability in c -Axis-Oriented Superconducting MgBsub 2 Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Current-Carrying Capability in c ...

  2. A Method of Choosing the Optimal Position, Orientation, and Acceptance of a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Ion Loss Detector or Collector in a Tokamak | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab of Choosing the Optimal Position, Orientation, and Acceptance of a Fast Ion Loss Detector or Collector in a Tokamak This invention is a process by which the position and orientation of fast ion loss detectors or collectors in a tokamak can be optimally chosen so as to achieve maximum performance based upon predefined criteria. One prominent application of this process is the determination of optimal positions for

  3. Microsoft Word - Johnston.IOS.Network Communication as a Service-Oriented Capability.5.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communication as a Service-Oriented Capability William JOHNSTON, Joe METZGER, Mike O'CONNOR, Michael COLLINS, Joseph BURRESCIA, Eli DART, Jim GAGLIARDI, Chin GUOK, and Kevin OBERMAN ESnet, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract. In widely distributed systems generally, and in science-oriented Grids in particular, software, CPU time, storage, etc., are treated as "services" - they can be allocated and used with service guarantees that allows them to be integrated into systems

  4. Microsoft Word - Trident Orientation for Visiting Experimenters rev 12-13.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orientation for Visiting Experimenters This training is a general orientation for workers in the Trident Target areas. In addition, all workers must be authorized for any medium or high hazard activities by following and signing the Trident Target Area Operations IWD Name: ___________________________________________ Z no. ________ Organization: _________________________ Tel: _________ Date: ________ I am authorized to perform the following tasks at LANL: ______ Operate and align class 3b & 4

  5. 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    copolymer films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Authors: Olszowka, Violetta ; Tsarkova, Larisa ; Böker, Alexander [1] + Show Author Affiliations Bayreuth Publication Date: 2016-04-06 OSTI Identifier: 1245839 Resource Type:

  6. In-plane orientation effects on the electronic structure stability and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman scattering of monolayer graphene on Ir(111). (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect In-plane orientation effects on the electronic structure stability and Raman scattering of monolayer graphene on Ir(111). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-plane orientation effects on the electronic structure stability and Raman scattering of monolayer graphene on Ir(111). Abstract not provided. Authors: McCarty, Kevin F. ; Nie, Shu ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Luca Moreschini ; Aaron Bostwick

  7. Influence of Surface Orientation and Defects on Early Stage Oxidation and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrathin Oxide Growth on Pure Copper (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Surface Orientation and Defects on Early Stage Oxidation and Ultrathin Oxide Growth on Pure Copper Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Surface Orientation and Defects on Early Stage Oxidation and Ultrathin Oxide Growth on Pure Copper Authors: Jeon, B. ; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. ; van Duin, A. C. T. ; Ramanathan, S. [1] ; Harvard Univ.) [2] ; Penn State Univ.) [2] + Show Author

  8. Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum and Humid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Environments: Reactive Molecular Dynamics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum and Humid Environments: Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum and Humid Environments: Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Raju, Muralikrishna [1] ; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [2] ; Fichthorn, Kristen [1] + Show Author Affiliations Pennsylvania

  9. Precise orientation of single crystals by a simple x-ray diffraction rocking curve method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucette, L.D.; Pereira da Cunha, M.; Lad, R.J.

    2005-03-01

    A simple method has been developed for accurately measuring the crystallographic orientation of a single crystal boule, employing a conventional four-circle x-ray diffraction arrangement in the rocking curve mode which relaxes the need for precise instrument and/or reference alignment. By acquiring a total of eight rocking curve measurements at specific orientations about the specimen azimuth, the absolute miscut angle between a crystal surface and the desired crystallographic plane can be resolved to within {+-}0.01 deg.

  10. Simple interpretation of nuclear orientation for Coulomb barrier distributions derived from a realistic effective interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.

    2010-03-15

    A simple straightforward method has been presented to predict the dependence of barrier distributions at arbitrary orientations on different deformations. The proposed interpretation is developed independently of the complicated numerical calculations. It is related to the change of half-density radius of the deformed nucleus, in the direction of the separation vector. The microscopic calculations of Coulomb barrier are carried out by using a realistic density dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, BDM3Y, for the interaction between spherical, {sup 48}Ca, and deformed, {sup 244}Pu, nuclei, as an example. To do so, the double-folding model for the interaction of spherical-deformed nuclei is put in a suitable computational form for the calculation of the potential at several separation distances and orientation angles using the density dependent NN force without consuming computational time. We found that the orientation distributions of the Coulomb barrier parameters show similar patterns to those of the interacting deformed nucleus radius. It is found that the orientation distribution of the Coulomb barrier radius follows the same variation of the deformed nucleus radius while the barrier height distribution follows it inversely. This correlation (anticorrelation) allows a simple evaluation of the orientation barrier distribution which would be very helpful to estimate when the barrier parameters will increase or decrease and at which orientations they will be independent of the deformation. This also allows us to estimate the compact and elongated configurations of the interacting nuclei which lead to hot and cold fusion, respectively.

  11. Effect of cold work and processing orientation on stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moshier, W.C.; Brown, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Cold work accelerates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth rates in Alloy 600 (UNS N06600). However, the variation in crack growth rates generated from cold-worked material has been significant, and the effect has been difficult to quantify. A study was performed in hydrogenated water adjusted to pH 10.2 to evaluate systematically the effect of cold work on Alloy 600 as a function of temperature, amount of cold work, stress intensity factor, and processing orientation. Cold work was introduced into the material by tensile prestraining or cold-rolling plate product. Crack growth rates were determined between 252 C and 360 C, stress intensity factors between 21 MPa{radical}m and 55 MPa{radical}m, and yield strengths between 201 MPa and 827 MPa. The material with the highest yield strength was cold-rolled and tested in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) and short-transverse (ST) orientations. Crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, stress intensity factor, and yield strength. Furthermore, crack growth rates were a strong function of the processing orientation in the cold-rolled plate, with growth rates approximately an order of magnitude greater in the ST orientation compared to the LT orientation. Crack growth rates in the LT orientation were measured between 0.003 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and 1.95 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and between 0.066 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s and 6.3 x 10{sup {minus}9} m/s in the ST orientation. Activation energies were slightly greater in the ST orientation, ranging from 154 kcal/mol to 191 kcal/mol, compared to activation energies between 126 kJ/mol and 157 kJ/mol in the LT orientation. Results of this study demonstrated that, although cold work can be used to accelerate SCC, the orientation of crack growth significantly can affect the results and must be taken into account when analyzing data from cold-worked material.

  12. Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, George S.; Anderson, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

  13. Orientation effects on the measurement and analysis of critical CTOA in an aluminum alloy sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M.A.; Dawicke, D.S.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Fracture tests were conducted on 76.2 mm wide, 2.3 mm thick middle crack tension (M(T)) specimens machined from 2024-T3 aluminum sheet. The specimens were tested in the T-L orientation and comparisons were made to similar tests conducted in the L-T orientation. Measurement of critical crack tip opening angle (CTOA), applied stress, and crack front shape were made as a function of crack extension. A two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finite element analysis was used to simulate the fracture behavior for both orientations. The results indicate that the T-L orientation had a 10% lower stress at fracture than similar tests conducted in the L-T orientation. Correspondingly, the critical CTOA in the T-L tests reached a constant value of 4.7{degree} after 2--3 mm of crack extension and the L-T tests reached a value of 6{degree}. The fracture surface of the T-L specimens were observed to remain flat, while those of the L-T specimens transitioned to a 45{degree} slant fracture after about 2--3 mm of crack extension. The tunneling behavior of the two orientations also differed; the T-L specimens reached a deeply tunneled stabilized crack front shape, while the L-T specimens were observed to have only a small amount of tunneling once the crack began to grow on the 45{degree} slant. The two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finite element analysis was able to simulate the fracture behavior for both the T-L and L-T orientations.

  14. Molecular orientation of copper phthalocyanine thin films on different monolayers of fullerene on SiO{sub 2} or highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Liu, Xiaoliang; Xu, Xumei; Li, Youzhen; Xie, Fangyan; Gao, Yongli

    2015-03-23

    The interface electronic structures of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) have been studied using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy as different monolayers of C{sub 60} were inserted between CuPc and a SiO{sub 2} or highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate. The results show that CuPc has standing up configuration with one monolayer of C{sub 60} insertion on SiO{sub 2} while lying down on HOPG, indicating that the insertion layer propagates the CuPc-substrate interaction. Meanwhile, CuPc on more than one monolayers of C{sub 60} on different substrates show that the substrate orientation effect quickly vanished. Our study elucidates intriguing molecular interactions that manipulate molecular orientation and donor-acceptor energy level alignment.

  15. Structural determinants of nuclear export signal orientation in binding to exportin CRM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Fu, Szu -Chin; Brautigam, Chad A.; Chook, Yuh Min

    2015-09-08

    The Chromosome Region of Maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein mediates nuclear export of hundreds of proteins through recognition of their nuclear export signals (NESs), which are highly variable in sequence and structure. The plasticity of the CRM1-NES interaction is not well understood, as there are many NES sequences that seem incompatible with structures of the NES-bound CRM1 groove. Crystal structures of CRM1 bound to two different NESs with unusual sequences showed the NES peptides binding the CRM1 groove in the opposite orientation (minus) to that of previously studied NESs (plus). A comparison of minus and plus NESs identified structural and sequence determinants for NES orientation. The binding of NESs to CRM1 in both orientations results in a large expansion in NES consensus patterns and therefore a corresponding expansion of potential NESs in the proteome.

  16. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  17. Structural determinants of nuclear export signal orientation in binding to exportin CRM1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Fu, Szu -Chin; Brautigam, Chad A.; Chook, Yuh Min

    2015-09-08

    The Chromosome Region of Maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein mediates nuclear export of hundreds of proteins through recognition of their nuclear export signals (NESs), which are highly variable in sequence and structure. The plasticity of the CRM1-NES interaction is not well understood, as there are many NES sequences that seem incompatible with structures of the NES-bound CRM1 groove. Crystal structures of CRM1 bound to two different NESs with unusual sequences showed the NES peptides binding the CRM1 groove in the opposite orientation (minus) to that of previously studied NESs (plus). A comparison of minus and plus NESs identified structural and sequencemore » determinants for NES orientation. The binding of NESs to CRM1 in both orientations results in a large expansion in NES consensus patterns and therefore a corresponding expansion of potential NESs in the proteome.« less

  18. Method and apparatus for measurement of orientation in an anisotropic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Robert Snee (Burnt Hills, NY); Kline, Ronald Alan (Norman, OK); Deaton, Jr., John Broddus (Niskayuna, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring the anisotropic orientation and the thickness of an article. The apparatus comprises a transducer assembly which propagates longitudinal and transverse waves through the article and which receives reflections of the waves. A processor is provided to measure respective transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves propagated through the article and to calculate respective predicted transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves based on an estimated thickness, an estimated anisotropic orientation, and an elasticity of the article. The processor adjusts the estimated thickness and the estimated anisotropic orientation to reduce the difference between the measured transit times and the respective predicted transit times of the longitudinal and shear waves.

  19. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore, compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.

  20. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore,more » compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.« less

  1. High degree of molecular orientation by a combination of THz and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitano, Kenta; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We propose a method for achieving molecular orientation by two-step excitation with intense femtosecond laser and terahertz (THz) pulses. First, the femtosecond laser pulse induces off-resonant impulsive Raman excitation to create rotational wave packets. Next, a delayed intense THz pulse effectively induces resonant dipole transition between neighboring rotational states. By controlling the intensities of both the pulses and the time delay, we can create rotational wave packets consisting of states with different parities in order to achieve a high degree of molecular orientation under a field-free condition. We numerically demonstrate that the highest degree of orientation of >0.8 in HBr molecules is feasible under experimentally available conditions.

  2. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Nielsen, Jens H. [Department of Physics, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Stapelfeldt, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation. The focus of the present article is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals.

  3. Horizontal molecular orientation in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Inoue, M.; Komino, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Ribierre, J. C. E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research , Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395; Japan Science and Technology Agency , ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c and others

    2015-02-09

    Horizontal orientation of the emission transition dipole moments achieved in glassy vapor-deposited organic thin films leads to an enhancement of the light out-coupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, our combined study of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle dependent photoluminescence demonstrates that such a horizontal orientation can be achieved in glassy spin-coated organic films based on a composite blend of a heptafluorene derivative as a dopant and a 4,4?-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1?-biphenyl as a host. Solution-processed fluorescent OLEDs with horizontally oriented heptafluorene emitters were then fabricated and emitted deep blue electroluminescence with an external quantum efficiency as high as 5.3%.

  4. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft x-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric M; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-04-05

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft x-ray reflectivity using linear s and p polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of x-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft x-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and is independent of the film thickness.

  5. Influence of oriented topological defects on the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, We-Jay [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Chang, Jee-Gong [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Yang, An-Cheng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Wang, Yeng-Tseng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Su, Wan-Sheng [National Center for High-Performance Computing; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-10

    The mechanical properties of finite-length (5,0)/(8,0) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) heterojunctions with manipulated topological defects are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation calculations. The results show that the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of SWCNT heterojunctions are mainly affected not only by the diameter of the thinner segment of the SWCNT heterojunction but also by the orientation of the heptagon-heptagon (7-7) pair in the junction region. Moreover, the orientation of the 7-7 pair strongly affects those properties in the compression loading than those in tensile loading. Finally, it is found that the location of buckling deformation in the heterojunctions is dependent on the orientation of the 7-7 pair in the compression.

  6. Oriented and ordered mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} fibers with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    well-organized linear and spring structure (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Oriented and ordered mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} fibers with well-organized linear and spring structure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oriented and ordered mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} fibers with well-organized linear and spring structure Graphical abstract: The ultra-stable order mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} fibers with well-organized linear and spring structure and large surface area

  7. An object oriented design for high performance linear algebra on distributed memory architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Walker, D.W.; Pozo, R.

    1993-12-31

    We describe the design of ScaLAPACK++, an object oriented C++ library for implementing linear algebra computations on distributed memory multicomputers. This package, when complete, will support distributed dense, banded, sparse matrix operations for symmetric, positive-definite, and non-symmetric cases. In ScaLAPACK++ we have employed object oriented design methods to enchance scalability, portability, flexibility, and ease-of-use. We illustrate some of these points by describing the implementation of a right-looking LU factorization for dense systems in ScaLAPACK++.

  8. The design of the AIE: An object-oriented application development system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuja, R.S.; Widing, M.A.

    1992-02-27

    Three years ago, in response to our challenging development context, the Advanced Modeling and Analysis Section designed and implemented an object-oriented environment -- the Application Interface Engine (AIE). Our prototyping requirements forced existing application development systems beyond their capabilities. Programmers at AMAS and its contractors have developed over twenty applications using AIE. Our initial experience has been very positive. AIE extends an object-oriented programming language with syntax and classes to support applications specification. This extended system improves all stages of the application engineering life cycle, from rapid prototyping to long term maintenance.

  9. Large oriented arrays and continuous films of TiO2 based nanotubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Huifang; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Tian, Zhengrong Ryan; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2003-08-01

    We report for the first time a one-step, templateless method to directly prepare large arrays of oriented TiO{sub 2}-based nanotubes and continuous films. These titania nanostructures can also be easily prepared as conformal coatings on a substrate. The nanostructured films were formed on a Ti substrate seeded with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. SEM and TEM results suggested that a folding mechanism of sheetlike structures was involved in the formation of the nanotubes. The oriented arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, continuous films, and coatings are expected to have potentials for applications in catalysis, filtration, sensing, photovoltaic cells, and high surface area electrodes.

  10. Transport driven plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA Tokamak in different orientations of magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Parallel plasma flows in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA tokamak are measured in two orientations of total magnetic field. In each orientation, experiments are carried out by reversing the direction of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current. The transport-driven component is determined by averaging flow Mach numbers, measured in two directions of the toroidal magnetic field and the plasma current for the same orientation. It is observed that there is a significant transport-driven component in the measured flow and the component depends on the field orientation.

  11. Oriented conductive oxide electrodes on SiO2/Si and glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    A thin film structure is provided including a silicon substrate with a layer of silicon dioxide on a surface thereof, and a layer of cubic oxide material deposited upon the layer of silicon dioxide by ion-beam-assisted-deposition, said layer of cubic oxide material characterized as biaxially oriented. Preferably, the cubic oxide material is yttria-stabilized zirconia. Additional thin layers of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide are deposited upon the layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. An intermediate layer of cerium oxide is employed between the yttria-stabilized zirconia layer and the lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide layer. Also, a layer of barium strontium titanium oxide can be upon the layer of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide. Also, a method of forming such thin film structures, including a low temperature deposition of a layer of a biaxially oriented cubic oxide material upon the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon dioxide/silicon substrate is provided.

  12. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.; Haefner, K.B.

    1992-11-24

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

  13. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; King, Robert D.; Sanza, Peter C.; Haefner, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation.

  14. Oriented bottom-up growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2016-03-15

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a scalable, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of the germanium is used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals along the [110] directions of the germanium.

  15. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Groves, James R.; Jia, Quanxi

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring the NMR spectrum of an orientationally disordered sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Samoson, Ago

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise oreintationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions is zero.

  17. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan); Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Kodama, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Yamashita, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Isogai, Y., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Furuichi, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Nonomura, C., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp [Toyobo Co., LTD. Research Center (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  18. Method and sample spinning apparatus for measuring the NMR spectrum of an orientationally disordered sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Samoson, Ago

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR apparatus and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus spins the sample about an axis. The angle of the axis is mechanically varied such that the time average of two or more Legendre polynomials are zero.

  19. Substrate Structures For Growth Of Highly Oriented And/Or Epitaxial Layers Thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A composite substrate structure including a substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer is provided together with additional layers such as one or more layers of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. Jc's of 2.3106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 320 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide for a superconducting article including a flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, an inert oxide material layer upon the surface of the flexible polycrystalline metallic substrate, a layer of a crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material upon the layer of the inert oxide material, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the crystalline metal oxide or crystalline metal oxynitride material layer, a layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer, and, a top-layer of a high temperature superconducting material upon the layer of a buffer material.

  20. NMMSS Orientation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in U-233 or U-235) 11 More Abbreviations Terms (continued) * DOE (Department of Energy) - NNSA (National Nuclear Security Administration) - HS-1.22 (Office of Information...

  1. Newcomers' Orientation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reach Hydropower Development Fact Sheet New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development Fact Sheet New Stream-Reach Hydropower Development Fact Sheet Funded by the Department of Energy and executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the New Stream-reach Development (NSD) project implemented an advanced geo-spatial approach to analyze the potential for new hydropower development in U.S. stream-reaches that do not currently have hydroelectric facilities or other forms of infrastructure. PDF icon New

  2. The influence of field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ze-Yu; Han, Yong-Chang, E-mail: ychan@dlut.edu.cn; Yu, Jie; Cong, Shu-Lin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The orientation and predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule are studied by using a time-dependent wavepacket method. The NaI molecule is first pre-oriented by a single-cycle pulse (SCP) in terahertz (THz) region and then predissociated by a femtosecond pump pulse. The influence of the molecular field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics is studied in detail. We calculate the radial and angular distributions, the molecular orientation degrees, and the time-dependent populations for both the ground and excited electronic states. It is found that the pre-orientation affects the angular distributions significantly, and that it has weak influence on the radial distributions. By varying the delay time between the THz SCP and the pump pulse, the angular distribution of the fragments from the predissociation can be manipulated.

  3. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more » With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  4. Anisotropy and crystal orientation of silicon--application to the modeling of a bent mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin

    2010-06-23

    Matrix formula and MATLAB algorithm are proposed to calculate the stiffness coefficient matrix C, the Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio for the silicon crystal in any orientation. Results for Si(110) and Si(311) are given as an example. The anisotropic material properties of the silicon have been used in the mirror width profile optimization for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. As the Si(110) is used as the substrate of this multilayer coated KB mirror, the silicon crystal axis [0 0 1] is proposed to orient to the mirror axis. This is the case to have low stress in the mirror and low bending forces from actuators.

  5. Adaptive Forward Modeling Method for Analysis and Reconstructions of Orientation Image Map

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-06-01

    IceNine is a MPI-parallel orientation reconstruction and microstructure analysis code. It's primary purpose is to reconstruct a spatially resolved orientation map given a set of diffraction images from a high energy x-ray diffraction microscopy (HEDM) experiment (1). In particular, IceNine implements the adaptive version of the forward modeling method (2, 3). Part of IceNine is a library used to for conbined analysis of the microstructure with the experimentally measured diffraction signal. The libraries is alsomore » designed for tapid prototyping of new reconstruction and analysis algorithms. IceNine is also built with a simulator of diffraction images with an input microstructure.« less

  6. Tracking formulas and strategies for a receiver oriented dual-axis tracking toroidal heliostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Liang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiliang; Zang, Chuncheng; Lu, Zhenwu; Wei, Xiudong

    2010-06-15

    A 4 m x 4 m toroidal heliostat with receiver oriented dual-axis tracking, also called spinning-elevation tracking, was developed as an auxiliary heat source for a hydrogen production system. A series of spinning-elevation tracking formulas have been derived for this heliostat. This included basic tracking formulas, a formula for the elevation angle for heliostat with a mirror-pivot offset, and a more general formula for the biased elevation angle. This paper presents the new tracking formulas in detail and analyzes the accuracy of applying a simplifying approximation. The numerical results show these receiver oriented dual-axis tracking formula approximations are accurate to within 2.5 x 10{sup -6} m in image plane. Some practical tracking strategies are discussed briefly. Solar images from the toroidal heliostat at selected times are also presented. (author)

  7. CASL-U-2015-0087-000 Dakota, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87-000 Dakota, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design Optimization, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis: Version 6.1 User's Manual Brian M. Adams Mohamed S. Ebeida Michael S. Eldred John D. Jakeman Laura P. Swiler J. Adam Stephens Dena M. Vigil Timothy M. Wildey William J. Bohnhoff Keith R. Dalbey John P. Eddy Kenneth T. Hu Lara E. Bauman Patricia D. Hough Sandia National Laboratory November 7, 2014 SAND2014-4633 Unlimited Release July

  8. Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giacomin, A. J.; Gilbert, P. H.; Schmalzer, A. M.

    2015-03-19

    In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of themore » polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics). We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i) nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ 0 is above unity), (ii) nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ 0 exceed unity), and (iii) linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ 0 approaches zero). We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion.« less

  9. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  10. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-02-09

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface.

  11. Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, Veronica; Cerreta, Ellen K

    2010-03-18

    Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

  12. Fourier decomposition of polymer orientation in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomin, A. J.; Gilbert, P. H.; Schmalzer, A. M.

    2015-03-19

    In our previous work, we explored the dynamics of a dilute suspension of rigid dumbbells as a model for polymeric liquids in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow, a flow experiment that has gained a significant following in recent years. We chose rigid dumbbells since these are the simplest molecular model to give higher harmonics in the components of the stress response. We derived the expression for the dumbbell orientation distribution, and then we used this function to calculate the shear stress response, and normal stress difference responses in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow. In this paper, we deepen our understanding of the polymer motion underlying large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow by decomposing the orientation distribution function into its first five Fourier components (the zeroth, first, second, third, and fourth harmonics). We use three-dimensional images to explore each harmonic of the polymer motion. Our analysis includes the three most important cases: (i) nonlinear steady shear flow (where the Deborah number λω is zero and the Weissenberg number λγ 0 is above unity), (ii) nonlinear viscoelasticity (where both λω and λγ 0 exceed unity), and (iii) linear viscoelasticity (where λω exceeds unity and where λγ 0 approaches zero). We learn that the polymer orientation distribution is spherical in the linear viscoelastic regime, and otherwise tilted and peanut-shaped. We find that the peanut-shaping is mainly caused by the zeroth harmonic, and the tilting, by the second. The first, third, and fourth harmonics of the orientation distribution make only slight contributions to the overall polymer motion.

  13. DOE/SC-ARM-14-021 Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation Revised: May 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

  14. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Yoon, Mina; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0 or 60 interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale andmore » the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. The combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.« less

  15. Influence of lattice orientation on growth and structure of graphene on Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofford, Joseph M.; Nie, Shu; Thrmer, Konrad; McCarty, Kevin F.; Dubon, Oscar D.

    2015-03-31

    We have used low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and diffraction (LEED) to examine the significance of lattice orientation in graphene growth on Cu(0 0 1). Individual graphene domains undergo anisotropic growth on the Cu surface, and develop into lens shapes with their long axes roughly aligned with Cu <1 0 0> in-plane directions. Furthermore, the long axis of a lens-shaped domain is only rarely oriented along a C <1 1> direction, suggesting that carbon attachment at zigzag graphene island edges is unfavorable. A kink-mediated adatom attachment process is consistent with the behavior observed here and reported in the literature. Likewise, the details of the ridged moir pattern formed by the superposition of the graphene lattice on the (0 0 1) Cu surface also evolve with the graphene lattice orientation, and are predicted well by a simple geometric model. Managing the kink-mediated growth mode of graphene on Cu(0 0 1) will be necessary for the continued improvement of this graphene synthesis technique.

  16. RELATIVE ORIENTATION OF PAIRS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxton, Jesse; Ryden, Barbara S., E-mail: buxton.45@osu.edu, E-mail: ryden@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    From our study of binary spiral galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we find that the relative orientation of disks in binary spiral galaxies is consistent with their being drawn from a random distribution of orientations. For 747 isolated pairs of luminous disk galaxies, the distribution of {phi}, the angle between the major axes of the galaxy images, is consistent with a uniform distribution on the interval [0 Degree-Sign , 90 Degree-Sign ]. With the assumption that the disk galaxies are oblate spheroids, we can compute cos {beta}, where {beta} is the angle between the rotation axes of the disks. In the case that one galaxy in the binary is face-on or edge-on, the tilt ambiguity is resolved, and cos {beta} can be computed unambiguously. For 94 isolated pairs with at least one face-on member, and for 171 isolated pairs with at least one edge-on member, the distribution of cos {beta} is statistically consistent with the distribution of cos i for isolated disk galaxies. This result is consistent with random orientations of the disks within pairs.

  17. The Use of Object-Oriented Analysis Methods in Surety Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, Richard L.; Funkhouser, Donald R.; Wyss, Gregory D.

    1999-05-01

    Object-oriented analysis methods have been used in the computer science arena for a number of years to model the behavior of computer-based systems. This report documents how such methods can be applied to surety analysis. By embodying the causality and behavior of a system in a common object-oriented analysis model, surety analysts can make the assumptions that underlie their models explicit and thus better communicate with system designers. Furthermore, given minor extensions to traditional object-oriented analysis methods, it is possible to automatically derive a wide variety of traditional risk and reliability analysis methods from a single common object model. Automatic model extraction helps ensure consistency among analyses and enables the surety analyst to examine a system from a wider variety of viewpoints in a shorter period of time. Thus it provides a deeper understanding of a system's behaviors and surety requirements. This report documents the underlying philosophy behind the common object model representation, the methods by which such common object models can be constructed, and the rules required to interrogate the common object model for derivation of traditional risk and reliability analysis models. The methodology is demonstrated in an extensive example problem.

  18. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linearmore » or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.« less

  19. Improved crystal orientation and physical properties from single-shot XFEL stills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauter, Nicholas K., E-mail: nksauter@lbl.gov; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Echols, Nathaniel; Zwart, Petrus H.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    X-ray free-electron laser crystallography relies on the collection of still-shot diffraction patterns. New methods are developed for optimal modeling of the crystals orientations and mosaic block properties. X-ray diffraction patterns from still crystals are inherently difficult to process because the crystal orientation is not uniquely determined by measuring the Bragg spot positions. Only one of the three rotational degrees of freedom is directly coupled to spot positions; the other two rotations move Bragg spots in and out of the reflecting condition but do not change the direction of the diffracted rays. This hinders the ability to recover accurate structure factors from experiments that are dependent on single-shot exposures, such as femtosecond diffract-and-destroy protocols at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, additional methods are introduced to optimally model the diffraction. The best orientation is obtained by requiring, for the brightest observed spots, that each reciprocal-lattice point be placed into the exact reflecting condition implied by Braggs law with a minimal rotation. This approach reduces the experimental uncertainties in noisy XFEL data, improving the crystallographic R factors and sharpening anomalous differences that are near the level of the noise.

  20. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

  1. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0 or 60 interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale and the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. The combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.

  2. Influence of lattice orientation on growth and structure of graphene on Cu(001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wofford, Joseph M.; Nie, Shu; Thürmer, Konrad; McCarty, Kevin F.; Dubon, Oscar D.

    2015-03-31

    We have used low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and diffraction (LEED) to examine the significance of lattice orientation in graphene growth on Cu(0 0 1). Individual graphene domains undergo anisotropic growth on the Cu surface, and develop into lens shapes with their long axes roughly aligned with Cu <1 0 0> in-plane directions. Furthermore, the long axis of a lens-shaped domain is only rarely oriented along a C <1 1> direction, suggesting that carbon attachment at “zigzag” graphene island edges is unfavorable. A kink-mediated adatom attachment process is consistent with the behavior observed here and reported in the literature. Likewise, themore » details of the ridged moiré pattern formed by the superposition of the graphene lattice on the (0 0 1) Cu surface also evolve with the graphene lattice orientation, and are predicted well by a simple geometric model. Managing the kink-mediated growth mode of graphene on Cu(0 0 1) will be necessary for the continued improvement of this graphene synthesis technique.« less

  3. Molecular orientation distributions during injection molding of liquid crystalline polymers: Ex situ investigation of partially filled moldings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Jun; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Bubeck, Robert A.

    2013-01-10

    The development of molecular orientation in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) during injection molding has been investigated using two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering coordinated with numerical computations employing the Larson-Doi polydomain model. Orientation distributions were measured in 'short shot' moldings to characterize structural evolution prior to completion of mold filling, in both thin and thick rectangular plaques. Distinct orientation patterns are observed near the filling front. In particular, strong extension at the melt front results in nearly transverse molecular alignment. Far away from the flow front shear competes with extension to produce complex spatial distributions of orientation. The relative influence of shear is stronger in the thin plaque, producing orientation along the filling direction. Exploiting an analogy between the Larson-Doi model and a fiber orientation model, we test the ability of process simulation tools to predict TLCP orientation distributions during molding. Substantial discrepancies between model predictions and experimental measurements are found near the flow front in partially filled short shots, attributed to the limits of the Hele-Shaw approximation used in the computations. Much of the flow front effect is however 'washed out' by subsequent shear flow as mold filling progresses, leading to improved agreement between experiment and corresponding numerical predictions.

  4. Thermally-induced transition of lamellae orientation in block-copolymer films on ‘neutral’ nanoparticle-coated substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Kevin G.; Forrey, Christopher; Singh, Gurpreet; Satija, Sushil K.; Page, Kirt A.; Patton, Derek L.; Jones, Ronald L.; Karin, Alamgir; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-06-01

    Block-copolymer orientation in thin films is controlled by the complex balance between interfacial free energies, including the inter-block segregation strength, the surface tensions of the blocks, and the relative substrate interactions. While block-copolymer lamellae orient horizontally when there is any preferential affinity of one block for the substrate, we recently described how nanoparticle-roughened substrates can be used to modify substrate interactions. We demonstrate how such ‘neutral’ substrates can be combined with control of annealing temperature to generate vertical lamellae orientations throughout a sample, at all thicknesses. We observe an orientational transition from vertical to horizontal lamellae upon heating, as confirmed using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), neutron reflectometry (NR) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (RSANS). Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identify substrate-localized distortions to the lamellar morphology as the physical basis of the novel behavior. In particular, under strong segregation conditions, bending of horizontal lamellae induce a large energetic cost. At higher temperatures, the energetic cost of conformal deformations of lamellae over the rough substrate is reduced, returning lamellae to the typical horizontal orientation. Thus, we find that both surface interactions and temperature play a crucial role in dictating block-copolymer lamellae orientation. As a result, our combined experimental and simulation findings suggest that controlling substrate roughness should provide a useful and robust platform for controlling block-copolymer orientation in applications of these materials.

  5. Thermally-induced transition of lamellae orientation in block-copolymer films on ‘neutral’ nanoparticle-coated substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yager, Kevin G.; Forrey, Christopher; Singh, Gurpreet; Satija, Sushil K.; Page, Kirt A.; Patton, Derek L.; Jones, Ronald L.; Karin, Alamgir; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-06-01

    Block-copolymer orientation in thin films is controlled by the complex balance between interfacial free energies, including the inter-block segregation strength, the surface tensions of the blocks, and the relative substrate interactions. While block-copolymer lamellae orient horizontally when there is any preferential affinity of one block for the substrate, we recently described how nanoparticle-roughened substrates can be used to modify substrate interactions. We demonstrate how such ‘neutral’ substrates can be combined with control of annealing temperature to generate vertical lamellae orientations throughout a sample, at all thicknesses. We observe an orientational transition from vertical to horizontal lamellae upon heating, as confirmedmore » using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), neutron reflectometry (NR) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (RSANS). Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identify substrate-localized distortions to the lamellar morphology as the physical basis of the novel behavior. In particular, under strong segregation conditions, bending of horizontal lamellae induce a large energetic cost. At higher temperatures, the energetic cost of conformal deformations of lamellae over the rough substrate is reduced, returning lamellae to the typical horizontal orientation. Thus, we find that both surface interactions and temperature play a crucial role in dictating block-copolymer lamellae orientation. As a result, our combined experimental and simulation findings suggest that controlling substrate roughness should provide a useful and robust platform for controlling block-copolymer orientation in applications of these materials.« less

  6. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 ; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-coupled- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the BortzKalosLebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB source code.

  7. The interaction of two coronal mass ejections: Influence of relative orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Schwadron, N.; Manchester IV, W. B.

    2013-11-20

    We report on a numerical investigation of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that interact as they propagate in the inner heliosphere. We focus on the effect of the orientation of the CMEs relative to each other by performing four different simulations with the axis of the second CME rotated by 90 from one simulation to the next. Each magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed in three dimensions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework in an idealized setting reminiscent of solar minimum conditions. We extract synthetic satellite measurements during and after the interaction and compare the different cases. We also analyze the kinematics of the two CMEs, including the evolution of their widths and aspect ratios. We find that the first CME contracts radially as a result of the interaction in all cases, but the amount of subsequent radial expansion depends on the relative orientation of the two CMEs. Reconnection between the two ejecta and between the ejecta and the interplanetary magnetic field determines the type of structure resulting from the interaction. When a CME with a high inclination with respect to the ecliptic overtakes one with a low inclination, it is possible to create a compound event with a smooth rotation in the magnetic field vector over more than 180. Due to reconnection, the second CME only appears as an extended 'tail', and the event may be mistaken for a glancing encounter with an isolated CME. This configuration differs significantly from the one usually studied of a multiple-magnetic-cloud event, which we found to be associated with the interaction of two CMEs with the same orientation.

  8. Orientation study in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karfunkel, B.S.

    1982-05-01

    An orientation study was conducted in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, west-central Florida, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. The study was conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). A total of 60 surface sites and 294 ground water sites were sampled. The study includes field data and neutron activation analyses for uranium and supplemental elements, as well as determination of helium by mass spectroscopy. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  9. Magnetic and transport properties of Mn{sub 2}CoAl oriented films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamer, Michelle E.; Assaf, Badih A.; Devakul, Trithep; Heiman, Don

    2013-09-30

    The structure, magnetic, and transport properties of thin films of the Heusler ferrimagnet Mn{sub 2}CoAl have been investigated for properties related to spin gapless semiconductors. Oriented films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates and the structure was found to transform from tetragonal to cubic for increasing annealing temperature. The anomalous Hall resistivity is found to be proportional to the square of the longitudinal resistivity and magnetization expected for a topological Berry curvature origin. A delicate balance of the spin-polarized carrier type when coupled with voltage gate-tuning could significantly impact advanced electronic devices.

  10. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N.

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, B.W.; Nystrom, M.J.

    1998-05-19

    Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface are disclosed. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components. 8 figs.

  12. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  13. Elucidation of Perovskite Film Micro-Orientations Using Two-Photon Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Brianna R; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Yingzhong; Doughty, Benjamin L; Calhoun, Tessa R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased the distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. It was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.

  14. Elucidation of perovskite film micro-orientations using two-photon total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Watson, Brianna R.; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Doughty, Benjamin L.; Calhoun, Tessa R.

    2015-07-29

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased themore » distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. As a result, it was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.« less

  15. Improved crystal orientation and physical properties from single-shot XFEL stills

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sauter, Nicholas K.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Echols, Nathaniel; Zwart, Petrus H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-11-28

    X-ray diffraction patterns from still crystals are inherently difficult to process because the crystal orientation is not uniquely determined by measuring the Bragg spot positions. Only one of the three rotational degrees of freedom is directly coupled to spot positions; the other two rotations move Bragg spots in and out of the reflecting condition but do not change the direction of the diffracted rays. This hinders the ability to recover accurate structure factors from experiments that are dependent on single-shot exposures, such as femtosecond diffract-and-destroy protocols at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, additional methods are introduced to optimally model themore » diffraction. The best orientation is obtained by requiring, for the brightest observed spots, that each reciprocal-lattice point be placed into the exact reflecting condition implied by Bragg's law with a minimal rotation. This approach reduces the experimental uncertainties in noisy XFEL data, improving the crystallographic R factors and sharpening anomalous differences that are near the level of the noise.« less

  16. Improved crystal orientation and physical properties from single-shot XFEL stills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauter, Nicholas K.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Echols, Nathaniel; Zwart, Petrus H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-11-28

    X-ray diffraction patterns from still crystals are inherently difficult to process because the crystal orientation is not uniquely determined by measuring the Bragg spot positions. Only one of the three rotational degrees of freedom is directly coupled to spot positions; the other two rotations move Bragg spots in and out of the reflecting condition but do not change the direction of the diffracted rays. This hinders the ability to recover accurate structure factors from experiments that are dependent on single-shot exposures, such as femtosecond diffract-and-destroy protocols at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, additional methods are introduced to optimally model the diffraction. The best orientation is obtained by requiring, for the brightest observed spots, that each reciprocal-lattice point be placed into the exact reflecting condition implied by Bragg's law with a minimal rotation. This approach reduces the experimental uncertainties in noisy XFEL data, improving the crystallographic R factors and sharpening anomalous differences that are near the level of the noise.

  17. Resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of Mn12 acetate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lendínez, S.; Zarzuela, R.; Tejada, J.; Terban, M. W.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Espin, J.; Imaz, I.; Maspoch, D.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2015-01-06

    We report measurements and theoretical analysis of resonant spin tunneling in randomly oriented nanospheres of a molecular magnet. Amorphous nanospheres of Mn₁₂ acetate have been fabricated and characterized by chemical, infrared, TEM, X-ray, and magnetic methods. Magnetic measurements have revealed sharp tunneling peaks in the field derivative of the magnetization that occur at the typical resonant field values for the Mn₁₂ acetate crystal in the field parallel to the easy axis.Theoretical analysis is provided that explains these observations. We argue that resonant spin tunneling in a molecular magnet can be established in a powder sample, without the need for amore » single crystal and without aligning the easy magnetization axes of the molecules. This is confirmed by re-analyzing the old data on a powdered sample of non-oriented micron-size crystals of Mn₁₂ acetate. In conclusion, our findings can greatly simplify the selection of candidates for quantum spin tunneling among newly synthesized molecular magnets.« less

  18. Theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation: Effects of symmetry, degeneracy, and orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, C. B.; Madsen, L. B.

    2007-10-15

    Using a quantum-mechanical three-step model, we present numerical calculations of the high-order harmonic generation from four polyatomic molecules. Ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) serves as an example where orbital symmetry directly affects the harmonic yield. We treat the case of methane (CH{sub 4}) to address the high-order harmonic generation resulting from a molecule with degenerate orbitals. To this end we illustrate how the single-orbital contributions show up in the total high-order harmonic signal. This example illustrates the importance of adding coherently the amplitude contributions from the individual degenerate orbitals. Finally, we study the high-order harmonic generation from propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) and butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). These two molecules, being extended and far from spherical in structure, produce harmonics with nontrivial orientational dependencies. In particular, propane can be oriented so that very high-frequency harmonics are favored, and thus the molecule contains prospects for the generation of uv attosecond pulses.

  19. Growth of Highly-Oriented Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Provencio, P.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Siegal, M.P.; Wang, J.H.; Xu, J.W.

    1998-10-11

    Highly-oriented, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666"C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 pm in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. In summary, we synthesized large-area highly-oriented carbon nanotubes at temperatures below 666C by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Acetylene gas is used to provide carbon for nanotube growth and ammonia gas is used for dilution and catalysis. Plasma intensity is critical in determining the nanotube aspect ratios (diameter and length), and range of both site and height distributions within a given film.

  20. Development of an object-oriented dynamics simulator for a LFR DEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponciroli, R.; Bortot, S.; Lorenzi, S.; Cammi, A.

    2012-07-01

    A control-oriented dynamics simulator for a Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) demonstrator (DEMO) has been developed aimed at providing a flexible, simple and fast-running tool allowing to perform design-basis transient and stability analyses, and to lay the foundations for the study of the system control strategy. For such purposes, a model representing a compromise between accuracy and straightforwardness has been necessarily sought, and in this view an object-oriented approach based on the Modelica language has been adopted. The reactor primary and secondary systems have been implemented by assembling both component models already available in a specific thermal-hydraulic library, and ad hoc developed nuclear component models suitably modified according to the specific DEMO configuration. The resulting overall plant simulator, incorporating also the balance of plant, consists in the following essential parts: core, integrated steam generator/primary pump block, cold and hot legs, primary coolant cold pool, turbine, heat sink, secondary coolant pump. Afterwards, the reactor response to typical transient initiators has been investigated: feedwater mass flow rate and temperature enhancement, turbine admission valve coefficient variation, increase of primary coolant mass flow rate, and transient of overpower have been simulated; results have been compared with the outcomes of analogous analyses performed by employing a lumped-parameter DEMO plant model. (authors)

  1. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffreys equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160?, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  2. Seedless Polyol Synthesis and CO Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse (111) and (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals in Sub-10 nm Sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yawen; Grass, Michael E.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-03-15

    Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac){sub 2}]{sub 2} as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twined hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl{sub 3} as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br{sup -} ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. Monolayer films of the (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra and (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were deposited on silicon wafers in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough to make model 2D nanoarray catalysts. These nanocatalysts were active for CO oxidation by O{sub 2}, and the turnover frequency was independent of nanoparticle shape, consistent with that previously observed for Rh(111) and Rh(100) single crystals.

  3. Orientation and alignment effects in ion-induced fragmentation of water: A triple coincidence study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Safvan, C. P.

    2014-10-28

    The technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is employed to determine the complete momentum vectors for three fragment dissociation channels, [D{sub 2}O]{sup (q+2)} ? (D{sup +} + D{sup +} + O{sup q+}) with q = 1, 2, or 3 formed in collisions of isolated water molecules with 450 keV Xe{sup 9+} ions. The kinetic energy released in each of these dissociation channels is measured and angular correlations between the fragment momenta are determined. From the angular correlations of the three fragment ions with the direction of the incoming beam, a strong anisotropy in the emission of recoil fragments is reported. It is inferred that the molecular plane prefers to lie orthogonal to the incoming beam direction with certain orientations being more preferred than others and a clear signature of non-coplanar dissociation is also observed.

  4. An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2003-09-01

    This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

  5. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  6. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  7. Trigger probe for determining the orientation of the power distribution of an electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-17

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining the orientation of electron beams being profiled. To accurately time the location of an electron beam, the probe is designed to accept electrons from only a narrowly defined area. The signal produced from the probe is then used as a timing or triggering fiducial for an operably coupled data acquisition system. Such an arrangement eliminates changes in slit geometry, an additional signal feedthrough in the wall of a welding chamber and a second timing or triggering channel on a data acquisition system. As a result, the present invention improves the accuracy of the resulting data by minimizing the adverse effects of current slit triggering methods so as to accurately reconstruct electron or ion beams.

  8. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Jessica L; Jimison, Leslie H; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Volkman, Steven; Yin, Shong; Subramanian, Vivek; Salleo, Alberto; Alivisatos, A Paul; Toney, Michael F

    2010-02-19

    As thin films become increasingly popular (for solar cells, LEDs, microelectronics, batteries), quantitative morphological information is needed to predict and optimize the film's electronic, optical and mechanical properties. This quantification can be obtained quickly and easily with X-ray diffraction using an area detector and synchrotron radiation in two simple geometries. In this paper, we describe a methodology for constructing complete pole figures for thin films with fiber texture (isotropic in-plane orientation). We demonstrate this technique on semicrystalline polymer films, self-assembled nanoparticle semiconductor films, and randomly-packed metallic nanoparticle films. This method can be immediately implemented to help understand the relationship between film processing and microstructure, enabling the development of better and less expensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Effects of excluded volume and correlated molecular orientations on Frster resonance energy transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Mino

    2014-04-14

    Frster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Frster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

  10. Tunable electrical conductivity in oriented thin films of tetrathiafulvalene-based covalent organic framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, SL; Zhang, YB; Pun, AB; He, B; Yang, JH; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID; Yaghi, OM; Fan, J; Zheng, SR; Zhang, WG; Liu, Y

    2014-09-16

    Despite the high charge-carrier mobility in covalent organic frameworks (COFs), the low intrinsic conductivity and poor solution processability still impose a great challenge for their applications in flexible electronics. We report the growth of oriented thin films of a tetrathiafulvalene-based COF (TTF-COF) and its tunable doping. The porous structure of the crystalline TTF-COF thin film allows the diffusion of dopants such as I-2 and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for redox reactions, while the closely packed 2D grid sheets facilitate the cross-layer delocalization of thus-formed TTF radical cations to generate more conductive mixed-valence TTF species, as is verified by UV-vis-NIR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Conductivity as high as 0.28 S m(-1) is observed for the doped COF thin films, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the pristine film and is among the highest for COF materials.

  11. Structural Investigations of Surfaces and Orientation-SpecificPhenomena in Nanocrystals and Their Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aruguete, Deborah Michiko

    2006-06-17

    Studies of colloidal nanocrystals and their assemblies are presented. Two of these studies concern the atomic-level structural characterization of the surfaces, interfaces, and interiors present in II-VI semiconductor nanorods. The third study investigates the crystallographic arrangement of cobalt nanocrystals in self-assembled aggregates. Crystallographically-aligned assemblies of colloidal CdSe nanorods are examined with linearly-polarized Se-EXAFS spectroscopy, which probes bonding along different directions in the nanorod. This orientation-specific probe is used, because it is expected that the presence of specific surfaces in a nanorod might cause bond relaxations specific to different crystallographic directions. Se-Se distances are found to be contracted along the long axis of the nanorod, while Cd-Se distances display no angular dependence, which is different from the bulk. Ab-initio density functional theory calculations upon CdSe nanowires indicate that relaxations on the rod surfaces cause these changes. ZnS/CdS-CdSe core-shell nanorods are studied with Se, Zn, Cd, and S X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is hypothesized that there are two major factors influencing the core and shell structures of the nanorods: the large surface area-to-volume ratio, and epitaxial strain. The presence of the surface may induce bond rearrangements or relaxations to minimize surface energy; epitaxial strain might cause the core and shell lattices to contract or expand to minimize strain energy. A marked contraction of Zn-S bonds is observed in the core-shell nanorods, indicating that surface relaxations may dominate the structure of the nanorod (strain might otherwise drive the Zn-S lattice to accommodate the larger CdS or CdSe lattices via bond expansion). EXAFS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that Cd-Se bond relaxations might be anisotropic, an expected phenomenon for a rod-shaped nanocrystal. Ordered self-assembled aggregates of cobalt nanocrystals are examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). SAED patterns from multilayered assemblies show that the nanocrystals have preferred crystallographic orientations. It is proposed that the nanocrystals are organized in a vortex-like or ''loop-closing'' arrangement, possibly due to magnetism. SAED and dark-field imaging used to investigate this hypothesis are presented, along with the data analysis. The effects of magnetism and nanocrystal faceting are discussed.

  12. Using galvanostatic electroforming of Bi1–xSbx nanowires to control composition, crystallinity, and orientation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Limmer, Steven J.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Hekmaty, Michelle; Lensch-Falk, Jessica L.; Erickson, Kristopher; Pillars, Jamin; Yelton, W. Graham

    2014-12-03

    When using galvanostatic pulse deposition, we studied the factors influencing the quality of electroformed Bi1–xSbx nanowires with respect to composition, crystallinity, and preferred orientation for high thermoelectric performance. Two nonaqueous baths with different Sb salts were investigated. The Sb salts used played a major role in both crystalline quality and preferred orientations. Nanowire arrays electroformed using an SbI3 -based chemistry were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, whereas arrays electroformed from an SbCl3-based chemistry were strongly crystallographically textured with the desired trigonal orientation for optimal thermoelectric performance. From the SbCl3 bath, the electroformed nanowire arrays were optimized to have nanocompositionalmore » uniformity, with a nearly constant composition along the nanowire length. Moreover, nanowires harvested from the center of the array had an average composition of Bi0.75 Sb0.25. However, the nanowire compositions were slightly enriched in Sb in a small region near the edges of the array, with the composition approaching Bi0.70Sb0.30.« less

  13. Development of an object-oriented simulation code for repository performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Ahn, J.

    1999-07-01

    As understanding for mechanisms of radioactivity confinement by a deep geologic repository improves at the individual process level, it has become imperative to evaluate consequences of individual processes to the performance of the whole repository system. For this goal, the authors have developed a model for radionuclide transport in, and release from, the repository region by incorporating multiple-member decay chains and multiple waste canisters. A computer code has been developed with C++, an object-oriented language. By utilizing the feature that a geologic repository consists of thousands of objects of the same kind, such as the waste canister, the repository region is divided into multiple compartments and objects for simulation of radionuclide transport. Massive computational tasks are distributed over, and executed by, multiple networked workstations, with the help of parallel virtual machine (PVM) technology. Temporal change of the mass distribution of 28 radionuclides in the repository region for the time period of 100 million yr has been successfully obtained by the code.

  14. MCViNE- An object oriented Monte Carlo neutron ray tracing simulation package

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, J. Y. Y.; Smith, Hillary L.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Winn, Barry L.; Aczel, Adam A.; Aivazis, Michael; Fultz, Brent

    2015-11-28

    MCViNE (Monte-Carlo VIrtual Neutron Experiment) is an open-source Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing software for performing computer modeling and simulations that mirror real neutron scattering experiments. We exploited the close similarity between how instrument components are designed and operated and how such components can be modeled in software. For example we used object oriented programming concepts for representing neutron scatterers and detector systems, and recursive algorithms for implementing multiple scattering. Combining these features together in MCViNE allows one to handle sophisticated neutron scattering problems in modern instruments, including, for example, neutron detection by complex detector systems, and single and multiplemore » scattering events in a variety of samples and sample environments. In addition, MCViNE can use simulation components from linear-chain-based MC ray tracing packages which facilitates porting instrument models from those codes. Furthermore it allows for components written solely in Python, which expedites prototyping of new components. These developments have enabled detailed simulations of neutron scattering experiments, with non-trivial samples, for time-of-flight inelastic instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. Examples of such simulations for powder and single-crystal samples with various scattering kernels, including kernels for phonon and magnon scattering, are presented. As a result, with simulations that closely reproduce experimental results, scattering mechanisms can be turned on and off to determine how they contribute to the measured scattering intensities, improving our understanding of the underlying physics.« less

  15. Intelligent Object-Oriented GIS Engine W/dynamic Coupling to Modeled Objects

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-02-12

    The GEOVIEWER is an intelligent object-oriented Geographic Information System (GIS) engine that provides not only a spatially-optimized object representation, but also direct linkage to the underlying object, its data and behaviors. Tools are incorporated to perform tasks involving typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, linkage to external models, and integration with other application frameworks. The GOEVIEWER module was designed to provide GIS functionality to create, query, view, and manipulate software objects within a selected area undermore » investigation in a simulation system. Many of these objects are not stored in a format conductive to efficient GIS usage. Their dynamic nature, complexity, and the sheer number of possible entity classes preclude effective integration with traditional GIS technologies due to the loosely coupled nature of their data representations. The primary difference between GEOVIEWER and standard GIS packages is that standard GIS packages offer static views of geospatial data while GEOVIEWER can be dynamically coupled to models and/or applications producing data and, therefore, display changes in geometry, attributes or behavior as they occur in the simulation.« less

  16. Growth of oriented vanadium pentaoxide nanostructures on transparent conducting substrates and their applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hongjiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    A novel, hydrothermal and hard-template-free method was developed for the first time to grow oriented, single-crystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2} (B) flower-like nanorod films on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The length and morphology of the nanorods can be tuned by changing the growth parameters, such as growth time and initial precursor concentration. The flower-like V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were obtained after post-calcination treatment of VO{sub 2} (B) films. The photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV and visible light. The prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good photocatalytic performance (74.6% and 63% under UV and visible light for 210 min, respectively) and more practical application in industry. - Graphical abstract: Flower nanostructured vanadium oxide film was prepared by hydrothermal reaction for photocatalysis application. - Highlights: Monoclinic VO{sub 2} nanorod array and flower-like nanostructure were directly grown on FTO substrate by hydrothermal reaction. The growth mechanism was analyzed by FESEM at different time. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flower-like nanostructure film was obtained after calcining VO{sub 2} film. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good light activity and potential application in photocatalysis.

  17. Preferentially oriented, High temperature superconductors by seeding and a method for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A multi-domained bulk REBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x with low-angle domain boundaries which resembles a quasi-single domained material and a method for producing the same comprising arranging multiple seeds, which can be small single crystals, single domained melt-textured REBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x pieces, textured substrates comprised of grains with low misorientation angles, or thick film REBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x deposited on such textured substrate, such seeds being tailored for various REBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x compounds, in specific pattern and relative seed orientations on a superconductor precursor material which may be placed in contact with a porous substrate so as to reduce the amount of liquid phase in the melt. Because seeds can be arranged in virtually any pattern, high quality REBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x elements of virtually unlimited size and complex geometry can be fabricated.

  18. Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Storage in Oriented Anatase TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, K.; Wang, Q.; Kim, J. H.; Pesaran, A. A.; Frank, A. J.

    2012-06-07

    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of oriented anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT) arrays as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes displayed both pseudocapacitive Li{sup +} storage associated with the NT surface and the Li{sup +} storage within the bulk material. The relative contribution of the pseudocapacitive and bulk storages depends strongly on the scan rate. While the charges are stored primarily in the bulk at low scan rates (<< 1 mV/s), the surface storage dominates the total storage capacity at higher scan rates (>1 mV/s). The storage capacity of the NT electrodes as a function of charge/discharge rates showed no dependence on the NT film thickness, suggesting that the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction processes occur homogeneously across the entire length of NT arrays. These results indicated that the electron conduction along the NT walls and the ion conduction within the electrolyte do not cause significant hindering of the charge/discharge kinetics for NT electrode architectures. As a result of the surface pseudocapacitive storage, the reversible Li{sup +} storage capacities for TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes were higher than the theoretical storage capacity for bulk anatase TiO{sub 2} materials.

  19. Method for preparing preferentially oriented, high temperature superconductors using solution reagents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2002-01-01

    A multi-domained bulk REBa.sub.2 CU.sub.3 O.sub.x with low-angle domain boundaries which resemble a quasi-single domained material and a method for producing the same comprising arranging multiple seeds, which can be small single crystals, single domained melt-textured REBa.sub.2 CU.sub.3 O.sub.x pieces, textured substrates comprises of grains with low misorientation angles, or thick film REBa.sub.2 CU.sub.3 O.sub.x deposited on such textured substrate, such seeds being tailored for various REBa.sub.2 CU.sub.3 O.sub.x compounds, in specific pattern and relative seed orientations on a superconductor precursor material which may be placed in contact with a porous substrate so as to reduce the amount of liquid phase in the melt. Because seeds can be arranged in virtually any pattern, high quality REBa.sub.2 CU.sub.3 O.sub.x elements of virtually unlimited size and complex geometry can be fabricated.

  20. Atomistic Insights Into the Oriented Attachment of Tunnel-Based Oxide Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Yifei; Wood, Stephen M; He, Kun; Yao, Wentao; Tompsett, David; Lu, Jun; Nie, Anmin; Islam, M. Saiful; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the grand challenges facing materials scientists. In particular, how tunnel-based nanomaterials aggregate during synthesis while maintaining their well-aligned tunneled structure is not fully understood. Here, we describe the atomistic mechanism of oriented attachment (OA) during solution synthesis of tunneled α-MnO2 nanowires based on a combination of in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM), aberration-corrected scanning TEM with subangstrom spatial resolution, and first-principles calculations. It is found that primary tunnels (1 × 1 and 2 × 2) attach along their common {110} lateral surfaces to form interfaces corresponding to 2 × 3 tunnels that facilitate their short-range ordering. The OA growth of α-MnO2 nanowires is driven by the stability gained from elimination of {110} surfaces and saturation of Mn atoms at {110}-edges. During this process, extra [MnOx] radicals in solution link the two adjacent {110} surfaces and bond with the unsaturated Mn atoms from both surface edges to produce stable nanowire interfaces. Our results provide insights into the controlled synthesis and design of nanomaterials in which tunneled structures can be tailored for use in catalysis, ion exchange, and energy storage applications.

  1. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

  2. Near-resonant second-order nonlinear susceptibility in c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Kai; Long, Hua; Wang, Bing Lu, Peixiang; Chu, Sheng

    2014-08-18

    Near-resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) in c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods is studied under the femtosecond laser with wavelength from 780?nm to 810?nm. A highly efficient SHG is obtained, which is attributed to the d{sub 131} component of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility. The largest d{sub 131} value is estimated to be 10.2?pm/V at the pumping wavelength of 800?nm, which indicates a large SHG response of the c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods in the near-resonant region. Theoretical calculation based on finite-difference time-domain simulation suggests a four-fold local-field enhancement of the SHG.

  3. Magneto-transport properties of oriented Mn{sub 2}CoAl films sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, G. Z.; Du, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H. Wu, G. H.; Zhang, H. G.

    2014-06-16

    Spin gapless semiconductors are interesting family of materials by embracing both magnetism and semiconducting due to their unique band structure. Its potential application in future spintronics requires realization in thin film form. In this Letter, we report fabrication and transport properties of spin gapless Mn{sub 2}CoAl films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. The films deposited at 673 K are well oriented to (001) direction and display a uniform-crystalline surface. Magnetotransport measurements on the oriented films reveal a semiconducting-like resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity, and linear magnetoresistance representative of the transport signatures of spin gapless semiconductors. The magnetic properties of the films have also been investigated and compared to that of bulk Mn{sub 2}CoAl, showing small discrepancy induced by the composition deviation.

  4. Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clem, John; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2013-09-04

    The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. Themore » range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.« less

  5. Cryptotomography: reconstructing 3D Fourier intensities from randomly oriented single-shot diffraction patterns (CXIDB ID 9)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Loh, Ne-Te Duane

    2011-08-01

    These 2000 single-shot diffraction patterns include were either background-scattering only or hits (background-scattering plus diffraction signal from sub-micron ellipsoidal particles at random, undetermined orientations). Candidate hits were identified by eye, and the remainder were presumed as background. 54 usable, background-subtracted hits in this set (procedure in referenced article) were used to reconstruct the 3D diffraction intensities of the average ellipsoidal particle.

  6. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup }0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80?W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup }0)//?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup }0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup }0)

  7. Determining Orientational Structure of Diamondoid Thiols Attached to Silver Using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T M; Lee, J I; Fabbri, J D; Wang, D; Nielsen, M; Randel, J C; Schreiner, P R; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J P; Carlson, R K; Terminello, L J; Melosh, N A; van Buuren, T

    2008-10-07

    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is a powerful tool for determination of molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers and other surface-attached molecules. A general framework for using NEXAFS to simultaneously determine molecular tilt and twist of rigid molecules attached to surfaces is presented. This framework is applied to self-assembled monolayers of higher diamondoid, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures. Diamondoid monolayers chemisorbed on metal substrates are known to exhibit interesting electronic and surface properties. This work compares molecular orientation in monolayers prepared on silver substrates using two different thiol positional isomers of [121]tetramantane, and thiols derived from two different pentamantane structural isomers, [1212]pentamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. The observed differences in monolayer structure demonstrate the utility and limitations of NEXAFS spectroscopy and the framework. The results also demonstrate the ability to control diamondoid assembly, in particular the molecular orientational structure, providing a flexible platform for the modification of surface properties with this exciting new class of nanodiamond materials.

  8. THE SPIN AND ORIENTATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN COSMIC FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Lin Weipeng; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Wang Huiyuan

    2009-11-20

    Clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. Forming dark matter halos respond to these different large-scale environments, and this in turn affects the properties of galaxies hosted by the halos. It is therefore important to understand the systematic correlations of halo properties with the morphology of the cosmic web, as this informs both about galaxy formation physics and possible systematics of weak lensing studies. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field and the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high-resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet like network of the dark matter density field. We focus on investigating the properties of the dark matter halos inside these structures, in particular, on the directions of their spins and the orientation of their shapes with respect to the directions of the filaments and sheets. We find that both the spin and the major axes of filament halos with masses approx<10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} are preferentially aligned with the direction of the filaments. The spins and major axes of halos in sheets tend to lie parallel to the sheets. There is an opposite mass dependence of the alignment strength for the spin (negative) and major (positive) axes, i.e. with increasing halo mass the major axis tends to be more strongly aligned with the direction of the filament, whereas the alignment between halo spin and filament becomes weaker with increasing halo mass. The alignment strength as a function of the distance to the most massive node halo indicates that there is a transit large-scale environment impact: from the two-dimensional collapse phase of the filament to the three-dimensional collapse phase of the cluster/node halo at small separation. Overall, the two algorithms for filament/sheet identification investigated here agree well with each other. The method based on halos alone can be easily adapted for use with observational data sets.

  9. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Homan, D. C.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10 to 150 on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ?0.5 to ?2. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup 1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are rare, comprising only 4% of the sample, and are more prevalent in radio galaxy and BL Lac jets. We confirm a previously reported upper envelope to the distribution of speed versus beamed luminosity for moving jet features. Below 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup 1} there is a fall-off in maximum speed with decreasing 15 GHz radio luminosity. The general shape of the envelope implies that the most intrinsically powerful AGN jets have a wide range of Lorentz factors up to ?40, while intrinsically weak jets are only mildly relativistic.

  10. In Situ GISAXS investigation of low-temperature aging in oriented surfactant-mesostructured titania thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nagpure, Suraj; Das, Saikat; Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Strzalka, Joseph; Rankin, Stephen E.

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the mechanism of forming orthogonally oriented hexagonal close packed (o-HCP) mesostructures during aging of surfactant-templated titania thin films is elucidated using in situ grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) in a controlled-environment chamber. To promote orthogonal orientation, glass slides are modified with crosslinked Pluronic P123, to provide surfaces chemically neutral towards both blocks of mesophase template P123. At 4 °C and 80% RH, the o-HCP mesophase emerges in thin (~60 nm) films by a direct disorder-to-order transition, with no intermediate ordered mesophase. The Pluronic/titania o-HCP GISAXS intensity emerges only after ~10-12 minutes, much slower than previously reportedmore » for smallmolecule surfactants. The Avrami model applied to the data suggests 2D growth with nucleation at the start of the process with a half-life of 39.7 minutes for the aging time just after the induction period of 7 minutes followed by a period consistent with 1D growth kinetics. Surprisingly, films that are thicker (~250 nm) or cast on unmodified slides form o-HCP mesophase domains, but by a different mechanism (2D growth with continuous nucleation) with faster and less complete orthogonal alignment. Thus, the o-HCP mesophase is favored not only 2 by modifying the substrate, but also by aging at 4 °C, which is below the lower consolute temperature (LCST) of the poly(propylene oxide) block of P123. Consistent with this, in situ GISAXS shows that films aged at room temperature (above the LCST of the PPO block) have randomly oriented HCP mesostructure.« less

  11. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  12. The polarization trajectory of terahertz magnetic dipole radiation in (110)-oriented PrFeO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Gaibei; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Jiang, Junjie; Wang, Xinyan; Wu, Hailong; Ma, Guohong E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn; Cao, Shixun E-mail: sxcao@shu.edu.cn

    2014-04-28

    By using the polarized terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, the macro-magnetization motion in (110)-oriented PrFeO{sub 3} single crystal was constructed. We emphasize that the trajectory of the emitted THz waveforms relies on not only the motion of macroscopic magnetization vector, but also the spin configuration in the ground state and the propagation of THz pulse. The azimuthal angle (the incident THz pulse polarization with respect to the crystal axes) enables us to control the polarization trajectories of the quasiferromagnetic and quasiantiferromagnetic mode radiations that can lead to further applications on multiple information storing and quantum processing.

  13. Role of quinones in electron transfer of PQQ–glucose dehydrogenase anodes—mediation or orientation effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-06-16

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-sGDH anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introduced in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.

  14. Realization of highly crystallographic three-dimensional nanosheets by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharooni, M.; Hosseini, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir; Taghinejad, M.; Taghinejad, H. [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y. [Nano-Physics Research Lab, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439955961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Morphologically controlled nanostructures have been increasingly important because of their strongly shape dependent physical and chemical properties. Formation of nanoscale silicon based structures that employ high levels of strain, intentional, and unintentional twins or grain boundaries can be dramatically different from the commonly conceived bulk processes. We report, realization of highly crystallographic 3D nanosheets with unique morphology and ultra-thin thickness by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method, based on plasma processing of metal layer deposited on Si substrate and its post deep reactive ion etching. Annealing in plasma ambient creates rod-like metal alloy precursors which induce stress at its interface with Si substrate due to the mismatch of lattice constants. This stress opens facilitated gateways for orientated-diffusion of metal atoms in ?110? directions and leads to formation of NSs (nanosheets) with [111] crystalline essence. Nanosheets are mainly triangular, hexagonal, or pseudo hexagonal in shape and their thicknesses are well controlled from several to tens of nanometers. The structural and morphological evolution of features were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope and possible mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the thermodynamically unfavorable morphology of nanosheets. Significant photoemission capability of NSs was also demonstrated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  15. Role of Quinones in Electron Transfer of PQQ–Glucose Dehydrogenase Anodes—Mediation or Orientation Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-06-24

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ–sGDH) anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introduced in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.

  16. Role of quinones in electron transfer of PQQ–glucose dehydrogenase anodes—mediation or orientation effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Chavez, Madelaine Seow; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-06-16

    In this study, the influence of two quinones (1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone) on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in PQQ-sGDH anodes has been determined. Benzoquinones were experimentally explored as mediators present in the electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes with and without the mediators was examined and for the first time molecular docking simulations were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain the role of the mediator molecules in the design and operation of the enzymatic electrodes. It was proposed that the higher performance of the PQQ–sGDH anodes in the presence of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones introducedmore » in the solution is due to the shorter distance between these molecules and PQQ in the enzymatic molecule. It was also hypothesized that when 1,4-benzoquinone is adsorbed on a carbon support, it would play the dual role of a mediator and an orienting agent. At the same time, when 1,2-benzoquinone and ubiquinone are adsorbed on the electrode surface, the enzyme would transfer the electrons directly to the support, and these molecules would primarily play the role of an orienting agent.« less

  17. Multishell Au/Ag/SiO2 nanorods with tunable optical properties as single particle orientation and rotational tracking probes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Kuangcai; Lin, Chia -Cheng; Vela, Javier; Fang, Ning

    2015-04-07

    In this study, three-layer core–shell plasmonic nanorods (Au/Ag/SiO2–NRs), consisting of a gold nanorod core, a thin silver shell, and a thin silica layer, were synthesized and used as optical imaging probes under a differential interference contrast microscope for single particle orientation and rotational tracking. The localized surface plasmon resonance modes were enhanced upon the addition of the silver shell, and the anisotropic optical properties of gold nanorods were maintained. The silica coating enables surface functionalization with silane coupling agents and provides enhanced stability and biocompatibility. Taking advantage of the longitudinal LSPR enhancement, the orientation and rotational information of the hybridmore » nanorods on synthetic lipid bilayers and on live cell membranes were obtained with millisecond temporal resolution using a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized hybrid nanorods are promising imaging probes with improved sensitivity and good biocompatibility for single plasmonic particle tracking experiments in biological systems.« less

  18. Binding Preferences, Surface Attachment, Diffusivity, and Orientation of a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module on Cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Beckham, G. T.; Matthews, J. F.; Bu, L.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-06-08

    Cellulase enzymes often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for binding to cellulose. The mechanisms by which CBMs recognize specific surfaces of cellulose and aid in deconstruction are essential to understand cellulase action. The Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase, Cel7A, is known to selectively bind to hydrophobic surfaces of native cellulose. It is most commonly suggested that three aromatic residues identify the planar binding face of this CBM, but several recent studies have challenged this hypothesis. Here, we use molecular simulation to study the CBM binding orientation and affinity on hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. Roughly 43 {mu}s of molecular dynamics simulations were conducted, which enables statistically significant observations. We quantify the fractions of the CBMs that detach from crystal surfaces or diffuse to other surfaces, the diffusivity along the hydrophobic surface, and the overall orientation of the CBM on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. The simulations demonstrate that there is a thermodynamic driving force for the Cel7A CBM to bind preferentially to the hydrophobic surface of cellulose relative to hydrophilic surfaces. In addition, the simulations demonstrate that the CBM can diffuse from hydrophilic surfaces to the hydrophobic surface, whereas the reverse transition is not observed. Lastly, our simulations suggest that the flat faces of Family 1 CBMs are the preferred binding surfaces. These results enhance our understanding of how Family 1 CBMs interact with and recognize specific cellulose surfaces and provide insights into the initial events of cellulase adsorption and diffusion on cellulose.

  19. The inhibiting effect of dislocation helices on the stress-induced orientation of S' precipitates in Al–Cu–Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xiaobin; Deng, Yunlai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Xinming

    2015-09-15

    The phenomenon of restrained stress-induced preferential orientation of S′ precipitates is investigated using a single-crystal of Al–1.23Cu–0.43 Mg alloy. Al–1.23Cu–0.43 Mg single-crystal specimens are subjected to stress aging, and the microstructure is analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the stress-induced preferential orientation of S′ precipitates is restrained owing to the dislocations produced by a higher stress. The effect of dislocations on the oriented precipitates depends on the total length of the intersection lines for precipitate habit planes and dislocation glide planes. This investigation not only provides important insight into solving the anisotropy problem attributed to precipitation strengthening, but also offers a benchmark for choosing the appropriate stress range in manufacturing of Al–Cu–Mg alloys. - Highlights: • Single crystals of an Al–Cu–Mg alloy were prepared for the investigations. • A phenomenon of restrained stress-induced preferential orientation of S′ precipitates was found. • The influence of dislocation helices on precipitation during stress-aging was studied. • Difference of orientation degree of S′ precipitates and θ′ precipitates was explained. • A basis for choosing the appropriate stress range in manufacturing of Al–Cu–Mg alloys is provided.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  1. Extracting grain-orientation-dependent data from in situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction. I. Inverse pole figures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoica, Grigoreta M.; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; An, Ke; Ma, Dong; Vogel, S. C.; Carpenter, J. S.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-28

    The problem of calculating the inverse pole figure (IPF) is analyzed from the perspective of the application of time-of flight neutron diffraction toin situmonitoring of the thermomechanical behavior of engineering materials. On the basis of a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) method, a consistent set of grain orientations is generated and used to compute the weighting factors for IPF normalization. The weighting factors are instrument dependent and were calculated for the engineering materials diffractometer VULCAN (Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The QMC method is applied to face-centered cubic structures and can be easily extended to other crystallographic symmetries. Examples includemore » 316LN stainless steelin situloaded in tension at room temperature and an Al–2%Mg alloy, substantially deformed by cold rolling and in situannealed up to 653 K.« less

  2. Low-energy D{sup +} and H{sup +} ion irradiation effects on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kue Park, Jun; Won Lee, Kyu; Hee Han, Jun; Jung Kweon, Jin; Kim, Dowan; Eui Lee, Cheol [Department of Physics and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sun-Taek; Kim, Gon-Ho [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. S. [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-07

    We have investigated the low-energy (100 eV) D{sup +} and H{sup +} ion irradiation effects on the structural and chemical properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Structural disorder due to the ion irradiation was identified by the Raman spectroscopy, the D{sup +} irradiation giving rise to greater structural disorder than the H{sup +} irradiation. Only sp{sup 2} bonding was identified in the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the D{sup +}-irradiated HOPG, indicating no change in the surface chemical structure. The H{sup +} irradiation, on the other hand, gave rise to sp{sup 3} bonding and ???{sup *} transition, the sp{sup 3} bonding increasing with increasing irradiation dose. It is thus shown that the chemical properties of the HOPG surface may be sensitively modified by the low-energy H{sup +} ion irradiation, but not by the low-energy D{sup +} ion irradiation.

  3. The First-cycle Electrochemical Lithiation of Crystalline Ge Dopant and Orientation Dependence, and Comparison with Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Maria K.Y.; Long, Brandon R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.

    2011-12-15

    We use first principles Density Functional Theory (DFT), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the first-cycle electrochemical lithiation of Ge in comparison with Si both high-capacity anode materials for Li ion batteries. DFT shows a significant difference in the dilute solubility of Li in Si and Ge, despite similarities in their chemical and physical properties. We attribute this difference to electronic, as opposed to elastic, effects. CV and Raman data reveal little dopant dependence in the lithiation onset voltages in Ge, unlike in Si, due to a smaller energy difference between dilute Li insertion in p-type Ge and bulk germanide formation than the corresponding difference in Si. Finally, we show that there is no orientation dependence in lithiation onset voltages in Ge. We conclude that approaches other than microstructuring are needed to fabricate effective electrodes able to take advantage of the higher rate capability of Ge compared to that of Si.

  4. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  5. Communication: Salt-induced water orientation at a surface of non-ionic surfactant in relation to a mechanism of Hofmeister effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Kaneko, Yohei; Okuno, Masanari; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Ishibashi, Taka-aki; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-05-07

    The behavior of water molecules at the surface of nonionic surfactant (monomyristolein) and effects of monovalent ions on the behavior are investigated using the heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. It is found that water molecules at the surface are oriented with their hydrogen atoms pointing to the bulk, and that the degree of orientation depends on the anion strongly but weakly on the cation. With measured surface potentials in those saline solutions, it is concluded that the heterogeneous distribution of anions and cations in combination with the nonionic surfactant causes the water orientation. This heterogeneous distribution well explains the contrasting order of anions and cations with respect to the ion size in the Hofmeister series.

  6. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  7. Magnetic field and field orientation dependence of the critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires and other HTS conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, J.O.; Holesinger, T.G.; Coulter, J.Y.; Maley, M.P.

    1996-10-01

    The authors have performed measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c} of Bi-2212/Ag round wire produced by isothermal melt processing. In contrast to the case for flat tape, there is very little dependence of J{sub c} on the direction of the magnetic field as it is rotated normal to the wire axis, which is the direction of the nominal current flow. However, when the angle of the magnetic field direction is rotated from normal to the wire axis to parallel to that axis, J{sub c} at 64 K and 0.2 T increases by more than a factor of four. Again, this is in contrast to the results observed for Bi-2212/Ag and Bi-2223/Ag flat tapes, which show no anisotropy under similar experimental conditions. They can explain these differences in angular anisotropy by referring to the microstructure of these two conductor types, which have distinctly different types of grain alignment. They discuss the general behavior of the dependence of J{sub c} on the orientation of a magnetic field for high temperature superconductors.

  8. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai, Ranajit; Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-05-07

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f{sub FMR}) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of f{sub FMR} has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  9. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S.; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  10. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia; Hough, Patricia Diane; Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  11. Determination of solute site occupancies within γ' precipitates in nickel-base superalloys via orientation-specific atom probe tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meher, Subhashish; Rojhirunsakool, Tanaporn; Nandwana, Peeyush; Tiley, Jamie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2015-04-28

    In this study, the analytical limitations in atom probe tomography such as resolving a desired set of atomic planes, for solving complex materials science problems, have been overcome by employing a well-developed unique and reproducible crystallographic technique, involving synergetic coupling of orientation microscopy with atom probe tomography. The crystallographic information in atom probe reconstructions has been utilized to determine the solute site occupancies in Ni-Al-Cr based superalloys accurately. The structural information in atom probe reveals that both Al and Cr occupy the same sub-lattice within the L12-ordered g precipitates to form Ni3(Al,Cr) precipitates in a Ni-14Al-7Cr(at.%) alloy. Interestingly, the additionmore » of Co, which is a solid solution strengthener, to a Ni-14Al-7Cr alloy results in the partial reversal of Al site occupancy within g precipitates to form (Ni,Al)3(Al,Cr,Co) precipitates. This unique evidence of reversal of Al site occupancy, resulting from the introduction of other solutes within the ordered structures, gives insights into the relative energetics of different sub-lattice sites when occupied by different solutes.« less

  12. SMITHERS: An object-oriented modular mapping methodology for MCNP-based neutronic–thermal hydraulic multiphysics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Richard, Joshua; Galloway, Jack; Fensin, Michael; Trellue, Holly

    2015-04-04

    A novel object-oriented modular mapping methodology for externally coupled neutronics–thermal hydraulics multiphysics simulations was developed. The Simulator using MCNP with Integrated Thermal-Hydraulics for Exploratory Reactor Studies (SMITHERS) code performs on-the-fly mapping of material-wise power distribution tallies implemented by MCNP-based neutron transport/depletion solvers for use in estimating coolant temperature and density distributions with a separate thermal-hydraulic solver. The key development of SMITHERS is that it reconstructs the hierarchical geometry structure of the material-wise power generation tallies from the depletion solver automatically, with only a modicum of additional information required from the user. In addition, it performs the basis mapping from themore » combinatorial geometry of the depletion solver to the required geometry of the thermal-hydraulic solver in a generalizable manner, such that it can transparently accommodate varying levels of thermal-hydraulic solver geometric fidelity, from the nodal geometry of multi-channel analysis solvers to the pin-cell level of discretization for sub-channel analysis solvers.« less

  13. SMITHERS: An object-oriented modular mapping methodology for MCNP-based neutronicthermal hydraulic multiphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, Joshua; Galloway, Jack; Fensin, Michael; Trellue, Holly

    2015-04-04

    A novel object-oriented modular mapping methodology for externally coupled neutronicsthermal hydraulics multiphysics simulations was developed. The Simulator using MCNP with Integrated Thermal-Hydraulics for Exploratory Reactor Studies (SMITHERS) code performs on-the-fly mapping of material-wise power distribution tallies implemented by MCNP-based neutron transport/depletion solvers for use in estimating coolant temperature and density distributions with a separate thermal-hydraulic solver. The key development of SMITHERS is that it reconstructs the hierarchical geometry structure of the material-wise power generation tallies from the depletion solver automatically, with only a modicum of additional information required from the user. In addition, it performs the basis mapping from the combinatorial geometry of the depletion solver to the required geometry of the thermal-hydraulic solver in a generalizable manner, such that it can transparently accommodate varying levels of thermal-hydraulic solver geometric fidelity, from the nodal geometry of multi-channel analysis solvers to the pin-cell level of discretization for sub-channel analysis solvers.

  14. Surface modifications and optical variations of (?1 1 1) lattice oriented CuO nanofilms for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanasekaran, V.; Mahalingam, T.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: The films are grown using a low cost SILAR method. The pH value is found to play a significant role in the property of the resulting films. The fabrication of band pass filters between 450 nm and 1000 nm is envisaged. Electrical conductivity and optical band gap values were found to be 68.1 10{sup ?3} ?{sup ?1} cm{sup ?1} and 1.08 eV. Coating may aid the small band of frequencies could pave way for enhancing the efficiency. - Abstract: This paper reports on the preparation and characterization of Successive Ionic Layer by Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) grown CuO thin films. The films were deposited onto glass substrates at various solution pH values. The thickness of the film is increased with increase of solution pH values. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the prepared films exhibited the monoclinic structure with (?1 1 1) predominant orientation. The optimized pH value is 11 0.1. The microstructure, morphology, optical and electrical properties are studied and reported. The transmission spectra (T) at normal incidence revealed that the films exhibit indirect transitions and may be tailored for passing selected bands of frequencies in visible near IR range. The activation energy is estimated to be about 0.29 eV.

  15. Temperature-dependent H{sub 2} gas-sensing properties of fabricated Pd nanowires using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sennik, Erdem; Kilinc, Necmettin; Oeztuerk, Zafer Ziya

    2010-09-15

    Horizontal palladium (Pd) nanowires and Pd nanoparticles were successfully fabricated directly on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite depending on the electrodeposition time using palladium nitrate [Pd(NO{sub 2}){sub 3}] solution at room temperature, and the temperature-dependent hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of these structures were investigated in the concentration range of 50-5000 ppm. Pd nanowires and Pd nanoparticles were fabricated on a graphite surface by applying triple-pulsed potential with varying the electrodeposition time from 400 to 600 s. The fabricated Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was found that the nanowire arrays were continuous, parallel to each other and ordered after an electrodeposition time of 600 s. The diameters of the Pd nanowires and Pd nanoparticles are observed in the range of 70-180 nm. The H{sub 2} sensing properties of these structures were determined with variation in resistance measurements. It was observed that the limit of detection is lower than 50 ppm H{sub 2}, the sensor response was approximately 2% for 1000 ppm H{sub 2} at room temperature, and the sensor response was decreased with increasing temperature.

  16. CONNECTOR ORIENTATION CONVENTIO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FIBERS ROUTE ALONG BACKSIDE OF FRAME LOOKING ALONG THE BEAM TOWARDS DOWNSTREAM A - - - RSF 22106 - - - INITIAL ISSUE - - UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER AUTHORIZATION BY THIS UNIVERSITY...

  17. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  18. New Employee Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) A Family-Friendly Workplace Benefit Forms DOE Substance Abuse Testing Program Security Forms and Information...

  19. NTSF Newcomers' Orientation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A brief history and overview of the Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC) and NTSF.

  20. New-Hire Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    representative. New-Hire check-in begins at 7:30 a.m. at the Otowi Building, located on Casa Grande Drive, Technical Area 3, Building 261, Main Gate Conference Room (F200W)....

  1. Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-03-10

    Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

  2. Dielectric properties of <001>-oriented Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} thin films on polycrystalline metal tapes using biaxially oriented MgO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, W.; Kang, B.S.; Jia, Q.X.; Matias, V.; Findikoglu, A.T.

    2006-02-06

    We report the growth of <001>-oriented Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films on polycrystalline Ni-alloy tapes by pulsed laser deposition using biaxially oriented, ion-beam-assisted deposited (IBAD) MgO and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers. Dielectric constant values of our BST films were up to {approx}85% of those in the epitaxial films prepared under similar conditions on single-crystal MgO substrates. No significant dispersion of the dielectric constant was observed for frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. These results demonstrate the versatility of using IBAD-textured MgO and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers to integrate highly oriented good-quality BST films with nonsingle-crystalline substrates.

  3. Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiN/Ge complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible light emitting microstructures by quick x-ray nano-diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chahine, G. A.; Schlli, T. U.; Zoellner, M. H.; Guha, S.; Reich, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Capellini, G.; Richard, M.-I.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-02-16

    This paper presents a study of the spatial distribution of strain and lattice orientation in CMOS-fabricated strained Ge microstripes using high resolution x-ray micro-diffraction. The recently developed model-free characterization tool, based on a quick scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy technique can image strain down to levels of 10{sup ?5} (?a/a) with a spatial resolution of ?0.5??m. Strain and lattice tilt are extracted using the strain and orientation calculation software package X-SOCS. The obtained results are compared with the biaxial strain distribution obtained by lattice parameter-sensitive ?-Raman and ?-photoluminescence measurements. The experimental data are interpreted with the help of finite element modeling of the strain relaxation dynamics in the investigated structures.

  4. Magnetism and electronic structure of (001)- and (111)-oriented LaTiO{sub 3} bilayers sandwiched in LaScO{sub 3} barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yakui; Dong, Shuai

    2015-05-07

    In this study, the magnetism and electronic structure of LaTiO{sub 3} bilayers along both the (001) and (111) orientations are calculated using the density functional theory. The band insulator LaScO{sub 3} is chosen as the barrier layer and substrate to obtain the isolating LaTiO{sub 3} bilayer. For both the (001)- and (111)-oriented cases, LaTiO{sub 3} demonstrates the G-type antiferromagnetism as the ground state, similar to the bulk material. However, the electronic structure is significantly changed. The occupied bands of Ti are much narrower in the (111) case, giving a nearly flat band. As a result, the exchange coupling between nearest-neighbor Ti ions is reformed in these superlattices, which will affect the Nel temperature significantly.

  5. Effect of oxygen on weld shape and crystallographic orientation of duplex stainless steel weld using advanced A-TIG (AA-TIG) welding method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ying, E-mail: yingzou@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ueji, Rintaro; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The double-shielded advanced A-TIG (AA-TIG) welding method was adopted in this study for the welding of the SUS329J4L duplex stainless steel with the shielding gases of different oxygen content levels. The oxygen content in the shielding gas was controlled by altering the oxygen content in the outer layer gas, while the inner layer remained pure argon to suppress oxidation on the tungsten electrode. As a result, a deep weld penetration was obtained due to the dissolution of oxygen into the weld metals. Additionally, the microstructure of the weld metal was changed by the dissolution of oxygen. The austenite phase at the ferrite grain boundary followed a KurdjumovSachs (KS) orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix phase at any oxide content. On the other hand, the orientation relationship between the intragranular austenite phase and the ferrite matrix phase exhibited different patterns under different oxygen content levels. When there was little oxide in the fusion zone, only a limited part of the intragranular austenite phase and the ferrite matrix phase followed the KS orientation relationship. With the increase of the oxide, the correspondence of the KS relationship increased and fit very well in the 2.5% O{sub 2} shielded sample. The investigation of this phenomenon was carried out along with the nucleation mechanisms of the intragranular austenite phases. - Highlights: Weld penetration increased with the increase of the oxygen content. Average diameter and number density of oxide were changed by the oxygen content. K-S relationship of Widmansttten austenite/ferrite wasnt varied by oxide. Orientation relationship of intragranular austenite/ferrite was varied by oxide.

  6. Evaluation of P-101 course ``Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE`` taught in Richland, Washington, June 16--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, ``Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE``, (P-101) which was conducted June 16 to 26, 1992 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees` written comments.

  7. Evaluation of P-101 course Orientation to Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE'' taught in Richland, Washington, June 16--June 26, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes trainee evaluations for the Safety Training Section course, Orientation to Occupational Safety in DOE'', (P-101) which was conducted June 16 to 26, 1992 at Hanford, in Richland, Washington. Sections 1.1 and 1.2 of this report summarize the quantitative course evaluations that trainees provided upon completion of the course. Appendix A provides a transcript of the trainees' written comments.

  8. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bruley, John [IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, New York 10593 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6?nm) buffer layer of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225??C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600??C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 720-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 720?nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ?660 for the heterostructure.

  9. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  10. Interrogation of Surface, Skin, and Core Orientation in Thermotropic Liquid-Crystalline Copolyester Moldings by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rendon,S.; Bubeck, R.; Thomas, L.; Burghardt, W.; Hexemer, A.; Fischer, D.

    2007-01-01

    Injection molding thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers (TLCPs) usually results in the fabrication of molded articles that possess complex states of orientation that vary greatly as a function of thickness. 'Skin-core' morphologies are often observed in TLCP moldings. Given that both 'core' and 'skin' orientation states may often differ both in magnitude and direction, deconvolution of these complex orientation states requires a method to separately characterize molecular orientation in the surface region. A combination of two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in transmission and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to probe the molecular orientation in injection molded plaques fabricated from a 4,4'-dihydroxy-{alpha}-methylstilbene (DH{alpha}MS)-based thermotropic liquid crystalline copolyester. Partial electron yield (PEY) mode NEXAFS is a noninvasive ex situ characterization tool with exquisite surface sensitivity that samples to a depth of 2 nm. The effects of plaque geometry and injection molding processing conditions on surface orientation in the regions on- and off- axis to the centerline of injection molded plaques are presented and discussed. Quantitative comparisons are made between orientation parameters obtained by NEXAFS and those from 2D WAXS in transmission, which are dominated by the microstructure in the skin and core regions. Some qualitative comparisons are also made with 2D WAXS results from the literature.

  11. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-Na₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ piezoelectric materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-xNa₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d₃₃ ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectricmore » materials.« less

  12. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-Na???Bi???TiO? piezoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-xNa???Bi???TiO? (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d?? ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180 domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  13. In Situ GISAXS investigation of low-temperature aging in oriented surfactant-mesostructured titania thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagpure, Suraj; Das, Saikat; Garlapalli, Ravinder K.; Strzalka, Joseph; Rankin, Stephen E.

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the mechanism of forming orthogonally oriented hexagonal close packed (o-HCP) mesostructures during aging of surfactant-templated titania thin films is elucidated using in situ grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) in a controlled-environment chamber. To promote orthogonal orientation, glass slides are modified with crosslinked Pluronic P123, to provide surfaces chemically neutral towards both blocks of mesophase template P123. At 4 °C and 80% RH, the o-HCP mesophase emerges in thin (~60 nm) films by a direct disorder-to-order transition, with no intermediate ordered mesophase. The Pluronic/titania o-HCP GISAXS intensity emerges only after ~10-12 minutes, much slower than previously reported for smallmolecule surfactants. The Avrami model applied to the data suggests 2D growth with nucleation at the start of the process with a half-life of 39.7 minutes for the aging time just after the induction period of 7 minutes followed by a period consistent with 1D growth kinetics. Surprisingly, films that are thicker (~250 nm) or cast on unmodified slides form o-HCP mesophase domains, but by a different mechanism (2D growth with continuous nucleation) with faster and less complete orthogonal alignment. Thus, the o-HCP mesophase is favored not only 2 by modifying the substrate, but also by aging at 4 °C, which is below the lower consolute temperature (LCST) of the poly(propylene oxide) block of P123. Consistent with this, in situ GISAXS shows that films aged at room temperature (above the LCST of the PPO block) have randomly oriented HCP mesostructure.

  14. Effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic atomic collisions on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiaber, Ziani S.; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo N.; Silva, Jos H. D. da; Leite, Douglas M. G.; Bortoleto, Jos R. R.

    2013-11-14

    The combined effects of substrate temperature, substrate orientation, and energetic particle impingement on the structure of GaN films grown by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated. Monte-Carlo based simulations are employed to analyze the energies of the species generated in the plasma and colliding with the growing surface. Polycrystalline films grown at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000 C clearly showed a dependence of orientation texture and surface morphology on substrate orientation (c- and a-plane sapphire) in which the (0001) GaN planes were parallel to the substrate surface. A large increase in interplanar spacing associated with the increase in both a- and c-parameters of the hexagonal lattice and a redshift of the optical bandgap were observed at substrate temperatures higher than 600 C. The results showed that the tensile stresses produced during the film's growth in high-temperature deposition ranges were much larger than the expected compressive stresses caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and substrate in the cool-down process after the film growth. The best films were deposited at 500 C, 30 W and 600 C, 45 W, which corresponds to conditions where the out diffusion from the film is low. Under these conditions the benefits of the temperature increase because of the decrease in defect density are greater than the problems caused by the strongly strained lattice that occurr at higher temperatures. The results are useful to the analysis of the growth conditions of GaN films by reactive sputtering.

  15. Morphology and orientation of β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals patterned by laser in the inside of samarium barium borate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishii, Akihito; Shinozaki, Kenji; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear optical β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines (β-BBO) were patterned in the inside of 8Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–42BaO–50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass by irradiations of continuous-wave Yb:YVO{sub 4} lasers with a wavelength of 1080 nm (power: P=0.8–1.0 W, scanning speed: S=0.2–2.5 μm/s), in which the laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. The morphology, size, and orientation of β-BBO crystals were examined from polarization optical microscope and birefringence imaging observations. It was demonstrated that c-axis oriented β-BBO crystals with long lengths (e.g., 20 mm) were patterned in the inside of the glass. The morphology of β-BBO in the cross-section of lines was a rectangular shape with rounded corners, and the volume of β-BBO formed increased with increasing laser power and with decreasing laser scanning speed. The maximum depth in the inside from the surface for β-BBO patterning increased with increasing laser power, e.g., D{sub max}∼100 μm at P=0.8 W, D{sub max}∼170 μm at P=0.9 W, and D{sub max}∼200 μm at P=1 W. The present study proposes that the laser-induced crystallization opens a new door for applied engineering in glassy solids. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the POM photographs for β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines patterned by cw Yb:YVO{sub 4} fiber laser irradiations with a laser power of P=0.8 W and a laser scanning speed S=2 μm/s in the glass. The laser focal point was moved gradually from the surface into the inside. The results shown in Fig. 1 demonstrate that it is possible to pattern highly oriented β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals even in the inside of glasses. - Highlights: • β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines were patterned in the inside of a glass by lasers. • Laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. • Birefringence imaging was observed. • Morphology, size, and orientation of crystals were clarified. • Crystal lines with long lengths (e.g., 20 mm) were patterned at the depth of 200 μm.

  16. Epitaxial growth of (1 1 1)-oriented spinel CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaoran Choudhury, D.; Cao, Yanwei; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Meyers, D.; Chakhalian, J.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P.

    2015-02-16

    High quality (1 1 1)-oriented CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterostructures were synthesized on the sapphire (0 0 0 1) single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The structural properties are demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms that the films possess the proper chemical stoichiometry. This work offers a pathway to fabricating spinel type artificial quasi-two-dimensional frustrated lattices by means of geometrical engineering.

  17. 2015 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on the fracture toughness of stainless steels. Fracture toughness variability was investigated for Type 21-6-9 stainless steel using the 7K0004 forging. Fracture toughness specimens were cut from the forging in two different geometric configurations: arc shape and disc shape. The fracture toughness properties were measured at ambient temperature before and after exposure to hydrogen gas and compared to prior studies. There are three main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. First, the fracture toughness properties of actual reservoir forgings and contemporary heats of steel are much higher than those measured in earlier studies that used heats of steel from the 1980s and 1990s and forward extruded forgings which were designed to simulate reservoir microstructures. This is true for as-forged heats as well as forged heats exposed to hydrogen gas. Secondly, the study confirms the well-known observation that cracks oriented parallel to the forging grain flow will propagate easier than those oriented perpendicular to the grain flow. However, what was not known, but is shown here, is that this effect is more pronounced, particularly after hydrogen exposures, when the forging is given a larger upset. In brick forgings, which have a relatively low amount of upset, the fracture toughness variation with specimen orientation is less than 5%; whereas, in cup forgings, the fracture toughness is about 20% lower than that forging to show how specimen geometry affects fracture toughness values. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifies minimum specimen section sizes for valid fracture toughness values. However, sub-size specimens have long been used to study tritium effects because of the physical limitation of diffusing hydrogen isotopes into stainless steel at mild temperatures so as to not disturb the underlying forged microstructure. This study shows that fracture toughness values of larger specimens are higher and more representative of the material’s fracture behavior in a fully constrained tritium reservoir. The toughness properties measured for sub-size specimens were about 65-75% of the values for larger specimens. While the data from sub-size specimens are conservative, they may be overly so. The fracture toughness properties from sub-size specimens are valuable in that they can be used for tritium effects studies and show the same trends and alloy differences as those seen from larger specimen data. Additional work is planned, including finite element modeling, to see if sub-size specimen data could be adjusted in some way to be more closely aligned with the actual material behavior in a fully constrained pressure vessel.

  18. Multishell Au/Ag/SiO2 nanorods with tunable optical properties as single particle orientation and rotational tracking probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kuangcai; Lin, Chia -Cheng; Vela, Javier; Fang, Ning

    2015-04-07

    In this study, three-layer coreshell plasmonic nanorods (Au/Ag/SiO2NRs), consisting of a gold nanorod core, a thin silver shell, and a thin silica layer, were synthesized and used as optical imaging probes under a differential interference contrast microscope for single particle orientation and rotational tracking. The localized surface plasmon resonance modes were enhanced upon the addition of the silver shell, and the anisotropic optical properties of gold nanorods were maintained. The silica coating enables surface functionalization with silane coupling agents and provides enhanced stability and biocompatibility. Taking advantage of the longitudinal LSPR enhancement, the orientation and rotational information of the hybrid nanorods on synthetic lipid bilayers and on live cell membranes were obtained with millisecond temporal resolution using a scientific complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The results demonstrate that the as-synthesized hybrid nanorods are promising imaging probes with improved sensitivity and good biocompatibility for single plasmonic particle tracking experiments in biological systems.

  19. Interfacial dislocations in (111) oriented (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 films on SrTiO3 single crystal

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, Xuan; Yamada, Tomoaki; Lin, Ruoqian; Kamo, Takafumi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Wu, Di; Xin, Huolin L.; Su, Dong

    2015-10-08

    In this study, we have investigated the interfacial structure of epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films grown on (111)-oriented SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Compared with the (100) epitaxial perovskite films, we observe dominant dislocation half-loop with Burgers vectors of a<110> comprised of a misfit dislocation along <112>, and threading dislocations along <110> or <100>. The misfit dislocation with Burgers vector of a <110> can dissociate into two ½ a <110> partial dislocations and one stacking fault. We found the dislocation reactions occur not only between misfit dislocations, but also between threading dislocations. Via three-dimensional electron tomography, we retrievedmore » the configurations of the threading dislocation reactions. The reactions between threading dislocations lead to a more efficient strain relaxation than do the misfit dislocations alone in the near-interface region of the (111)-oriented (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 films.« less

  20. Highly c-axis oriented GaN films grown on free-standing diamond substrates for high-power devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, J.M., E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qin, F.W.; Wang, J.; Pan, L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, J.M. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Y.; Bai, Y.Z. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Du, G.T. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} GaN films are deposited on diamond substrates by ECR-PEMOCVD. {yields} Influence of deposition temperature on the properties of samples is investigated. {yields} Properties of GaN films are dependent on the deposition temperature. -- Abstract: GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are deposited on free-standing thick diamond films by low temperature electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PEMOCVD). The TMGa and N{sub 2} are applied as precursors of Ga and N, respectively. The quality of as-grown GaN films are systematically investigated as a function of deposition temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Hall Effect measurement (HL), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the dense and uniformed GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are successfully achieved on free-standing diamond substrates under optimized deposition temperature of 400 {sup o}C, and the room temperature PL spectra of the optimized GaN film show a intense ultraviolet near band edge emission and a weak yellow luminescence. The obtained GaN/diamond structure has great potential for the development of high-power semiconductor devices due to its excellent heat dissipation nature.

  1. Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes electrodeposited on Ni foam-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets for application in asymmetric supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Jiyue; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Cuimei; Zheng, Weitao

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Ni(OH){sub 2}/vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) was prepared. Ni(OH){sub 2}/V-GNs had enhanced specific capacitance, cycling reversibility and stability. Performance of Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC asymmetric supercapacitor was studied. - Abstract: Binderless Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes grown on Ni foam (NF)-supported vertically oriented graphene nanosheets (V-GNs) has been fabricated as a positive electrode material for asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC), coupled with activated carbon (AC) as a counter electrode material. The introduction of V-GNs leads to dense growth of nanocrystalline ?-Ni(OH){sub 2} that is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The electrochemical performances of the Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF electrode are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chargedischarge tests, which exhibit high specific capacitance of 2215 F g{sup ?1} at a scan current density of 2.3 A g{sup ?1}, enhanced cycling stability and high rate capability. The Ni(OH){sub 2}/GNs/NF-AC-based ASC can achieve a cell voltage of 1.4 V and a specific energy density of 11.11 Wh kg{sup ?1} at 0.5 mA cm{sup ?2} with a nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at room temperature.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of 10?nm thick piezoelectric AlN films with high c-axis orientation for miniaturized nanoelectromechanical devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaghloul, Usama; Piazza, Gianluca

    2014-06-23

    The scaling of piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is challenged by the synthesis of ultrathin and high quality piezoelectric films on very thin electrodes. We report the synthesis and characterization of the thinnest piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films (10?nm) ever deposited on ultrathin platinum layers (25?nm) using reactive sputtering. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fast Fourier transform analyses confirmed the proper crystal orientation, fine columnar texture, and the continuous lattice structure within individual grains in the deposited AlN nanometer thick films. The average extracted d{sub 31} piezoelectric coefficient for the synthesized films is ?1.73 pC/N, which is comparable to the reported values for micron thick and highly c-axis oriented AlN films. The 10?nm AlN films were employed to demonstrate two different types of optimized piezoelectric nanoactuators. The unimorph actuators exhibit vertical displacements as large as 1.1??m at 0.7?V for 25??m long and 30?nm thick beams. These results have a great potential to realize miniaturized NEMS relays with extremely low voltage, high frequency resonators, and ultrasensitive sensors.

  3. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) films by Langmuir–Blodgett deposition: A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindemann, W. R.; Philiph, R. L.; Chan, D. W. W.; Ayers, C. T.; Perez, E. M.; Beckman, S. P.; Strzalka, J.; Chaudhary, S.; Vaknin, D.

    2015-10-07

    Langmuir–Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene – P(VDF–TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF–TrFE) (70:30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir–Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF–TrFE) films. As a result, this development has significant implications for the potentialmore » use of P(VDF–TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.« less

  4. High efficiency, high quality x-ray optic based on ellipsoidally bent highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal for ultrafast x-ray diffraction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uschmann, I.; Nothelle, U.; Foerster, E.; Arkadiev, V.; Langhoff, N.; Antonov, A.; Grigorieva, I.; Steinkopf, R.; Gebhardt, A

    2005-08-20

    By the use of a thin highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal (HOPG) bent to a high-performance ellipsoidal shape it was possible to focus monochromatic x-rays of 4.5 keV photon energy with an efficiency of 0.0033, which is 30 times larger than for previously used bent crystals. Isotropic TiK{sub a}lpha radiation of a 150 {mu}m source was focused onto a 450 {mu}m spot. The size of the focal spot can be explained by broadening due to the mosaic crystal rocking curve. The rocking curve width (FWHM) of the thin graphite foil was determined to 0.11 deg. . The estimated temporal broadening of an ultrashort Kalpha pulse by the crystal is not larger than 300 fs. These properties make the x-ray optic very attractive for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray measurements.

  5. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) films by Langmuir–Blodgett deposition: A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemann, W. R.; Philiph, R. L.; Chan, D. W. W.; Ayers, C. T.; Perez, E. M.; Beckman, S. P.; Strzalka, J.; Chaudhary, S.; Vaknin, D.

    2015-10-07

    Langmuir–Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene – P(VDF–TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF–TrFE) (70:30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir–Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF–TrFE) films. As a result, this development has significant implications for the potential use of P(VDF–TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.

  6. The orbits of the uranian satellites and rings, the gravity field of the uranian system, and the orientation of the pole of Uranus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    2014-11-01

    French et al. determined the orbits of the Uranian rings, the orientation of the pole of Uranus, and the gravity harmonics of Uranus from Earth-based and Voyager ring occultations. Jacobson et al. determined the orbits of the Uranian satellites and the masses of Uranus and its satellites from Earth-based astrometry and observations acquired with the Voyager 2 spacecraft; they used the gravity harmonics and pole from French et al. Jacobson and Rush reconstructed the Voyager 2 trajectory and redetermined the Uranian system gravity parameters, satellite orbits, and ring orbits in a combined analysis of the data used previously augmented with additional Earth-based astrometry. Here we report on an extension of that work that incorporates additional astrometry and ring occultations together with improved data processing techniques.

  7. Domain wall assisted magnetization switching in (111) oriented L1{sub 0} FePt grown on a soft magnetic metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaushik, Neelam; Sharma, Parmanand; Yubuta, Kunio; Makino, Akihiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-08-16

    We report on growth and magnetic properties of exchange-coupled (111)-L1{sub 0} FePt hard/CoFeTaB soft magnetic metallic glass bilayered structure processed at lower temperature ({approx}400 deg. C). Single phaselike hysteresis loops with tailorable coercivity (<8.2 kOe) in out of plane direction are obtained. The magnetization switching mechanism is identified as domain wall assisted. In views of excellent nanofabrication abilities of metallic glass thin film and the ability to grow preferred oriented L1{sub 0} FePt, the present bilayered structure is very promising for the fabrication of high density bit--patterned magnetic recording media and other spintronic devices.

  8. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  9. Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with temperature and magnetic field orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H.; Kim, E.-H.

    2013-03-15

    Linear mode conversion (LMC) is the linear transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence {theta} of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, temperature {beta}=T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2}, adiabatic index {gamma}, and orientation angle {phi} between the ambient density gradient {nabla}N{sub 0} and ambient magnetic field B{sub 0} in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of {theta}, {gamma}, and {beta} with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency {epsilon} is strongly dependent on {gamma}{beta}, {phi} and {theta}, with {epsilon}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2} and {theta}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2}. The power conversion efficiency {epsilon}{sub p}, on the other hand, is independent of {gamma}{beta} but does vary significantly with {theta} and {phi}. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients ({phi} Almost-Equal-To 90 Degree-Sign ) and minimal for parallel orientation ({phi}=0 Degree-Sign ) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same {theta}.

  10. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.

  11. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  12. Enabling Predictive Simulation and UQ of Complex Multiphysics PDE Systems by the Development of Goal-Oriented Variational Sensitivity Analysis and A Posteriori Error Estimation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginting, Victor

    2014-03-15

    it was demonstrated that a posteriori analyses in general and in particular one that uses adjoint methods can accurately and efficiently compute numerical error estimates and sensitivity for critical Quantities of Interest (QoIs) that depend on a large number of parameters. Activities include: analysis and implementation of several time integration techniques for solving system of ODEs as typically obtained from spatial discretization of PDE systems; multirate integration methods for ordinary differential equations; formulation and analysis of an iterative multi-discretization Galerkin finite element method for multi-scale reaction-diffusion equations; investigation of an inexpensive postprocessing technique to estimate the error of finite element solution of the second-order quasi-linear elliptic problems measured in some global metrics; investigation of an application of the residual-based a posteriori error estimates to symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method for solving a class of second order quasi-linear elliptic problems; a posteriori analysis of explicit time integrations for system of linear ordinary differential equations; derivation of accurate a posteriori goal oriented error estimates for a user-defined quantity of interest for two classes of first and second order IMEX schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction problems; Postprocessing finite element solution; and A Bayesian Framework for Uncertain Quantification of Porous Media Flows.

  13. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  14. Surface-induced anisotropic orientations of interfacial ethanol molecules at air/sapphire (1-102) and ethanol/sapphire (1-102) interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, J.; Waychunas, G. A.; Shen, Y. R.

    2011-06-01

    Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study the interfacial arrangement of ethanol molecules at the vapor/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 )/ethanol liquid interfaces. The spectra in the C-H range show that ethanol molecules adsorbed from vapor onto α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) surface have a welldefined anisotropic arrangement following the structure of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) surface. The arrangement can be explained by the formation of two specific hydrogen bonds between the adsorbed ethanol molecule and hydroxyls on the sapphire surface. At the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 )/ethanol liquid interface, the first ethanol monolayer assumes a similar anisotropic arrangement as in the case of an ethanol monolayer on the dry sapphire surface. The second monolayer has a rather broad orientation distribution that is azimuthally nearly isotropic, but with molecules flipped 180 degrees with respect to those in the first monolayer.

  15. A simple object-oriented and open-source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system – Hector v1.0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Schwarber, Adria; Link, Robert P.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in the policy and scientific communities. They are used for climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe Hector v1.0, an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global-scale earth system processes. Hector has a three-part main carbon cycle: a one-pool atmosphere, land, and ocean. The model's terrestrial carbon cycle includes primary production and respiration fluxes, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. Hector actively solves the inorganicmore » carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air–sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the global historical trends of atmospheric [CO2], radiative forcing, and surface temperatures. The model simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) with equivalent rates of change of key variables over time compared to current observations, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), and models from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Hector's flexibility, open-source nature, and modular design will facilitate a broad range of research in various areas.« less

  16. DAKOTA, a multilevel parellel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 uers's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Joshua D.; Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  17. Constructing Ordered Sensitized Heterojunctions: Bottom-Up Electrochemical Synthesis of p-Type Semiconductors in Oriented n-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Zhu, K.; Neale, N. R.; Frank. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of efficient semiconductor-sensitized bulk heterojunction solar cells requires the complete filling of the pore system of one semiconductor (host) material with nanoscale dimensions (<100 nm) with a different semiconductor (guest) material. Because of the small pore size and electrical conductivity of the host material, it is challenging to employ electrochemical approaches to fill the entire pore network. Typically, during the electrochemical deposition process, the guest material blocks the pores of the host, precluding complete pore filling. We describe a general synthetic strategy for spatially controlling the growth of p-type semiconductors in the nanopores of electrically conducting n-type materials. As an illustration of this strategy, we report on the facile electrochemical deposition of p-CuInSe{sub 2} in nanoporous anatase n-TiO{sub 2} oriented nanotube arrays and nanoparticle films. We show that by controlling the ambipolar diffusion length the p-type semiconductors can be deposited from the bottom-up, resulting in complete pore filling.

  18. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, developers manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  19. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 developers manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  20. Mesh Oriented datABase

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-04-01

    MOAB is a component for representing and evaluating mesh data. MOAB can store stuctured and unstructured mesh, consisting of elements in the finite element "zoo". The functional interface to MOAB is simple yet powerful, allowing the representation of many types of metadata commonly found on the mesh. MOAB is optimized for efficiency in space and time, based on access to mesh in chunks rather than through individual entities, while also versatile enough to support individualmore » entity access. The MOAB data model consists of a mesh interface instance, mesh entities (vertices and elements), sets, and tags. Entities are addressed through handles rather than pointers, to allow the underlying representation of an entity to change without changing the handle to that entity. Sets are arbitrary groupings of mesh entities and other sets. Sets also support parent/child relationships as a relation distinct from sets containing other sets. The directed-graph provided by set parent/child relationships is useful for modeling topological relations from a geometric model or other metadata. Tags are named data which can be assigned to the mesh as a whole, individual entities, or sets. Tags are a mechanism for attaching data to individual entities and sets are a mechanism for describing relations between entities; the combination of these two mechanisms isa powerful yet simple interface for representing metadata or application-specific data. For example, sets and tags can be used together to describe geometric topology, boundary condition, and inter-processor interface groupings in a mesh. MOAB is used in several ways in various applications. MOAB serves as the underlying mesh data representation in the VERDE mesh verification code. MOAB can also be used as a mesh input mechanism, using mesh readers induded with MOAB, or as a t’anslator between mesh formats, using readers and writers included with MOAB.« less

  1. Highly Oriented Crystals in Polythiophenes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading 1 of 3 Residential Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 3 of 3 Residential

  2. Removing Structural Disorder from Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Reducing the Dimensionality of Transport and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, K.; Vinzant, T. B.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO{sub 2} NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO{sub 2} NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO{sub 2} drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects.

  3. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir4+ ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory and Madelung potential analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gordon, Elijah E.; Xiang, Hongjun; Koehler, Jurgen; Whangbo, Myung -Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The spins of the low-spin Ir4+ (S = 1/2, d5) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of DFT calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3,more » both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir4+ spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axes directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir4+ ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir4+ ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. As a result, the spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir4+ is not as strong as has been assumed lately.« less

  4. Wind and Water Materials and Structures Database Download

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia ...

  5. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  6. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic ...

  7. National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho,...

  8. USAID West Africa Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western...

  9. Interfacial dislocations in (111) oriented (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 films on SrTiO3 single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Xuan; Yamada, Tomoaki; Lin, Ruoqian; Kamo, Takafumi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Wu, Di; Xin, Huolin L.; Su, Dong

    2015-10-08

    In this study, we have investigated the interfacial structure of epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films grown on (111)-oriented SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Compared with the (100) epitaxial perovskite films, we observe dominant dislocation half-loop with Burgers vectors of a<110> comprised of a misfit dislocation along <112>, and threading dislocations along <110> or <100>. The misfit dislocation with Burgers vector of a <110> can dissociate into two ½ a <110> partial dislocations and one stacking fault. We found the dislocation reactions occur not only between misfit dislocations, but also between threading dislocations. Via three-dimensional electron tomography, we retrieved the configurations of the threading dislocation reactions. The reactions between threading dislocations lead to a more efficient strain relaxation than do the misfit dislocations alone in the near-interface region of the (111)-oriented (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 films.

  10. The impact of argon admixture on the c-axis oriented growth of direct current magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1?x}N thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C.; Stger-Pollach, M.

    2014-05-21

    The piezoelectric properties of wurtzite aluminium nitride (w-AlN) are enhanced by alloying with scandium (Sc), thus offering superior properties for applications in micro electro-mechanical systems devices. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1?x}N thin films have been prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates from a single target. When targeting a concentration range from x?=?0 up to x?=?0.15, the preparation conditions have been optimized by varying the Ar/N{sub 2} ratio in the sputtering gas. To incorporate an increasing Sc concentration, a higher Ar/N{sub 2} ratio has to be applied during the deposition process. Hence, the argon concentration in the sputtering gas becomes a crucial parameter for microstructure-related parameters. To determine phase purity, degree of c-axis orientation, lattice parameter, and grain size, the Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1?x}N thin films were investigated by techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  11. Evidence of incomplete annealing at 800 °C and the effects of 120 °C baking on the crystal orientation and the surface superconducting properties of cold-worked and chemically polished Nb

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sung, Z. -H.; Dzyuba, A.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D C; Cooley, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    High-purity niobium rods were cold-worked by wire-drawing, followed by various combinations of chemical polishing and high-vacuum baking at 120 °C or annealing at 800 °C in order to better understand changes to the surface superconducting properties resulting from typical superconducting radio-frequency cavity processing. AC susceptibility measurements revealed an enhanced upper transition Tc at ~ 9.3–9.4 K in all samples that was stable through all annealing steps, a value significantly above the accepted Tc of 9.23 K for pure annealed niobium. Corresponding elevations were seen in the critical fields, the ratio of the surface critical field Hc3 to the bulk uppermore » critical field Hc2 rising to 2.3, well above the Ginzburg–Landau value of 1.695. Orientation imaging revealed an extensive dislocation rich sub-grain structure in the as-drawn rods, a small reduction of the surface strain after baking at 120 °C, and a substantial but incomplete recrystallization near the surface after annealing at 800 °C. We interpret these changes in surface superconducting and structural properties to extensive changes in the near-surface interstitial contamination produced by baking and annealing and to synergistic interactions between H and surface O introduced during electropolishing and buffered chemical polishing.« less

  12. Evidence of incomplete annealing at 800 °C and the effects of 120 °C baking on the crystal orientation and the surface superconducting properties of cold-worked and chemically polished Nb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, Z. -H.; Dzyuba, A.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D C; Cooley, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    High-purity niobium rods were cold-worked by wire-drawing, followed by various combinations of chemical polishing and high-vacuum baking at 120 °C or annealing at 800 °C in order to better understand changes to the surface superconducting properties resulting from typical superconducting radio-frequency cavity processing. AC susceptibility measurements revealed an enhanced upper transition Tc at ~ 9.3–9.4 K in all samples that was stable through all annealing steps, a value significantly above the accepted Tc of 9.23 K for pure annealed niobium. Corresponding elevations were seen in the critical fields, the ratio of the surface critical field Hc3 to the bulk upper critical field Hc2 rising to 2.3, well above the Ginzburg–Landau value of 1.695. Orientation imaging revealed an extensive dislocation rich sub-grain structure in the as-drawn rods, a small reduction of the surface strain after baking at 120 °C, and a substantial but incomplete recrystallization near the surface after annealing at 800 °C. We interpret these changes in surface superconducting and structural properties to extensive changes in the near-surface interstitial contamination produced by baking and annealing and to synergistic interactions between H and surface O introduced during electropolishing and buffered chemical polishing.

  13. RCRA/CERCLA Division orientation package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Environmental Reporting Requirements Handbook has been developed by DOE Headquarters' Environmental Guidance Division (EH-231) in order to assist DOE Field Organizations in the identification of the various reporting the notification requirements mandated by Federal environmental laws, regulations and Executive Orders. The mission of the Office of Environmental Guidance is to develop DOE-wide environmental policies and requirements; to assure that the Department's position is appropriately represented in the development of regulatory requirements by EPA and other Federal agencies; and to assure DOE-wide understanding of DOE environmental policies, directives, and environmental laws and regulations. 10 tabs.

  14. Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear reactor operators can expand safety margins with more precise information about how materials behave inside operating reactors. INL's new simulation platform makes such studies easier & more informative by letting researchers "plug-n-play" their mathematical models, skipping years of computer code development.

  15. Better Buildings Residential Network (BBRN) Orientation Call...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Network Vermont Energy Investment Corporation Virginia Energy Sense Walker-Miller Energy Services WECC West Michigan Environmental Action Council ...

  16. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Call...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Network Vermont Energy Investment Corporation Virginia Energy Sense Walker-Miller Energy Services West Michigan Environmental Action Council William J. ...

  17. PerfSONAR: A Service Oriented Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... a single place. (For example, a one-way latency test would be adversely effected by a ... A prototypical implementation is currently carried out to realize the model as Web ...

  18. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G.; Beazley, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  19. Parallel object-oriented decision tree system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamath; Chandrika , Cantu-Paz; Erick

    2006-02-28

    A data mining decision tree system that uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies, and other statistically significant structures in data by reading and displaying data files, extracting relevant features for each of the objects, and using a method of recognizing patterns among the objects based upon object features through a decision tree that reads the data, sorts the data if necessary, determines the best manner to split the data into subsets according to some criterion, and splits the data.

  20. Jefferson Lab Human Resources - Initial Lab Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What to Bring All the paperwork we sent you, including: The Benefits Notebook Your offer letter (if you haven't already sent it back) The documents listed in Section 2 of the I-9 form Your work authorization (Visa) if you are a foreign national 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 Phone: (757) 269-7598 Fax: (757) 269-7363 contact Krystina Serafini

  1. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-05-01

    MOOSE is a software framework for the development of complex multidimensional engineering analysis applications using the finite element method. It provides a clean, extensible interface for scientists to develop analysis applications by accepting weak forms (i.e., virtual work expressions) of the mathematical models that govern the behavior of the physical system being modeled. MOOSE provides spatial and temporal discretization support for these expressions and allows them to be coupled in general ways and with generalmore » boundary and initial conditions and constraints. MOOSE also provides a solution environment that allows the parallel solution of the described problem on computer systems ranging from one processor to massively parallel systems.« less

  2. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0

  3. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data (Dataset) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband ...

  4. Parallel object-oriented data mining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamath, Chandrika; Cantu-Paz, Erick

    2004-01-06

    A data mining system uncovers patterns, associations, anomalies and other statistically significant structures in data. Data files are read and displayed. Objects in the data files are identified. Relevant features for the objects are extracted. Patterns among the objects are recognized based upon the features. Data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) sky survey was used to search for bent doubles. This test was conducted on data from the Very Large Array in New Mexico which seeks to locate a special type of quasar (radio-emitting stellar object) called bent doubles. The FIRST survey has generated more than 32,000 images of the sky to date. Each image is 7.1 megabytes, yielding more than 100 gigabytes of image data in the entire data set.

  5. Microsoft Word - Trident Orientation for Visiting Experimenters...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Class 3B or Class 4 Laser Baseline Eye Exam, Form 1556 or equivalent Visual History Questionnaire, Form-080.E0 (doc) Amsler Grid Test, FORM-033.E4 (doc)...

  6. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Kaercher, Pamela M. ; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. ; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntora ; Smith, Jesse S. ; Sinogeikin, Stanislav ; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf 1 ; ...

  7. Supervisors` orientation to occupational safety in DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-01

    This document presents OSHA regulations, safety and health guidelines pertinent to DOE and the first-line supervisor.

  8. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. , Berman, Amir

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  9. MOAB : a mesh-oriented database.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tautges, Timothy James; Ernst, Corey; Stimpson, Clint; Meyers, Ray J.; Merkley, Karl

    2004-04-01

    A finite element mesh is used to decompose a continuous domain into a discretized representation. The finite element method solves PDEs on this mesh by modeling complex functions as a set of simple basis functions with coefficients at mesh vertices and prescribed continuity between elements. The mesh is one of the fundamental types of data linking the various tools in the FEA process (mesh generation, analysis, visualization, etc.). Thus, the representation of mesh data and operations on those data play a very important role in FEA-based simulations. MOAB is a component for representing and evaluating mesh data. MOAB can store structured and unstructured mesh, consisting of elements in the finite element 'zoo'. The functional interface to MOAB is simple yet powerful, allowing the representation of many types of metadata commonly found on the mesh. MOAB is optimized for efficiency in space and time, based on access to mesh in chunks rather than through individual entities, while also versatile enough to support individual entity access. The MOAB data model consists of a mesh interface instance, mesh entities (vertices and elements), sets, and tags. Entities are addressed through handles rather than pointers, to allow the underlying representation of an entity to change without changing the handle to that entity. Sets are arbitrary groupings of mesh entities and other sets. Sets also support parent/child relationships as a relation distinct from sets containing other sets. The directed-graph provided by set parent/child relationships is useful for modeling topological relations from a geometric model or other metadata. Tags are named data which can be assigned to the mesh as a whole, individual entities, or sets. Tags are a mechanism for attaching data to individual entities and sets are a mechanism for describing relations between entities; the combination of these two mechanisms is a powerful yet simple interface for representing metadata or application-specific data. For example, sets and tags can be used together to describe geometric topology, boundary condition, and inter-processor interface groupings in a mesh. MOAB is used in several ways in various applications. MOAB serves as the underlying mesh data representation in the VERDE mesh verification code. MOAB can also be used as a mesh input mechanism, using mesh readers included with MOAB, or as a translator between mesh formats, using readers and writers included with MOAB. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 2, 'Getting Started', provides a few simple examples of using MOAB to perform simple tasks on a mesh. Section 3 discusses the MOAB data model in more detail, including some aspects of the implementation. Section 4 summarizes the MOAB function API. Section 5 describes some of the tools included with MOAB, and the implementation of mesh readers/writers for MOAB. Section 6 contains a brief description of MOAB's relation to the TSTT mesh interface. Section 7 gives a conclusion and future plans for MOAB development. Section 8 gives references cited in this report. A reference description of the full MOAB API is contained in Section 9.

  10. Jefferson Lab Human Resources - Initial Lab Orientation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEO Lab links: New Employee's Guide to Web Resources JLab fact sheet Company Amenities Quark Cafe' menu Map of JLab site and campus Other Useful Links: Daily Press Living Here Map of Peninsula U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Social Security Administration Internal Revenue Service Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles Newport News Visitor Guide 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 Phone: (757) 269-7598 Fax: (757) 269-7363 contact Brandye Rogers

  11. Human Reliability Program Orientation for Employees (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-06OR23100 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN Sponsoring Org: USDOE - ...

  12. New Employee Orientation- Ethics Briefing Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Required Ethics Certification form where a new employee indicates that they have reviewed the New Employee Orientationinformation on the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees in the Executive...

  13. Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar, Call...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Fort Collins Utilities Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance green|spaces Greiner Heating and Air, Inc. GTECH Strategies Hands On Nashville Historic Chicago ...

  14. User:GregZiebold/Developing Country Programs Map | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Congo 12 Djibouti 3 Dominica 9 Dominican Republic 12 Ecuador 7 Egypt 14 El Salvador 8 Equatorial Guinea 4 Eritrea 3 Estonia 2 Ethiopia 21 Fiji 1 Gabon 10 ... further...

  15. U.S. Crude Oil Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Brazzaville) 24 8 13 20 12 15 1993-2015 Congo (Kinshasa) 1993-2013 Denmark 1997-2004 Egypt 17 1993-2015 Equatorial Guinea 1996-2014 Estonia 1999-1999 Gabon 4 18 1993-2015...

  16. Out-of-plane spin-orientation dependent magnetotransport properties in the anisotropic helimagnet CR1/3NbS2 [Spin-Orbit Coupling Induced Anisotropy in the Magnetotransport of the Chiral Helimagnet Cr1=3NbS2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bornstein, Alexander C.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; Mandrus, David G.; Parker, David S.; Lee, Minhyea

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has been crucial for controlling magnetic anisotropy in magnetic multilayer films. It has been shown that electronic structure can be altered via interface SOC by varying the superlattice structure, resulting in spontaneous magnetization perpendicular or parallel to the plane. In lieu of magnetic thin films, we study the similarly anisotropic helimagnet Cr1/3NbS2 where the spin-polarization direction, controlled by the applied magnetic field, can modify the electronic structure. As a result, the direction of spin polarization can modulate the density of states and in turn affect the in-plane electrical conductivity. In Cr1/3NbS2, we foundmore » an enhancement of in-plane conductivity when the spin polarization is out-of-plane as compared to in-plane spin polarization. This is consistent with the increase in density of states near the Fermi energy at the same spin configuration, found from first-principles calculations. We also observe unusual field dependence of the Hall signal in the same temperature range. This is unlikely to originate from the noncollinear spin texture but rather further indicates strong dependence of electronic structure on spin orientation relative to the plane.« less

  17. User-orientated comparative analysis of climate compatible development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    others attempt to combine these perspectives. However, it is unlikely that a single methodology or tool will provide a planning solution that is appropriate for application in all...

  18. Fracture orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    method has been successfully demonstrated at a naturally fractured geothermal field (Raft River) in Southeastern Idaho and at an oil field in Western Canada. Both case studies...

  19. Intergovernmental cooperation for mission-oriented information systems: a memoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolston, John E.

    2004-12-01

    This frankly personal account is based on my involvement in negotiations, design, and development for international bibliographic systems to support three different missions: fostering the peaceful uses of atomic energy (International Nuclear Information System, or INIS); supporting research, development, and better practices in agriculture (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology, or AGRIS); and improving economic and social conditions in poorer countries (Development Sciences Information System, or DEVSIS). All three designs were based on the concept of decentralized operation: each country reports the information produced in its own territory; the merging of this input and the overall management are in the hands of an organization in the United Nations system; and all participants have equal rights to exploit the entire database. INIS began in 1970 and is still in steady operation; AGRIS started in 1975 and showed quantitative and qualitative growth for more than twenty years but has been in disastrous decline since its peak in 1996; and DEVSIS, unfortunately, was not launched on a global scale. Attempts are made to identify the condition -- political and technical -- likely to favor or frustrate efforts to obtain cooperation among countries for the construction of large, essentially comprehensive databases and ultimately for sharing knowledge without discrimination between rich and poor participants.

  20. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy ...

  1. In-plane orientation effects on the electronic structure stability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abstract not provided. Authors: McCarty, Kevin F. ; Nie, Shu ; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid ; Luca Moreschini ; Aaron Bostwick ; Eli Rotenberg Publication Date: 2010-12-01 OSTI ...

  2. EPA - RCRA Orientation Manual 2011: Resource Conservation and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    waste management programs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Environmental Protection Agency, 2012 DOI Not...

  3. Hydra: a service oriented architecture for scientific simulation integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell; Djidjev, Tatiana; Hayes, Birch P; Holland, Joe V; Khalsa, Hari S; Linger, Steve P; Mathis, Mark M; Mniszewski, Sue M; Bush, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One of the current major challenges in scientific modeling and simulation, in particular in the infrastructure-analysis community, is the development of techniques for efficiently and automatically coupling disparate tools that exist in separate locations on different platforms, implemented in a variety of languages and designed to be standalone. Recent advances in web-based platforms for integrating systems such as SOA provide an opportunity to address these challenges in a systematic fashion. This paper describes Hydra, an integrating architecture for infrastructure modeling and simulation that defines geography-based schemas that, when used to wrap existing tools as web services, allow for seamless plug-and-play composability. Existing users of these tools can enhance the value of their analysis by assessing how the simulations of one tool impact the behavior of another tool and can automate existing ad hoc processes and work flows for integrating tools together.

  4. Parallel object-oriented, denoising system using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamath, Chandrika; Baldwin, Chuck H.; Fodor, Imola K.; Tang, Nu A.

    2005-04-12

    The present invention provides a data de-noising system utilizing processors and wavelet denoising techniques. Data is read and displayed in different formats. The data is partitioned into regions and the regions are distributed onto the processors. Communication requirements are determined among the processors according to the wavelet denoising technique and the partitioning of the data. The data is transforming onto different multiresolution levels with the wavelet transform according to the wavelet denoising technique, the communication requirements, and the transformed data containing wavelet coefficients. The denoised data is then transformed into its original reading and displaying data format.

  5. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Department of Energy Proteins' Amazing Origami Powers: Insight for Potential Disease Treatments Proteins' Amazing Origami Powers: Insight for Potential Disease Treatments October 4, 2011 - 12:46pm Addthis This is a visualization of drug molecules ("parade day-like balloons") in a simulated attack of the ribbon-like protein fibrils that are believed to be the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. <a

  6. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to...

  7. Laser Safety Orientation SAF114O | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room A110 Time: 9:30 - 11:00 am Prerequisite ... Review JLab EH&S Manual Chapter 6410 Laser Safety Program and appendices at https:www.jlab.orgehsehsmanualmanual6410.html....

  8. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (UESA) Storage Building and Associated Outside Storage, and the DUF6 Conversion Facility. ... Lead, PPPO Nuclear Safety Oversight Lead, DUF6 Program Manager, Quality Assurance Lead, ...

  9. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustohalova, Veronika . E-mail: veronika.ustohalova@uni-essen.de; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-07-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section.

  10. Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    With a quantitative analysis of the ACOM measurements, a ... crystallographic computing in terms of a supercell approach. ... Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, ...

  11. MHK Projects/Orient Point Tidal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Natural Currents Energy Services Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesRED HAWK Project Licensing FERC License Docket Number P-14333 Environmental Monitoring and...

  12. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Orientation Data, 1 second resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance; Shortwave broadband ...

  13. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications BTO Seeks Comments on Draft Building Energy Modeling Roadmap Architecture firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) used EnergyPlus to design a new ...

  14. Ukraine-GTZ Climate Oriented Mobility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Partner German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Sector Energy Focus...

  15. Purpose: To introduce a select group of leadership-oriented...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and building effective research teams. 2. Projects: Participants will be assigned to a multidisciplinary team that will be presented a SoS research challenge. They will develop...

  16. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manuel Valvidares, Eric M. Gullikson, Angelo Giglia, Nicola Mahne, and Stefano Nannarone, Phys. Rev. B 83, 155406 (2011) DOI: 10.1103PhysRevB.83.155406 Abstract: We present a...

  17. Dependence of Kambersky damping on Fermi level and spin orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, T.; Victora, R. H.

    2014-05-07

    Kambersky damping represents the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction. It is demonstrated that, for bcc Fe-based transition metal alloys, the logarithm of the energy loss is proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level. Both inter and intraband damping are calculated for spins at arbitrary angle to the previously examined [001] direction. Although the easy axis 〈100〉 shows isotropic relaxation and achieves the minimum damping value of 0.002, other directions, such as 〈110〉, show substantial anisotropic damping.

  18. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in ...

  19. Sustainable Land Management Through Market-Oriented Commodity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commodity Development: Case studies from Ethiopia AgencyCompany Organization: International Livestock Research Institute Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics:...

  20. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  1. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  2. Position and Orientation Tracking System (POTS). Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  3. DOE ZERH Orientation Webinar: Better Business for Builders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Description: The DOE Zero Energy Ready Home represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings, comfort, health, and...

  4. DOE ZERH Orientation Webinar: Better Business for Builders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Zero Energy Ready Home represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings, comfort, health, and durability. This...

  5. ZERH Webinar: ZERH Orientation- Better Business for Builders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) Program represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings,...

  6. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Opti-MN Impact House Presentation Opti-MN Impact House Presentation Opti-MN was the Grand Winner of the 2015 Race to Zero Student Design Competition. View the presentation for the Opti-MN Impact House below. Read a full list of the winning teams. PDF icon Opti-MN Presentation More Documents & Publications 2015 Race to Zero Competition Grand Winner and Grand Winner Finalist Team Submissions 2016 Race to Zero Competition Winner Team Presentations 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition:

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - MO Orientation Final 6 4 07

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beforeon schedule Department of Energy 4 What is GFPR (cont) *Philosophy whereby work is performed with minimal contract focus on process *Focus is on Results with...

  8. Reservoir analysis of the Palinpinon geothermal field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amistoso, A.E.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Jordan, O.T.; Ana, F.X.M.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Doughty, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippine National Oil Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have conducted an informal cooperative project on the reservoir evaluation of the Palinpinon geothermal field in the Philippines. The work involved the development of various numerical models of the field in order to understand the observed data. A three-dimensional porous medium model of the reservoir has been developed that matches well the observed pressure declines and enthalpy transients of the wells. Submodels representing the reservoir as a fractured porous medium were developed for the analysis of chemical transport of chlorides within the reservoir and the movement of the cold water front away from injection wells. These models indicate that the effective porosity of the reservoir varies between 1 and 7% and the effective permeability between 1 and 45 millidarcies. The numerical models were used to predict the future performance of the Palinpinon reservoir using various possible exploitation scenarios. A limited number of make-up wells were allocated to each sector of the field. When all the make-up wells had been put on line, power production gradually began to decline. The model indicates that under the assumed conditions it will not be possible to maintain the planned power production of 112.5 MWe at Palinpinon I and 80 MWe at Palinpinon II for the next 30 years, but the decline in power output will be within acceptable normal operating capacities of the plants.

  9. Development potential of the Dauin geothermal prospect, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayrante, L.F.; Hermoso, D.Z.; Candelaria, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Dauin geothermal prospect, situated 5 km southeast of the Palinpinon I and II sectors, was drilled between 1982 and 1983 to test its viability for development. Drilling results indicated that DN-1 was drilled closer to the source region than DN-2 where permeability, temperature, and alteration mineralogy were generally unpromising. DN-1 encountered temperatures of at least 240{degrees}C and a neutral-pH fluid with reservoir chloride of 3000 mg/kg. In particular, the presence of sulphur in the DN-1 discharge provoked debates and many speculation on the nature of the fluid in the area. The area was re-evaluated in 1996 for the following reasons: (1) Renewed interests on other geothermal prospects within Negros Island from an economic point of view and the success of modular plant developments are Pal II and other areas in the Philippines; (2) Reinterpretation of the genesis of sulphur contained in the DN-1 discharge fluid; (3) Encouraging temperature, permeability and neutral-pH alterations at depth and the neutral character of DN-1 discharge fluid; and (4) Reinterpretation of the hydrological model from a geochemical and geological point of view. The study indicates good potential for modular power development.

  10. Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of pulsed-laser-deposition-grown La1.85 Sr0.15 CuO4 / La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 superlattices on (001)-oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, S.; Sen, K.; Marozau, I.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Biskup, N.; Varela, M.; Khaydukov, Y.; Soltwedel, O.; Keller, T.; Döbeli, M.; et al

    2014-03-12

    Epimore » taxial La1.85 Sr0.15 CuO4 / La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 (LSCO/LCMO) superlattices (SL) on (001)- oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates have been grown with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Their structural, magnetic and superconducting properties have been determined with in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray diffraction, specular neutron reflectometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electric transport, and magnetization measurements. We find that despite the large mismatch between the in-plane lattice parameters of LSCO (a = 0.3779 nm) and LCMO (a = 0.387 nm) these superlattices can be grown epitaxially and with a high crystalline quality. While the first LSCO layer remains clamped to the LSAO substrate, a sizeable strain relaxation occurs already in the first LCMO layer. The following LSCO and LCMO layers adopt a nearly balanced state in which the tensile and compressive strain effects yield alternating in-plane lattice parameters with an almost constant average value. No major defects are observed in the LSCO layers, while a significant number of vertical antiphase boundaries are found in the LCMO layers. The LSCO layers remain superconducting with a relatively high superconducting onset temperature of Tconset ≈ 36 K. The macroscopic superconducting response is also evident in the magnetization data due to a weak diamagnetic signal below 10 K for H ∥ ab and a sizeable paramagnetic shift for H ∥ c that can be explained in terms of a vortex-pinning-induced flux compression. The LCMO layers maintain a strongly ferromagnetic state with a Curie temperature of TCurie ≈ 190 K and a large low-temperature saturation moment of about 3.5 (1) μB. These results suggest that the LSCO/LCMO superlattices can be used to study the interaction between the antagonistic ferromagnetic and superconducting orders and, in combination with previous studies on YBCO/LCMO superlattices, may allow one to identify the relevant mechanisms.« less

  11. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Microsoft Word - FY07AnnualReport.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (EZ) 1 18,000,000 FRANCE (FR) 5 8,093,198 GABON (GB) 1 441,600 GAMBIA (GA) 1 49,300 GERMANY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF (GE) 3 1,698,498 HUNGARY (HU) 1 4,000,000 KAZAKHSTAN (KZ) 3...

  13. Oriented and ordered mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} fibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformation infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Nsub 2 adsorption-absorption measurements. ...

  14. Anisotropic alpha decay from oriented odd-mass isotopes of some light actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Half-lives and anisotropies in the [alpha] decay of [sup 205,207,209]Rn, [sup 219]Rn, [sup 221]Fr, [sup 227,229]Pa, and [sup 229]U have been calculated using the reaction-theoretical formalism proposed by Jackson and Rhoades-Brown and adapted for axially symmetric deformed nuclei by Berggren and Olanders. The possibility of octupole deformation has been taken into account. In addition, a variant of triaxial octupole deformation has been considered tentatively in the case of [sup 227]Pa and [sup 229]Pa.

  15. Dynamical Study of Guest-Host Orientational Interaction in LiquidCrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, Thai Viet

    2005-12-20

    Guest-host interaction has long been a subject of interest in many disciplines. Emphasis is often on how a small amount of guest substance could significantly affect the properties of a host material. This thesis describe our work in studying a guest-host effect where dye-doping of liquid crystalline materials greatly enhances the optical Kerr nonlinearity of the material. The dye molecules, upon excitation and via intermolecular interaction, provides an extra torque to reorient the host molecules, leading to the enhanced optical Kerr nonlinearity. We carried out a comprehensive study on the dynamics of the photoexcited dye-doped liquid crystalline medium. Using various experimental techniques, we separately characterized the dynamical responses of the relevant molecular species present in the medium following photo-excitation, and thus were able to follow the transient process in which photo-excitation of the dye molecules exert through guest-host interaction a net torque on the host LC material, leading to the observed enhanced molecular reorientation. We also observed for the first time the enhanced reorientation in a pure liquid crystal system, where the guest population is created through photoexcitation of the host molecules themselves. Experimental results agree quantitatively with the time-dependent theory based on a mean-field model of the guest-host interaction.

  16. Methods and systems for determining angular orientation of a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-03-23

    Preferred methods and systems generate a control input based on a periodically-varying characteristic associated with the rotation of a drill string. The periodically varying characteristic can be correlated with the magnetic tool face and gravity tool face of a rotating component of the drill string, so that the control input can be used to initiate a response in the rotating component as a function of gravity tool face.

  17. User manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polito, J.

    1981-03-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains most of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  18. A Drug Free Workplace at Iowa State University Orientation Slides.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. Engineering High Performance Service-Oriented Pipeline Applications with MeDICi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-07

    The pipeline software architecture pattern is commonly used in many application domains to structure a software system. A pipeline comprises a sequence of processing steps that progressively transform data to some desired outputs. As pipeline-based systems are required to handle increasingly large volumes of data and provide high throughput services, simple scripting-based technologies that have traditionally been used for constructing pipelines do not scale. In this paper we describe the MeDICI Integration Framework (MIF), which is specifically designed for building flexible, efficient and scalable pipelines that exploit distributed services as elements of the pipeline. We explain the core runtime and development infrastructures that MIF provides, and demonstrate how MIF has been used in two complex applications to improve performance and modifiability.

  20. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Smegal, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  1. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  2. Simergy: Practitioner-Oriented Graphical User Interface for EnergyPlus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Simergy is a graphical user ... The overall development was led by LBNL and the software development was led by Digital ...

  3. Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    J. ; Sheng, Z.M. 1 ; Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas of the Ministry of Education of China and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 2 + Show Author...

  4. PyCOOL A Cosmological Object-Oriented Lattice code written in Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sainio, J., E-mail: jani.sainio@utu.fi [Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Rehtorinpellonkatu 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2012-04-01

    There are a number of different phenomena in the early universe that have to be studied numerically with lattice simulations. This paper presents a graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated Python program called PyCOOL that solves the evolution of scalar fields in a lattice with very precise symplectic integrators. The program has been written with the intention to hit a sweet spot of speed, accuracy and user friendliness. This has been achieved by using the Python language with the PyCUDA interface to make a program that is easy to adapt to different scalar field models. In this paper we derive the symplectic dynamics that govern the evolution of the system and then present the implementation of the program in Python and PyCUDA. The functionality of the program is tested in a chaotic inflation preheating model, a single field oscillon case and in a supersymmetric curvaton model which leads to Q-ball production. We have also compared the performance of a consumer graphics card to a professional Tesla compute card in these simulations. We find that the program is not only accurate but also very fast. To further increase the usefulness of the program we have equipped it with numerous post-processing functions that provide useful information about the cosmological model. These include various spectra and statistics of the fields. The program can be additionally used to calculate the generated curvature perturbation. The program is publicly available under GNU General Public License at https://github.com/jtksai/PyCOOL. Some additional information can be found from http://www.physics.utu.fi/tiedostot/theory/particlecosmology/pycool/.

  5. Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nano Letters; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 4 Research Org: Oak Ridge ...

  6. Control-Oriented Modeling for HCCI Combustion and Multi-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Detailed Modeling of HCCI and PCCI combustion and Multi-cylinder HCCI Engine Control Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine Expanding Robust HCCI ...

  7. Diffusion of benzene confined in the oriented nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamontov, E.; Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Vakhrushev, S.B.

    2005-11-01

    We used quasielastic neutron scattering to study the dynamics of benzene that completely fills the nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers with a characteristic diameter of about 5 nm. The macroscopical alignment of the nanochannels in fibers provided an interesting opportunity to study anisotropy of the dynamics of confined benzene by means of collecting the data with the scattering vector either parallel or perpendicular to the fibers axes. The translational diffusive motion of benzene molecules was found to be isotropic. While bulk benzene freezes at 278.5 K, we observed the translational dynamics of the supercooled confined benzene on the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds even below 200 K, until at about 160 K its dynamics becomes too slow for the {mu}eV resolution of the neutron backscattering spectrometer. The residence time between jumps for the benzene molecules measured in the temperature range of 260 K to 320 K demonstrated low activation energy of 2.8 kJ/mol.

  8. Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems (ObjECTS...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    includes CO2 capture and storage technology options for hydrocarbon fuel inputs) Hydrogen production using various feedstocks (Coal, Oil, Gas, Biomass, water using Electrolysis,...

  9. (110) Oriented silicon wafer latch accelerometer and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1990-01-01

    A method for etching a (110) silicon wafer to produce latching cantilever beams, which bend parallel to the surface of the wafer. The resulting apparatus is also part of the invention.

  10. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Interface Architecture Determined Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt on Vertically Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Rettew; N Allam; F Alamgir

    2011-12-31

    The surface atomic structure and chemical state of Pt is consequential in a variety of surface-intensive devices. Herein we present the direct interrelationship between the growth scheme of Pt films, the resulting atomic and electronic structure of Pt species, and the consequent activity for methanol electro-oxidation in Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanotube hybrid electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were performed to relate the observed electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation state and the atomic structure of the deposited Pt species. The atomic structure as well as the oxidation state of the deposited Pt was found to depend on the pretreatment of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube surfaces with electrodeposited Cu. Pt growth through Cu replacement increases Pt dispersion, and a separation of surface Pt atoms beyond a threshold distance from the TiO{sub 2} substrate renders them metallic, rather than cationic. The increased dispersion and the metallic character of Pt results in strongly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation. This study points to a general phenomenon whereby the growth scheme and the substrate-to-surface-Pt distance dictates the chemical state of the surface Pt atoms, and thereby, the performance of Pt-based surface-intensive devices.

  12. Shape profiles and orientation bias for weak and strong lensing cluster halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groener, A. M.; Goldberg, D. M.

    2014-11-10

    We study the intrinsic shape and alignment of isodensities of galaxy cluster halos extracted from the MultiDark MDR1 cosmological simulation. We find that the simulated halos are extremely prolate on small scales and increasingly spherical on larger ones. Due to this trend, analytical projection along the line of sight produces an overestimation of the concentration index as a decreasing function of radius, which we quantify by using both the intrinsic distribution of three-dimensional concentrations (c {sub 200}) and isodensity shape on weak and strong lensing scales. We find this difference to be ?18% (?9%) for low- (medium-)mass cluster halos with intrinsically low concentrations (c {sub 200} = 1-3), while we find virtually no difference for halos with intrinsically high concentrations. Isodensities are found to be fairly well aligned throughout the entirety of the radial scale of each halo population. However, major axes of individual halos have been found to deviate by as much as ?30. We also present a value-added catalog of our analysis results, which we have made publicly available to download.

  13. A Consumer-Oriented Control Framework for Performance Analysis in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shoultout, Mohamed L.; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Pannala, Sreekanth; Chen, Dongmei

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the associated tradeoffs among the HEV subsystems, e.g., the engine, the motor, and the battery, and investigate the related implications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences. The results of the proposed optimization approach can also be used to investigate the implications for HEV costs related to ownership and warranty.

  14. Growth of oriented rare-earth-transition-metal thin films (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-31109-ENG-38 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 1996 IEEE international magnetics conference, Seattle, WA (United States), 9-12 Apr ...

  15. Student manual, Book 2: Orientation to occupational safety compliance in DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colley, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    This is a student hand-book an Occupational Safety Compliance in DOE. Topics include the following: Electrical; materials handling & storage; inspection responsibilities & procedures; general environmental controls; confined space entry; lockout/tagout; office safety, ergonomics & human factors; medical & first aid, access to records; construction safety; injury/illness reporting system; and accident investigation procedures.

  16. CASL-U-2015-0090-000 Dakota, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... . 45 3 Epistemic Methods 47 3.1 Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DSTE) . . . . . . . . ... epistemic uncertainty. 3.1 Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence (DSTE) In ...

  17. Object-Oriented Database for Managing Building Modeling Components and Metadata: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Brackney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Building simulation enables users to explore and evaluate multiple building designs. When tools for optimization, parametrics, and uncertainty analysis are combined with analysis engines, the sheer number of discrete simulation datasets makes it difficult to keep track of the inputs. The integrity of the input data is critical to designers, engineers, and researchers for code compliance, validation, and building commissioning long after the simulations are finished. This paper discusses an application that stores inputs needed for building energy modeling in a searchable, indexable, flexible, and scalable database to help address the problem of managing simulation input data.

  18. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: University of California, Davis – Davis, CADOE Total Funding: $200,000Cost Share: $339,515Project Term: 2015 – 2017Funding Opportunity: Building University Innovators and Leaders...

  19. Radial midframe baffle for can-annular combustor arrangement having tangentially oriented combustor cans

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-09-15

    A can-annular gas turbine engine combustion arrangement (10), including: a combustor can (12) comprising a combustor inlet (38) and a combustor outlet circumferentially and axially offset from the combustor inlet; an outer casing (24) defining a plenum (22) in which the combustor can is disposed; and baffles (70) configured to divide the plenum into radial sectors (72) and configured to inhibit circumferential motion of compressed air (16) within the plenum.

  20. Control-Oriented Modeling for HCCI Combustion and Multi-Cylinder HCCI

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Experimental Activities | Department of Energy 05 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_guezennec.pdf More Documents & Publications Detailed Modeling of HCCI and PCCI combustion and Multi-cylinder HCCI Engine Control Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine Expanding Robust HCCI Operation (Delphi CRADA)

  1. High performance devices enabled by epitaxial, preferentially oriented, nanodots and/or nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-10-11

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic, superconducting and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  2. NREL: International Activities - Bilateral Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Bilateral Partnerships NREL partners with more than 50 countries around the world to advance development and use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: Angola Argentina Australia Bangladesh Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Gabon Haiti India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea Mexico North America Philippines Saudi Arabia U.S. Pacific Territories United Arab Emirates Vietnam Asia Bangladesh Under sponsorship from the U.S. Agency for International

  3. The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces Around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Shen; Helmick, Lam; Miller, Herbert M.; Johnson, Christopher; Wilson, Lane; Gemmen, Randall; Petrova, Rumyana; Barmak, Katayun; Gerdes, Kirk; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Salvador, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction was used to measure the crystallographic distribution of the electrochemically relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild electrochemical loading. All distributions were observed to be nearly isotropic, but non-random textures above the detection threshold were observed. The distributions differ between the two cells, as do the phase fractions and the electrochemical history. The different distributions are interpreted as evidence that steady-state distributions vary locally with phase fractions or that they evolve during the initial operation of the fuel cell. The rates at which triple lines, pore surfaces, and interface boundaries in the porous mixture approach a steady-state value appear to decrease with the average amount of mass transport required to reorient that specific feature. This work provides initial insights into the crystallography of interfaces in a multiphase ceramic material.

  4. Processing and Device Oriented Approach to CIGS Module Reliability; SunShot Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.; Mansfield, L.; Garris, R.; Deline, C.; Silverman, T.

    2015-02-24

    Abstract: A device level understanding of thin film module reliability has been lacking. We propose that device performance and stability issues are strongly coupled and simultaneous attention to both is necessary. Commonly discussed technical issues such as light soaking, metastability, reverse bias breakdown and junction breakdown can be understood by comparing the behaviors of cells made inAbstract: A device level understanding of thin film module reliability has been lacking. We propose that device performance and stability issues are strongly coupled and simultaneous attention to both is necessary. Commonly discussed technical issues such as light soaking, metastability, reverse bias breakdown and junction breakdown can be understood by comparing the behaviors of cells made in the laboratory and industry. It will then be possible to attribute the observed effects in terms of processing and cell design. Process connection to stability studies can help identify root causes and a path for mitigating the degradation.

  5. Characterization of microstructure, texture and magnetic properties in twin-roll casting high silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hao-Ze; Liu, Hai-Tao Liu, Zhen-Yu Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2014-02-15

    An Fe-6.5 wt.% Si-0.3 wt.% Al as-cast sheet was produced by twin-roll strip casting process, then treated with hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. The initial as-cast strip showed strong columnar grains and pronounced < 001 >//ND texture. The hot rolled and warm rolled sheets were characterized by large amounts of shear bands distributed through the thickness together with strong < 110 >//RD texture and weak < 111 >//ND texture. After annealing, detrimental < 111 >//ND texture almost disappeared while beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (115)<5 ? 10 1 > and (410) < 001 > recrystallization textures were formed, thus the magnetic induction of the annealed sheet was significantly improved. The recrystallization texture in the present study could be explained by preferred nucleation and grain growth mechanism. - Highlights: A high silicon as-cast strip with columnar structure was produced. A thin warm rolled sheet without large edge cracks was obtained. Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. Beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (410)<001 > recrystallization textures were formed. The magnetic induction of annealed sheet was significantly improved.

  6. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  7. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2012-03-20

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  8. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing

    2010-07-20

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  9. Structural, magnetic, and superconducting properties of pulsed-laser-deposition-grown La1.85 Sr0.15 CuO4 / La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 superlattices on (001)-oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Sen, K.; Marozau, I.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Biskup, N.; Varela, M.; Khaydukov, Y.; Soltwedel, O.; Keller, T.; Döbeli, M.; Schneider, C. W.; Bernhard, C.

    2014-03-12

    Epitaxial La1.85 Sr0.15 CuO4 / La2/3 Ca1/3 MnO3 (LSCO/LCMO) superlattices (SL) on (001)- oriented LaSrAlO4 substrates have been grown with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Their structural, magnetic and superconducting properties have been determined with in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), x-ray diffraction, specular neutron reflectometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electric transport, and magnetization measurements. We find that despite the large mismatch between the in-plane lattice parameters of LSCO (a = 0.3779 nm) and LCMO (a = 0.387 nm) these superlattices can be grown epitaxially and with a high crystalline quality. While the first LSCO layer remains clamped to the LSAO substrate, a sizeable strain relaxation occurs already in the first LCMO layer. The following LSCO and LCMO layers adopt a nearly balanced state in which the tensile and compressive strain effects yield alternating in-plane lattice parameters with an almost constant average value. No major defects are observed in the LSCO layers, while a significant number of vertical antiphase boundaries are found in the LCMO layers. The LSCO layers remain superconducting with a relatively high superconducting onset temperature of Tconset ≈ 36 K. The macroscopic superconducting response is also evident in the magnetization data due to a weak diamagnetic signal below 10 K for H ∥ ab and a sizeable paramagnetic shift for H ∥ c that can be explained in terms of a vortex-pinning-induced flux compression. The LCMO layers maintain a strongly ferromagnetic state with a Curie temperature of TCurie ≈ 190 K and a large low-temperature saturation moment of about 3.5 (1) μB. These results suggest that the LSCO/LCMO superlattices can be used to study the interaction between the antagonistic ferromagnetic and superconducting orders and, in combination with previous studies on YBCO/LCMO superlattices, may allow one to identify the relevant mechanisms.

  10. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  11. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  12. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  13. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Doug Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2015-10-13

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  14. Compositional modulated atomic layer stacking and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoPt alloy sputtered films with close-packed plane orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Shin Nozawa, Naoki; Hinata, Shintaro; Takahashi, Migaku; Shibuya, Kazunari; Hoshino, Kazuya; Awaya, Satoru

    2015-05-07

    An atomic layer stacking structure in hexagonal close packed (hcp) Co{sub 100?x}Pt{sub x} alloy films with c-plane sheet texture was directly observed by a high-angle annular dark-field imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of sequential and/or compositional atomic layer stacking structure and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub u}?=?K{sub u1}?+?K{sub u2}) revealed that (1) integrated intensity of the superlattice diffraction takes the maximum at x?=?20 at. % and shows broadening feature against x for the film fabricated under the substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) of 400?C. (2) Compositional separation structure in atomic layers is formed for the films fabricated under T{sub sub}?=?400?C. A sequential alternative stacking of atomic layers with different compositions is hardly formed in the film with x?=?50 at. %, whereas easily formed in the film with x?=?20 at. %. This peculiar atomic layer stacking structure consists of in-plane-disordered Pt-rich and Pt-poor layers, which is completely different from the so-called atomic site ordered structure. (3) A face centered cubic atomic layer stacking as faults appeared in the host hcp atomic layer stacking exists in accompanies with irregularities for the periodicity of the compositional modulation atomic layers. (4) K{sub u1} takes the maximum of 1.4??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} at around x?=?20 at. %, whereas K{sub u2} takes the maximum of 0.7??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} at around x?=?40 at. %, which results in the maximum of 1.8??10{sup 7?}erg/cm{sup 3} of K{sub u} at x?=?30 at. % and a shoulder in compositional dependence of K{sub u} in the range of x?=?3060 at. %. Not only compositional separation of atomic layers but also sequential alternative stacking of different compositional layers is quite important to improve essential uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  15. On Techniques to Characterize and Correlate Grain Size, Grain Boundary Orientation and the Strength of the SiC Layer of TRISO Coated Particles: A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I.J.van Rooyen; J.L. Dunzik Gougar; T. Trowbridge; Philip M van Rooyen

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature gas reactors (HTGR) are performance parameters that have not yet been standardized by the international HTR community. Presented in this paper are the results of characterizing coated particles to reveal the effect of annealing temperature (1000 to 2100C) on the strength and grain size of unirradiated coated particles. This work was further expanded to include possible relationships between the grain size and strength values. The comparative results of two strength measurement techniques and grain size measured by the Lineal intercept method are included. Preliminary grain boundary characterization results determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are included. These results are also important for future fission product transport studies, as grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which 110mAg, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layers. Temperature is a parameter known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. Recommendations and future work will also be briefly discussed.

  16. Oriented Growth of Al2O3:ZnO Nanolaminates for Use as Electron-Selective Electrodes in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheun, H.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Shim, J.; Fang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Li, H.; Sigdel, A. K.; Meyer, J.; Maibach, J.; Dindar, A.; Zhou, Y.; Berry, J. J.; Bredas, J. L.; Kahn, A.; Sandhage, K. H.; Kippelen, B.

    2012-04-10

    Atomic layer deposition is used to synthesize Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZnO(1:x) nanolaminates with the number of deposition cycles, x, ranging from 5 to 30 for evaluation as optically transparent, electron-selective electrodes in polymer-based inverted solar cells. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZnO(1:20) nanolaminates are found to exhibit the highest values of electrical conductivity (1.2 x 10{sup 3} S cm{sup 01}; more than six times higher than for neat ZnO films), while retaining a high optical transmittance ({>=}80% in the visible region) and a low work function (4.0 eV). Such attractive performance is attributed to the structure (ZnO crystal size and crystal alignment) and doping level of this intermediate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZnO film composition. Polymer-based inverted solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZnO(1:20) nanolaminates as transparent electron-selective electrodes exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3% under simulated AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm{sup -2} illumination.

  17. Radiation Shielding Design and Orientation Considerations for a 1 kWe Heat Pipe Cooled Reactor Utilized to Bore Through the Ice Caps of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-20

    The goal in designing any space power system is to develop a system able to meet the mission requirements for success while minimizing the overall costs. The mission requirements for the this study was to develop a reactor (with Stirling engine power conversion) and shielding configuration able to fit, along with all the other necessary science equipment, in a Cryobot 3 m high with {approx}0.5 m diameter hull, produce 1 kWe for 5yrs, and not adversely affect the mission science by keeping the total integrated dose to the science equipment below 150 krad. Since in most space power missions the overall system mass dictates the mission cost, the shielding designs in this study incorporated Martian water extracted at the startup site in order to minimize the tungsten and LiH mass loading at launch. Different reliability and mass minimization concerns led to three design configuration evolutions. With the help of implementing Martian water and configuring the reactor as far from the science equipment as possible, the needed tungsten and LiH shield mass was minimized. This study further characterizes the startup dose and the necessary mission requirements in order to ensure integrity of the surface equipment during reactor startup phase.

  18. Directory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAES Orientation Subfolders in "CAES Orientation" Go Up 1 Level Go Up 1 Level Up This folder contains no subfolders. Documents in "CAES Orientation...

  19. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  20. Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R.

    2007-01-15

    A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

  1. A process oriented analysis of the ``declaration of German industry on global warming prevention'' and its implications for the role of voluntary approaches in post-Kyoto climate policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesohl, S.; Kristof, K.

    1999-07-01

    Challenged by industry's growing claim for higher self-responsibility and more flexibility, energy and climate policy-makers need to define a future role of voluntary approaches (VA) which realizes the benefits but guarantees environmental effectiveness and political efficiency of these initiatives. Taking the 1996 ``Declaration of German industry on global warming prevention (DGWP)'' as an example of an energy related VA, the paper pursues a dual approach for policy analysis in order to evaluate the static performance and the dynamic process features of the DFWP approach. Transferred to a dynamic model of co-evolutionary climate policy-making, the general conclusions of the German case for climate policy are discussed.

  2. Angular Distributions of Fragments Originating from the Spontaneous Fission of Oriented Nuclei and Problem of the Conservation of the Spin Projection onto the Symmetry Axis of a Fissile Nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S.G.; Rodionova, L.V. [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh, 394693 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    The concept of transition fission states, which was successfully used to describe the angular distributions of fragments for the spontaneous and low-energy induced fission of axisymmetric nuclei, proves to be correct if the spin projection onto the symmetry axis of a fissile nucleus is an integral of the motion for the external region from the descent of the fissile nucleus from the external fission barrier to the scission point. Upon heating a fissile nucleus in this region to temperatures of T {approx_equal} 1 MeV (this is predicted by many theoretical models of the fission process), the Coriolis interaction uniformly mixes the possible projections of the fissile-nucleus spin for the case of low spin values, this leading to the loss of memory about transition fission states in the asymptotic region where the angular distributions of fragments are formed. Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, which takes into account deviations from A. Bohr's formula, the angular distributions of fragments are calculated for spontaneously fissile nuclei aligned by an external magnetic field at ultralow temperatures, and it is shown that an analysis of experimental angular distributions of fragments would make it possible to solve the problem of spin-projection conservation for fissile nuclei in the external region.

  3. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    many randomly oriented crystals), individual crystals deform preferentially along slip planes. This results in crystal rotations that lead to crystallographic preferred orientation...

  4. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing... biaxially; oriented; metal; substrate; sol-gel; coating; technique; followed; pyrolyzing; ...

  5. Microsoft Word - Section I Mod 0192 final

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or ... of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or national origin. ...

  6. Microsoft Word - DOE_PPPL_M220_Section I.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or ... of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or national origin. ...

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    over orientational angles of randomly oriented particles. Direct comparison of the T-matrices of spheroidal particles computed with the traditional EBCM and with our new SVM...

  8. High School Co-op Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    student will be scheduled for the new hire orientation. Please note: Students should not report to their worksite until they have gone through the hiring and orientation process....

  9. ALSNews Vol. 336

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronics A new scattering method uses polarized x-rays to reveal the orientations of polymer chains in organic films. The orientations are relevant to a better understanding...

  10. Long-Term RD Materials (pbl/contracts)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Handouts MS Word (portrait orientation) (19 kb, posted October 17, 2005) MS Word (landscape orientation) (19 kb, posted October 17, 2005) Public Comments & Proposals (updated...

  11. Novel Nanoparticle Tracking Device | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simultaneously illuminates the location, orientation and rotation in 3D of individual gold nanorods. Gold nanorods have been used as orientation probes in optical imaging because...

  12. Building international genomics collaboration for global health security

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-12-07

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installationmore » of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.« less

  13. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  14. ICENINE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003066MLTPL00 Adaptive Forward Modeling Method for Analysis and Reconstructions of Orientation Image Map

  15. MOOSE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002565WKSTN01 Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment https://github.com/idaholab/moose

  16. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  17. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  18. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix ...

  19. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Polymer Chain orientation Chain microstructure in amorphous orientation in polymer drawn polymer 1 S. Shen, A. Henry, J. Tong, R. Zheng, and G. Chen, Nat Nano 5, (4), (2010). ...

  20. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chain orientation in drawn polymer Chain orientation in amorphous polymer Polymer microstructure 1 S. Shen, A. Henry, J. Tong, R. Zheng, and G. Chen, Nat Nano 5, (4), (2010). ...

  1. PV VALUE® User Manual v. 1.1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... will also have an impact on the potential solar insolation available and is expressed as a tilt and orientation factor or TOF. Tilt and orientation are expressed in degrees. ...

  2. ALSNews Vol. 336

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Print Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics A new scattering method uses polarized x-rays to reveal the orientations of polymer chains in organic films. The orientations are...

  3. Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; BISMUTH SELENIDES; BISMUTH TELLURIDES; ELECTRODES; NOISE; SPECTROSCOPY; SPIN ORIENTATION; SURFACES; ...

  4. Ethics and Drug-Free Certification Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEW EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION ETHICS BRIEFING CERTIFICATION OF ... from their immediate supervisor and an ethics counselor prior to engaging in outside ...

  5. Coordinating with Corporate and Institutional Affiliates | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Webinar Community Readiness Assessments Nothing But Networking for Residential Network Members...

  6. Safety Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Safety Orientation April, 2015 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ... with operations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility...

  7. Laser beam remodels liquid crystals on the fly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Ashley G.

    2015-06-15

    The laser can be used like a stylus to imprint microdomains of arbitrary shape and prescribed orientation.

  8. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  9. Structural hysteresis in dragline spider silks induced by supercontraction: an X-ray fiber micro-diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampath, Sujatha; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2014-11-27

    Interaction with water causes shrinkage and significant changes in the structure of spider dragline silks, which has been referred to as supercontraction in the literature. Preferred orientation or alignment of protein chains with respect to the fiber axis is extensively changed during this supercontraction process. Synchrotron X-ray micro-fiber diffraction experiments have been performed on Nephila clavipes and Argiope aurantia major and minor ampullate dragline spider fibers in the native dry, contracted (by immersion in water) and restretched (from contracted) states. Changes in the orientation of ?-sheet nanocrystallites and the oriented component of the amorphous network have been determined from wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. While both the crystalline and amorphous components lose preferred orientation on wetting with water, the nano-crystallites regain their orientation on wet-restretching, whereas the oriented amorphous components only partially regain their orientation. Dragline major ampullate silks in both the species contract more than their minor ampullate silks.

  10. Imaging, object detection, and change detection with a polarized multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W.

    2015-07-21

    A polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection factoring in the orientation of an object relative to the orientation of transceivers. The polarized detection system may operate on one of several modes of operation based on whether the imaging, object detection, or change detection is performed separately for each transceiver orientation. In combined change mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines changes across polarizations. In combined object mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging and object detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines objects across polarizations and performs change detection on the result. In combined image mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines images across polarizations and performs object detection followed by change detection on the result.

  11. EBSD study on crystallographic texture and microstructure development of cold-rolled FePd alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Ng, Tin-San; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Chen, Yen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Liang; Ding, Shi-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    The crystallographic texture and microstructure of FePd alloy after cold-rolling deformation were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction. The major orientations of twin copper and copper after 50% thickness reduction were observed in face-centered cubic-disordered FePd alloy, whereas the main orientation was obtained from brass type after 90% cold rolling. Increase in cold rolling resulted in the change of preferred orientation from copper to brass. Decrease in orientation intensity of copper also increased that of Goss and brass. - Highlights: • The evolution of texture and microstructure in FePd alloy was investigated after cold rolling using EBSD. • Increasing in reduction leads to the change of texture from Copper-type to Brass-type. • The reduction of Copper orientation results in increasing in Goss and Brass orientations.

  12. Buffer layers for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stan, Liliana; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2011-08-23

    A composite structure is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, and a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material. Additionally, an article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and a thick film upon the cubic metal oxide material. Finally, a superconducting article is provided including a base substrate, an IBAD oriented material upon the base substrate, a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the IBAD oriented material, and an yttrium barium copper oxide material upon the cubic metal oxide material.

  13. Anelastic Strain Recovery Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-04-05

    ASR4 is a nonlinear least-squares regression of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) data for the purpose of determining in situ stress orientations and magnitudes. ASR4 fits the viscoelastic model of Warpinski and Teufel to measure ASR data, calculates the stress orientations directly, and stress magnitudes if sufficient input data are available. The code also calculates the stress orientation using strain-rosette equations, and it calculates stress magnitudes using Blanton''s approach, assuming sufficient input data are available.

  14. Pre-Arrival for Foreign National Hires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Arrival Pre-Arrival for Foreign National Hires All foreign nationals including students and postdocs must complete this process. Contact (505) 667-4451, Option 5 Email Information you should know prior to attending New Hire Orientation Before attending New Hire Orientation, ensure you have reviewed, signed, and returned your Offer Letter to a Human Resources (HR) Division Representative. Do NOT report to the New-Hire Orientation until you have scheduled a hire date with a Human Resources

  15. Pre-Arrival for Summer Students

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Arrival Pre-Arrival for Summer Students Employees and retirees are the building blocks of the Lab's success. Our employees get to contribute to the most pressing issues facing the nation. Contact (505) 667-4451, Option 6 Email Information you should know prior to attending New Hire Orientation Before attending New Hire Orientation, ensure you have reviewed, signed, and returned your Offer Letter to a Human Resources (HR) Division Representative. Do NOT report to the New-Hire Orientation

  16. New Energy Saver Twitter Account | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Ethics Briefing Certification New Employee Orientation - Ethics Briefing Certification Required Ethics Certification form where a new employee indicates that they have reviewed the New Employee Orientation information on the Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees in the Executive Branch, 5 C.F. R. Part 2635, and the DOE 3792.3 Drug-Free Federal Workplace Testing Program. A employee signed copy of this form is required for the new employees orientation. PDF icon Ethics and

  17. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  18. ALSNews Vol. 305

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X Rays Interact with Matter Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Solving Structures with Collaborative Crystallography A User Support Building Tour...

  19. Characterization Of Fracture Patterns In The Geysers Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Also, graphical fracture characterizations in the form of equal-area projections and rose diagrams were created to depict the results. The main crack orientations within the...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Olszowka, Violetta ; Tsarkova, Larisa ; Bker, Alexander April 2016 , Royal Society of Chemistry

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for eight hours with temperature changes being recorded each hour. Students will gain an understanding of how the combination of building location and orientation along with...

  2. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  3. Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Control-Oriented Modeling for HCCI Combustion and Multi-Cylinder HCCI Experimental Activities Diesel HCCI Results at Caterpillar Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

  4. Cumberland Rose | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Purchaser City of Fontanelle - excess to Central Iowa Power Coopeative Location Orient IA Coordinates 41.22534409, -94.44139481 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapp...

  5. Careers | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    identity, genetic information, marital status, national origin, pregnancy, race, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status or any other characteristic protected by law. EEO...

  6. Diversity and Inclusion | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    including, but not limited to, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, gender, age, religion, culture, language, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, socioeconomic...

  7. Applicants | Robotics Internship Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program open to all qualified individuals without regard to race, color, age, sex, religion, national origin, mental or physical ability, genetic information, sexual orientation...

  8. Applicant Information | Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship (MLEF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program open to all qualified individuals without regard to race, color, age, sex, religion, national origin, mental or physical ability, genetic information, sexual orientation...

  9. Directory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TAMS Subfolders in "TAMS" Go Up 1 Level Go Up 1 Level Up Folder Additional Training Folder CAES Orientation Folder Core Lab Folder Specific Lab Documents in "TAMS...

  10. Experimental Equipment | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requires motorized rail. (1) Single crystal orientation stage and laser (compatible only ... (Relative Flux) after monochromator (1) Battery Box (Note: Users may NOT bring their own ...

  11. Biofuels Task Force.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... is not geo- graphically oriented for transportation from biofuel production centers. ... ethanol concentration exceeds a critical level thus possibly clogging engine fi lters. ...

  12. Proceedings of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conclusions and plans for future research. FIGURE 1. OCEAN POWER TECHNOLOGIES' POWER BUOY OPERATING OFF THE COAST OF SCOTLAND. THE WETTED SURFACE AREA AND ORIENTATION OF THE...

  13. When DNA Needs to Stand Up and Be Counted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomolecules must be properly oriented to perform their biological function. In other words, the DNA literally must stand up to be counted. Understanding both the attachment...

  14. Approval Required When Employees Engage in Outside Employment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engage in Outside Employment More Documents & Publications New Employee Orientation - Ethics Briefing Certification Acrobat PDFMaker 5.0 Recusal Statement of The Secretary of ...

  15. Policy Statement on Equal Employment Opportunity, Harassment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pregnancy and gender identity), religion, national origin, age, disability (physical or mental), protected genetic information, sexual orientation, or status as a parent. ...

  16. Project Manager, U.S. ITER INSIDE: ITER Site Progress Washington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ITER Organization has to change accordingly: It will become simpler, centralized, and task-force oriented to adapt to the new era of construction. Among our most important...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (United States) USDOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (IE) (United States) USDOE ... recently completed using a sup 3He gas target with polarization oriented normal ...

  18. Piezoelectrically enhanced ferroelectric polymers via nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control nanoscale material properties and molecular orientation using intensive local stress. Significance and Impact Nanoscale mechanical annealing process can be used to improve...

  19. Characterizing Structural Controls of Geothermal Fields in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration...

  20. old.new.factsheets.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analyze mockups of nuclear weapons. The DARHT Facility DARHT consists of two linear induction accelerators that are oriented at two right angles to one another. Each electron...