Sample records for organic polymers show

  1. Low band gap polymers Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low band gap polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Eva Bundgaard Ph.D. Dissertation Risø National Bundgaard Title: Low band gap polymers for Organic photovoltaics Department: The polymer department Report the area of organic photovoltaics are focusing on low band gap polymers, a type of polymer which absorbs

  2. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Space-chargePolymers for Organic Photovoltaics By David Fredric JoelPolymers for Organic Photovoltaics by David Fredric Joel

  3. Megahertz organic/polymer diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Howard Edan; Sun, Jia; Pal, Nath Bhola

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Featured is an organic/polymer diode having a first layer composed essentially of one of an organic semiconductor material or a polymeric semiconductor material and a second layer formed on the first layer and being electrically coupled to the first layer such that current flows through the layers in one direction when a voltage is applied in one direction. The second layer is essentially composed of a material whose characteristics and properties are such that when formed on the first layer, the diode is capable of high frequency rectifications on the order of megahertz rectifications such as for example rectifications at one of above 100KHz, 500KhZ, IMHz, or 10 MHz. In further embodiments, the layers are arranged so as to be exposed to atmosphere.

  4. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of High Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaics…………………7 Futureof High Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaics Although the Tangthe Efficiency of Organic Photovoltaics……………..7 Development

  5. Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley National Laboratory, could open the door to research on a new class of solar energy devices. The photovoltaic devices created in a project led by Rice chemical engineer...

  6. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  7. The challenges of organic polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC MEMS BASED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-METAL COMPOSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC MEMS BASED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER-METAL COMPOSITE Diego State University, 2012 This research investigates SU-8/Ag conductive polymer composite of conductive polymer composite. Microscopic analysis using 3D microscope carried out for agglomeration

  9. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randy (Livermore, CA)

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  10. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  11. Polybiphenylmethylenes: New Polymers for Bistable Organic Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Kenneth

    architectures that can be used to fabricate high density storage elements ­ so called organic electronically to the referenced protocol. 2,2-Bis(4- trifluoromethanesulfonyloxyphenyl)propane (2a), 7,8 2,2-bis(4

  12. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices Gwang photovoltaic device are fabricated using homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a polymer. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials promise the production

  13. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  14. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. The physics of solar cells; Imperial College Press,for organic polymer solar cells investigated to date. Theincluding organic solar cells and dye-sensitized solar

  15. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrelli, David Christopher

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

  16. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. ; Reynaers, H. Polymer, 1989, 30, 2164-2169. (41) Alamo,M. M. ; Janssen, R. A. J. Polymer 2009, 50, 4564-4570. (14)Conductive Molecules and Polymers, Volume 2, Conductive

  17. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. The physics of solar cells; Imperial College Press,for organic polymer solar cells investigated to date. Thebulk heterojunction organic solar cells, blends of a p-type

  18. A dual approach to tuning the porosity of porous organic polymers: controlling the porogen size and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Consequently, the majority of POPs are interpenetrating networks with rela- tively low total pore volumesA dual approach to tuning the porosity of porous organic polymers: controlling the porogen size. Weston, Omar K. Farha,* Joseph T. Hupp* and SonBinh T. Nguyen* Porous organic polymers (POPs

  19. SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND SHADOW EFFECTS IN 3D ORGANIC POLYMER SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    levels of Solar panels and new production capacity is driving solar PV prices lower and thereby, bringingSIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND SHADOW EFFECTS IN 3D ORGANIC POLYMER SOLAR CELLS OF THE THESIS Simulation of Geometry and Shadow Effects in 3D Organic Polymer Solar Cells by Mihir Prakashbhai

  20. Designing phase selective soluble polymers for applications in organic chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chunmei

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Soluble polymers as supports are gaining more attention now. Developing new polymers, new reagents and catalysts, new separation systems are thus of great interest as these sorts of materials' applications in synthesis and catalysis increase...

  1. Novel polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles via self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dequan Xiao; Kunhua Lin; Qiang Fu; Qinjian Yin

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel class of polymer nanocomposite composed of organic nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix, with the particle sizes of 30-120 nm in radius. The organic nanoparticles were formed by the self-assembly of protonated poly(4-vinyl-pyridine)-r-poly(acrylonitrile) and amphiphilic metanil yellow dye molecules through electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution. A strongly broadened Raman shift band was probed, suggesting the presence of enhanced optoelectronic property from the polymer nanocomposite. Here, using random-copolymer polyelectrolytes and mesogenic amphiphiles as the designed building blocks for self-assembly, a new approach is acutally provided to fabricate organic nanoparticles.

  2. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.; Honda, K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  3. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO); Honda, Kenji (Wheatridge, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge-conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge-conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  4. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a computer-controlled Keithley 236 SMU. R EFERENCES (1)controlled Keithley 236 SMU. Polymer mobility was measuredwith a Keithley 236 SMU. Eight devices were averaged for

  5. Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic Biphasic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Entropically Driven Partitioning of Ethylene Oxide Oligomers and Polymers in Aqueous/ Organic; In Final Form: June 19, 2002 Partitioning of ethylene oxide oligomers and polymers (PEO) in biphasic unit, smaller than hydration numbers reported in aqueous solutions. All of these findings lead

  6. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organic photovoltaics (OPVs), with reported efficiencies asseparation efficiency in organic photovoltaics. 15CI, a

  7. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of solid-state dye sensitized cells have previously beenon organic polymer and dye-sensitized cells. The detailedof a Typical Dye-Sensitized Cell……12 Design of Dyes for Dye-

  8. Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 5, Nos. 3/4, 2000 Synthesis of Organic Compounds from Mixtures of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 5, Nos. 3/4, 2000 Synthesis of Organic Compounds from Mixtures operation, due to surface modification processes (polymer film deposition, its oxidation or reduction gases; polymer films; dielectric-barrier discharge; organic synthesis. 1. INTRODUCTION The first

  9. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. ; Forrest, S. R. Organic Electronics 2003, 4, 77-87. (24)Aspects of Organic Electronics: From Fundamentals toof solution-processed organic electronics rapidly advancing,

  10. Designing phase selective soluble polymers for applications in organic chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chunmei

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . The work described in the succeeding chapters describes my efforts to synthesize new catalysts that can be attached to polymer supports, to study their catalytic activity and to study separation efficiency. Most of the work focus is on polyacrylamide...

  11. Thiophene Based Donor/Acceptor Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Brian Doyle, Rutgers University, SURF Fellow 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Thiophene Based Donor/Acceptor Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics Brian structure. These organic photovoltaics have the advantages of large scale processing groups on electrochemical properties and application to organic photovoltaics. Synthesis

  12. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics By Claire Hoi Kar Woo Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical

  13. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  14. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [AREVA CL BU, STMI ZAC de Courcelle 1 route de la Noue 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kelley, Dennis [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States)] [Pacific World Trade, Inc. Hillsdale Technical Center 6970 Hillsdale Court Indianapolis, Indiana 46250 (United States); Cochaud, Chantal [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)] [CEA Cadarache, DSN/SGTD, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Serrano, Roger [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)] [CEA Marcoule, DPAD, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To handle the Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) and the Low Level Waste (LLW) in France, two options can be considered: the incineration at CENTRACO facility and the disposal facility on ANDRA sites. The waste acceptance in these radwaste routes is dependent upon the adequacy between the waste characteristics (physical chemistry and radiological) and the radwaste route specifications. If the waste characteristics are incompatible with the radwaste route specifications (presence of significant quantities of chlorine, fluorine, organic component etc or/and high activity limits), it is necessary to find an alternative solution that consists of a waste pre-treatment process. In the context of the problematic Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) waste streams, two radioactive scintillation cocktails have to be treated. The first one is composed of organic liquids at 13.1 % (diphenyloxazol, mesitylene, TBP, xylene) and water at 86.9 %. The second one is composed of TBP at 8.6 % and water at 91.4 %. They contain chlorine, fluorine and sulphate and have got alpha/beta/gamma spectra with mass activities equal to some kBq.g{sup -1}. Therefore, tritium is present and creates the second problematic waste stream. As a consequence, in order for disposal acceptance at the ANDRA site, it is necessary to pre-treat the waste. The NOCHAR polymers as an aqueous and organic liquid solidification process seem to be an adequate solution. Indeed, these polymers constitute an important variety of products applied to the treatment of radioactive aqueous and organic liquids (solvent, oil, solvent/oil mixing etc) and sludge through a mechanical and chemical solidification process. For Cadarache LOR, N910 and N960 respectively dedicated to the organic and aqueous liquids solidification are considered. With the N910, the organic waste solidification occurs in two steps. As the organic liquid travels moves through the polymer strands, the strands swell and immobilise the liquid. Then as the polymer-organic cure, over time, the polymer continues to collapse on the organic to create a permanent bond. The N960 has the ability to absorb aqueous waste up to 100 times its own weight. It creates a strong mechanical bond which permanently traps the contamination imbedded in the aqueous liquids. As a consequence, these two polymers seem to be able to constitute a suitable solidification matrix for a final acceptance in storage on ANDRA sites. In order to validate the polymers as an acceptable aqueous and organic solidification process for Cadarache LOR, some solidification tests realized with N910 and N960, have been carried out for different Waste/Polymer ratios. The determination of the best Waste/Polymer ratio and of the optimal experimental parameters has been made through an exudation test. Indeed, the process prevents leaching and it results in the absence of residual free organic or aqueous liquid which is forbidden in storage by ANDRA specifications. With these test results, we generated scientific data which are fundamental to obtain an ANDRA agreement. As a conclusion, the aim of this study is to demonstrate that the solidification by polymers can constitute a pre-treatment solution for Cadarache LOR and more generally, for various organic and mixed organic/aqueous waste which can not be directly acceptable at CENTRACO facility or at ANDRA storage sites. This work is, therefore, a solid background to demonstrate the feasibility of the waste pre-treatment by solidification with polymers and to encourage the development of this process. (authors)

  15. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current organic photovoltaic efficiencies are not highof the high photovoltaic efficiencies, 20-22 high chargeof a photovoltaic device by affecting the efficiency of

  16. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    , China ABSTRACT: Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganicToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost

  17. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  18. authors demonstrate that the new polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicchitta, Chris

    . & Thelakkat, M. Appl.Phys.Lett. 92, 093302/1 (2008). 10. Cantatore, E. etal. IEEEJ.SolidStateCircuits 42, 84authors demonstrate that the new polymer is highly soluble in common organic solvents stabil- ity. The new material will undoubtedly inspire further work to synthesize other donor­accep- tor

  19. Co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers into helical and zig-zag polymer chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yi; Yu Lingmin; Loo, Say Chye Joachim [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Blair, Richard G. [Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Central Florida, Department of Chemistry, 4000 Central Florida Blvd. P.O. Box 162366, Orlando, FL 32816-2366 (United States); Zhang Qichun, E-mail: qczhang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (EG=ethylene glycol) (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at 150 Degree-Sign C or room temperature by the co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers such as 2,4,6-tri(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyTA) and 1,3-bis(trans-4-pyridylvinyl)benzene (BPyVB). X-ray crystallography study reveals that both polymers 1 and 2 crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/c of the monoclinic system. The solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up to 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized. Solid-state UV-vis absorptions show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up to 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TPyTA results in helical structures in 1 while BPyVB leads to zig-zag chains in 2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra and TGA analysis of the title polymers were studied.

  20. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  1. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  2. A low-temperature processed environment-friendly full-organic carrier collection layer for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ai-Li; Li, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn; Jiang, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zhong-Sheng; Wang, Qian-Kun; Guo, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Dan-Dan, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a concept of the full-organic carrier collection layer (CCL) used for polymer solar cells. The CCL is composed of dipyrazino[2,3-f:2?,3?-h]quinoxaline-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile as hole collection layer (HCL) and chlorine-free solvents (formic acid (FA)) processed 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron collection layer, exhibiting good solubility, and environmental protection. The FA based device shows ideal power conversion efficiency (3.75%), which is higher than that of control device (3.6%). Besides, the HCL shows a different mechanism in hole extraction by functioning as a charge recombination zone for electrons injected from anode and holes extracted from the donor materials.

  3. Self-organized Nano-lens Arrays by Intensified Dewetting of Electron Beam Modified Polymer Thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2011-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Sub-100 nm polymeric spherical plano-convex nano-lens arrays are fabricated using short electron beam exposures to selectively modify the ultrathin (films, followed by their intensified self-organized dewetting under an aqueous-organic mixture. A short exposure to e-beam locally modifies the polymer chains to effectively change the viscosity of the film in small domains, thus bringing in the dynamical dewetting contrast in the film that produces aligned and ordered dewetted nanostructures. Both negative and positive e-beam tone polymers are thus used to produce array of nano-lenses. The intensified self-organized dewetting under a water-organic solvent mixture overcomes the limitations on surface tension and dewetting force and thus facilitates the formation of sub-100 nm diameter polymer nanolenses of tunable curvature. By varying the extent of e-beam exposure, various configurations from isolated to connected nano-lens arrays can be fabricated.

  4. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rizzardo, E. ; Thang, S. H. Polymer 2008, 49, 1079-1131. (b)V. L. ; Pezdirtz, G. F. Polymer Letters 1965, 3, 977-984. [efficiencies of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction OPVs

  5. Cross-conjugated polymers for organic electronic devices and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-conjugated donor-acceptor polymers, methods for their preparation, devices that include polymers, and methods for the preparation and use of the devices.

  6. The conformational evolution of elongated polymer solutions tailors the polarization of light-emission from organic nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Camposeo; Israel Greenfeld; Francesco Tantussi; Maria Moffa; Francesco Fuso; Maria Allegrini; Eyal Zussman; Dario Pisignano

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer fibers are currently exploited in tremendously important technologies. Their innovative properties are mainly determined by the behavior of the polymer macromolecules under the elongation induced by external mechanical or electrostatic forces, characterizing the fiber drawing process. Although enhanced physical properties were observed in polymer fibers produced under strong stretching conditions, studies of the process-induced nanoscale organization of the polymer molecules are not available, and most of fiber properties are still obtained on an empirical basis. Here we reveal the orientational properties of semiflexible polymers in electrospun nanofibers, which allow the polarization properties of active fibers to be finely controlled. Modeling and simulations of the conformational evolution of the polymer chains during electrostatic elongation of semidilute solutions demonstrate that the molecules stretch almost fully within less than 1 mm from jet start, increasing polymer axial orientation at the jet center. The nanoscale mapping of the local dichroism of individual fibers by polarized near-field optical microscopy unveils for the first time the presence of an internal spatial variation of the molecular order, namely the presence of a core with axially aligned molecules and a sheath with almost radially oriented molecules. These results allow important and specific fiber properties to be manipulated and tailored, as here demonstrated for the polarization of emitted light.

  7. Sputtered Nickel Oxide Thin Film for Efficient Hole Transport Layer in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widjonarko, N. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Perkins, C. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are very promising thin film renewable energy conversion technologies due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication. An important aspect of OPV device efficiency is good contact engineering. The use of oxide thin films for this application offers increased design flexibility and improved chemical stability. Here we present our investigation of radio frequency magnetron sputtered nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) deposited from oxide targets as an efficient, easily scalable hole transport layer (HTL) with variable work-function, ranging from 4.8 to 5.8 eV. Differences in HTL work-function were not found to result in statistically significant changes in open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) for poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJ device. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) characterization of the NiO{sub x} film and its interface with the polymer shows Fermi level alignment of the polymer with the NiO{sub x} film. UPS of the blend also demonstrates Fermi level alignment of the organic active layer with the HTL, consistent with the lack of correlation between V{sub oc} and HTL work-function. Instead, trends in j{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and thus overall device performance are related to the surface treatment of the HTL prior to active layer deposition through changes in active layer thickness.

  8. Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; 10.1016/j.cma.2010.01.018

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial...

  9. RESEARCH ON THE ELECTRONIC AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER AND OTHER ORGANIC MOLECULAR THIN FILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALEXEI G. VITUKHNOVSKY; IGOR I. SOBELMAN - RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical properties of highly ordered films of poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) on different substrates, thin films of mixtures of conjugated polymers, of fullerene and its composition with polymers, molecular J-aggregates of cyanine dyes in frozen matrices have been studied within the framework of the Agreement. Procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum deposited PPP films on different substrates (ITO, Si, GaAs and etc.) were developed. Using time-correlated single photon counting technique and fluorescence spectroscopy the high quality of PPP films has been confirmed. Dependence of structure and optical properties on the conditions of preparation were investigated. The fluorescence lifetime and spectra of highly oriented vacuum deposited PPP films were studied as a function of the degree of polymerization. It was shown for the first time that the maximum fluorescence quantum yield is achieved for the chain length approximately equal to 35 monomer units. The selective excitation of luminescence of thin films of PPP was performed in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. The total intensity of luminescence monotonically decreases with decreasing temperature. Conditions of preparation of highly cristallyne fullerene C{sub 60} films by the method of vacuum deposition were found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers PPV and polyacetylene (PA) were prepared. The results on fluorescence quenching, IR and resonant Raman spectroscopy are consistent with earlier reported ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from PPV to C{sub 60} and show that the electron transfer is absent in the case of the PA-C{sub 60} composition. Strong quenching of PPV fluorescence was observed in the PPV-PA blends. The electron transfer from PPV to PA can be considered as one of the possible mechanisms of this quenching. The dynamics of photoexcitations in different types of J-aggregates of the carbocyanine dye was studied at different temperatures in frozen matrices. The optical properties of relatively simple J-aggregates with pure intrasegment relaxation, which they have found, may clarify the problem of the relationship between intrasegment and intersegment processes in the formation of luminescent states in more complicated conjugated polymers, which is important for construction of electroluminescence and photosensitive devices.

  10. Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo de Falco; Riccardo Sacco; Maurizio Verri

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial discretization, and we carry out a thorough validation of the computational model by extensively investigating the impact of the model parameters on photocurrent transient times.

  11. Templating Organosilicate Vitrification Using Unimolecular Self Organizing Polymers: Evolution of Morphology and Nanoporosity Development with Network Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.-C.

    2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Star-shaped polymers with a compatibilizing outer corona were dispersed into a thermosetting organosilicate matrix and used to create a nanoporous material. These environmentally responsive copolymers create nano-sized domains through a matrix-mediated collapse of the interior core of the core-corona polymeric structure. This approach relies on the outer corona of the star to compatibilize the insoluble core with the thermosetting resin and prevent aggregation such that these individual molecules template the crosslinking of the matrix and ultimately generate a single hole. The organic polymer was selectively thermalized leaving behind its latent image in the matrix with a pore size that reflected the size of the polymer molecule, and provided the expected reduction in dielectric constant. The morphology development as a function of arm number, molecular weight and volume fraction in mixtures with organosilicates as a function of cure/network conversion was investigated by SAXS, SANS, DMA, TEM and FE-SEM measurements. Amphiphilic star-shaped polymers of various block lengths and arm number, prepared by tandem controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from dendritic initiators, were further tailored to facilitate contrast enhancement for various measurements by the incorporation of either ferrocenyl units or deuterated monomers. The pore sizes achieved by the star and dendrimer-like star macromolecular architectures range from {approx}7 to 40nm, depending on the molecular weight and architecture.

  12. OrganicInorganic Nanohybrids through the Direct Tailoring of Semiconductor Nanocrystals with Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    in photovoltaic cells.[17­19] This indicates that an interpenetrated network of CP/NC on the scale of the exciton with Conjugated Polymers Zhiqun Lin*[a] 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Chem. Eur. J. 2008, 14- gated polymers (CPs; i.e., forming the CP/NC hybrids). Hybrids of electroactive CPs with NCs inherit

  13. Broadband energy-efficient optical modulation by hybrid integration of silicon nanophotonics and organic electro-optic polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L; Chen, Ray T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon-organic hybrid integrated devices have emerging applications ranging from high-speed optical interconnects to photonic electromagnetic-field sensors. Silicon slot photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) filled with electro-optic (EO) polymers combine the slow-light effect in PCWs with the high polarizability of EO polymers, which promises the realization of high-performance optical modulators. In this paper, a broadband, power-efficient, low-dispersion, and compact optical modulator based on an EO polymer filled silicon slot PCW is presented. A small voltage-length product of V{\\pi}*L=0.282Vmm is achieved, corresponding to an unprecedented record-high effective in-device EO coefficient (r33) of 1230pm/V. Assisted by a backside gate voltage, the modulation response up to 50GHz is observed, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 15GHz, and the estimated energy consumption is 94.4fJ/bit at 10Gbit/s. Furthermore, lattice-shifted PCWs are utilized to enhance the optical bandwidth by a factor of ~10X over other modulators bas...

  14. Postdoctoral Research Associate Polymer/Organic Chemist Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    of uranium from seawater, such as polymer synthesis, desorption, and ligand synthesis/grafting. To achieve and simulation, and structure/morphology characterization for efficient binding of uranium in seawater techniques including TGA, DSC, DMA, FTIR, and NMR and uranium capacity (ICP) - Uranium adsorption

  15. Imprinted large-scale high density polymer nanopillars for organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    , such as organic photovoltaics,1,2 light emitting diodes,3 biosensors,4,5 and nanomedicine.6 Nanoimprint

  16. Reduced bleaching in organic nanofibers by bilayer polymer/oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavares, L.; Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.; Rubahn, H.-G. [NanoSyd, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, DK-6400 Soenderborg (Denmark); Sturm, H. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) molecules exhibit a characteristic photoinduced reaction (bleaching) resulting in a decrease in luminescence intensity upon UV light exposure, which could render the technological use of the nanofibers problematic. In order to investigate the photoinduced reaction in nanofibers, optical bleaching experiments have been performed by irradiating both pristine and coated nanofibers with UV light. Oxide coating materials (SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were applied onto p-6P nanofibers. These treatments caused a reduction in the bleaching reaction but in addition, the nanofiber luminescence spectrum was significantly altered. It was observed that some polymer coatings [a statistical copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and 2,2-bis-trifluoromethyl-4,5-difluoro-1,3-dioxole, P(TFE-PDD), and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA] do not interfere with the luminescence spectrum from the p-6P but are not effective in stopping the bleaching. Bilayer coatings with first a polymer material, which should work as a protection layer to avoid modifications of the p-6P luminescence spectrum, and second an oxide layer used as oxygen blocker were tested and it was found that a particular bilayer polymer/oxide combination results in a significant reduction in bleaching without affecting significantly the emission spectrum from the nanofibers.

  17. Miniaturized Low-power Electro-optic Modulator Based on Silicon Integrated Nanophotonics and Organic Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xingyu; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We design and demonstrate a compact, low-power, low-dispersion and broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and near-infrared transparency. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be V{\\pi}=0.97V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to a record-high effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and V{\\pi} L of 0.291Vmm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an ultra-high efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot. In addition, to achieve high-speed modulation, silicon PCW is selectively doped to reduce RC time delay. The 3-dB RF bandwidth of the modulator is measured to be 11GHz, and a modulation response up to 40GHz is observed.

  18. Study of organic molecules and nano-particle/polymer composites for flash memory and switch applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paydavosi, Sarah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic materials exhibit fascinating optical and electronic properties which motivate their hybridization with traditional silicon-based electronics in order to achieve novel functionalities and address scaling challenges ...

  19. Plasmachemical surface functionalised beads: versatile tailored supports for polymer assisted organic synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    materials. Solid supported synthesis has become a widely used technique in organic chemistry. Whilst a range of inorganic materials such as clays, silicas and controlled pore glass are used, the vast majority of supports organic synthesis Jas Pal Badyal,a Audrey M. Cameron,a Neil R. Cameron,a Diane M. Coe,c Richard Cox

  20. Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

  1. Polymers via chemical vapor deposition and their application to organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Miles Clark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is emerging interest in the ability to fabricate organic photovoltaics (OPVs) on flexible, lightweight substrates, which could lower the cost of installation and enable new form factors for deployment. However, ...

  2. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes using conducting polymers deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chelawat, Hitesh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difficulties with traditional methods of synthesis and film formation for conducting polymers, many of which are insoluble, motivate the development of CVD methods. Indeed, conjugated polymers with rigid linear backbones ...

  3. InP Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Clint J. Novotny, Edward T. Yu, and Paul K. L. Yu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    in conjugated polymer hybrid solar cells as well as in nanowire- based dye-sensitized solar cells10 factor of 0.44, thus showing promise as an alternative to current polymer solar cell designs produced in the polymer will be lost to recombina- tion. Bulk organic heterojunction solar cells attempt

  4. Photovoltaic properties and morphology of organic solar cells based on liquid-crystal semiconducting polymer with additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zushi, Masahito; Suzuki, Hisato; Ogahara, Shinichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on liquid crystal semiconducting polymers of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene] (F8T2) as p-type semiconductors and fullerenes (C{sub 60}) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and acceptor has been fabricated and characterized for improving photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic performance including current voltage curves in the dark and illumination of the F8T2/C{sub 60} conventional and inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were investigated. Relationship between the photovoltaic properties and morphological behavior was focused on tuning for optimization of photo-voltaic performance under annealing condition near glass transition temperature. Additive-effect of diiodooctane (DIO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) on the photovoltaic performance and optical properties was investigated. Mechanism of the photovoltaic properties of the conventional and inverted solar cells will be discussed by the experimental results.

  5. Branched Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Kenyon; Peter Winkler

    2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Building on and from the work of Brydges and Imbrie, we give an elementary calculation of the volume of the space of branched polymers of order $n$ in the plane and in 3-space. Our development reveals some more general identities, and allows exact random sampling. In particular we show that a random 3-dimensional branched polymer of order $n$ has diameter of order $\\sqrt{n}$.

  6. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  7. Lewis acid–base interactions enhance explosives sensing in silacycle polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Jason C.; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Mrse, Anthony A.; Trogler, William C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed rigid pentiptycene polymers that are porous inexplosives into the polymer structure. Ad- sorption isof conjugated organic polymers in a commercial instrument

  8. Polymer inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syed Moeez Hassan; Viqar Husain; Sanjeev S. Seahra

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckain initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  9. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  10. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yung-Ting [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Shun-Wei [Department of Electronic Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, New Taipei, Taiwan 24301, Taiwan (China); Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 10607, Taiwan (China); Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen [Research Center for Applied Science Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11527, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Yu [Chilin Technology Co., LTD, Tainan City, Taiwan 71758, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti, E-mail: cchen@chem.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-I, E-mail: cchen@chem.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7?cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39?lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7?cd/A and 8.39?lm/W to 23?cd/A and 13.2?lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  11. Electrooptic microwave antenna using organic poled polymers Arnaud Gardeleina, Sylvain Le Tacona, Eric Tanguya, Nicolas Breuilb and Tchanguiz Razbana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    actually electrooptical polymer properties and stability are lower than lithium niobate ones, the gap of the electrooptic antenna design is to obtain maximum microwave and optical interaction. We propose a novel approach polarizer or other means. Two electrooptic-enabled materials are under interest. The older one is lithium

  12. Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Bryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in dye/polymer blend photovoltaic cells. Advanced MaterialsA. J. , Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies2-Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell. Applied Physics Letters

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  15. Tunneling of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz; E. Chan-López; A. Carbajal-Domínguez; J. Bernal

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the tunneling using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that at low energies, for the tunneling through a single potential barrier, the polymer transmission coefficient and the polymer tunneling time converge to its quantum-mechanical counterparts in a clear fashion. As the energy approaches the maximum these polymer quantities abruptly decrease to zero. We use the transfer matrix method to study the tunneling through a series of identical potential barriers. We obtain that the transmission coefficients (polymer and quantum-mechanical) behave qualitatively in a similar manner, as expected. Finally we show that the polymer tunneling time exhibits anomalous peaks compared with the standard result. Numerical results are also presented.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  17. Porous polymer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  18. Enhanced Self-organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Films under Water-organic Solutions: Fabrication of Sub-micron Spherical Lens Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2010-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Field-induced self-organized patterning in ultrathin (energy penalty for the surface deformations on small scales. We propose here a very simple but versatile method to fabricate sub-micron (~100 nm) ordered and tunable polymeric structures by self-organized room temperature dewetting of ultrathin polystyrene films by minimizing the surface tension limitation. We illustrate this technique by fabricating sub-micron lens arrays of tunable curvature. This is achieved by switching to controlled room temperature dewetting under an optimal mix of water, acetone and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK). Organic solvents used decrease the glass transition temperature, greatly decrease the interfacial tension, intensify the field and increase the contact angle/aspect ratio of the resulting tunable nano-structures, without a concurrent solubilization of PS owing to water being the majority phase in the outside mixture.

  19. Melons are branched polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razvan Gurau; James P. Ryan

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self?organization Photodiodes,  and  Photovoltaic  Cells.   Applied Physics F,  Heeger  AJ.   Polymer  Photovoltaic  Cells  ?  Enhanced 

  1. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsuk Kang; Young-Gui Yoon; D. Thirumalai; Changbong Hyeon

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast ($N\\approx 1.2\\times 10^7$, $\\phi<\\phi_c^{\\infty}$) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  2. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Jong-Am; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup, E-mail: parky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C{sub 61}-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91?eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of V{sub oc} of the organic photovoltaic cells.

  3. Kac polymers Paolo Butt`a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Procacci, Aldo

    Kac polymers Paolo Butt`a Aldo Procacci Benedetto Scoppola Abstract We show how a polymer in two- sidered on the appropriate scale. Key words: Polymers, Kac potentials, phase transition. Running title: Kac polymers Dedicated to a Marzio Cassandro's birthday. 1 Introduction In the last two decades

  4. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Hongsuk; Thirumalai, D; Hyeon, Changbong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yea...

  5. Achieving High Performance Polymer Tandem Solar Cells via Novel Materials Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Letian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    polymers for organic solar cell applications. Chem. Rev.Hummelen, J. C. , Plastic solar cells. Adv. Funct. Mater.polymer design for tandem solar cells and achieved certified

  6. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  7. Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    /toluene (95/5) Polymer Solvents #12;Polymer Preform Fabrication Laboratory Polymer Combinations: · PMMA (n-processed to relieve internal stresses which otherwise lead to tube cracking when exposed to organic solvents #12

  8. Dynamics of Polymers in Flowing Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsieh

    Using hydrodynamic simulations we examine the behavior of single polymers in a confined colloidal suspension under flow. We study the conformations of both, collapsed and noncollapsed polymers. Our results show that the ...

  9. New functional polymers for sensors, smart materials and solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobez Comeras, Jose Miguel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic polymers can be used as the active component of sensors, smart materials, chemical-delivery systems and the active layer of solar cells. The rational design and modification of the chemical structure of polymers ...

  10. Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano Scale Zerovalent Iron to E. coli Z H. Here we assess the effect that adsorbed synthetic polymers and natural organic matter

  11. Propagation of polymer slugs through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecourtier, J.; Chauveteau, G.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the mechanisms governing polymer slug propagation through porous media. An analytical model taking into account the macromolecule exclusion from pore walls is proposed to predict rodlike polymer velocity in porous media and thus the spreading out of polydispersed polymer slugs. Under conditions where this wall exclusion is maximum, i.e. at low shear rates and polymer concentrations, the experiments show that xanthan propagation is effectively predicted by this model. At higher flow rates and polymer concentrations, the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion and viscous fingering are analyzed. A new fractionation method for determining molecular weight distribution of polymers used in EOR is proposed.

  12. Effect of polymer chemistry on globular protein–polymer block copolymer self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Dongsook

    Bioconjugates of the model red fluorescent protein mCherry and synthetic polymer blocks with different hydrogen bonding functionalities show that the chemistry of the polymer block has a large effect on both ordering ...

  13. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Stanford, Interpenetrating polymer networks for high-based on interpenetrating polymer networks, Proceeding ofX. Niu, Q. Pei, Interpenetrating polymer networks based on

  14. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  15. aluminosilicate inorganic polymers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency in ZnO Nanowirep-Polymer Hybridized InorganicOrganic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Piezo- Materials Science Websites Summary: of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia...

  16. acid polymers obtained: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. For this (more) Leemhuis, M. 2007-01-01 23 Ammonia Capture in Porous Organic Polymers Densely Functionalized with Brnsted Acid Groups...

  17. Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

  18. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  19. Rotational dynamics of entangled polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Charles Walter; Michiel Laleman; Marco Baiesi; Enrico Carlon

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent results on the rotational dynamics of polymers are reviewed and extended. We focus here on the relaxation of a polymer, either flexible or semiflexible, initially wrapped around a rigid rod. We also study the steady polymer rotation generated by a constant torque on the rod. The interplay of frictional and entropic forces leads to a complex dynamical behavior characterized by non-trivial universal exponents. The results are based on extensive simulations of polymers undergoing Rouse dynamics and on an analytical approach using force balance and scaling arguments. The analytical results are in general in good agreement with the simulations, showing how a simplified approach can correctly capture the complex dynamical behavior of rotating polymers.

  20. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  1. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Nanoimprint Lithography for Functional Polymer Patterning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Dehu

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells...

  3. Polymer microarrays for cell based applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anne Klara Brigitte

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The development and identification of new biomaterials that can replace specific tissues and organs is desirable. In the presented PhD thesis polymer microarrays were applied for the screening of polyacrylates and ...

  4. Nanoimprint Lithography for Functional Polymer Patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Dehu

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells...

  5. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William; Dietz, Steven

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer is prepared by polymerizing a polymerizable component from a mixture containing the polymerizable component and a surfactant, the surfactant and the polymerizable component being present in the mixture in a molar ratio of at least 0.2:1, having an average pore size greater than 4 nm and a density greater than 0.1 g/cc. The polymerizable component can comprise a resorcinol/formaldehyde system and the mixture can comprise an aqueous solution or the polymerizable component can comprise a divinylbenzene/styrene system and the mixture can comprise an organic solution. Alternatively, the polymerizable component can comprise vinylidene chloride or a vinylidene chloride/divinylbenzene system. The polymer may be monolithic, have a BET surface area of at least about 50 m.sup.2 /g., include a quantity of at least one metal powder, or have an electrical conductivity greater than 10 Scm.sup.-1.

  6. Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore R. Podgornik, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States ABSTRACT: We investigate polymer partitioning from polymer

  7. Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this PhD thesis lie in building cost-effective and environmentally friendly waste-heat to useful energy converters based on organic polymers. The efficiency of heat to energy conversion by organic polymers tends to be higher than that for conventional...

  8. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers" Prof. Joey Mead University Lowell has developed a suite of processes to enable the nanomanufacturing of polymer based products of properties (e.g. biocompatibility, polarity, and modulus). Polymer materials can be used as substrates

  9. Enzyme-polymer composites with high biocatalytic activity and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungbae; Kosto, Timothy J.; Manimala, Joseph C.; Nauman, E B.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2004-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied vacuum-spraying and electrospinning to incorporate an enzyme into a polymer matrix, creating a novel and highly active biocatalytic composite. As a unique technical approach, enzymes were co-dissolved in toluene with polymers, and the solvent was then rapidly removed by injecting the mixture into a vacuum chamber or by electrospinning. Subsequent crosslinking of the enzyme with glutaraldehyde resulted in stable entrapped enzyme within the polymeric matrices. For example, an amorphous composite of alpha-chymotrypsin and polyethylene showed no significant loss of enzymatic activity in aqueous buffer for one month. Nanofibers of alpha-chymotrypsin and polystyrene also showed no decrease in activity for more than two weeks. The normalized activity of amorphous composite in organic solvents was 3-13 times higher than that of native alpha-chymotrypsin. The activity of nanofibers was 5-7 times higher than that of amorphous composite in aqueous buffer solution. The composites of alpha-chymotrypsin and polymers demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining a wide variety of active and stable biocatalytic materials with many combinations of enzymes and polymers.

  10. Active Polymers Confer Fast Reorganization Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Swanson; Ned S. Wingreen

    2011-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Many cytoskeletal biopolymers are "active," consuming energy in large quantities. In this Letter, we identify a fundamental difference between active polymers and passive, equilibrium polymers: for equal mean lengths, active polymers can reorganize faster than equilibrium polymers. We show that equilibrium polymers are intrinsically limited to linear scaling between mean lifetime and mean length, MFPT ~ , by analogy to 1-d Potts models. By contrast, we present a simple active-polymer model that improves upon this scaling, such that MFPT ~ ^{1/2}. Since to be biologically useful, structural biopolymers must typically be many monomers long, yet respond dynamically to the needs of the cell, the difference in reorganization kinetics may help to justify active polymers' greater energy cost. PACS numbers: 87.10.Ed, 87.16.ad, 87.16.Ln

  11. SEC data for polymer 1-6: UV-vis spectra for polymer 1-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for organic solar cells Eva Bundgaard a,b and Frederik C. Krebs a a Polymer Solar Cell Initiative, The Danish with increase in area (3 and 10 cm2 devices). · Lifetime of less than 2 hours for non encapsulated devices of the device by a better overlap with the solar spectrum. The synthesis of low band gap polymers are however

  12. Controlled Structure of Organic-Nanomaterial Solar Cells - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlled Structure of Organic-Nanomaterial Solar Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryOrganic, polymer-based...

  13. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  14. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strain in dielectric elastomers, Journal of Polymer SciencePart B: Polymer Physics. 49 (2011) 504–515. [25] X. Zhao, Z.Electroactive nanostructured polymers as tunable actuators,

  15. Polymer Grafted Janus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priftis, Dimitrios [ORNL; Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Hadjichristidis, Nikos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a novel and facile strategy to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with two chemically different polymer brushes utilizing the grafting from technique. A [4 + 2] Diels Alder cycloaddition reaction was used to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with two different precursor initiators, one for ring opening polymerization (ROP) and one for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The binary functionalized MWNTs were used for the simultaneous surface initiated polymerizations of different monomers resulting in polymer grafted MWNTs that can form Janus type structures under appropriate conditions. 1H NMR, FTIR and Raman spectra showed that the precursor initiators were successfully synthesized and covalently attached on the CNT surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the grafted polymer content varies when different monomer ratios and polymerization times are used. The presence of an organic layer around the CNTs was observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) proved that the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of the grafted polymers are affected by the presence of the CNTs, while circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the PLLA ahelix conformation remains intact.

  16. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AgNW) polymer composite material that is conductive enoughAgNW/polymer composite was nominated as a highly conductive,

  17. Borrowing Nature's Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Borrowing Nature's Polymers 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:January 2015 All Issues submit Borrowing Nature's Polymers Los Alamos scientists are...

  18. The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solvent casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis, Adrian

    The development of nanoscale morphology in polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blends during solventsm00343c The power conversion efficiency in a conjugated polymer-functionalized fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) device is dependent both on the electronic properties

  19. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign}, Tefzel{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign}) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of the guanidine suppressor and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that guanidine (LIX{reg_sign}79) selectively affected Tefzel{reg_sign} (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel{reg_sign} and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of guanidine. Tefzel{reg_sign} is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to guanidine, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel{reg_sign}) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel{reg_sign} in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel{reg_sign} seating material. PEEK, Grafoil{reg_sign} and Isolast{reg_sign} were not affected by guanidine and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied.

  20. Facilitation of polymer looping and giant polymer diffusivity in crowded solutions of active particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, J; Kim, W K; Metzler, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics of polymer chains in a bath of self-propelled particles (SPP) by extensive Langevin dynamics simulations in a two dimensional system. Specifically, we analyse the polymer looping properties versus the SPP activity and investigate how the presence of the active particles alters the chain conformational statistics. We find that SPPs tend to extend flexible polymer chains while they rather compactify stiffer semiflexible polymers, in agreement with previous results. Here we show that larger activities of SPPs yield a higher effective temperature of the bath and thus facilitate looping kinetics of a passive polymer chain. We explicitly compute the looping probability and looping time in a wide range of the model parameters. We also analyse the motion of a monomeric tracer particle and the polymer's centre of mass in the presence of the active particles in terms of the time averaged mean squared displacement, revealing a giant diffusivity enhancement for the polymer chain via SPP pooling. Our...

  1. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin, Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  2. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell; Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia; Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin; Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  3. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  4. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  5. The design and synthesis of electroactive and magnetic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rock, M.M. Jr.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) remains a valuable tool in polymer synthesis because it affords structurally well-defined, functionalized materials with highly unsaturated polymer backbones. The power and flexibility of organic and polymer chemistry are used here to create fully conjugated, electroactive organic polymers. A series of electroactive poly(norbornadienebenzoquinone-imine) and poly(norbornadienebenzoquinone) polymers have been synthesized by the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of functionalized bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes using alkylidene metathesis catalysts. Incorporation of these quinone and imine redox units into organic norbornadiene polymers generates highly reactive and conductive materials capable of charge storage and electrochromism. An improved precursor polymer route is described to polyparaphenylene (PPP) based upon the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) chemistry of cis-di(3,4-dihydroxymethyl)cyclobutene dicarbonate. These precursor polybutenamers undergo a final conversion to insoluble polyparaphenylene (PPP) without destroying or disturbing the existing polymer structure. These polybutenamers are of great interest because they incorporate high degrees of acid, oxygen, and heteroatom functionality into a soluble 1,4-poly(butadiene) structure. Organic magnets offer new insights into the nature of magnetism and lead to the development of materials with unique optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. To test the Topological Coupling Model an organic-based ferromagnetic polymer was designed around the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of 3-diphenylmethylenecyclobutene. Doping, the generation of charged species along the polymer, generates a radical spin (1,2) on every monomer unit in the polymer chain, resulting in a fully conjugated polybutenamer polymer. Oxidative doping of this material evokes ferromagnetic couplings among unpaired spins in the material.

  6. Polymer system for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. The strict-weak lattice polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Corwin; Timo Seppäläinen; Hao Shen

    2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the strict-weak polymer model, and show the KPZ universality of the free energy fluctuation of this model for a certain range of parameters. Our proof relies on the observation that the discrete time geometric q-TASEP model, studied earlier by A. Borodin and I. Corwin, scales to this polymer model in the limit q->1. This allows us to exploit the exact results for geometric q-TASEP to derive a Fredholm determinant formula for the strict-weak polymer, and in turn perform rigorous asymptotic analysis to show KPZ scaling and GUE Tracy-Widom limit for the free energy fluctuations. We also derive moments formulae for the polymer partition function directly by Bethe ansatz, and identify the limit of the free energy using a stationary version of the polymer model.

  8. The strict-weak lattice polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Corwin; Timo Seppäläinen; Hao Shen

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the strict-weak polymer model, and show the KPZ universality of the free energy fluctuation of this model for a certain range of parameters. Our proof relies on the observation that the discrete time geometric q-TASEP model, studied earlier by A. Borodin and I. Corwin, scales to this polymer model in the limit q->1. This allows us to exploit the exact results for geometric q-TASEP to derive a Fredholm determinant formula for the strict-weak polymer, and in turn perform rigorous asymptotic analysis to show KPZ scaling and GUE Tracy-Widom limit for the free energy fluctuations. We also derive moments formulae for the polymer partition function directly by Bethe ansatz, and identify the limit of the free energy using a stationary version of the polymer model.

  9. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harri Mökkönen; Timo Ikonen; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Hannes Jónsson

    2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  10. Polymers in a vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Deutsch

    2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. The time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a characteristic time proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory time correlations.

  11. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En (Carlsbad, CA); Choulis, Stelios (Nuremberg, DE); Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Mathai, Mathew (Monroeville, PA); So, Franky (Gainesville, FL)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  12. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed

  13. Polymer Welding: Strength Through Entanglements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ting Ge; Flint Pierce; Dvora Perahia; Gary S. Grest; Mark O. Robbins

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale simulations of thermal welding of polymers are performed to investigate the rise of mechanical strength at the polymer-polymer interface with the welding time. The welding process is in the core of integrating polymeric elements into devices as well as in thermal induced healing of polymers; processes that require development of interfacial strength equal to that of the bulk. Our simulations show that the interfacial strength saturates at the bulk shear strength much before polymers diffuse by their radius of gyration. Along with the strength increase, the dominant failure mode changes from chain pullout at the interface to chain scission as in the bulk. Formation of sufficient entanglements across the interface, which we track using a Primitive Path Analysis is required to arrest catastrophic chain pullout at the interface. The bulk response is not fully recovered until the density of entanglements at the interface reaches the bulk value. Moreover, the increase of interfacial strength before saturation is proportional to the number of interfacial entanglements between chains from opposite sides.

  14. Electrical conductivity of segregated network polymer nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yeon Seok

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    . The composites made using the emulsion with higher modulus show lower percolation threshold and higher conductivity. Higher modulus causes tighter packing of carbon black between the polymer particles. When the drying temperature was increased to 80°C...

  15. The effect of polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on selected strains of oilfield related bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquhar, G.B. [Texaco E.P.T.D., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of the effect of two polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on certain strains of oil field related bacteria was performed. Since at this stage of the development of planning the proposed North Sea polymer flood field samples of native bacteria populations and fluid samples were not available, the preliminary study was made using pure strains of bacteria associated with the oilfield environment. The tests were run using ideal growth conditions of temperature and culture media. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of proposed polyacrylamide polymer flooding materials on the growth of selected strains of bacteria belonging to families common to the oilfield environment. The effect of 100 ppm of formaldehyde on these organisms also was investigated. The results of the tests showed that these bacteria responded differently to exposure to formaldehyde, polyacrylamide polymers and mixtures of both. These results indicate another possible mechanism for the occurrence of high bacteria related corrosion rates reported to occur on the producing side of polymer floods.

  16. Quantification of the solid-state charge mobility in a model radical polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Rostro, Lizbeth; Boudouris, Bryan W., E-mail: boudouris@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 475 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish that an oft-used radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA), has a solid-state hole mobility value on the order of 10{sup ?4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} in a space charge-limited device geometry. Despite being completely amorphous and lacking any ?-conjugation, these results demonstrate that the hole mobility of PTMA is comparable to many well-studied conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Furthermore, we show that the space charge-limited charge carrier mobility of these macromolecules is only a weak function of temperature, in contrast to many thermally-activated models of charge transport in polymeric materials. This key result demonstrates that the charge transport in radical polymers is inherently different than that in semicrystalline, conjugated polymers. These results establish the mechanism of solid-state charge transport in radical polymers and provide macromolecular design principles for this emerging class of organic electronic materials.

  17. Molecular design of conjugated polymers for the control of conformation, electronics and self-assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouffard, Jean, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, synthesis and characterization of organic electronic materials, in particular luminescent conjugated polymers, with structural motifs that allow for the controlled modulation of their photophysical properties ...

  18. High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,8 consisting of an interpenetrating network of electron donor and acceptor materials. This concept has alsoARTICLES High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends GANG LI1 , VISHAL SHROTRIYA1 , JINSONG HUANG1 , YAN YAO1 , TOM MORIARTY2 , KEITH EMERY2

  19. Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and standards. Previous meetings2 focused largely on either hydrogen compatibility with metals or pipeline1 Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service MEETING PROCEEDINGS Polymer materials in hydrogen applications. The meeting, which was organized by the U.S. Department of Energy

  20. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  1. Friction in (im-)miscible polymer brush systems and the role of transverse polymer-tilting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    Friction in (im-)miscible polymer brush systems and the role of transverse polymer-tilting Sissi de preferred solvent, leading to low friction and low wear rates. Here, we demonstrate, using molecular systems also show smaller friction than miscible systems, although the friction reduction is less than

  2. Diffraction in Time of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum dynamics of a suddenly released beam of particles using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that, in the first order of approximation, the low-energy polymer distribution converges to the standard quantum-mechanical result in a clear fashion, but also arises an additional small polymer correction term. We find that the high-energy polymer behaviour becomes predominant at short distances and short times. Numerical results are also presented. We find that particles whose wave functions satisfy the polymer wave equation do not exhibit the diffraction in time phenomena. The implementation of a lower bound to the possible resolution of times into the time-energy Heisenberg uncertainty relation is briefly discussed.

  3. Stiff Quantum Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kleinert

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the moments and of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  4. Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide- Polyethylenimine- Dextran Sulfate Polymer Gel System as a Water Shut-Off Agent in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayakumar, Swathika 1986-

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ) at low polymer concentrations with a delayed organic crosslinker. This crosslinker is more environmentally benign and provides much longer gelation time and stronger final gels than comparable polymer loadings with chromium carboxylate crosslinkers...

  5. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter (Douglaston, NY); Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  6. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar?L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  7. Approaching disorder-free transport in high mobility conjugated polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Nikolka, Mark; Sadhanala, Aditya; Lemaur, Vincent; Zelazny, Mateusz; Kepa, Michal; Hurhangee, Michael; Kronemeijer, Auke Jisk; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Nasrallah, Iyad; Romanov, Igor; Broch, Katharina; McCulloch, Iain; Emin, David; Olivier, Yoann; Cornil, Jerome; Beljonne, David; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    coefficient measurements in an organic polymer using a microfabricated on-chip architecture. APL Mat. 2, 032102 (2014). [24] Germs, W. C., Guo, K., Janssen, R. A. J., Kemerink, M. , Unusual thermoelectric behavior indicating hopping to bandlike...

  8. Silylene-diethynyl-arylene polymers having liquid crystalline properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Yiwei Ding.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including diethynyl-(substituted)arylene units, and a process for their preparation. These novel polymers possess useful properties including electrical conductivity, liquid crystallinity, and/or photoluminescence. These polymers possess good solubility in organic solvents. A preferred example is produced according to the following reaction scheme. ##STR1## These polymers can be solvent-cast to yield excellent films and can also be pulled into fibers from concentrated solutions. All possess substantial crystallinity as revealed by DSC analysis and observation through a polarizing microscope, and possess liquid crystalline properties.

  9. NAIHC Convention and Trade Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National American Indian Housing Council's (NAIHC) most longstanding Annual Event, the 39th Annual NAIHC Convention and Trade Show is an opportunity to learn about tribal housing, attend...

  10. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  11. Managing Beef Cattle for Show

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in show diets because of its rapid digestion and tendency to cause acido- sis (see the section on health). Oats are excellent for growth and development of steers or heifers. A mixture similar in nutrient content to oats can be formulated with a high...

  12. Friction between Ring Polymer Brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Erbas; J. Paturej

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ring brushes compared to linear brushes also leads to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers of opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation layer between two opposing brushes is on the order monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers take a double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear-brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations is consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent frictional reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems.

  13. Mechanics of amorphous polymers and polymer gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Shawn Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many applications of amorphous polymers require a thermo-mechanically coupled large-deformation elasto-viscoplasticity theory which models the strain rate and temperature dependent response of amorphous polymeric materials ...

  14. Full electronic structure across a polymer heterojunction solar cell Johannes Frisch,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Achim

    ,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PFTBTT) with the performance of these bilayers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs the number of new high-potential polymers for good photovoltaic performance is steadily increasing conversion efficiency of organic polymer-based photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) improved significantly in the past

  15. From amorphous aggregates to polymer bundles: The role of stiffness on structural phases in polymer aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Zierenberg; Wolfhard Janke

    2015-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the aggregation transition of a finite theta-polymer system in dependence on the bending stiffness $\\kappa$ with the help of parallel multicanonical simulations. In order to distinguish amorphous aggregates from polymer bundles we introduce an order parameter, measuring the correlation of the end-to-end vectors. With the help of this order parameter, we construct generic $T$-$\\kappa$ phase diagrams for systems with $2$ and $8$ polymers and discuss the occurring phases from amorphous aggregates to bundle structures. For an intermediate stiffness range we find multiple aggregated phases which change with increasing number of polymers and discuss their nature with the help of microcanonical analyses. We show that the stiffness of semiflexible theta polymers is the distinguishing parameter for the emergent structural motifs.

  16. Polymers incorporating covalently attached organoimido polyoxometalates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maatta, Eric A.; Moore, Aaron R.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    New polyoxometalate compounds and polymers comprising recurring monomers of those compounds are provided. The compounds are formed by replacing at least one oxide of the starting polyoxometalate with an organoimido (NR) group bonded to the polyoxometalate via a triple bond to the nitrogen atom. The R of the (NR) group comprises a reactive functional group which renders the compound readily polymerizable, alone or with other monomers (e.g., divinylbenzene), to form the inventive polymers. Additionally, a countercation (e.g., bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)) can be mixed with the polyoxometalate compounds in order to neutralize the negative charge thereof as well as to make those compounds more soluble in organic solvents.

  17. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell,Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia,Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin,Yuan (Chandler, AZ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  18. Giant Nonmonotonic Stretching Response of a Self-Associating Polymer in Shear Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    Self-associating polymers are ubiquitous in synthetic and biological systems. Here, we use a combination of simulation and theory to show that these polymers exhibit a counterintuitive strong nonmonotonic stretching response ...

  19. Polymer Quantum Mechanics and its Continuum Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi; Tatjana Vukasinac; Jose A. Zapata

    2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A rather non-standard quantum representation of the canonical commutation relations of quantum mechanics systems, known as the polymer representation has gained some attention in recent years, due to its possible relation with Planck scale physics. In particular, this approach has been followed in a symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity known as loop quantum cosmology. Here we explore different aspects of the relation between the ordinary Schroedinger theory and the polymer description. The paper has two parts. In the first one, we derive the polymer quantum mechanics starting from the ordinary Schroedinger theory and show that the polymer description arises as an appropriate limit. In the second part we consider the continuum limit of this theory, namely, the reverse process in which one starts from the discrete theory and tries to recover back the ordinary Schroedinger quantum mechanics. We consider several examples of interest, including the harmonic oscillator, the free particle and a simple cosmological model.

  20. Sequential Processing for Organic Photovoltaics: Design Rules for Morphology Control by Tailored Semi-Orthogonal Solvent Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of polymer:fullerene photovoltaics to near 10%. [ 1,2 ]way in which organic photovoltaics are processed, the activeProcessing for Organic Photovoltaics: Design Rules for

  1. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  2. Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 ISSN 2073-4360

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    #12;Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 polymers ISSN 2073-4360 www.mdpi.com/journal/polymers copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living catalysts; block copolymers; triblock copolymers; star polymers; polymer brushes OPEN ACCESS #12;Polymers

  3. Stiff quantum polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kleinert

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  4. This book describes the responsibilities of show personnel and outlines the job descriptions of various positions for the NH 4-H State Horse Show (or any other 4-H horse show).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    of various positions for the NH 4-H State Horse Show (or any other 4-H horse show). June 2013 #12;Table of Contents Organizing a 4-H Horse Show ........................................................................................... 1 State 4-H Horse Show Philosophy................................................................ 1

  5. Spontaneous helicity of a polymer with side-loops confined to a cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Debasish

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by recent experiments on the spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes, we consider a type of "bottle brush" polymer consisting of a flexible backbone chain, to which flexible side loops are connected. We show that such a model with an open linear backbone spontaneously adopts a helical structure with a well-defined pitch when confined to small cylindrical volume. This helicity persists over a range of sizes and aspect-ratios of the cylinder, provided the packing fraction of the chain is suitably large. We analyze this results in terms of the interplay between the effective stiffness and actual intra-chain packing effects caused by the side-loops in response to the confinement. For the case of a circular backbone, mimicking e.g. the E. coli chromosome, the polymer adopts a linearized configuration of two parallel helices connected at the cylinder poles.

  6. Method of making soluble polyacetylenic and polyaromatic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Los Alamos, NM); Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soluble polyene polymer and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is of the class suitable for doping to produce an electrically conductive polymer. The method is generally applicable to acetylenic and aromatic monomers, proven examples of which include acetylene, benzene, anthracene and napthalene. In accordance with the method, the monomer is dissolved in arsenic trifluoride. Arsenic pentafluoride is then introduced into the solution to induce polymerization by what is speculated to be an ionic polymerization reaction. The resulting polymer differs from other polyene polymers in that it is soluble in common organic solvents, and further in that it can be melted without undergoing decomposition, thereby rendering it particularly suitable for processing to form various polymeric articles.

  7. Examination of the fundamental relation between ionic transport and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Replacing traditional liquid electrolytes by polymers will significantly improve electrical energy storage technologies. Despite significant advantages for applications in electrochemical devices, the use of solid polymer electrolytes is strongly limited by their poor ionic conductivity. The classical theory predicts that the ionic transport is dictated by the segmental motion of the polymer matrix. As a result, the low mobility of polymer segments is often regarded as the limiting factor for development of polymers with sufficiently high ionic conductivity. Here, we show that the ionic conductivity in many polymers can be strongly decoupled from their segmental dynamics, in terms of both temperature dependence and relative transport rate. Based on this principle, we developed several polymers with superionic conductivity. The observed fast ion transport suggests a fundamental difference between the ionic transport mechanisms in polymers and small molecules and provides a new paradigm for design of highly conductive polymer electrolytes.

  8. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Nanofibers: Electrospinning, Structure, and Properties"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Polymer Nanofibers: Electrospinning, Structure, and Properties" Dr. Masaya been widely employed as a technique to produce sub-micron and nanometer scale polymer fibers. The technique utilizes electrical forces induced by a high voltage to draw charged polymer solution jet

  9. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only Chemistry Inside a Polymer Thin Film P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad metal

  10. Polymer ejection from bacteriophages is fully determined by confinement energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piili, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ejection dynamics through a nanoscale pore of a flexible polymer that is initially strongly confined inside a spherical capsid is examined. By extensive simulations using the stochastic rotation dynamics method we show that the time for an individual monomer to eject grows exponentially with the number of ejected monomers under constant initial monomer density. This dependence is a consequence of the excess free energy of the polymer due to confinement growing exponentially with the initial monomer number inside the capsid, which we address to strong monomer-monomer interactions. Consequently, for sufficiently strong initial confinement and long polymers ejection times for polymers of different lengths depend linearly on the length. At polymer lengths amenable to computer simulations the dependence is superlinear due to the finite-size effect related to the retraction of polymer tails at final stages of ejection.

  11. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

  12. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.

  13. MC-CAM Research Topics Organic LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    materials with highly- controlled microstructures Next generation optical storage media Products based applications Novel conjugated polymers and high-conductivity organics Nanostructured materials with unique electronic, magnetic, and optical properties Chemically modified fullerenes and fullerene devices Materials

  14. Path Integrals and Lorentz Violation in Polymer Quantized Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nirmalya Kajuri

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a path integral formulation of polymer quantized scalar field theory, starting from the Hilbert Space framework. This brings the polymer quantized scalar field theory under the ambit of Feynman diagrammatic techniques. The path integral formulation also shows that Lorentz invariance is lost for the Klein-Gordon field.

  15. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  16. Physical Mechanisms of Interaction of Cold Plasma with Polymer Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Chaniel, Gilad

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical mechanisms of the interaction of cold plasmas with organic surfaces are discussed. Trapping of plasma ions by the CH2 groups of polymer surfaces resulting in their electrical charging is treated. Polyethylene surfaces were exposed to the cold radiofrequency air plasma for different intervals of time. The change in the wettability of these surfaces was registered. The experimentally established characteristic time scales of the interaction of cold plasma with polymer surfaces are inversely proportional to the concentration of ions. The phenomenological kinetic model of the electrical charging of polymer surfaces by plasmas is introduced and analyzed.

  17. Silvered polymer reflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schissel, P.; Neidlinger, H.H.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal objectives of the Solar Thermal Research Program is to develop silvered polymer films for constructing durable, low-cost, lightweight concentrating collectors for high temperature solar thermal systems. The mirrors are characterized for their solar-weighted (air mass 1.5) reflectance and exposed to environmental degradation. Photodegradation of polymers has also been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy supplemented with surface analysis characterization. Results are discussed for extruded films, ultraviolet effects, metallization, and the effects of polymer additives. (LEW)

  18. Polymer-Induced Membrane Contraction, Phase Separation, and Fusion via Marangoni Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhl, Tonya L.

    Polymer-Induced Membrane Contraction, Phase Separation, and Fusion via Marangoni Flow S. A. Safran of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 USA ABSTRACT Experiments have shown that the depletion of polymer. In this paper we show theoretically that the addition of nonadsorbing polymer in solution can promote lateral

  19. Flow-induced chain scission as a physical route to narrowly distributed, high molar mass polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Flow-induced chain scission as a physical route to narrowly distributed, high molar mass polymers Abstract We present data showing a substantial narrowing of the polydispersity index (PDI) of high polymers experiments, semi-dilute aqueous solutions of high-molar mass, polydisperse polymers (PDI . 1.4) were injected

  20. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  1. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hickner, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.

  2. Polymer quantization and Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghanashyam Date; Nirmalya Kajuri

    2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer quantization was discovered during the construction of Loop Quantum Cosmology. For the simplest quantum theory of one degree of freedom, the implications for dynamics were studied for the harmonic oscillator as well as some other potentials. For more degrees of freedom, the possibility of continuous, kinematic symmetries arises. While these are realised on the Hilbert space of polymer quantum mechanics, their infinitesimal versions are not supported. For an invariant Hamiltonian, these symmetry realizations imply infinite degeneracy suggesting that the symmetry should be spontaneously or explicitly broken. The estimation of symmetry violations in some cases have been analysed before. Here we explore the alternative of shifting the arena to the distributional states. We discuss both the polymer quantum mechanics case as well as polymer quantized scalar field.

  3. Heavily fluorinated electronic polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jeewoo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building blocks, containing majority fluorine content by weight, for PPEs and PPVs have been synthesized. Some of the monomers were shown to give exclusively fluorous-phase soluble polymers, the syntheses of which were ...

  4. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Electronically Conductive Polymer Nanostructures,” Acc.et al. , “Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for3. Y. Berdichevsky, Y. -H. Lo, “Polymer Microvalve Based on

  5. Polymers in disordered environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; N. Fricke; W. Janke

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief review of our recent studies aiming at a better understanding of the scaling behaviour of polymers in disordered environments is given. The main emphasis is on a simple generic model where the polymers are represented by (interacting) self-avoiding walks and the disordered environment by critical percolation clusters. The scaling behaviour of the number of conformations and their average spatial extent as a function of the number of monomers and the associated critical exponents $\\gamma$ and $\

  6. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100 C.

  7. Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes Mark D. Losego inorganic materials and anharmonic polymers have potentially intriguing thermal transport behavior. The low thermal conductivity of amorphous polymers limits significant interfacial effects to polymer film

  8. Segregation of Polymers in Confined Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya Liu; Bulbul Chakraborty

    2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the motion of two overlapping polymers with self-avoidance confined in a narrow 2d box. A statistical model is constructed using blob free-energy arguments. We find spontaneous segregation under the condition: $L > R_{//}$, and mixing under $L < R_{//}$, where L is the length of the box, and $R_{//}$ the polymer extension in an infinite slit. Segregation time scales are determined by solving a mean first-passage time problem, and by performing Monte Carlo simulations. Predictions of the two methods show good agreement. Our results may elucidate a driving force for chromosomes segregation in bacteria.

  9. Non-Markovian polymer reaction kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Guérin; Olivier Bénichou; Raphaël Voituriez

    2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Describing the kinetics of polymer reactions, such as the formation of loops and hairpins in nucleic acids or polypeptides, is complicated by the structural dynamics of their chains. Although both intramolecular reactions, such as cyclization, and intermolecular reactions have been studied extensively, both experimentally and theoretically, there is to date no exact explicit analytical treatment of transport-limited polymer reaction kinetics, even in the case of the simplest (Rouse) model of monomers connected by linear springs. We introduce a new analytical approach to calculate the mean reaction time of polymer reactions that encompasses the non-Markovian dynamics of monomer motion. This requires that the conformational statistics of the polymer at the very instant of reaction be determined, which provides, as a by-product, new information on the reaction path. We show that the typical reactive conformation of the polymer is more extended than the equilibrium conformation, which leads to reaction times significantly shorter than predicted by the existing classical Markovian theory.

  10. Danish Polymer Centre Annual Report 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danish Polymer Centre Annual Report 2002 #12;2 The Danish Polymer Centre, DTU and Risø Annual.1 Polymer based solar cells (photovoltaics) ................................ 5 2.2 Structuring Plastic ........................................................................ 17 2.7 Biodegradable polymer composites .......................................... 19 2

  11. Electric Field Alignment of Cellulose Based-Polymer Nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalidindi, Sanjay Varma

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose whiskers (CWs) obtained from naturally occuring cellulose are nano-inclusions which show a lot of promise as mechanical reinforcements in polymers. Typically, a relatively high content is added to realize improvement in effective...

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musharova, Darya

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and the phenomena occurred are described. The experiments conducted are considered to be unique for a selected oil sample with certain values of API gravity, viscosity, and chemical composition. Lab experiments conducted show the effect of polymer, alkali...

  13. A Multiscale Study of High Performance Double-Walled Nanotube Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    - tinuous CNT yarns from CVD grown CNT aerogels.1,2,34 The stretching of the low den- sity aerogels of CNTs of randomly oriented bundles of DWNTs thinly coated with polymeric organic compounds. A multiscale in situ performance of yarns and isolated DWNT bundles with and without polymer coatings. DWNT polymer yarns exhibited

  14. Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina Schwendeman,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, David B.

    Electrochromic Polymers for Easily Processed Devices John R. Reynolds,* Avni A. Argun, Irina for electrochromic applications. These polymers exhibit ease of processability and useful mechanical properties (e.g. flexibility). However, the major strength of these organic-based materials is that their electrochromic

  15. STRUCTURE-MECHANICAL PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN A BIOLOGICAL CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITE: NACRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    171 STRUCTURE-MECHANICAL PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN A BIOLOGICAL CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITE: NACRE, a laminated ceramic- polymer biocompositefound in seashell. Four-pointbending strength and three-point bend and ultramicrotomedsections with and without the intactarago- nite platelets. We found that the organic matrix is indeed

  16. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 3-D ALL POLYMER FLEXIBLE SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 3-D ALL POLYMER FLEXIBLE SOLAR CELL _______________ A Thesis and Characterization of 3-D All Polymer Flexible Solar Cell by Krishna Ashwinbhai Desai Master of Science in Mechanical (Polyethylene terephthalate) as a flexible substrate, a potentially wearable organic solar cell is enabled

  17. Continuum Model for the Phase Behavior, Microstructure, and Rheology of Unentangled Polymer Nanocomposite Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiou, Georgios

    integrated them into our lives.3 Polymer matrix nanocomposites (PNCs), in particular, are hybrid organic Nanocomposite Melts Pavlos S. Stephanou,*, Vlasis G. Mavrantzas,,§ and Georgios C. Georgiou Department) bracket. The model describes the polymer nanocomposite melt at a mesoscopic level by using three fields

  18. Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron Microscopy . Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron...

  19. The Polymer Bouncer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martin-Ruiz; A. Frank; L. F. Urrutia

    2015-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Quantization (PQ) is a background independent quantization scheme that is deployed in Loop Quantum Gravity. This framework leads to a new short-distance (discretized) structure characterized by a fundamental length. In this paper we use PQ to analyze the problem of a particle bouncing on a perfectly reflecting surface under the influence of Earth's gravitational field, what we have called "\\textit{The Polymer Bouncer}". In this scenario, deviations from the usual quantum effects are induced by the spatial discreteness, but not by a new short-range gravitational interaction. We solve the polymer Schr\\"odinger equation in an analytical fashion, and we evaluate numerically the corresponding energy levels. We find that the polymer energy spectrum exhibits a negative shift compared to the obtained for the quantum bouncer. The comparison of our results with those obtained in the GRANIT experiment leads to an upper bound for the fundamental length scale, namely $\\lambda \\ll 0.6 \\buildrel _{\\circ} \\over {\\mathrm{A}}$. We find polymer corrections to the probability of transitions between levels, induced by small vibrations, together with the probability of spontaneous emission in the quadrupole approximation.

  20. Energetic Barrier Prevents Recombination in Organic Solar Photoconversion Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL researchers unravel the factors that affect charge generation and loss in high-performance conjugated polymer-fullerene blends used in organic solar cells.

  1. Branched Polymers and Hyperplane Arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Postnikov, Alexander

    We generalize the construction of connected branched polymers and the notion of the volume of the space of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie (Ann Math, 158:1019–1039, 2003), and Kenyon and Winkler ...

  2. Fluctuations of ring polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medalion, Shlomi; Meirovitch, Hagai; Barkai, Eli; Kessler, David A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an exact solution for the distribution of sample averaged monomer to monomer distance of ring polymers. For non-interacting and weakly-interacting models these distributions correspond to the distribution of the area under the reflected Bessel bridge and the Bessel excursion respectively, and are shown to be identical in dimension d greater or equal 2. A symmetry of the problem reveals that dimension d and 4 minus d are equivalent, thus the celebrated Airy distribution describing the areal distribution of the one dimensional Brownian excursion describes also a polymer in three dimensions. For a self-avoiding polymer in dimension d we find numerically that the fluctuations of the scaled averaged distance are nearly identical in dimensions 2 and 3, and are well described to a first approximation by the non-interacting excursion model in dimension 5.

  3. Antithrombogenic Polymer Coating.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhi Heng (San Ramon, CA); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An article having a non-thrombogenic surface and a process for making the article are disclosed. The article is formed by (i) coating a polymeric substrate with a crosslinked chemical combination of a polymer having at least two amino substituted side chains, a crosslinking agent containing at least two crosslinking functional groups which react with amino groups on the polymer, and a linking agent containing a first functional group which reacts with a third functional group of the crosslinking agent, and (ii) contacting the coating on the substrate with an antithrombogenic agent which covalently bonds to a second functional group of the linking agent. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone, the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, the linking agent is a polyhydrazide and the antithrombogenic agent is heparin.

  4. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan (Pleasant Hill, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Bearinger, Jane P. (Livermore, CA); Wilson, Thomas S. (San Leandro, CA); Small, IV, Ward (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Jensen, Wayne A. (Livermore, CA); Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Marion, III, John E. (Livermore, CA); Loge, Jeffrey M. (Stockton, CA)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  5. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer coated sheet metal components find diverse applications in many industries. The manufacturing of the components generally involves forming of sheet metal into the desired shape and coating of the formed part with organic coating...

  6. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

  7. BRANCHED POLYMERS AND HYPERPLANE ARRANGEMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Postnikov, Alexander

    BRANCHED POLYMERS AND HYPERPLANE ARRANGEMENTS KAROLA M´ESZ´AROS ALEXANDER POSTNIKOV Abstract. We of connected branched polymers studied by Brydges and Imbrie [BI], and Kenyon and Winkler [KW] to any hyperplane arrangement A. The volume of the resulting configuration space of connected branched polymers

  8. Decoupling Ionic Conductivity from Structural Relaxation: A Way to Solid Polymer Electrolytes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we studied the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity and structural relaxation in a number of polymers. We demonstrate that temperature dependence of ionic conductivity can be decoupled from structural relaxation in a material specific way. We show that the strength of the decoupling correlates with the steepness of the temperature dependence of structural relaxation in the polymer, i.e., with its fragility. We ascribe the observed result to stronger frustration in chain packing characteristic for more fragile polymers. We speculate that employment of more fragile polymers might lead to design of polymers with higher ionic conductivity.

  9. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and limited uptake of Isopar{reg_sign} L/Modifier by the polymers probably due to the polymers porosity and rough surfaces. Spectroscopic data on the organic liquid and the polymer surfaces showed no preferential adsorption of any component in the NGS to the polymers and with the exception of CPVC, no leachate was observed in the NGS from any of the polymers studied. The testing shows no major concerns for compatibility over the short duration of these tests but does indicate that longer duration exposure studies are warranted, especially for Tefzel. However, the physical changes experienced by Tefzel in the improved solvent were comparable to the physical changes obtained when Tefzel is placed in CSSX baseline solvent. Therefore, there is no effect of the improved solvent beyond those observed in CSSX baseline solvent.

  10. Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to be white viscous liquids composed of an organic solvent, water, surfactants, and a polymer emulsified in an oil 3 external emulsion. Oil external emulsions, although dependent on the ratios of organic solvent to water, are inherently high in viscosity...??????????????????????.? vii LIST OF FIGURES????????????????????????.? x LIST OF TABLES?????????????????????????? xviii 1. INTRODUCTION???????????????????????. 1 1.1 History of Polymer???????????????????... 2 1.2 Mechanism of Viscosity Build-Up?????????????... 3 1...

  11. Porous Materials -Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    ShellsSnow Coral SoilBoneLungs Lemons #12;Artificial Porous Materials Insulation Cake Concrete BreadPorous Materials -Metal-Organic Frameworks 2012 Nanocamp NCMN, UNL Dr. Jian Zhang & Jacob Johnson-organic Frameworks Porous polymer networks #12;Porous Materials in Nature Sandstones Sea Sponge Butterfly Wings Egg

  12. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  13. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  14. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  15. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  16. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  17. Primordial polymer perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeev S. Seahra; Iain A. Brown; Golam Mortuza Hossain; Viqar Husain

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the generation of primordial fluctuations in pure de Sitter inflation where the quantum scalar field dynamics are governed by polymer (not Schrodinger) quantization. This quantization scheme is related to, but distinct from, the structures employed in Loop Quantum Gravity; and it modifies standard results above a polymer energy scale $M_{\\star}$. We recover the scale invariant Harrison Zel'dovich spectrum for modes that have wavelengths bigger than $M_{\\star}^{-1}$ at the start of inflation. The primordial spectrum for modes with initial wavelengths smaller than $M_{\\star}^{-1}$ exhibits oscillations superimposed on the standard result. The amplitude of these oscillations is proportional to the ratio of the inflationary Hubble parameter $H$ to the polymer energy scale. For reasonable choices of $M_{\\star}$, we find that polymer effects are likely unobservable in CMB angular power spectra due to cosmic variance uncertainty, but future probes of baryon acoustic oscillations may be able to directly constrain the ratio $H/M_{\\star}$.

  18. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells Sangmoo Jeong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    ABSTRACT: Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices solar cell. Additionally, about 26% of the module cost comes from the fabrication processes of a SiHybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells Sangmoo Jeong, Erik C. Garnett, Shuang Wang, Zongfu Yu

  19. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  20. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

  1. Adv Polym Sci DOI 10.1007/12_2008_152

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shaw H.

    Polyfluorenes 7.1 Fluorene-Fluorenone Co-oligomers 7.2 Insight into Degradation Processes 8 Summary References 2008 Fluorene-Based Conjugated Oligomers for Organic Photonics and Electronics J. U. Wallace · S. H.3 Synthesis of Fluorene-Based Oligomers with Other Functionalities 2.4 Polymers Containing Flourene Oligomers

  2. The polymer quantization in LQG: massless scalar field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcin Domagala; Michal Dziendzikowski; Jerzy Lewandowski

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The polymer quantization of matter fields is a diffeomorphism invariant framework compatible with Loop Quantum Gravity. Whereas studied by itself, it is not explic- itly used in the known completely quantizable models of matter coupled to LQG. In the current paper we apply the polymer quantization to the model of massless scalar field coupled to LQG. We show that the polymer Hilbert space of the field degrees of freedom times the LQG Hilbert space of the geometry degrees of freedom admit the quantum constraints of GR and accommodate their explicit solutions. In this way the quantization can be completed. That explicit way of solving the quantum constraints suggests interesting new ideas.

  3. Decoupling of Ionic Trasport from Segmental Relaxation in Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present detailed studies of the relationship between ionic conductivity and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes. The analysis shows that the ionic conductivity can be decoupled from segmental dynamics and the strength of the decoupling correlates with the fragility but not with the glass transition temperature. These results call for a revision of the current picture of ionic transport in polymer electrolytes. We relate the observed decoupling phenomenon to frustration in packing of rigid polymers, where the loose local structure is also responsible for the increase in their fragility.

  4. Forced desorption of semiflexible polymers, adsorbed and driven by molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate and characterize a model to describe dynamics of semiflexible polymers in the presence of activity due to motor proteins attached irreversibly to a substrate, and a transverse pulling force acting on one end of the filament. The stochastic binding-unbinding of the motor proteins and their ability to move along the polymer, generates active forces. As the pulling force reaches a threshold value, the polymer eventually desorbs from the substrate. We present a mean field theory that predicts increase in desorption force with polymer bending rigidity, active velocity and processivity of the motor proteins. Performing molecular dynamics simulations of the polymer in presence of a Langevin heat bath, and stochastic motor activity we obtain desorption phase diagrams that show good agreement with theory. With increase in pulling force, the polymer undergoes a first order phase transition from mostly adsorbed to fully desorbed state via a regime of coexistence where the steady state dynamics of the polyme...

  5. Thermal Fluctuations of Anisotropic Semiflexible Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sander L. Poelert; Harrie H. Weinans; Amir A. Zadpoor

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal fluctuations of microtubules (MTs) and other cytoskeletal filaments govern to a great extent the complex rheological properties of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. In recent years, much effort has been put into capturing the dynamics of these fluctuations by means of analytical and numerical models. These attempts have been very successful for, but also remain limited to, isotropic polymers. To correctly interpret experimental work on (strongly) anisotropic semiflexible polymers, there is a need for a numerical modelling tool that accurately captures the dynamics of polymers with anisotropic material properties. In the current study, we present a finite element (FE) framework for simulating the thermal dynamics of a single anisotropic semiflexible polymer. First, we demonstrate the accuracy of our framework by comparison of the simulated mean square displacement (MSD) of the end-to-end distance with analytical predictions based on the worm-like chain model. Then, we implement a transversely isotropic material model, characteristic for biopolymers such as MTs, and study the persistence length for various ratios between the longitudinal shear modulus and corresponding Young's modulus. Finally, we put our findings in context by addressing a recent experimental work on grafted transversely isotropic MTs. In that research, a simplified static mechanical model was used to deduce a very high level of MT anisotropy to explain the observation that the persistence length of grafted MTs increases as contour length increases. We show, by means of our FE framework, that the anisotropic properties cannot account for the reported length-dependent persistence length.

  6. Entangled polymer complex as Higgs phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ki-Seok Kim; Sandipan Dutta; YongSeok Jho

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an effective Maxwell-London equation for entangled polymer complex under the topological constraint, borrowing the theoretical framework from the topological field theory. We find that the transverse current flux of the test polymer chain, surrounded with entangled chains, decays exponentially from its average position with finite penetration depth, which is analogous to the magnetic-field decay in a superconductor (SC). Like as the mass acquirement of photons in SC is the origin of the magnetic-field decay, the polymer earns uncrossible intersections along the chain due to the preserved linking number, which restricts the deviation of the transverse polymer current in the normal direction. Interestingly, this picture is well incorporated with the most successful phenomenological theory of the so called tube model, of which researchers have long pursued its microscopic origin. The correspondence of our equation of motion to the tube model claims that the confining tube potential is a consequence of the topological constraint (linking number). The tube radius is attributed to the decay length, and increasing the retracting force at intersections or increasing the number of intersections (linking number), the tube becomes narrow and tighter. It further shows that the probability of the tube leakage decays exponentially with the decay length of tube radius.

  7. Atlantic Coast Ag Convention & Trade Show

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Education Program Chairman #12;Mel Henninger Specialist in Vegetable Crops Session Organizers Tuesday in Soil Fertility Cucurbits ­ Michelle Infante-Casella, Agricultural Agent, Rutgers Cooperative Ext Fertility & Field Crops ­ William Bamka, Agriculture Agent, Rutgers Cooperative Ext. of Burlington County

  8. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  9. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  10. Polymer Stretching by Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The stretching of a polymer chain by a large-scale chaotic flow is considered. The steady state which emerges as a balance of the turbulent stretching and anharmonic resistance of the chain is quantitatively described, i.e., the dependency on the flow parameters (Lyapunov exponent statistics) and the chain characteristics (the number of beads and the interbead elastic potential) is made explicit. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Polymer Crowding and Shape Distributions in Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Kang Lim; Alan R. Denton

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  12. Superconductivity in Metal-mixed Ion-Implanted Polymer Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Micolich; E. Tavenner; B. J. Powell; A. R. Hamilton; M. T. Curry; R. E. Giedd; P. Meredith

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion-implantation of normally insulating polymers offers an alternative to depositing conjugated organics onto plastic films to make electronic circuits. We used a 50 keV nitrogen ion beam to mix a thin 10 nm Sn/Sb alloy film into the sub-surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and report the low temperature properties of this material. We observed metallic behavior, and the onset of superconductivity below 3 K. There are strong indications that the superconductivity does not result from a residual thin-film of alloy, but instead from a network of alloy grains coupled via a weakly conducting, ion-beam carbonized polymer matrix.

  13. Fabrication of organic and inorganic nanoparticles using electrospray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deotare, Parag Bhaskar

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fabrication process of organic and inorganic nanoparticles and cups by electrospraying blended polymer-sol-gel solutions followed by calcination has been investigated. Because of low viscosity and high surface tension of blended polymersol...

  14. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  15. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  16. Stretched Polymers in Random Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Ioffe; Yvan Velenik

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We survey recent results and open questions on the ballistic phase of stretched polymers in both annealed and quenched random environments.

  17. Polymer rheology simulations at the meso and macroscopic scale Eric Sultan 1,2 , JanWillem van de Meent 1 , Ell ak Somfai 1,3 , Alexander N. Morozov 1,4 and Wim van

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    epl draft Polymer rheology simulations at the meso­ and macroscopic scale Eric Sultan 1,2 , Jan -- Polymers and polymer solutions PACS 46.35.+z -- Viscoelasticity PACS 47.11.­j -- Computational methods in fluid dynamics Abstract. ­ We show that simulations of polymer rheology at a fluctuating mesoscopic

  18. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    to wound healing, diabetes, and for the treatment of cancer. We also prepare polymers for conjugation

  19. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  20. Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers Arvind Kumara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    Photopatterned conjugated polymer electrochromic nanofibers on paper Arvind Kumara , Chris Asemotaa. Electrochromic nanofibers of conducting polymer (terthiophene) have been deposited over a conventional paper in electrochromic characters. SEM images of the conducting polymer nanofibers together with the cellulose fibers

  1. Nitinol-reinforced shape-memory polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Leo, Claudio V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reinforced shape-memory polymers have been developed from an acrylate based thermoset shape-memory polymer and nitinol wires. A rectangular shape-memory polymer measuring approximately 1 by 2 by 0.1 inches has a ten fold ...

  2. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosales, Adrianne

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. B. ; Wagener, K. B. Polymer 2008, 49, 2985-2995. Boz,T. ; Matyjaszewski, K. Polymer 2008, 49, 1567-1578. Kim,Flory, P. J. ; Jackson, J. B. Polymer 1963, 4, (2), 221-236.

  3. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Kunstatter; J. Louko; A. Peltola

    2010-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly-spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schrodinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  4. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari [Department of Physics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Louko, Jorma [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schroedinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  5. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrissopoulou, K. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Fotiadou, S. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, 711 10, Heraklion Crete, Greece and University of Crete, Department of Chemistry, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece); Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M. [CNR-IPCF, Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Frick, B. [ILL-Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane® S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  6. The application of a new polymer mud to horizontal drilling in the Dagang Oilfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, J.; Jiang, G.; Zong, R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new kind of polymer muds, which is generally referred to as the amphionic polymer mud, has been applied to the two horizontal well drilling for the first time in the Dagang Oilfield, located in east China. In this mud system, two amphionic polymers are usually used as the main additives, the one with high molecular weight is an inhibitive encapsuler and filtration control agent, and the other one with low molecular weight is a deflocculant. The amphionic polymer, just as its name, is defined as the polymer that both organic cations and anions simultaneously exist in their molecular chains. The design criteria, formulations and properties of this mud system are discussed. As a case history, the field performance of this new polymer mud in the different sections of the second well (by name Guan H-1, a medium-radius horizontal well) is also given. It was shown from the laboratory and field tests that the amphionic polymer mud not only has all the advantages of the polymer muds commonly used, but is able to overcome the disadvantages of those muds, indicated by its highly inhibitive character while maintaining excellent mud performances. For this reason, the major drilling problems for horizontal wells in the Dagang Oilfield, such as hole cleaning, wellbore stability, lubricity, lost circulation and formation damage, which were hardly solved by the use of other water-based muds, could be solved successfully by the use of the amphionic polymer mud at much lower cost than the oil-based mud.

  7. Photovoltaic devices with low band gap polymers Eva Bundgaarda, Sean Shaheenb, David S. Ginleyb, Frederik C. Krebsa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photovoltaic devices with low band gap polymers Eva Bundgaarda, Sean Shaheenb, David S. Ginleyb, Colorado, USA Abstract Progress in organic photovoltaic devices has recently resulted in reported temperature, active area of the device and molecular weight of the polymer, on the photovoltaic response

  8. DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201000555 Flexible and Redox-Active Coordination Polymer: Control of the Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    *[a] Keywords: Coordination polymers / Flexible networks / Macrocyles / Palladium / Nickel The coordination[3a] as well as in the fourfold interpenetrating dia- mondoid network[11] by the reaction of organicFULL PAPER DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201000555 Flexible and Redox-Active Coordination Polymer: Control

  9. DOE Booth Presentations From Grainger Show 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE hosted its solid-state lighting informational booth February 16–18 at the annual Grainger Show in Orlando, FL. With over 17,000 attendees and over 750 exhibitors, the show gathered a wide range of Grainger customers—from universities to large hotel chains as well as Grainger team members to learn the latest about LED lighting.

  10. Journal Title: Journal of polymer science. Part B, Polymer physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    composites. rigid rod polymer. mo- lecular modeling. poly (azomethine) · epoxy. glass/epoxy composite. Such composites would find * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Journal of Polymer Science: Part B molecular composite. Since heat conduction oc- curs more efficiently intramolecularly (through bonds) than

  11. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  12. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  13. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  14. Using Theory to Model Polymer Properties There are two general themes to this research: (1) polymer degradation that occurs when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the polymer with nanoinclusions of carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets and other structures. Polymer

  15. Diffusivity bounds for 1D Brownian polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Tarrès; Bálint Tóth; Benedek Valkó

    2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a self-interacting one-dimensional Brownian polymer first introduced by Durrett and Rogers [Probab. Theory Related Fields 92 (1992) 337--349]. The polymer describes a stochastic process with a drift which is a certain average of its local time. We show that a smeared out version of the local time function as viewed from the actual position of the process is a Markov process in a suitably chosen function space, and that this process has a Gaussian stationary measure. As a first consequence, this enables us to partially prove a conjecture about the law of large numbers for the end-to-end displacement of the polymer formulated in Durrett and Rogers [Probab. Theory Related Fields 92 (1992) 337--349]. Next we give upper and lower bounds for the variance of the process under the stationary measure, in terms of the qualitative infrared behavior of the interaction function. In particular, we show that in the locally self-repelling case (when the process is essentially pushed by the negative gradient of its own local time) the process is super-diffusive.

  16. Absence of Unruh effect in polymer quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golam Mortuza Hossain; Gopal Sardar

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Unruh effect is a landmark prediction of standard quantum field theory in which Fock vacuum state appears as a thermal state with respect to an uniformly accelerating observer. Given its dependence on trans-Planckian modes, Unruh effect is often considered as an arena for exploring a candidate theory of quantum gravity. Here we show that Unruh effect disappears if, instead of using Fock quantization, one uses polymer quantization or loop quantization, the quantization method used in loop quantum gravity. Secondly, the polymer vacuum state remains a vacuum state even for the accelerating observer in the sense that expectation value of number density operator in it remains zero. Finally, if experimental measurement of Unruh effect is ever possible then it may be used either to verify or rule out a theory of quantum gravity.

  17. Polymer quantization versus the Snyder noncommutative space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Gorji; K. Nozari; B. Vakili

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a noncanonical Hilbert space representation of the polymer quantum mechanics. It is shown that Heisenberg algebra get some modifications in the constructed setup from which a generalized uncertainty principle will naturally come out. Although the extracted physical results are the same as those obtained from the standard canonical representation, the noncanonical representation may be notable in view of its possible connection with the generalized uncertainty theories suggested by string theory. In this regard, by considering an Snyder-deformed Heisenberg algebra we show that since the translation group is not deformed it can be identified with a polymer-modified Heisenberg algebra. In classical level, it is shown the noncanonical Poisson brackets are related to their canonical counterparts by means of a Darboux transformation on the corresponding phase space.

  18. Polymer quantization versus the Snyder noncommutative space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorji, M A; Vakili, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a noncanonical Hilbert space representation of the polymer quantum mechanics. It is shown that Heisenberg algebra get some modifications in the constructed setup from which a generalized uncertainty principle will naturally come out. Although the extracted physical results are the same as those obtained from the standard canonical representation, the noncanonical representation may be notable in view of its possible connection with the generalized uncertainty theories suggested by string theory. In this regard, by considering an Snyder-deformed Heisenberg algebra we show that since the translation group is not deformed it can be identified with a polymer-modified Heisenberg algebra. In classical level, it is shown the noncanonical Poisson brackets are related to their canonical counterparts by means of a Darboux transformation on the corresponding phase space.

  19. Dangerous Bodies: Freak Shows, Expression, and Exploitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fordham, Brigham A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dangerous Bodies: Freak Shows, Expression, and ExploitationR.I. GEN. LAWS § 11-9-1. DANGEROUS BODIES Rhode Island does161 Id. Id. 165 id. 166 Id. DANGEROUS BODIES This argument

  20. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  1. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  2. Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Free Carrier Generation in Fullerene Acceptors and Its Effect on Polymer Photovoltaics George F is this also true for many of the soluble fullerene derivatives commonly used in organic photovoltaics generated by numerous field- dependent techniques. INTRODUCTION In the organic photovoltaic (OPV) community

  3. Soluble polyacetylenic and polyaromatic polymers and method of mking the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Liepins, R.

    1983-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A soluble polyene polymer and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is of the class suitable for doping to produce an electrically conductive polymer. The method is generally applicable to acetylenic and aromatic monomers, proven examples of which include acetylene, benzene, anthracene and napthalene. In accordance with the method, the monomer is dissolved in arsenic trifluoride. Arsenic pentafluoride is then introduced into the solution to induce polymerization by what is speculated to be an ionic polymerization reaction. The resulting polymer differs from other polyene polymers in that it is soluble in common organic solvents, and further in that it can be melted without undergoing decomposition, thereby rendering it particularly suitable for processing to form various polymeric articles.

  4. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo

    2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  5. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Fred D. (Socorro, NM); Hatch, Melvin J. (Socorro, NM); Shepitka, Joel S. (Socorro, NM); Donaruma, Lorraine G. (Syosset, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  6. Polymer solutions: from hard monomers to soft polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -P. Hansen; C. I. Addison; A. A. Louis

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A coarse-graining strategy for dilute and semi-dilute solutions of interacting polymers, and of colloid polymer mixtures is briefly described. Monomer degrees of freedom are traced out to derive an effective, state dependent pair potential between the polymer centres of mass. The cross-over between good and poor solvent conditions is discussed within a scaling analysis. The method is extended to block copolymers represented as "necklaces" of soft "blobs", and its success is illustrated here in the case of a symmetric diblock copolymer which exhibits microphase separation.

  7. Bath Institute for Complex Systems Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    BICS Bath Institute for Complex Systems Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers) http://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Minimal supporting subtrees for the free energy of polymers. We show that, for high temperatures, the free energy is supported by a random tree of positive

  8. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  9. Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Polymer Thermodynamics and Chain Structure Polymers display some similarities and some differences with nano-aggregates. Both materials are composed of basic units, Kuhn units for polymers which are rod an aggregate in nanomaterials and a polymer coil in Polymer Science. The mass-fractal or minimum dimension

  10. Polymer adsorption near the surface of a polymer solution : a universal behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    699 Polymer adsorption near the surface of a polymer solution : a universal behaviour J. des5 , pour 0 03B5 1. Abstract.2014 A universal property of good solutions of long polymers near. Introduction. The free surface of a polymer solution may attract the polymer which forms an adsorbed layer

  11. ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics. Prof. Rama Bansil Class will be assumed. The course will not emphasize synthetic polymer chemistry. Practical applications of polymers of classes TEXT BOOKS Main Text Book: Required: Polymer Chemistry, 2nd Edition, Hiemenz and Lodge, CRC Press

  12. Self-extinguishing Polymer/Organoclay Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Si,M.; Zaitsev, V.; Goldman, M.; Frenkel, A.; Peiffer, D.; Weil, E.; Sokolov, J.; Rafailovich, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrated that self-extinguishing polymer nanocomposites, which can pass the stringent UL 94 V0 standard, can be successfully prepared by combining modified organoclays with traditional flame retardant (FR) agents. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we determined that the addition of modified clays, which can intercalate or exfoliate in the matrix, also improved the dispersion of the FR agents. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the clays increased the modulus of the polymer above T{sub g}, which prevented dripping during burning. Cone calorimetry test showed that the nanocomposites with both FR and organoclay, had a lower peak heat release rate (PHRR) and average mass loss rate (MLR) than those with only clay or the FR agents. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirmed that no FR/clay interactions occurred in the solid phase, and that the synergistic effects were due to gas phase reactions. Since this mechanism is not specific, it opens the possibility of formulating self-extinguishing materials from a large class of polymers.

  13. Entropic pressure in lattice models for polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosi Hammer; Yacov Kantor

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lattice models local pressure on a surface is derived from the change in the free energy of the system due to the exclusion of a certain boundary site, while the total force on the surface can be obtained by a similar exclusion of all surface sites. In these definitions, while the total force on the surface of a lattice system matches the force measured in a continuous system, the local pressure does not. Moreover, in a lattice system, the sum of the local pressures is not equal to the total force as is required in a continuous system. The difference is caused by correlation between occupations of surface sites as well as finite displacement of surface elements used in the definition of the pressures and the force. This problem is particularly acute in the studies of entropic pressure of polymers represented by random or self-avoiding walks on a lattice. We propose a modified expression for the local pressure which satisfies the proper relation between the pressure and the total force, and show that for ideal polymers in the presence of scale-invariant boundaries it produces quantitatively correct values for continuous systems. The required correction to the pressure is non-local, i.e., it depends on long range correlations between contact points of the polymer and the surface.

  14. Lattice polymers with two competing collapse interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Bedini; Aleksander L Owczarek; Thomas Prellberg

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been separate studies of the polymer collapse transition, where the collapse was induced by two different types of attraction. In each case, the configurations of the polymer were given by the same subset of random walks being self-avoiding trails on the square lattice. Numerical evidence shows that when interacting via nearest-neighbour contacts, this transition is different from the collapse transition in square-lattice trails interacting via multiply visited sites. While both transitions are second-order, when interacting via nearest-neighbour contacts, the transition is relatively weak with a convergent specific heat, while when interacting via multiply visited sites, the specific heat diverges strongly. Moreover, an estimation of the crossover exponent for the nearest-neighbour contact interaction provides a value close to that of the canonical polymer collapse model of interacting self-avoiding walks, which also interact via nearest-neighbour contacts. From computer simulations using the flatPERM algorithm, we extend these studies by considering a model of self-avoiding trails on the square lattice containing both types of interaction, and which therefore contains all three of the models discussed above as special cases. We find that the strong multiply-visited site collapse is a singular point in the phase diagram and corresponds to a higher order multi-critical point separating a line of weak second-order transitions from a line of first-order transitions.

  15. Free Energy of Twisted Semiflexible Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supurna Sinha

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role of fluctuations in single molecule measurements of torque-link ($t-lk$) curves. For semiflexible polymers of finite persistence length (i.e. polymers with contour length $L$ comparable to the persistence length $L_P$), the torque versus link curve in the constant torque (isotorque) ensemble is distinct from the one in the constant link (isolink) ensemble. Thus, one encounters the conceptually interesting issue of a ``free energy of transition'' in switching ensembles while making torque-link measurements. We predict the dependence on the semiflexibility parameter $\\beta = L/L_P$ of this extra contribution to the free energy which shows up as an area in the torque-link plane. This can be tested against future torque-link experiments with single biopolymers. We bring out the inequivalence of torque-link curves for a stiff polymer and present explicit analytical expressions for the {\\it distinct} torque-link relations in the two ensembles and the free energy difference in switching ensembles in this context. The predictions of our work can be tested against single molecule experiments on torsionally constrained biopolymers.

  16. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gennett, Thomas (Denver, CO); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Landi, Brian J. (Rochester, NY); Heben, Michael J. (Denver, CO)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  17. Non-strinking siloxane polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-linked polymers formed by ring-opening polymerization of a precursor monomer of the general formula R[CH.sub.2 CH(Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.2, where R is a phenyl group or an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms. A cross-linked polymer is synthesized by mixing the monomer with a co-monomer of the general formula CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O in the presence of an anionic base to form a cross-linked polymer of recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2 [CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.n, where R.sup.2 is hydrogen, phenyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl. If the precursor monomer is a liquid, the polymer can be directly synthesized in the presence of an anionic base to a cross-linked polymer containing recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2. The polymers have approximately less than 1% porosity and are thermally stable at temperatures up to approximately 500.degree. C. The conversion to the cross-linked polymer occurs by ring opening polymerization and results in shrinkage of less than approximately 5% by volume.

  18. Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

  19. Thermodynamics of tubelike flexible polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Vogel; Thomas Neuhaus; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

    2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present the general phase behavior of short tubelike flexible polymers. The geometric thickness constraint is implemented through the concept of the global radius of curvature. We use sophisticated Monte Carlo sampling methods to simulate small bead-stick polymer models with Lennard-Jones interaction among non-bonded monomers. We analyze energetic fluctuations and structural quantities to classify conformational pseudophases. We find that the tube thickness influences the thermodynamic behavior of simple tubelike polymers significantly, i.e., for given temperature, the formation of secondary structures strongly depends on the tube thickness.

  20. 2 Highly efficient inverted rapid-drying blade-coated organic solar cells 3 Jung-Hao Chang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -coated were demonstrated. Optimized self-organization interpenetration networks 26and donor/acceptor domain organic solar cells (OSCs) based 39 on mixture of conjugated polymers and fullerene deriva- 40 tives have

  1. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricio Cumsille; Carlos M. Reyes; Sebastian Ossandon; Camilo Reyes

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of higher-order time derivative theories using the polymer extension of quantum mechanics is studied. First, we focus on the well-known Pais-Uhlenbeck model and by casting the theory into the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators we show that the energy spectrum is composed with positive and negative energy parts. The Schrodinger quantization of the model with creation and annihilations operators leads to a theory with unbounded Hamiltonian that can be interpreted in terms of normal particles and Lee-Wick-like particles responsible for the instability. We investigate whether the fundamental discreetness implicit in the polymer quantization can regularize the effects of the negative energies introduced by the Lee-Wick-like particles which are associated to a high-energy scale. Precisely, we show that the polymer quantization leads to a positive defined Hamiltonian whose stability is improved as the number of Lee-Wick-like particles grows.

  2. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cumsille, Patricio; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of higher-order time derivative theories using the polymer extension of quantum mechanics is studied. First, we focus on the well-known Pais-Uhlenbeck model and by casting the theory into the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators we show that the energy spectrum is composed with positive and negative energy parts. The Schrodinger quantization of the model with creation and annihilations operators leads to a theory with unbounded Hamiltonian that can be interpreted in terms of normal particles and Lee-Wick-like particles responsible for the instability. We investigate whether the fundamental discreetness implicit in the polymer quantization can regularize the effects of the negative energies introduced by the Lee-Wick-like particles which are associated to a high-energy scale. Precisely, we show that the polymer quantization leads to a positive defined Hamiltonian whose stability is improved as the number of Lee-Wick-like particles grows.

  3. Directed polymers in random environment with heavy tails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Auffinger; Oren Louidor

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the model of Directed Polymers in Random Environment in 1+1 dimensions, where the distribution at a site has a tail which decays regularly polynomially with power \\alpha, where \\alpha \\in (0,2). After proper scaling of temperature \\beta^{-1}, we show strong localization of the polymer to a favorable region in the environment where energy and entropy are best balanced. We prove that this region has a weak limit under linear scaling and identify the limiting distribution as an (\\alpha, \\beta)-indexed family of measures on Lipschitz curves lying inside the 45-degrees-rotated square with unit diagonal. In particular, this shows order n transversal fluctuations of the polymer. If, and only if, \\alpha is small enough, we find that there exists a random critical temperature below which, but not above, the effect of the environment is macroscopic. The results carry over to d+1 dimensions for d>1 with minor modifications.

  4. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick (Livermore, CA); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  5. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  6. Evaluation of Radiation Resistance for Organic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    for organic materials used in atomic energy- related facilities J-PARC ITER Si-polymer Forming : fiber : "Radiation Resistivity of Polymeric Materials with Data Tables" (in Japanese) JAERI-Data/Code 2003 of Polymeric Materials with Data Tables" (in Japanese) JAERI-Data/Code 2003-015 C C H H H H n Polyethylene (PE

  7. Characterization of macro-length conducting polymers and the development of a conducting polymer rotary motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bryan D. (Bryan David), 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a subset of materials within the electroactive polymer class that exhibit active mechanical deformations. These deformations induce stresses and strains that allow for conducting polymers to be used ...

  8. Comparison of precursor infiltration into polymer thin films via atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padbury, Richard P.; Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: jsjur@ncsu.edu [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research exploring inorganic materials nucleation behavior on polymers via atomic layer deposition indicates the formation of hybrid organic–inorganic materials that form within the subsurface of the polymer. This has inspired adaptations to the process, such as sequential vapor infiltration, which enhances the diffusion of organometallic precursors into the subsurface of the polymer to promote the formation of a hybrid organic–inorganic coating. This work highlights the fundamental difference in mass uptake behavior between atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ methods. In particular, in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry is used to compare the mass uptake behavior of trimethyl aluminum in poly(butylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6 polymer thin films. The importance of trimethyl aluminum diffusion into the polymer subsurface and the subsequent chemical reactions with polymer functional groups are discussed.

  9. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  10. Continuous production of conducting polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

  11. Constitutive modeling of active polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Therkelsen, Scott V. (Scott Vincent), 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a three-dimensional constitutive model of active polymeric materials, including changes in material volume and properties due to actuation. Active polymers reversibly change shape, volume and/or material ...

  12. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  13. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  14. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  15. Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  16. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  17. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

  18. Exploring Polymer and Liposomal Carriers for Optimized Drug Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Heidi M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1459–1467. Fox, M. E. Dendritic polymers for the delivery ofiii Chapter 1: Introduction to Polymer and Liposome Drugbioavailability. Conclusions Polymers and liposomes can be

  19. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent Developments in Polymer MEMS. Advanced Materials,using thin silicon/polymer bimorph membranes. Sensors andof cantilever arrays reveal polymer film expansion and

  20. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers. Abstract: Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have...

  1. a-1 polymer chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    walk in random Sepplinen, Timo 16 Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Polymer-Metal...

  2. Coordination polymers and building blocks based on ditopic heteroscorpionate ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santillan, Guillermo A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Silver (I) Coordination Polymers formed through hydrogenBlocks for Coordination Polymers” Inorg. Chem. *One of theof Silver(I) Coordination Polymers Formed through Hydrogen

  3. Deformation of Equilibrium Shape of a Vesicle Induced by Injected Flexible Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutaka Oya; Katsuhiko Sato; Toshihiro Kawakatsu

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using field theoretic approach, we study equilibrium shape deformation of a vesicle induced by the presence of enclosed flexible polymers, which is a simple model of drug delivery system or endocytosis. To evaluate the total free energy of this system, it is necessary to calculate the bending elastic energy of the membrane, the conformation entropy of the polymers and their interactions. For this purpose, we combine phase field theory for the membrane and self-consistent field theory for the polymers. Simulations on this coupled model system for axiosymmetric shapes show a shape deformation of the vesicle induced by introducing polymers into it. We examined the dependence of the stability of the vesicle shape on the chain length of the polymers and the packing ratio of the vesicle. We present a simple model calculation that shows the relative stability of the prolate shape compared to the oblate shape.

  4. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  5. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linton, Dias [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Teh, Say-Lee [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donoracceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  6. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  7. Lead Sulphide Nanocrystal: Conducting Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew A. R. Watt; David Blake; Jamie H. Warner; Elizabeth A. Thomsen; Eric L. Tavenner; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop; Paul Meredith

    2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report photovoltaic devices fabricated from PbS nanocrystals and the conducting polymer poly MEH-PPV. This composite material was produced via a new single-pot synthesis which solves many of the issues associated with existing methods. Our devices have white light power conversion efficiencies under AM1.5 illumination of 0.7% and single wavelength conversion efficiencies of 1.1%. Additionally, they exhibit remarkably good ideality factors (n=1.15). Our measurements show that these composites have significant potential as soft optoelectronic materials.

  8. The interaction of various polymers with water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quock, Billy

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacity measurements, we deduce that the degree of crystallinity in the alkylcellulose ethers 1s at most one per cent. Therefore, they can be regarded as amorphous polymers. In add1ti on, the heat capacity data of methylcellulose show a glass transition.... Meyers, and his assistance is kindly acknowledged. The cellulose ethers used in this study were generously provided by Mr. G. K. Greminger of the Dow Chemical Company. Enlighten- ing discussions with Dr. S. R. Kakivaya were also appreciated. I am also...

  9. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  10. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Abstract: We show that molecular organic compounds with large accessible...

  11. Novel Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Thin Films in Supercritical Fluids-Effect of Density Fluctuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga,T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is being used increasingly as a green solvent in polymer processing. The major disadvantage thus far is that only a limited class of polymers, such as fluorinated or silicone-based polymers, can be dissolved in CO2. Here I show that large density fluctuations in scCO2 can significantly enhance the solubility of scCO2 in polymer thin films even when the bulk polymers have very poor miscibility with CO2. By using in situ neutron reflectivity, I found that a wide variety of polymer thin films can swell as much as 30-60% when exposed to scCO2 within a narrow temperature and pressure regime, known as the 'density fluctuation ridge', which defines the maximum density fluctuation amplitude in CO2. Furthermore, the swollen structures induced by the density fluctuation could be frozen by a flash evaporation of CO2 via the vitrification process of the polymer without a formation of void structures. X-ray reflectivity clearly showed that the scCO2 process could be used to produce uniform low-density polymer thin films. I also found that other properties of the vitrified films, such as index of refraction, dielectric constant and glass transition, were correlated with the low-density density profile.

  12. Polymer Parametrised Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan

    2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.

  13. Polymer Effects on Heat Transport in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a laminar Blasius boundary-layer flow above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study the effect of polymer additives on the heat transport. We show that the action of the polymers can be understood as a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value then decreases exponentially back to the zero-shear value as one moves away from the boundary. We find that with such an effective viscosity, both the horizontal and vertical velocities near the plate are decreased thus leading to an increase in the friction drag and a decrease in the heat transport in the flow.

  14. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Silole-Fluorene Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and to stop the well known spectral shift degradation occurring in fluorene based materials. In this paper we1 Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Silole-Fluorene, copolymerization of siloles with fluorene was aimed at improving electron injection into the polymer layer and so

  15. Relaxation in polymer electrolytes on the nanosecond timescale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, G.; Fernandez-Perea, R.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Howells, W. S.; Materials Science Division; Rutherford-Appleton Lab.

    2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The relation between mechanical and electrical relaxation in polymer/lithium-salt complexes is a fascinating and still unresolved problem in condensed-matter physics, yet has an important bearing on the viability of such materials for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. At room temperature, these materials are biphasic: they consist of both fluid amorphous regions and salt-enriched crystalline regions. Ionic conduction is known to occur predominantly in the amorphous fluid regions. Although the conduction mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is widely accepted that lithium ions, coordinated with groups of ether oxygen atoms on single or perhaps double polymer chains, move through re-coordination with other oxygen-bearing groups. The formation and disruption of these coordination bonds must be accompanied by strong relaxation of the local chain structure. Here we probe the relaxation on a nanosecond timescale using quasielastic neutron scattering, and we show that at least two processes are involved: a slow process with a translational character and one or two fast processes with a rotational character. Whereas the former reflects the slowing-down of the translational relaxation commonly observed in polyethylene oxide and other polymer melts, the latter appears to be unique to the polymer electrolytes and has not (to our knowledge) been observed before. A clear picture emerges of the lithium cations forming crosslinks between chain segments and thereby profoundly altering the dynamics of the polymer network.

  16. Criteria for minimal model of driven polymer translocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Suhonen; K. Kaski; R. P. Linna

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While the characteristics of the driven translocation for asymptotically long polymers are well understood, this is not the case for finite-sized polymers, which are relevant for real-world experiments and simulation studies. Most notably, the behavior of the exponent $\\alpha$, which describes the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length, when the driving force $f_p$ in the pore is changed, is under debate. By Langevin dynamics simulations of regular and modified translocation models using the freely-jointed-chain polymer model we find that a previously reported incomplete model, where the {\\it trans} side and fluctuations were excluded, gives rise to characteristics that are in stark contradiction with those of the complete model, for which $\\alpha$ increases with $f_p$. Our results suggest that contribution due to fluctuations is important. We construct a minimal model where dynamics is completely excluded to show that close alignment with a full translocation model can be achieved. Our findings set very stringent requirements for a minimal model that is supposed to describe the driven polymer translocation correctly.

  17. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  18. Violation of KMS condition along Rindler trajectory in polymer quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Golam Mortuza

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existence of Unruh effect is often understood from the property of two-point function along Rindler trajectory where it satisfies KMS condition. In particular, it exhibits the so-called KMS periodicity along imaginary time direction. Corresponding period is then identified with reciprocal of Unruh temperature times Boltzmann constant. We show here that the two-point function including leading order perturbative corrections due to polymer quantization, the quantization method used in loop quantum gravity, violates KMS condition in low-energy regime. This violation is caused by correction terms which are not Lorentz invariants. Consequently, polymer corrected two-point function along Rindler trajectory looses its thermal interpretation. We discuss its implications on existence of Unruh effect in the context of polymer quantization.

  19. Violation of KMS condition along Rindler trajectory in polymer quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golam Mortuza Hossain; Gopal Sardar

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Existence of Unruh effect is often understood from the property of two-point function along Rindler trajectory where it satisfies KMS condition. In particular, it exhibits the so-called KMS periodicity along imaginary time direction. Corresponding period is then identified with reciprocal of Unruh temperature times Boltzmann constant. We show here that the two-point function including leading order perturbative corrections due to polymer quantization, the quantization method used in loop quantum gravity, violates KMS condition in low-energy regime. This violation is caused by correction terms which are not Lorentz invariants. Consequently, polymer corrected two-point function along Rindler trajectory looses its thermal interpretation. We discuss its implications on existence of Unruh effect in the context of polymer quantization.

  20. Renormalized field theory of collapsing directed randomly branched polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Karl Janssen; Frank Wevelsiep; Olaf Stenull

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a dynamical field theory for directed randomly branched polymers and in particular their collapse transition. We develop a phenomenological model in the form of a stochastic response functional that allows us to address several interesting problems such as the scaling behavior of the swollen phase and the collapse transition. For the swollen phase, we find that by choosing model parameters appropriately, our stochastic functional reduces to the one describing the relaxation dynamics near the Yang-Lee singularity edge. This corroborates that the scaling behavior of swollen branched polymers is governed by the Yang-Lee universality class as has been known for a long time. The main focus of our paper lies on the collapse transition of directed branched polymers. We show to arbitrary order in renormalized perturbation theory with $\\varepsilon$-expansion that this transition belongs to the same universality class as directed percolation.

  1. Heat transport by laminar boundary layer flow with polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Benzi; Emily S. C. Ching.; Vivien W. S. Chu

    2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we consider a steady-state Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer flow with polymers above a slightly heated horizontal plate and study how the heat transport might be affected by the polymers. We discuss how a set of equations can be derived for the problem and how these equations can be solved numerically by an iterative scheme. By carrying out such a scheme, we find that the effect of the polymers is equivalent to producing a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value at the plate then decreases rapidly back to the zero-shear value far from the plate. We further show that such an effective viscosity leads to an enhancement in the drag, which in turn leads to a reduction in heat transport.

  2. Using Polymer to Maximize CO2 Flooding Performance in Light Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weirong

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    are built to study the performance of PAG. Polymer adsorption and concentration, reservoir permeability, permeability variation and fluid viscosity are studied. Results show that PAG process could get higher recovery than WAG if not injectivity problem...

  3. Effects of electrode compression on the performance of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Campo, Christopher Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of electrode compression on the performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) were investigated. Preliminary testing showed that considerable compression of the carbon cloth electrodes was provided by the PEFC structure. Further...

  4. aligned organic polymer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    significant signal for nonrandom angles on any scale leq 100h-1Mpc. However, refining the null hypothesis with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, we found a high confidence...

  5. Materials from Renewable Resources Most synthetic organic materials and polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    initiative of the faculties of chemistry and pharmacy, physics, biology, didactics and the Straubing Center complete the activities o To support the resear didactics and the Straubing Center of Science

  6. Special Topics in Organic Chemistry Biorenewable Polymers 8833

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    Biorefinery b. Pretreatment Chemistry Lignocellulosics c. SSF/CBP Conversion of Biomass to BioEthanol d. Third

  7. Stability and flocculation of nanosilica by conventional organic polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , solar panels, sports equipment, cleaning products and dietary supplements. It is by far the most vastly concentrations of different coagulants and flocculants used were determined by electrophoresis and turbidity potential route to treat other types of NPs. The treatment proposed to reach a ratio of average diameters d

  8. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were recorded in a Keithly 236 SMU. Absorption spectra werewith a Keithley 236 SMU. Eight devices were averaged forwith a Keithley 236 SMU. Eight devices were averaged for

  9. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variable on photovoltaic performance have been pursued. 11-their photovoltaic device performance. In addition, we showoptimized photovoltaic device performance of three PDPP2FT

  10. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degradation by molecular oxygen and also creates a larger potential between the separated holes and electrons formed during the photovoltaic

  11. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic Cell .the materials, all photovoltaic cells operate on the basicEquation 1.2) For photovoltaic cells of all kinds and from

  12. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    separation and low short-circuit current densities. 9-12is called the short-circuit current (J sc ) and representsvoltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), and

  13. Structure-Function Relationships in Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavulak, David Fredric Joel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bias is termed the short circuit current density (J sc ) andphotocurrent, the short circuit current density in the Pt-a reduction in the short circuit current (Jsc). Figure 3.3 (

  14. Ammonia Capture in Porous Organic Polymers Densely Functionalized with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologiesVehicle Parts andat a Glanceturbines

  15. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  16. Synthesis of oligo phenylene vinylenes for organic photovoltaic cells Mikkel Jrgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of oligo phenylene vinylenes for organic photovoltaic cells Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik structure activity relationships with photovoltaic cell behavior and efficiency. Both devices C. Krebs Polymer Solar Cell Initiative, The Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory, PO Box

  17. Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Non-bulk Polymer Interphases in Nanotube-reinforced Polymers polymer composite materials with outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. A hurdle to nanoscale interactions between the embedded NTs and adjacent polymer chains. This interphase region

  18. ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    ENG BE/ME/MS 504: Polymers and Soft Materials GRS PY 744: Polymer Physics. Prof. Rama Bansil Class: Blackboard.bu.edu ME/MS/BE 504 PY 744 A1 POLYMERS AND SOFT MATERIALS (FALL 2012) (12FALLENGME504_A1) E with thermodynamics and statistical mechanics will be assumed. Practical applications of polymers will be discussed

  19. Some Rigorous Results on Semiflexible Polymers I. Free and confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velenik, Yvan

    Some Rigorous Results on Semiflexible Polymers I. Free and confined polymers O. Hryniva , Y 4, Switzerland Abstract We introduce a class of models of semiflexible polymers. The latter, called the persistence length, being of the same order as the polymer length. We determine

  20. Polymers: Molecular Structure [A polymer is a very large molecule comprising hundreds or thousands of atoms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    1 Polymers: Molecular Structure [A polymer is a very large molecule comprising hundreds into chain or network structures|The concept of the polymer is one of the great ideas of twentieth century with the name of Hermann Staudinger who received the Nobel Prize in 1953. The influence of the polymer (or

  1. Confining multiple polymers between sticky walls: a directed walk model of two polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rechnitzer, Andrew

    Confining multiple polymers between sticky walls: a directed walk model of two polymers Thomas Wong 30, 2014 Abstract We study a model of two polymers confined to a slit with sticky walls. More on the square lattice. We compare the infinite slit limit, in which the length of the polymer (thermodynamic

  2. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  3. Modeling and Optimization of Interpenetrating Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Modeling and Optimization of Interpenetrating Polymer Network Process Weijie Lin, Lorenz T. Biegler. Crosslinking Features Complex diffusion; single component reaction Complex composite networking reaction · Initiator feeding rate · Initial polymer · Monomer concentration · Initiator concentration · Holding

  4. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  5. Transports of Polymer Nanomedicine in the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing production and commercial use of polymer nanomedicine and a lack of regulation to govern their disposal, polymer nanomedicine may enter into soils and ultimately into ground water system. In this dissertation, adsorption of polymeric...

  6. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P. (Los Alamos, NM); Apen, Paul G. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  7. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P. (Los Alamos, NM); Apen, Paul G. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  8. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  9. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  10. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  11. Adsorption of polymers at nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Vogel; Michael Bachmann

    2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-energy structures of a hybrid system consisting of a polymer and an attractive nanowire substrate as well as the thermodynamics of the adsorption transition are studied by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations. Depending on structural and energetic properties of the substrate, we find different adsorbed polymer conformations, amongst which are spherical droplets attached to the wire and monolayer tubes surrounding it. We identify adsorption temperatures and the type of the transition between adsorbed and desorbed structures depending on the substrate attraction strength.

  12. A Unifying Framework to Quantify the Effects of Substrate Interactions, Stiffness, and Roughness on the Dynamics of Thin Supported Polymer Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Z. Hanakata; Beatriz A. Pazmiño Betancourt; Jack F. Douglas; Francis W. Starr

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in the dynamics of supported polymer films in comparison to bulk materials involve a complex convolution of effects, such as substrate interactions, roughness and compliance, in addition to film thickness. We consider molecular dynamics simulations of substrate-supported, coarse-grained polymer films where these parameters are tuned separately to determine how each of these variables influence the molecular dynamics of thin polymer films. We find that all these variables significantly influence the film dynamics, leading to a seemingly intractable degree of complexity in describing these changes. However, by considering how these constraining variables influence string-like collective motion within the film, we show that all our observations can be understood in a unified and quantitative way. More specifically, the string model for glass-forming liquids implies that the changes in the structural relaxation of these films are governed by the changes in the average length of string-like cooperative motions and this model is confirmed under all conditions considered in our simulations. Ultimately, these changes are parameterized in terms of just the activation enthalpy and entropy for molecular organization, which have predictable dependences on substrate properties and film thickness, offering a promising approach for the rational design of film properties.

  13. Modeling and Optimization for Interpenetrating polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Modeling and Optimization for Interpenetrating polymer network process 1 Weijie Lin, Lorenz T #12;Project Overview · IPN Interpenetrating polymer network ­ A combination of two polymers in a network form Fig. 2 An IPN process example · Typical Sequential Type of Process Fig. 1 IPN network

  14. Novel polyoxazolines polymer drug delivery platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    performed with 4 different polymers in multi- drug resistant (MCF7/ADR) human adenocarcinoma cells, non-resistant (MCF7) human adenocarcinoma cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All polymers were found lines. 2. To investigate the effect of the addition of drugs to the polymers on cell toxicity, micelles

  15. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  16. Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun polymer cantilevers. Atomic force microscopy has been used to characterize the mechanical properties orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk polymer.6 If correct

  17. Nordic Polymer Days 2006 Copenhagen, Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Nordic Polymer Days 2006 Copenhagen, Denmark Polyacrylamide nanosensor embedded Scharff-Poulsen, c Hong Gu, d Wolf B. Fromme, b Iver Jakobsen, a Kristoffer Almdal a The Danish Polymer-linked polymer in nanometer scale, have several advantages over direct loading of cells with fluorescent probes

  18. Polymers in a Vacuum J. M. Deutsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Josh

    Polymers in a Vacuum J. M. Deutsch Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum The properties of polymer chains have been investigated extensively over the past 50 years [1], but the vast

  19. North Dakota State University Postoc Biobased Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    North Dakota State University Postoc ­ Biobased Polymers A postdoctoral position is available in the area of synthesis and characterization of novel biobased thermosetting polymer systems for coatings will include the synthesis of monomers and polymers, preparation of coatings, thermosets, etc., preparation

  20. Selfattractive random polymers Remco van der Hofstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klenke, Achim

    Self­attractive random polymers Remco van der Hofstad Stieltjes Institute of Mathematics Delft polymer of finite length in Zd . Its law is that of a finite simple random walk path in Zd receiving that for > the attraction dominates the repulsion, i.e., with high probability the polymer is contained in a finite box

  1. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  2. Performance limits of plasmon-enhanced organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Salvador, Michael [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yao, Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a combination of experiment and modeling to explore the promise and limitations of using plasmon-resonant metal nanoparticles to enhance the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We focus on optical properties typical of the current generation of low-bandgap donor polymers blended with the fullerene (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) and use the polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phenanthro[9,10-b]quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ) as our test case. We model the optical properties and performance of these devices both in the presence and absence of a variety of colloidal silver nanoparticles. We show that for these materials, device performance is sensitive to the relative z-position and the density of nanoparticles inside the active layer. Using conservative estimates of the internal quantum efficiency for the PIDT-PhanQ/PC{sub 71}BM blend, we calculate that optimally placed silver nanoparticles could yield an enhancement in short-circuit current density of over 31% when used with???80-nm-thick active layers, resulting in an absolute increase in power conversion efficiency of up to ?2% for the device based on optical engineering.

  3. Pinning of polymers and interfaces by random potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenneth S. Alexander; Vladas Sidoravicius

    2006-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a polymer, with monomer locations modeled by the trajectory of a Markov chain, in the presence of a potential that interacts with the polymer when it visits a particular site 0. Disorder is introduced by, for example, having the interaction vary from one monomer to another, as a constant $u$ plus i.i.d. mean-0 randomness. There is a critical value of $u$ above which the polymer is pinned, placing a positive fraction of its monomers at 0 with high probability. This critical point may differ for the quenched, annealed and deterministic cases. We show that self-averaging occurs, meaning that the quenched free energy and critical point are nonrandom, off a null set. We evaluate the critical point for a deterministic interaction ($u$ without added randomness) and establish our main result that the critical point in the quenched case is strictly smaller. We show that, for every fixed $u\\in\\mathbb{R}$, pinning occurs at sufficiently low temperatures. If the excursion length distribution has polynomial tails and the interaction does not have a finite exponential moment, then pinning occurs for all $u\\in\\mathbb{R}$ at arbitrary temperature. Our results apply to other mathematically similar situations as well, such as a directed polymer that interacts with a random potential located in a one-dimensional defect, or an interface in two dimensions interacting with a random potential along a wall.

  4. Influence of confinement on polymer-electrolyte relaxational dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Smith, L. J.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Lab. Leon Brillouin (CEA-CRNS); Clark Univ.; CRMHT (CNRS); CRMD (CNRS)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conception and industrial production of viable high specific energy/power batteries is a central issue for the development of non-polluting vehicles. In terms of stored energy and safety, solid-state devices using polymer electrolytes are highly desirable. One of the most studied systems is PEO (polyethylene oxide) complexed by Li salts. Polymer segmental motions and ionic conductivity are closely related. Bulk PEO is actually a biphasic system where an amorphous and a crystalline state (Tm 335 K) coexist. To improve ionic conduction in those systems requires a significant increase of the amorphous phase fraction where lithium conduction is known to mainly take place. Confinement strongly affects properties of condensed matter and in particular the collective phenomena inducing crystallization. Confinement of the polymer matrix is therefore a possible alternative route to the unpractical use of high temperature. Results of a quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering study of the influence of confinement on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and (PEO)8Li+[(CF3SO2)2N]- (or (POE)8LiTFSI) dynamics are presented. The nano-confining media is Vycor, a silica based hydrophilic porous glass (characteristic size of the 3D pore network 50 {angstrom}). As expected, the presence of Li salt slows down the bulk polymer dynamics. The confinement also affects dramatically the apparent mean-square displacement of the polymer. Local relaxational PEO dynamics is described KWW model. We also present an alternate model and show how the detailed polymer dynamics (correlation times and local geometry of the motions) can be described without the use of such stretched exponentials so as to access a rheology-related meaningful physical quantity: the monomeric friction coefficient.

  5. Laboratory Thin-Film Encapsulation of Air-Sensitive Organic Semiconductor Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subbarao, Samuel P.

    We present an approach, which is compatible with both glass and polymer substrates, to in-laboratory handling and intra-laboratory shipping of air-sensitive organic semiconductors. Encapsulation approaches are presented ...

  6. Panoramic view of electrochemical pseudocapacitor and organic solar cell research in molecularly engineered energy materials (MEEM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. The State of Organic Solar Cells?A Meta Analysis. Sol.Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2009,Bulk- Heterojunction Solar Cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011,

  7. Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Sung Gap

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

  8. Electronically conductive polymer composites and microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, L.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites of electronically conductive polymers with insulating host materials are investigated. A template synthesis method was developed for the production of electronically conductive polymer microstructures. In template synthesis the pores of a porous host membrane act as templates for the polymerization of a conductive polymer. The template synthetic method can be used to form either solid microfibrils or hollow microtubules. The electrochemical properties of conductive polymers produced via the template synthesis method are superior to those of conventionally synthesized conductive polymers. Electronically conductive polymers are used to impart conductivity to non-conductive materials. Two different approaches are used. First, thin film composites of conductive polymers with fluoropolymers are made by the polymerization of conductive polymers onto fluoropolymer films. Modification of the fluoropolymer surface prior to conductive polymer polymerization is necessary to obtain good adhesion between the two materials. The difference in adhesion of the conductive polymer to the modified and unmodified fluoropolymer surfaces can be used to pattern the conductive polymer coating. Patterning of the conductive polymer coating can alternatively be done via UV laser ablation of the conductive polymer. The second method by which conductive polymers were used to impart conductivity to an insulating polymer was via the formation of a graft copolymer. In this approach, heterocyclic monomers grafted to an insulating polyphosphazene backbone were polymerized to yield semiconductive materials. Finally the measurement of electrolyte concentration in polypyrrole and the effects of hydroxide anion on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polypyrrole are described. It is shown that treatment of polypyrrole with hydroxide anion increases the potential window over which polypyrrole is a good electronic conductor.

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3026 Tailoring organic heterojunction interfaces in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    the performance of organic photovoltaic devices. T he interfacial properties of organic semiconducting materials interfaces in bilayer polymer photovoltaic devices Akira Tada1 , Yanfang Geng1,2 , Qingshuo Wei3 , Kazuhito moment. Using this method, we fabricated bilayer organic photovoltaic devices with interfacial dipole

  10. Hierarchic Theory of Complex Systems (biosystems, colloids): self-organization & osmos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Kaivarainen

    2000-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Protein domain mesoscopic organization 2. Quantum background of lipid domain organization in biomembranes 3. Hierarchic approach to theory of solutions and colloid systems 4. Distant solvent-mediated interaction between macromolecules 5. Spatial self-organization in the water-macromolecular systems 6. Properties of [bisolvent - polymer system] 7. Osmosis and solvent activity. Traditional and mesoscopic approach

  11. Luminescent organosilicon polymers and sol-gel synthesis of nano-structured silica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, H. Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoluminescent   Polymers   Containing   Metalloles.  Metallole-­? Containing  Polymers.   Journal  of  Forensic  S.   J. ;   Trogler,   W.   C. ,   Polymer   sensors   for  

  12. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  13. Stretching of polymers in a turbulent environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Eckhardt; Jochen Kronjaeger; Joerg Schumacher

    2002-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of polymers with small-scale velocity gradients can trigger a coil-stretch transition in the polymers. We analyze this transition within a direct numerical simulation of shear turbulence with an Oldroyd-B model for the polymer. In the coiled state the lengths of polymers are distributed algebraically with an exponent alpha=2 gamma-1/De, where gamma is a characteristic stretching rate of the flow and De the Deborah number. In the stretched state we demonstrate that the length distribution of the polymers is limited by the feedback to the flow.

  14. Enhanced photophysics of conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai (Darien, IL)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate fluorescent conjugated polymer surfactant complex and method of making and using same. The particles are between about 15 and about 50 nm and when formed from a lipsome surfactant have a charge density similar to DNA and are strongly absorbed by cancer cells.

  15. Polymer representations and geometric quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel Campiglia

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer representations of the Weyl algebra of linear systems provide the simplest analogues of the representation used in loop quantum gravity. The construction of these representations is algebraic, based on the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Is it possible to understand these representations from a Geometric Quantization point of view? We address this question for the case of a two dimensional phase space.

  16. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  17. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  18. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  19. Chemical reduction of a diimide based porous polymer for selective uptake of carbon dioxide versus methanew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A diimide based porous organic polymer (POP) post-synthetically reduced with lithium metal demonstrates).12 This amorphous material was shown to be permanently porous and robust, maintaining these properties even when a local-dipole­quadrupole interaction with guest CO2; no such interaction is expected with CH4 guests.12

  20. Rapid synthesis of polymer-silica hybrid nanofibers by biomimetic mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rapid synthesis of polymer-silica hybrid nanofibers by biomimetic mineralization Pritesh A. Patel. Such a simple route to rapid formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanofibers could have applications ranging from catalysis to tissue engineering, and nanocomposites in general. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Aromatic carboxylate effect on dimensionality of three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ju-Wen; Gong, Chun-Hua; Hou, Li-Li; Tian, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Li, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.cn

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers [Co(4-bbc){sub 2}(bbbm)] (1), [Co(3,5-pdc)(bbbm)]·2H{sub 2}O (2) and [Co(1,4-ndc)(bbbm)] (3) (4-Hbbc=4-bromobenzoic acid, 3,5-H{sub 2}pdc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and bbbm=1,1-(1,4-butanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 is a 1D chain formed by the bbbm ligands and Co{sup II} ions. Polymer 2 exhibits a 2D network with a (3·4·5)(3{sup 2}·4·5·6{sup 2}·7{sup 4}) topology. Polymer 3 possesses a 3D three-fold interpenetrating framework. The versatile structures of title polymers indicate that the aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of 1–3. Moreover, the thermal stability, electrochemical and luminescent properties of 1–3 were investigated. - graphical abstract: Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The aromatic carboxylates play a key role in the dimensionality of three polymers. The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were obtained. • The aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of three polymers. • The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated.

  2. Ribbon polymers in poor solvents: layering transitions in annular and tubular condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Y. Suzuki; D. R. M. Williams

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the structures of a ribbon or ladder polymer immersed in poor solvents. The anisotropic bending rigidity coupled with the surface tension leads ribbon polymers to spontaneous formation of highly anisotropic condensates in poor solvents. Unlike ordinary flexible polymers these condensates undergo a number of distinct layering transitions as a function of chain length or solvent quality, and the size of condensates becomes non-monotonic function of chain length. We show that the fluctuations of the condensates are in general small and these condensates are stable.

  3. A Simple Model for the Deformation-Induced Relaxation of Glassy Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Fielding; R. G. Larson; M. E. Cates

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Glassy polymers show strain hardening: at constant extensional load, their flow first accelerates, then arrests. Recent experiments have found this to be accompanied by a striking and unexplained dip in the segmental relaxation time. Here we explain such behavior by combining a minimal model of flow-induced liquefaction of a glass, with a description of the stress carried by strained polymers, creating a non-factorable interplay between aging and strain-induced rejuvenation. Under constant load, liquefaction of segmental motion permits strong flow that creates polymer-borne stress. This slows the deformation enough for the segmental modes to re-vitrify, causing strain hardening.

  4. Turbulent Drag Reduction by Flexible and Rodlike Polymers: Crossover Effects at Small Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily S. C. Ching; T. S. Lo; Itamar Procaccia

    2006-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Drag reduction by polymers is bounded between two universal asymptotes, the von-K\\'arm\\'an log-law of the law and the Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR) asymptote. It is theoretically understood why the MDR asymptote is universal, independent of whether the polymers are flexible or rodlike. The cross-over behavior from the Newtonian von-K\\'arm\\'an log-law to the MDR is however not universal, showing different characteristics for flexible and rodlike polymers. In this paper we provide a theory for this cross-over phenomenology.

  5. Crowding of Polymer Coils and Demixing in Nanoparticle-Polymer Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Lu; Alan R. Denton

    2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij (AOV) model of colloid-polymer mixtures idealizes nonadsorbing polymers as effective spheres that are fixed in size and impenetrable to hard particles. Real polymer coils, however, are intrinsically polydisperse in size (radius of gyration) and may be penetrated by smaller particles. Crowding by nanoparticles can affect the size distribution of polymer coils, thereby modifying effective depletion interactions and thermodynamic stability. To analyse the influence of crowding on polymer conformations and demixing phase behaviour, we adapt the AOV model to mixtures of nanoparticles and ideal, penetrable polymer coils that can vary in size. We perform Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, including trial nanoparticle-polymer overlaps and variations in radius of gyration. Results are compared with predictions of free-volume theory. Simulation and theory consistently predict that ideal polymers are compressed by nanoparticles and that compressibility and penetrability stabilise nanoparticle-polymer mixtures.

  6. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  7. Leadership, Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Leadership, Policy & Organizations #12;2 At Peabody students have the opportunity to develop new College, in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations (LPO). The faculty believes Patricia and Rodes Hart Chair, and Professor of Education Policy and Leadership, Ellen Goldring also serves

  8. When does TMAO fold a polymer chain and urea unfold it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Jagannath; Berne, B J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Longstanding mechanistic questions about the role of protecting osmolyte trimethylamine N- oxide (TMAO) which favors protein folding and the denaturing osmolyte urea are addressed by studying their effects on the folding of uncharged polymer chains. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we show that 1-M TMAO and 7-M urea solutions act dramatically differently on these model polymer chains. Their behaviors are sensitive to the strength of the attractive dispersion interactions of the chain with its environment: when these dispersion interactions are high enough, TMAO suppresses the formation of extended conformations of the hydrophobic polymer as compared to water, while urea promotes formation of extended conformations. Similar trends are observed experimentally on real protein systems. Quite surprisingly, we find that both protecting and denaturing osmolytes strongly interact with the polymer, seemingly in contrast with existing explanations of the osmolyte effect on proteins. We show that what rea...

  9. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

  10. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  11. Electrochromic device with a polymer ionic conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y.; Gu, P.; Tang, J. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Optical Engineering

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochromic material is one which can undergo a reversible color change on the exertion of an external electric field. This can be used for large-area glazings of future buildings, automobiles, aircrafts, etc. Transmittance control of the smart windows can be useful to reduce lighting, heating and cooling energy loads. The optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films deposited by e-beam evaporation were investigated. A laminated structure device was prepared. The as-deposited tungsten oxide film was used as the electrochromic film. A solid polymer electrolyte PPG-PMMA-LiClO{sub 4} was used as an ionic conductor. Spectrophotometric measurements show that the luminous transmittance of the device can be modulated between about 60% and 15%.

  12. Water-thinnable polymers for durable coatings for different materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jankowski@ichp.pl; Kijowska, Dorota, E-mail: piotr.jankowski@ichp.pl [Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Department of Polyesters, Epoxides and Polyurethanes, 8 Rydygiera Str., 01-793 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of obtaining water-thinnable polymers - water-thinnable unsaturated polyester resins (WTUPR) - by polycondensation were elaborate and optimized. As hydrophilic monomers different types of sulfonate monomers were used. The monomers, with sulfonate groups and other reactive groups, were obtained by sulfonation of organic compounds with satisfactory yield. All products were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. WTUPR were used as polymeric binders for coatings applications. Coatings with relatively high pendulum hardness, good properties and durability, useful for practical applications, were obtained. Typical existing equipment for the production of unsaturated polyester resins can be applied for the industrial preparation of WTUPR.

  13. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic

  14. Lattice Monte Carlo Simulations of Polymer Melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao-Ping Hsu

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study polymer melts consisting of fully flexible and moderately stiff chains in the bond fluctuation model at a volume fraction $0.5$. In order to reduce the local density fluctuations, we test a pre-packing process for the preparation of the initial configurations of the polymer melts, before the excluded volume interaction is switched on completely. This process leads to a significantly faster decrease of the number of overlapping monomers on the lattice. This is useful for simulating very large systems, where the statistical properties of the model with a marginally incomplete elimination of excluded volume violations are the same as those of the model with strictly excluded volume. We find that the internal mean square end-to-end distance for moderately stiff chains in a melt can be very well described by a freely rotating chain model with a precise estimate of the bond-bond orientational correlation between two successive bond vectors in equilibrium. The plot of the probability distributions of the reduced end-to-end distance of chains of different stiffness also shows that the data collapse is excellent and described very well by the Gaussian distribution for ideal chains. However, while our results confirm the systematic deviations between Gaussian statistics for the chain structure factor $S_c(q)$ [minimum in the Kratky-plot] found by Wittmer et al.~\\{EPL {\\bf 77} 56003 (2007).\\} for fully flexible chains in a melt, we show that for the available chain length these deviations are no longer visible, when the chain stiffness is included. The mean square bond length and the compressibility estimated from collective structure factors depend slightly on the stiffness of the chains.

  15. Forced desorption of semiflexible polymers, adsorbed and driven by molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri; Debasish Chaudhuri

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate and characterize a model to describe dynamics of semiflexible polymers in the presence of activity due to motor proteins attached irreversibly to a substrate, and a transverse pulling force acting on one end of the filament. The stochastic binding-unbinding of the motor proteins and their ability to move along the polymer, generates active forces. As the pulling force reaches a threshold value, the polymer eventually desorbs from the substrate. We present a mean field theory that predicts increase in desorption force with polymer bending rigidity, active velocity and processivity of the motor proteins. Performing molecular dynamics simulations of the polymer in presence of a Langevin heat bath, and stochastic motor activity we obtain desorption phase diagrams that show good agreement with theory. With increase in pulling force, the polymer undergoes a first order phase transition from mostly adsorbed to fully desorbed state via a regime of coexistence where the steady state dynamics of the polymer switches between large fraction of adsorbed and desorbed lengths.

  16. Model-based experimental analysis for inter-polymer process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ) + Polyethylene (PE) ARCEL TOUGH FLEXIBLE Advanced packaging material Interpenetrating polymer network productModel-based experimental analysis for inter-polymer process CMU: Weijie Lin, Lorenz T. Biegler processed in a sequential way Polymer A Polymer B Project overview Inter-polymer process #12;Project

  17. Ris-PhD-18(EN) Patterning Biomolecules on Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-18(EN) Patterning Biomolecules on Polymer Surfaces for Applications in Life Sciences Susan on Polymer Surfaces for Applications in Life Sciences. Department: Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National: Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory. Centre for Nanostructured polymer surfaces for medical

  18. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  19. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  20. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  1. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  2. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  3. Path integrals for stiff polymers applied to membrane physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Dean; R. R. Horgan

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Path integrals similar to those describing stiff polymers arise in the Helfrich model for membranes. We show how these types of path integrals can be evaluated and apply our results to study the thermodynamics of a minority stripe phase in a bulk membrane. The fluctuation induced contribution to the line tension between the stripe and the bulk phase is computed, as well as the effective interaction between the two phases in the tensionless case where the two phases have differing bending rigidities.

  4. Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narang, S.C.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SRI International has synthesized novel solid polymer electrolytes for high energy density, rechargeable lithium batteries. We have systematically replaced the oxygens in PEO with sulfur to reduce the strong hard-acid hard-base interaction, while retaining the favorable helical conformation of the polymer backbone. The best polymer electrolyte produced so far is suitable for a medium power battery. In another effort, we have synthesized single ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polyethyleneimine, polyphosphazene, and polysiloxane backbones. The single ion conducting polymer electrolytes will allow greater depth of charge and discharge by preventing dc polarization. The best conductivity so far with single ion conductors is 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} Scm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature. Further optimization of electrical and mechanical properties will allow the use of these polymer electrolytes in the fabrication of rechargeable lithium batteries. 8 tabs.

  5. Outline Directed polymers Log-gamma polymer KPZ equation Fluctuation exponents for certain 1+1 dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppäläinen, Timo

    Outline Directed polymers Log-gamma polymer KPZ equation Fluctuation exponents for certain 1+1 dimensional directed polymers Timo Sepp¨al¨ainen Department of Mathematics University of Wisconsin-Madison MSRI December 2010 Fluctuation exponents for polymers 1/36 #12;Outline Directed polymers Log

  6. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

  7. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frechet, Jean M. J. (Oakland, CA); Svec, Frantisek (Alameda, CA); Rohr, Thomas (Leiden, NL)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  8. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  9. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, George A. (Richland, WA); Nelson, David A. (Richland, WA); Molton, Peter M. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  10. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ting Ge; Mark O. Robbins; Dvora Perahia; Gary S. Grest

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. The two processes differ in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface. The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the interdiffusion is significantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of them are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and thus mechanically weaken the interface. When the interfacial strength saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the interfacial strength. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.

  11. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation. 17 figs.

  12. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  13. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA); Talley, Chad E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  14. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  15. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilraja Singaravelu

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  16. Localized domain patterns in complex polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Localized domain patterns in complex polymers abstract. Block copolymers are macromolecules that can form variety of microstructures as a result of incomplete

  17. Conducting polymer actuator enhancement through microstructuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroactive conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophenes are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanisms in these materials are based on the diffusion ...

  18. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of conducting polymer microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible microwires fabricated from conducting polymers have a wide range of potential applications, including smart textiles that incorporate sensing, actuation, and data processing. The development of garments that ...

  20. Conformational properties of polymers in anisotropic environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Haydukivska; V. Blavatska

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the conformational properties of polymer macromolecules in solutions in presence of extended structural obstacles of (fractal) dimension $\\varepsilon_d$ causing the anisotropy of environment. Applying the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), we obtain numerical estimates for scaling exponents and universal shape parameters of polymers in such environments for a wide range $0polymer renormalization scheme. Both numerical and analytical studies qualitatively confirm the existence of two characteristic length scales of polymer chain in directions parallel and perpendicular to the extended defects.

  1. Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

  2. Some Rigorous Results on Semiflexible Polymers. I. Free and confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostap Hryniv; Yvan Velenik

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a class of models of semiflexible polymers. The latter are characterized by a strong rigidity, the correlation length associated to the gradient-gradient correlations, called the persistence length, being of the same order as the polymer length. We determine the macroscopic scaling limit, from which we deduce bounds on the free energy of a polymer confined inside a narrow tube.

  3. Heat Transfer Study of Polymer Solutions with Different Rigidities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yao

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    rigidities. A mathematic method was introduced to model the rigidity of polymer chain's effect on the dynamic viscosity of dilute polymer solution. Results were also obtained for the dilute polymer solutions under both hydro-dynamically developing and hydro...

  4. Segregated Network Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites For Thermoelectrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dasaroyong

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    in polymer technology, particularly nanomaterial-polymer composites, can bring them into degenerate semiconductor or metallic regimes by incorporating a small amount of conductive filler. I demonstrate that such polymer nanocomposites can be viable for light...

  5. Polymer dynamics in random flow with mean shear K. Turitsyn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Polymer dynamics in random flow with mean shear K. Turitsyn Landau Institute for theoretical;Outline · Motivation: Elastic turbulence · Experimental setup · Flow and polymer models · Results: 1. Angular statistics 2. Polymer elongation distribution · Conclusion #12;Elastic Turbulence Elastic

  6. On healable polymers and fiber-reinforced composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Christian Eric

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of crack healing in polymers. J Appl Phys Wu DY, Meure S,Single component healable polymer [proposal]. Los Angeles,and valuable healable polymer samples. Outside of UCSD, Dr.

  7. Solution Self-Assembly of Sequence Specific Biomimetic Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murnen, Hannah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nat. Mater. 2010, 9from sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nat. Mater. 2010, 9in a folded nonbiological polymer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Patch,

  8. NANOCOMPOSITE BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPROACHES FOR FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    NANOCOMPOSITE BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPROACHES FOR FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS for Polymers and Composites, Denickestr. 15, 21073 Hamburg, Germany 2 Physics Department, Faculty of Science reinforced polymer (FRP) structures in many industrial branches. Different approaches for Structural Health

  9. Ris-PhD-Report Thermocleavable Conjugated Polymers -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-Report Thermocleavable Conjugated Polymers - Synthesis and photovoltaic applications Martin Helgesen Risø-PhD-54(EN) October 2009 #12;Thermocleavable Conjugated Polymers Synthesis, University of Copenhagen #12;Author: Martin Helgesen able Conjugated Polymers ­ Synthesis and photovoltaic

  10. Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications Wednesday November 10 Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Nanostructured composites based on polymer matrix and carbon nanotubes (CNT), metallic nanoparticles and polymer core-shell latex systems will play a critical role

  11. Directed inorganic modification of bi-component polymer fibers by selective vapor reaction and atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    . The ALD process promotes selective precursor infusion into the inner core of a core/shell polymer fiber and transmission electron microscopy show that infusion yields selective dispersion of aluminum oxide in different

  12. Polymer/Silicate composites – New Materials for Subsurface Permeable Reactive Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K. Harrup; Michael G. Jones; Linda Polson; Byron White

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations were performed into the suitability of novel nanocomposites to serve as materials for subsurface permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). These new materials are Type I nanocomposites – they are preformed organic polymers embedded in an inorganic matrix without significant covalent bonding between the components. The required properties for these materials to function efficiently are: 1) a tunable water passing rate to approximate the hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface environment where the PRB will be placed, 2) sufficient mechanical strength (both wet and dry) to maintain barrier integrity, 3) the ability to incorporate selective metal sequestration agents so that they remain active – yet do not leach from the barrier, and 4) to be deployable through direct injection methods such that trenching is not needed. Additionally, there is a need to keep the technology as low cost as possible, while remaining reliable. Results recently obtained in our laboratory show that our materials, remarkably, exhibit all of these properties and show great promise as vadose zone deployable PRBs.

  13. Unbiased charge oscillations in DNA monomer-polymers and dimer-polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambropoulos, Konstantinos; Morphis, Andreas; Kaklamanis, Konstantinos; Theodorakou, Marina; Simserides, Constantinos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We call {\\it monomer} a B-DNA base-pair and examine, analytically and numerically, electron or hole oscillations in monomer- and dimer-polymers, i.e., periodic sequences with repetition unit made of one or two monomers. We employ a tight-binding (TB) approach at the base-pair level to readily determine the spatiotemporal evolution of a single extra carrier along a $N$ base-pair polymer. We study HOMO and LUMO eigenspectra as well as the mean over time probabilities to find the carrier at a particular monomer. We use the pure mean transfer rate $k$ to evaluate the easiness of charge transfer. The inverse decay length $\\beta$ for exponential fits $k(d)$, where $d$ is the charge transfer distance, and the exponent $\\eta$ for power law fits $k(N)$ are computed; generally power law fits are better. We illustrate that increasing the number of different parameters involved in the TB description, the fall of $k(d)$ or $k(N)$ becomes steeper and show the range covered by $\\beta$ and $\\eta$. Finally, both for the time-...

  14. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  15. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  16. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  17. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vukmirovic, Nenad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers inand the e?ect of carrier heating in disordered conjugatedinto the e?ect of carrier heating in conjugated polymers

  18. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  19. Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balliet, Ryan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Electrochimica Acta, 53,

  20. FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8. Polymer Composites Research and Development FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development Lightweighting Materials...

  1. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8. Polymer Composites Research and Development FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development The primary Lightweight...

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Techniques (Presentation) Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Nanocomposites by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray...

  3. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI Part 2...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1056 More Documents & Publications Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI DE-FOA-0000980: Summary of...

  4. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

    2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  5. Phosphate-Containing Polyethylene Glycol Polymers Prevent Lethal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phosphate-Containing Polyethylene Glycol Polymers Prevent Lethal Sepsis by Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens. Phosphate-Containing Polyethylene Glycol Polymers Prevent Lethal Sepsis by...

  6. New Polymer Architectures for Imidazole Solvating groups, Anion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Polymer Architectures for Imidazole Solvating groups, Anion Mobility and Flexibility New Polymer Architectures for Imidazole Solvating groups, Anion Mobility and Flexibility...

  7. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  8. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  9. acid polymers highly: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels Physics Websites Summary: Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer...

  10. Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2.pdf More Documents & Publications Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite...

  11. Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer...

  12. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein...

  13. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012...

  14. Critical adsorption controls translocation of polymer chains through lipid bilayers and permeation of solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens-Uwe Sommer; Marco Werner; Vladimir A. Baulin

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulations using an explicit solvent model indicate a new pathway for translocation of a polymer chain through a lipid bilayer. We consider a polymer chain composed of repeat units with a given hydrophobicity and a coarse-grained model of a lipid bilayer in the self-organized liquid state. By varying the degree of hydrophobicity the chain undergoes an adsorption transition with respect to the lipid bilayer. Close to the transition point, at a properly balanced hydrophobicity of the chain, the membrane becomes transparent with respect to the chain. At the same time the solvent permeability of the bilayer is strongly increased in the region close to adsorbed chain. Our results indicate that the critical point of adsorption of the polymer chain interacting with the fluctuating lipid bilayer could play a key role for the translocation of molecules though biological membranes.

  15. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  16. Kinetic Control of Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics: The Role of Spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akshay Rao; Philip C. Y. Chow; Simon Gélinas; Cody W. Schlenker; David S. Ginger; Chang-Zhi Li; Hin-Lap Yip; Alex K-Y. Jen; Richard H. Friend

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In photovoltaic diodes recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes is a major loss process. Biological light harvesting complexes (LHCs) prevent recombination via the use of cascade structures, which lead to spatial separation of charge-carriers1. In contrast, the nanoscale morphology and high charge densities in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) give a high rate of electron-hole encounters, which should result in the formation of spin triplet excitons, as in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)2. OPVs would have poor quantum efficiencies if every encounter lead to recombination, but state-of-the-art OPVs demonstrate near-unity quantum efficiency3. Here we show that this suppression of recombination can be engineered through the interplay between spin, energetics and delocalisation of electronic excitations in organic semiconductors. We use time-resolved spectroscopy to study a series of model, high efficiency polymer-fullerene systems in which the lowest lying molecular triplet exciton (T1) (on the polymer) lies below the intermolecular charge transfer state (CT). We observe the formation of T1 states following bimolecular recombination, indicating that encounters of spin-uncorrelated electrons and holes generate CT states with both spin singlet (1CT) and spin triplet (3CT) characters. We show that triplet exciton formation can be the major loss mechanism in OPVs. However, we find that even when energetically favoured, the relaxation of 3CT to T1 can be strongly suppressed, via control over wavefunction delocalisation, allowing for the dissociation of 3CT back to free changes, thereby reducing recombination and enhancing device performance. Our results point towards new design rules for artificial photo-conversion systems, enabling the suppression of electron-hole recombination, and also for OLEDs, avoiding the formation of triplet states and enhancing fluorescence efficiency.

  17. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  18. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  19. Worm-like Polymer Loops and Fourier Knots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Rappaport; Y. Rabin; A. Yu. Grosberg

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Every smooth closed curve can be represented by a suitable Fourier sum. We show that the ensemble of curves generated by randomly chosen Fourier coefficients with amplitudes inversely proportional to spatial frequency (with a smooth exponential cutoff), can be accurately mapped on the physical ensemble of worm-like polymer loops. We find that measures of correlation on the scale of the entire loop yield a larger persistence length than that calculated from the tangent-tangent correlation function at small length scales. The conjecture that physical loops exhibit additional rigidity on scales comparable to the entire loop due to the contribution of twist rigidity, can be tested experimentally by determining the persistence length from the local curvature and comparing it with that obtained by measuring the radius of gyration of dsDNA plasmids. The topological properties of the ensemble randomly generated worm-like loops are shown to be similar to that of other polymer models.

  20. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  1. On hereditary models of polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Angelis

    2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An equivalence between an integro-differential operator M and an evolution operator Ln is determined. From this equivalence the fundamental solution of Ln is estimated in terms of the fundamental solution related to the third-order operator L1 whose behavior is now available. Moreover, properties typical of wave hierarchies can be applied to polymeric materials. As an example the case n= 2 is considered and results are applied to the Rouse model and the reptation model which describe different aspects of polymer chains.

  2. Tandem Polymer Solar Cells Featuring a Spectrally Matched Low-Bandgap Polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dou, L.; You, J.; Yang, J.; Chen, C. C.; He, Y.; Murase, S.; Moriarty, T.; Emery, K.; Li, G.; Yang, Y.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tandem solar cells provide an effective way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiation by combining two or more solar cells with different absorption bands. However, for polymer solar cells, the performance of tandem devices lags behind single-layer solar cells mainly due to the lack of a suitable low-bandgap polymer. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient single and tandem polymer solar cells featuring a low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PBDTT-DPP: bandgap, {approx}1.44 eV). A single-layer device based on the polymer provides a power conversion efficiency of {approx}6%. When the polymer is applied to tandem solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 8.62% is achieved, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest certified efficiency for a polymer solar cell to date.

  3. Phase behavior of polymers and monomers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purifoy, Jonathan Patrick

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study seeks to determine the effects of polymer structure and composition on the cloud-point of polymer-solvent mixtures. Mixtures of ethylene gas with poly(ethylene-co-methyl methacrylate), poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) and poly...

  4. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  5. ADSORPTION OF SEMIFLEXIBLE POLYMERS ON HOMOGENEOUS SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oro, Daniel

    ADSORPTION OF SEMIFLEXIBLE POLYMERS ON HOMOGENEOUS SURFACES K. Sumithra F G Theoretische Physik the problem of adsorption of a single semiflexible polymer chain on to a planar, homogeneous surface using off-lattice Monte Carlosimulations. Adsorption characteristics were studied at different temperatures for chains

  6. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  7. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  8. Multicolored Electrochromism in Polymers: Structures and Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, David B.

    Multicolored Electrochromism in Polymers: Structures and Devices Avni A. Argun, Pierre-Henri Aubert May 12, 2004 A review of electrochromic (EC) polymers and their applications in absorption/transmission, reflective, and patterned electrochromic devices (ECDs) is presented. Fundamental properties of EC materials

  9. Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Decker, Derek E. (Byron, CA); Jungreis, Charles A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An actuator system is provided for acting upon a material in a vessel. The system includes an optical fiber and a shape memory polymer material operatively connected to the optical fiber. The shape memory polymer material is adapted to move from a first shape for moving through said vessel to a second shape where it can act upon said material.

  10. Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maitland, Duncan J.; Lee, Abraham P.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Decker, Derek E.; Jungreis, Charles A.

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An actuator system is provided for acting upon a material in a vessel. The system includes an optical fiber and a shape memory polymer material operatively connected to the optical fiber. The shape memory polymer material is adapted to move from a first shape for moving through said vessel to a second shape where it can act upon said material.

  11. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  12. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  13. Field theoretic simulations of polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Jason; Chao, Huikuan; Riggleman, Robert A., E-mail: rrig@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer field theory has emerged as a powerful tool for describing the equilibrium phase behavior of complex polymer formulations, particularly when one is interested in the thermodynamics of dense polymer melts and solutions where the polymer chains can be accurately described using Gaussian models. However, there are many systems of interest where polymer field theory cannot be applied in such a straightforward manner, such as polymer nanocomposites. Current approaches for incorporating nanoparticles have been restricted to the mean-field level and often require approximations where it is unclear how to improve their accuracy. In this paper, we present a unified framework that enables the description of polymer nanocomposites using a field theoretic approach. This method enables straightforward simulations of the fully fluctuating field theory for polymer formulations containing spherical or anisotropic nanoparticles. We demonstrate our approach captures the correlations between particle positions, present results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles, and we explore the effect of the numerical parameters on the performance of our approach.

  14. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  15. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  16. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AJ. Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies Via afor high-efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells usingfactors. The photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (?) [

  18. Study of surface enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy of chromophores on unaggregated plasmonically active nanoparticles / Surface-enhanced Raman study of the interaction of the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM components of organic polymer solar cells with plasmonically active nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavytska-Barba, Marina Valeriyivna

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Organic Photovoltaic Efficiency in Tandem Cells ofinfluencing the photovoltaic efficiency. Thus, the firstCarroll, D. L. High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices Based on

  19. Covalent modification of mushroom tyrosinase with different amphiphic polymers for pharmaceutical and biocatalysis applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morpurgo, M.; Schiavon, O.; Caliceti, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives (linear, mol wt 5000 and a branched form, mol wt 10000) and a new polymer (poly-[acryloylmorfoline], mol wt 5500) were covalently bound to the enzyme tyrosinase. The polymer-protein conjugates were studied with a view to their potential pharmaceutical application and to their use for the bioconversion of phenolic substrates in organic solvents. V{sub max} and K{sub m} for the dopa-dopaquinone conversion, thermostability, stability toward inactivation by dopa oxidation products, half-life in blood circulation, and behavior in organic solvents for the different adducts were investigated. Arrhenius plots for the dopa-dopaquinone conversion were also obtained in order to study the effects of temperature on the different enzyme forms. Covalent attachment of the polymers increased enzyme stability in aqueous solution and the solubility in organic solvents. However, organic solvent solubilization brought about loss of enzyme conformation as assessed by CD measurements, which is accompanied by a nonreversible loss of catalytic activity. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. 2010 POLYMER PHYSICS - JUNE 27 - JULY 2, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Winey

    2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Polymer Physics will provide outstanding lectures and discussions in this critical field that impacts every industrial sector from electronics to transportation to medicine to textiles to energy generation and storage. Fundamental topics range from mechanical properties of soft gels to new understanding in polymer crystallization to energy conversion and transmission to simulating polymer dynamics at the nanoscale. This international conference will feature 22 invited lectures, wherein the opening 10 minutes are specifically designed for a general polymer physics audience. In addition, poster sessions and informal activities provide ample opportunity to discuss the latest advances in polymer physics. The technical content of the meeting will include new twists on traditional polymer physics topics, recent advances in previously underrepresented topics, and emerging technologies enabled by polymer physics. Here is a partially listing of targeted topics: (1) electrically-active and light-responsive polymers and polymer-based materials used in energy conversion and storage; (2) polymers with hierarchical structures including supramolecular assemblies, ion-containing polymers, and self-assembled block polymers; (3) mechanical and rheological properties of soft materials, such as hydrogels, and of heterogeneous materials, particularly microphase separated polymers and polymer nanocomposites; and (4) crystallization of polymers in dilute solutions, polymer melts, and miscible polymer blends.

  1. Advances in inherently conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of polyacetylene as the prototype material led to extensive research on its synythesis and characterization. The techniques that emerged as the most important and promising ones are those that dealt with molecular orientation and that resulted in conductivities almost as high as that of copper. The study of dozens of other materials followed. Interest in conducting polymers stems from their nonclassical optical and electronic properties as well as their potential technological applications. However, some of the factors currently limiting their use are the lack of long-term stability and the need to develop conventional low-cost techniques for easy processing. Therefore, research was extended toward solving these problems, and progress has been recently made in that direction. The synthesis of new materials such as stable and easily processable alkylthiophenes, water-soluble polymers, and multicomponent systems, including copolymers and composites, constitutes an important step forward in the area of synthetic metals. However, a full understanding of materials chemistry and properties requires more work in the years to come. Although, few small-scale applications have proven to be successful, long-term stability and applicability tests are needed before their commercial use becomes reality.

  2. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  3. Influence of an adsorbing polymer in the aging dynamics of Laponite clay suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zulian; B. Ruzicka; G. Ruocco

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay-polymer dispersions in aqueous solutions have attracted a great interest in recent years due to their industrial applications and intriguing physical properties. Aqueous solutions of bare Laponite particles are known to age spontaneously from an ergodic state to a non ergodic state in a time varying from hours to months depending on Laponite concentration. When a polymer species like Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) is added to the solution, it weakly adsorbs on clay particle surfaces modifying the effective interaction potential between Laponite particles. A dynamic light scattering study, varying polymer concentration at fixed polymer molecular weight (Mw=200.000 g/mol), has been performed in order to understand the effect of polymer on the aging dynamics of the system. The results obtained show that arresting phenomena between clay particles are hindered if PEO is added and consequently the aging dynamics slows down with increasing PEO concentration. This process is possibly due to the progressive coverage of the clay surface by polymers that grow with increasing PEO concentration and may lead to steric stabilization.

  4. Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis and Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Carborane Based Metal-Organic Framework Materials@northwestern.edu Tailorable inorganic coordination polymers,1-7 in particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)2-7 comprise an important emerging class of materials. They are noteworthy for their structural and chemical diversity, high

  5. Molecular Design of Doped Polymers for Thermoelectric Systems-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabinyc, Michael L. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Hawker, Craig J. [University of California, Santa Barbara

    2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-assembly of organic semiconducting molecules and polymers is critical for their electrical properties. This project addressed the design of organic semiconductors with novel synthetic building blocks for proton-dopable conducting materials and the molecular order and microstructure of high performance semiconducting polymers blended with charge transfer dopants. Novel azulene donor-acceptor materials were designed and synthesized with unique electronic effects upon protonation to generate charged species in solution. The microstructure and optical properties of these derivatives were examined to develop structure-property relationships. Studies of the microstructure of blends of charge transfer doped semiconducting polymers revealed highly ordered conductive phases in blends. The molecular packing of one blend was studied in detail using a combination of solid-state NMR and x-ray scattering revealing that dopant incorporation is unlikely to be random as assumed in transport models. Studies of the electrical properties of these highly ordered blends revealed a universal trend between the thermopower and electrical conductivity of semiconducting polymers that is independent of the doping mechanism.

  6. Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building Retrofits Could Support 23,500 Jobs Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building Retrofits Could Support...

  7. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  8. Friction as a probe of surface properties of a polymer glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lionel Bureau

    2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We probe the temperature dependence of friction at the interface between a glassy poly(methylmethacrylate) lens and a flat substrate coated with a methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The monolayer exhibits density defects which act as pinning sites for the polymer chains. We show that the shear response of such an interface supports the existence, at the surface of the glassy polymer, of a nanometer-thick layer of mobile chains. Friction can be ascribed to the interplay between viscouslike dissipation in this layer and depinning of chains adsorbed on the substrate. We further show that the pinning dynamics is controlled by \\beta rotational motions localized at the interface.

  9. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Lauter, Valeria [ORNL; Szulczewski, Greg J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New, more efficient materials for spin valves - a device used in magnetic sensors, random access memories, and hard disk drives - may be on the way based on research using the magnetism reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Spin valve devices work by means of two or more conducting magnetic material layers that alternate their electrical resistance depending on the layers alignment. Giant magnetoresistance is a quantum mechanical effect first observed in thin film structures about 20 years ago. The effect is observed as a significant change in electrical resistance, depending on whether the magnetization of adjacent ferromagnetic layers is in a parallel or an antiparallel magnetic alignment. 'What we are doing here is developing new materials. The search for new materials suitable for injecting and transferring carriers with a preferential spin orientation is most important for the development of spintronics,' said Valeria Lauter, lead instrument scientist on the magnetism reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), who collaborated on the experiment. The researchers discovered that the conductivity of such materials is improved when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. Organic semiconductors are now the material of choice for future spin valve devices because they preserve spin coherence over longer times and distances than conventional semiconductors. While research into spin valves has been ongoing, research into organic semiconductors is recent. Previous research has shown that a 'conductivity mismatch' exists in spin valve systems in which ferromagnetic metal electrodes interface with such organic semiconductors as Alq3 ({pi}-conjugated molecule tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminium). This mismatch limits the efficient injection of the electrons from the electrodes at the interface with the semiconductor material. However, lithium fluoride (LiF), commonly used in light-emitting diodes, has been found to enhance the injection of electrons through the semiconductor. Researchers from the University of Alabama and ORNL used polarized neutrons at the magnetism reflectometer at SNS to investigate the electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of the electrodes in a novel system. In this system, the magnetic layers cobalt and Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} are interfaced with spacer layers composed of the organic semiconductor Alq3. A coupling layer of LiF is inserted to separate the magnetized layers from the semiconductor. 'ALQ3 is an organic semiconductor material,' said Lauter. 'Normally in these systems a first magnetic layer is grown on a hard substrate so that one can get the controlled magnetic parameters. Then you grow the organic semiconductor layer, followed by another magnetic material layer, such as cobalt.' In addition to determining the effect of the LiF layers on the efficiency of the electron injection, the researchers wanted to determine the magnetic properties of the cobalt and Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} as well as the interfacial properties: whether there is interdiffusion of cobalt through the LiF layer to the semiconductor, for example. The researchers used polarized neutrons at beam line 4A to probe the entire, layer-by-layer assembly of the system. 'Reflectometry with polarized neutrons is a perfect method to study thin magnetic films,' Lauter said. 'These thin films - if you put one on a substrate, you see it just like a mirror. However, this mirror has a very complicated internal multilayer structure. The neutrons look inside this complicated structure and characterize each and every interface. Due to the depth sensitivity of the method, we measure the structural and magnetic properties of each layer with the resolution of 0.5 nm. The neutron scattering results found that inserting LiF as a barrier significantly improves the quality of the interface, increasing the injection of electrons from the magnetic layer through the organic semiconductor in the spin valve and enhancing the overall properties of the system. In related work the magneti

  10. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates by Oxygen Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Araki, R.; Yakushiji, T. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen cluster ions and/or monomer ions were used for the sputtering and the surface modification of polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the case of oxygen cluster ion irradiation, the sputtered depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the sputtering yield was much larger than that by the monomer ion irradiation. The sputtered particles represented the polymer structure, which indicated that the bond scission by the cluster ion irradiation resulted in an ejection of monomer molecule through the intermolecular collision. On the other hand, for the oxygen monomer ion irradiation, the implanted depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the bond scission occurred at the deep region through the binary collision with the high energetic ions. Therefore, the sputtering yield for the polymer surfaces decreased, and the sputtering effect became very small. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was more effective for oxidation of the PET surfaces rather than the monomer ion irradiation or the cluster ion irradiation. As a result, the contact angle measurement showed that the wettability of the PET surfaces irradiated by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was much enhanced.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for single polymer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping, E-mail: hsu@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Single linear polymer chains in dilute solutions under good solvent conditions are studied by Monte Carlo simulations with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method up to the chain length N?O(10{sup 4}). Based on the standard simple cubic lattice model (SCLM) with fixed bond length and the bond fluctuation model (BFM) with bond lengths in a range between 2 and ?(10), we investigate the conformations of polymer chains described by self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice, and by random walks and non-reversible random walks in the absence of excluded volume interactions. In addition to flexible chains, we also extend our study to semiflexible chains for different stiffness controlled by a bending potential. The persistence lengths of chains extracted from the orientational correlations are estimated for all cases. We show that chains based on the BFM are more flexible than those based on the SCLM for a fixed bending energy. The microscopic differences between these two lattice models are discussed and the theoretical predictions of scaling laws given in the literature are checked and verified. Our simulations clarify that a different mapping ratio between the coarse-grained models and the atomistically realistic description of polymers is required in a coarse-graining approach due to the different crossovers to the asymptotic behavior.

  12. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  13. ME 379M Polymer Nanoparticles ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    ME 379M ­ Polymer Nanoparticles Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 379M ­ Polymer Nanoparticles Spring 2010 Required or Elective: Elective 2008-2010 Catalog Data: Course Topics Vary: Polymer Nanoparticles Prerequisite(s): Basic undergraduate level of materials science background Textbook(s): J.H. Koo, Polymer

  14. POLYMER SURFACE & INTERFACE GROUP Department of Physics, University of Guelph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutcher, John

    POLYMER SURFACE & INTERFACE GROUP Department of Physics, University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 RESEARCH FOCUS The primary focus of our work in the Polymer Surface & Interface Group is the physics of polymer and biopolymer thin films and interfaces. Both polymer and biopolymer films are very

  15. Semiflexible Polymers: Fundamental Theory and Applications in DNA Packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    Semiflexible Polymers: Fundamental Theory and Applications in DNA Packaging Thesis by Andrew James of perfectly flexible and perfectly rigid polymer chains; however, many polymers, for example DNA, are somewhere in between these two limiting cases. Such polymers are termed semiflexible, and their molecular

  16. Water-Soluble Polymers from Acid-Functionalized Norbornenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    , STERLING F. ALFRED, AHMAD E. MADKOUR, GREGORY N. TEW Department of Polymer Science and Engineering

  17. Conductive inks for metalization in integrated polymer microsystems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James Courtney (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Hamilton, Julie K. (Tracy, CA); Tovar, Armando R. (San Antonio, TX)

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  18. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V., E-mail: igor.gera@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Sommer, J.-U. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden e.V. (Germany); Gerasimchuk, V. S. [National Technical University of Ukraine 'Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  19. High Aspect Ratio Polymer Micro/Nano-Structure Manufacturing using Nanoembossing, Nanomolding and Directed Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitti, Metin

    . The second one uses a self-organized polycarbonate nano-pore membrane as the molding template. PDMS is molded-assembly. In this technique, a thin liquid polymer film is coated on a flat conductive substrate, and a closely spaced another

  20. Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-Poly(hexyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    #12;Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide: amphiphiles; block copolymers; morphology; nanocomposites; structure-directing agent Introduction The study of amphiphilic block copolymer-derived, organic- inorganic hybrid materials is an emerging research field