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Sample records for organic polymers show

  1. Megahertz organic/polymer diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Howard Edan; Sun, Jia; Pal, Nath Bhola

    2012-12-11

    Featured is an organic/polymer diode having a first layer composed essentially of one of an organic semiconductor material or a polymeric semiconductor material and a second layer formed on the first layer and being electrically coupled to the first layer such that current flows through the layers in one direction when a voltage is applied in one direction. The second layer is essentially composed of a material whose characteristics and properties are such that when formed on the first layer, the diode is capable of high frequency rectifications on the order of megahertz rectifications such as for example rectifications at one of above 100KHz, 500KhZ, IMHz, or 10 MHz. In further embodiments, the layers are arranged so as to be exposed to atmosphere.

  2. Megahertz organic/polymer diodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Megahertz organic/polymer diodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Megahertz organic/polymer diodes Featured is an organic/polymer diode having a first layer composed essentially of one of an organic semiconductor material or a polymeric semiconductor material and a second layer formed on the first layer and being electrically coupled to the first layer such that current flows through the layers in one direction when a voltage is applied in one direction. The second layer is

  3. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  4. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josowicz, Mira A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

  5. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josowicz, M.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1996-10-29

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell. 2 figs.

  6. Systematic Tuning and Multi-Functionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Enhanced Carbon Capture | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Systematic Tuning and Multi-Functionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers for Enhanced Carbon Capture Slide1 Link to article

  7. Systematic Tuning and Multifunctionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Enhanced Carbon Capture | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Systematic Tuning and Multifunctionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers for Enhanced Carbon Capture Previous Next List Xiang, Zhonghua; Mercado, Rocio; Huck, Johanna M.; Wang, Hui; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Wenchuan; Cao, Dapeng; Haranczyk, Maciej; and Smit, Berend. Systematic Tuning and Multifunctionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers for Enhanced Carbon Capture. J. Amer. Chem.

  8. Liquid crystal-templated conducting organic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Hulvat, James F.

    2004-01-20

    A method of preparing a conductive polymeric film, includes providing a liquid crystal phase comprising a plurality of hydrophobic cores, the phase on a substrate, introducing a hydrophobic component to the phase, the component a conductive polymer precursor, and applying an electric potential across the liquid crystal phase, the potential sufficient to polymerize the said precursor.

  9. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  10. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  11. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  12. Multilayer Coextrusion of Polymer Composites to Develop Organic Capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mondy, L.; Mrozek, R.; Rao, R.; Lenhart, J.; Bieg, L.; Spangler, S.; Stavig, M.; Schroeder, J.; Winter, M.; Diantonio, C.; et al

    2015-05-29

    Multilayer coextrusion is applied to produce a tape containing layers of alternating electrical properties to demonstrate the potential for using coextrusion to manufacture capacitors. To obtain the desired properties, we develop two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers. We describe numerical models used to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability. These models help quantify the critical ratios of densities and viscosities of the two layers to maintain stable layers, as well as the effect of increasing the flow rate of one of the two materials. The conductingmore » polymer is based on polystyrene filled with a blend of low-melting-point eutectic metal and nickel particulate filler, as described by Mrozek et al. (2010). The appropriate concentrations of fillers are determined by balancing measured conductivity with processability in a twin screw extruder. Based on results of the numerical models and estimates of the viscosity of emulsions and suspensions, a dielectric layer composed of polystyrene filled with barium titanate is formulated. Despite the fact that the density of the dielectric filler is less than the metallic filler of the conductive phase, as well as rheological measurements that later showed that the dielectric formulation is not an ideal match to the viscosity of the conductive material, the two materials can be successfully coextruded if the flow rates of the two materials are not identical. A measurable capacitance of the layered structure is obtained.« less

  13. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO); Honda, Kenji (Wheatridge, CO)

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge-conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge-conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  14. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.; Honda, K.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  15. New electrostriction materials based on organic polymers: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochervinskii, V. V.

    2009-12-15

    The nature of very high electrostriction strains in modified fluorine-containing polymer ferroelectrics is considered. The main modification method is the irradiation of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) copolymers with trifluoroethylene (TrFE) by electrons with energies of several MeV. Such treatment leads to the transition of the ferroelectric phase to the relaxor state and paraelectric phase. These structural changes are caused by the formation of new functional groups in PVDF chains at radiolysis. The effect of the structure on the electrostriction strains is considered. It is shown that the increase in the electrostriction strain after irradiation is related to the increase in the amorphous phase fraction. This increased strain (all other factors being equal) in uniaxial films, in comparison with isotropic ones, indicates that the field of the anisotropic amorphous phase (mesomorphic state) regions plays an important role in the reaction. An analysis of the experimental data shows that the structural changes in the field (leading to electrostriction strains) are controlled to a great extent by the features of cooperative (segmental) mobility of amorphous phase chains.

  16. Thiophene fused azacoronenes: regioselective synthesis, self organization, charge transport, and its incorporation in conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo

    2015-09-15

    A regioselective synthesis of an azacoronene fused with two peripheral thiophene groups has been realized through a concise synthetic route. The resulting thienoazacoronene (TAC) derivatives show high degree of self-organization in solution, in single crystals, in the bulk, and in spuncast thin films. Spuncast thin film field-effect transistors of the TACs exhibited mobilities up to 0.028 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 S.sup.-1, which is among the top field effect mobilities for solution processed discotic materials. Organic photovoltaic devices using TAC-containing conjugated polymers as the donor material exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 0.89 V, which was ascribable to TAC's low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy level.

  17. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type ... Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of ...

  18. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 − BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  19. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices ... when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. ...

  20. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  1. Co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers into helical and zig-zag polymer chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yi; Yu Lingmin; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Blair, Richard G.; Zhang Qichun

    2012-07-15

    Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (EG=ethylene glycol) (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at 150 Degree-Sign C or room temperature by the co-assembly of Zn(SPh){sub 2} and organic linkers such as 2,4,6-tri(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyTA) and 1,3-bis(trans-4-pyridylvinyl)benzene (BPyVB). X-ray crystallography study reveals that both polymers 1 and 2 crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/c of the monoclinic system. The solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up to 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers, single helicate [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(TPyTA)(EG)]{sub n} (1) and zig-zag structure [Zn(SPh){sub 2}(BPyVB)]{sub n} (2), were synthesized. Solid-state UV-vis absorptions show that 1 and 2 have maxium absorption onsets at 400 nm and 420 nm, respectively. TGA analysis indicates that 1 and 2 are stable up to 110 Degree-Sign C and 210 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel one-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TPyTA results in helical structures in 1 while BPyVB leads to zig-zag chains in 2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-state UV-vis absorption spectra and TGA analysis of the title polymers were studied.

  2. Absorbing More of the Rainbow with Polymer-Based Organic Photovoltaics |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Absorbing More of the Rainbow with Polymer-Based Organic Photovoltaics Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More

  3. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  4. A low-temperature processed environment-friendly full-organic carrier collection layer for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ai-Li; Li, Yan-Qing E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn Jiang, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zhong-Sheng; Wang, Qian-Kun; Guo, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Dan-Dan E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin E-mail: zhangdd@suda.edu.cn

    2014-08-04

    We constructed a concept of the full-organic carrier collection layer (CCL) used for polymer solar cells. The CCL is composed of dipyrazino[2,3-f:2?,3?-h]quinoxaline-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile as hole collection layer (HCL) and chlorine-free solvents (formic acid (FA)) processed 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron collection layer, exhibiting good solubility, and environmental protection. The FA based device shows ideal power conversion efficiency (3.75%), which is higher than that of control device (3.6%). Besides, the HCL shows a different mechanism in hole extraction by functioning as a charge recombination zone for electrons injected from anode and holes extracted from the donor materials.

  5. Cross-conjugated polymers for organic electronic devices and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Cross-conjugated donor-acceptor polymers, methods for their preparation, devices that include polymers, and methods for the preparation and use of the devices.

  6. The Role of Fullerene Mixing Behavior in the Performance of Organic Rhotovoltaics: PCBM in Low-Bandgap Polymers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huipeng; Peet, Jeff; Hu, Sheng; Azoulay, Jason; Bazan, Guillermo; Dadmun, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports the mixing behavior, interdiffusion, and depth profile of 1-[3-(methoxycarbonyl)propyl]-1-phenyl-[6,6]C 61 (PCBM):low-bandgap (LBG) polymer thin fi lms that are formed by thermally annealing initial bilayers. The extent of mixing of PCBM is higher in polymers that include the 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) unit than in polymers that incorporate the 2,1,3-benzooxadiazole (BO) unit. This difference is ascribed to the enhanced mixing behavior of PCBM with the benzothiadiazole functionality than with benzooxadiazole functionality, which is attributed to preferred intermolecular interactions. The increased polymer/fullerene mixing is found to be crucial for optimal device performance. A decrease of polymer/fullerene mixing reduces the donor/acceptor interface, which lowers the probability of exciton dissociation and charge generation. Moreover, low PCBM mixing provides limited pathways for electron transport out of a miscible region, due to long distances between adjacent PCBM in such a miscible phase. This inhibits electron transport and increases the recombination of free charge carriers, resulting in a decrease in short circuit current and device performance. These results further exemplify the importance of the thermodynamic mixing behavior of the polymer:fullerene pair in designing next-generation conjugated polymers for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications, as this controls the fi nal morphology of the OPV active layer.

  7. Ag(I) Ion Functionalized Porous Organic Polymers As a New Platform for Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LI, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Wu, Zili; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-01-01

    We report herein a strategy of incorporating air stable Ag(I) ions into water stable, high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) affording significant increase in ethylene uptake capacity and extremely high Qst for ethylene (over 100 kJ/mol at low ethylene load-ing) as illustrated in the context of Ag(I) ion functionalized PAF-1, PAF-1-SO3Ag. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and equimolar ethylene/ethane ratio at 296 K reveal PAF-1-SO3Ag shows exceptionally high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivi-ty (Sads: 27 to 125), far surpassing benchmark zeolite and any other MOF reported in literature. This alongside excellent water/air stability, high ethylene uptake capacity, and mild regeneration requirements make PAF-1-SO3Ag hold promise for adsorption-based eth-ylene/ethane separations, paving a way to develop Ag(I) ion function-alized POPs as a new platform for highly selective adsorption of eth-ylene over ethane.

  8. Air-stable solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors with polymer-enhanced morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhengran; Shaik, Shoieb; Bi, Sheng; Li, Dawen; Chen, Jihua

    2015-05-04

    N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN{sub 2}) is an n-type semiconductor exhibiting high electron mobility and excellent air stability. However, the reported electron mobility based on spin-coated PDIF-CN{sub 2} film is much lower than the value of PDIF-CN{sub 2} single crystals made from vapor phase deposition, indicating significant room for mobility enhancement. In this study, various insulating polymers, including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PαMS), are pre-coated on silicon substrate aiming to enhance the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} thin film, thereby improving the charge transport and air stability. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that with the pre-deposition of PαMS or PMMA polymers, the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} polycrystalline films is optimized in semiconducting crystal connectivity, domain size, and surface roughness, which leads to significant improvement of organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) performance. Particularly, an electron mobility of up to 0.55 cm{sup 2}/V s has been achieved from OTFTs based on the PDIF-CN{sub 2} film with the pre-deposition of PαMS polymer.

  9. Light Show

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Lightning - Nature's Light Show Lightning provides one of nature's most spectacular displays of energy. Though fascinating to observe, lightning can be dangerous and deadly....

  10. Employee Show

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Science Inspires Art Fermilab Employee Art Show 2015 Exhibition Dates -September 18, 2015 November 30, 2015 Reception - September 23, 2015 5 7pm Eligibility: Any current...

  11. Photovoltaic properties and morphology of organic solar cells based on liquid-crystal semiconducting polymer with additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zushi, Masahito; Suzuki, Hisato; Ogahara, Shinichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo

    2014-02-20

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on liquid crystal semiconducting polymers of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene] (F8T2) as p-type semiconductors and fullerenes (C{sub 60}) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and acceptor has been fabricated and characterized for improving photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic performance including current voltage curves in the dark and illumination of the F8T2/C{sub 60} conventional and inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were investigated. Relationship between the photovoltaic properties and morphological behavior was focused on tuning for optimization of photo-voltaic performance under annealing condition near glass transition temperature. Additive-effect of diiodooctane (DIO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) on the photovoltaic performance and optical properties was investigated. Mechanism of the photovoltaic properties of the conventional and inverted solar cells will be discussed by the experimental results.

  12. Controlling Molecular Ordering in Solution-State Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Han, Youngkyu; Kumar, Rajeev; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Smith, Gregory Scott; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-07-17

    Rationally encoding molecular interactions that can control the assembly structure and functional expression in solution of conjugated polymers holds great potential for enabling optimal organic optoelectronic and sensory materials. In this work, we show that thermally-controlled and surfactant-guided assembly of water-soluble conjugated polymers in aqueous solution is a simple and effective strategy to generate optoelectronic materials with desired molecular ordering. We have studied a conjugated polymer consisting of a hydrophobic thiophene backbone and hydrophilic, thermo-responsive ethylene oxide side groups, which shows a step-wise, multi-dimensional assembly in water. By incorporating the polymer into phase-segregated domains of an amphiphilic surfactant in solution, we demonstrate that both chain conformation and degree of molecular ordering of the conjugated polymer can be tuned in hexagonal, micellar and lamellar phases of the surfactant solution. The controlled molecular ordering in conjugated polymer assembly is demonstrated as a key factor determining the electronic interaction and optical function.

  13. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  14. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  15. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  16. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  17. Control of morphology and function of low band gap polymer bis-fullerene mixed heterojunctions in organic photovoltaics with selective solvent vapor annealing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huipeng; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Dadmun, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Replacing PCBM with a bis-adduct fullerene (i.e. ICBA) has been reported to significantly improve the open circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in P3HT bulk heterojunctions. However, for the most promising low band-gap polymer (LBP) systems, replacing PCBM with ICBA results in very poor shortcircuit current (JSC) and PCE although the VOC is significantly improved. Therefore, in this work, we have completed small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry experiments to study the impact of post-deposition solvent annealing (SA) with control of solvent quality on the morphology and performance of LBP bis-fullerene BHJ photovoltaics. The results show that SA in a solvent that is selective for the LBP results in a depletion of bis-fullerene near the air surface, which limits device performance. SA in a solvent vapor which has similar solubility for polymer and bis-fullerene results in a higher degree of polymer ordering, bis-fullerene phase separation, and segregation of the bis-fullerene to the air surface, which facilitates charge transport and increases power conversion efficiency (PCE) by 100%. The highest degree of polymer ordering combined with significant bis-fullerene phase separation and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface is obtained by SA in a solvent vapor that is selective for the bis-fullerene. The resultant morphology increases PCE by 190%. These results indicate that solvent annealing with judicious solvent choice provides a unique tool to tune the morphology of LBP bisfullerene BHJ system, providing sufficient polymer ordering, formation of a bis-fullerene pure phase, and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface to optimize the morphology of the active layer. Moreover, this process is broadly applicable to improving current disappointing LBP bis-fullerene systems to optimize their morphology and OPV performance post-deposition, including higher VOC and power conversion efficiency.

  18. Control of morphology and function of low band gap polymer-bis-fullerene mixed heterojunctions in organic photovoltaics with selection solvent vapor annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huipeng; Hsiao, Yu-Che; Hu, Bin; Dadmun, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Replacing PCBM with a bis-adduct fullerene (i.e. ICBA) has been reported to significantly improve the open circuit voltage (VOC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in P3HT bulk heterojunctions. However, for the most promising low band-gap polymer (LBP) systems, replacing PCBM with ICBA results in very poor shortcircuit current (JSC) and PCE although the VOC is significantly improved. Therefore, in this work, we have completed small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry experiments to study the impact of post-deposition solvent annealing (SA) with control of solvent quality on the morphology and performance of LBP bis-fullerene BHJ photovoltaics. The results show that SA in a solvent that is selective for the LBP results in a depletion of bis-fullerene near the air surface, which limits device performance. SA in a solvent vapor which has similar solubility for polymer and bis-fullerene results in a higher degree of polymer ordering, bis-fullerene phase separation, and segregation of the bis-fullerene to the air surface, which facilitates charge transport and increases power conversion efficiency (PCE) by 100%. The highest degree of polymer ordering combined with significant bis-fullerene phase separation and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface is obtained by SA in a solvent vapor that is selective for the bis-fullerene. The resultant morphology increases PCE by 190%. These results indicate that solvent annealing with judicious solvent choice provides a unique tool to tune the morphology of LBP bisfullerene BHJ system, providing sufficient polymer ordering, formation of a bis-fullerene pure phase, and segregation of bis-fullerene to the air surface to optimize the morphology of the active layer. Moreover, this process is broadly applicable to improving current disappointing LBP bis-fullerene systems to optimize their morphology and OPV performance post-deposition, including higher VOC and power conversion efficiency.

  19. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Chih-I E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw

    2013-11-07

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7?cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39?lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7?cd/A and 8.39?lm/W to 23?cd/A and 13.2?lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  2. Porous polymer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  3. Conducting Polymers for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimblin, Clare; Miller, Kirk; Vogel, Bob; Quam, Bill; McHugh, Harry; Anthony, Glen; Mike, Grover

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers have emerged as an attractive technology for large-area electronic applications. As organic semiconductors, they can be used to make large-area arrays of diodes or transistors using fabrication techniques developed for polymer coatings, such as spraying and screen-printing. We have demonstrated both neutron and alpha detection using diodes made from conjugated polymers and have done preliminary work to integrate a boron carbide layer into the conventional polymer device structure to capture thermal neutrons. The polymer devices appear to be insensitive to gamma rays, due to their small physical thickness and low atomic number.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  5. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Jong-Am; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup

    2014-04-21

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C{sub 61}-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91?eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of V{sub oc} of the organic photovoltaic cells.

  6. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Even, Jr., William R.

    2000-01-01

    A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

  7. Conjugated polymers for organic LED`s: Poly[2,5-bis(-3A-5{beta}-cholestanoxy)-phenylenevinylene] (BCHA-PPV): A processable, yellow light emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wudl, F.; Hoeger, S.; Zhang, C.; Pakbaz, K.; Heeger, A.J.

    1993-12-31

    The authors report on the preparation and characterization of the title polymer and its photoluminescence as well as electroluminescence. The polymer was prepared in good yield with a molecular {approximately}10{sup 8} vs poly(styrene). The cholestanoxy groups were attached to the monomer precursor via a Mitsunobu coupling. The PPV was obtained by the typical p-xylylene intermediate route.

  8. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renschler, Clifford L.; White, Christine A.; Carter, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor.

  9. Self-Assembly of Polymer Nano-Elements on Sapphire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consisting of a central polymer (blue) linked to a surrounding polymer (red). An atomic-force microscope image (center) shows the densely packed cylinders, dark in the...

  10. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic...

  11. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  12. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.; Dourado, Sunil K.; Dulebohn, Joel I.; Hanchar, Robert J.

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  13. Controlling Molecular Ordering in Solution-State Conjugated Polymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Han, Youngkyu; Kumar, Rajeev; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Smith, Gregory Scott; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Do, Changwoo

    2015-07-17

    Rationally encoding molecular interactions that can control the assembly structure and functional expression in solution of conjugated polymers holds great potential for enabling optimal organic optoelectronic and sensory materials. In this work, we show that thermally-controlled and surfactant-guided assembly of water-soluble conjugated polymers in aqueous solution is a simple and effective strategy to generate optoelectronic materials with desired molecular ordering. We have studied a conjugated polymer consisting of a hydrophobic thiophene backbone and hydrophilic, thermo-responsive ethylene oxide side groups, which shows a step-wise, multi-dimensional assembly in water. By incorporating the polymer into phase-segregated domains of an amphiphilic surfactant in solution,more » we demonstrate that both chain conformation and degree of molecular ordering of the conjugated polymer can be tuned in hexagonal, micellar and lamellar phases of the surfactant solution. The controlled molecular ordering in conjugated polymer assembly is demonstrated as a key factor determining the electronic interaction and optical function.« less

  14. Post-Show Tips

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These guidelines are designed to help you with the post-show process. This page includes tips for tearing down your exhibit, shipping the exhibit, and collecting your bills.

  15. Show Me PACE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2010 Missouri enacted the Property Assessed Clean Energy Act. In June 2015, Show Me PACE was established under this law as a Clean Energy Development Board. PACE financing allows property...

  16. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films Title: Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal ...

  17. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  18. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  19. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  20. Polymer solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  1. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William; Dietz, Steven

    2004-05-18

    A polymer is prepared by polymerizing a polymerizable component from a mixture containing the polymerizable component and a surfactant, the surfactant and the polymerizable component being present in the mixture in a molar ratio of at least 0.2:1, having an average pore size greater than 4 nm and a density greater than 0.1 g/cc. The polymerizable component can comprise a resorcinol/formaldehyde system and the mixture can comprise an aqueous solution or the polymerizable component can comprise a divinylbenzene/styrene system and the mixture can comprise an organic solution. Alternatively, the polymerizable component can comprise vinylidene chloride or a vinylidene chloride/divinylbenzene system. The polymer may be monolithic, have a BET surface area of at least about 50 m.sup.2 /g., include a quantity of at least one metal powder, or have an electrical conductivity greater than 10 Scm.sup.-1.

  2. Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-07-10

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

  3. Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-07-10

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

  4. Function Robust and Asymmetric Polymer Vesicles. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Robust and Asymmetric Polymer Vesicles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Paxton, Walter F ; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio 1 + Show Author Affiliations Sandia National Laboratories,...

  5. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  6. Shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polymers Title: Shape memory polymers New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape ...

  7. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications...

  8. Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Concentrated Polymer Solutions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Authors: Kim, So Youn ; Zukoski, Charles F. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UIUC) [UIUC Publication Date: 2014-02-13 OSTI Identifier: 1095372 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  9. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.; Carter, R.M.

    1998-09-29

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor. 3 figs.

  10. IBA on functional polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong, M. P. de; Simons, D. P. L.; Ijzendoorn, L. J. van; Voigt, M. J. A. de; Reijme, M. A.; Denier van der Gon, A. W.; Brongersma, H. H.

    1999-06-10

    The analysis of element distributions in polymer-based structures using IBA techniques offers the possibility to study a variety of interesting problems, in particular diffusion and reaction phenomena. Indium diffusion in model polymer light emitting diodes (p-LEDs) consisting of a stack Al/poly-(phenylenevinylene)/indium-tin-oxide/glass has been studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). A second example is provided by the analysis of organic optical gratings, in which the diffusion of labeled monomers during holographic photo-polymerization of photo-reactive monomer mixtures has been studied with {mu}PIXE using a scanning proton microprobe. Since polymers are sensitive to ion irradiation, a new RBS/ERDA set-up has been constructed that is equipped with a sample holder mounted on a closed cycle helium refrigerator, which enables the cooling of samples to cryogenic temperatures to suppress damage under ion bombardment.

  11. Electrochemical storage cell containing a substituted anisole or di-anisole redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection and suitable for use in liquid organic and solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.; Tian, Minmin

    2000-01-01

    A electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode, a solid polymer electrolyte, and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging selected from the group consisting of: (a) a substituted anisole having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR1## where R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of H, OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, and OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of OCH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, OCH.sub.2 phenyl, and O.sup.- Li.sup.+ ; and (b) a di-anisole compound having the general formula (in an uncharged state): ##STR2## where R is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 and -CH.sub.3, m is either 1 or 0, n is either 1 or 0, and X is selected from the group consisting of -OCH.sub.3 (methoxy) or its lithium salt --O.sup.- Li.sup.+. The lithium salt of the di-anisole is the preferred form of the redox shuttle additive because the shuttle anion will then initially have a single negative charge, it loses two electrons when it is oxidized at the cathode, and then moves toward the anode as a single positively charged species where it is then reduced to a single negatively charged species by gaining back two electrons.

  12. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P.; Talhi, Abdelhafid; Taylor, Craig M.

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  13. Superlattices Patterned by Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superlattices Patterned by Polymers Superlattices Patterned by Polymers Print Wednesday, 30 March 2016 13:31 Scientists have shown that self-assembled superlattices, made up of nanoparticles with polymer chains grafted onto their surfaces ("hairy nanoparticles," or polymer "brushes"), can be tailored to exhibit desired characteristics for applications ranging from nano- to biotechnology. Such multicomponent polymer-nanoparticle composites represent an important class of

  14. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

  15. Shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape ...

  16. Polymer system for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon; Whinnery, LeRoy L.

    2000-01-01

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  17. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon; Whinnery, LeRoy L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  18. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition is described comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. 1 fig.

  19. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  20. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell; Anthony K.; Jia; Quanxi; Lin; Yuan

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  1. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  2. Guidelines for Supplier, Vendor Shows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guidelines for Supplier, Vendor Shows Guidelines for SupplierVendor or Professional Local Trade FairsShows As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks...

  3. Polymer escape from a confining potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mkknen, Harri; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavk ; Ikonen, Timo; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT ; Jnsson, Hannes; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavk; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 ; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843

    2014-02-07

    The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.

  4. Frederic Laquai Seminar: Photocurrent Generation in Low-Bandgap Polymer and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells | Center for Energy Efficient Materials Frederic Laquai Seminar: Photocurrent Generation in Low-Bandgap Polymer and Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells Apr 18, 2014 | 3:30 PM - 4:30 PM Frederic Laquai Head, Max Planck Research Group for Organic Optoelectronics Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research Photocurrent Generation in Low-Bandgap Polymer and Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells April 18, 2014 | 3:30pm | Elings Hall (CNSI) 1605 Faculty host: Quyen

  5. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  6. Polymer gel molds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walls, Claudia A.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Janney, Mark A.; McMillan, April D.; Kirby, Glen H.

    2002-01-01

    A polymer gel is formed into a mold defining a preselected shape. A flowable composition may be formed into a preselected shape via contact with the polymer gel mold.

  7. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  9. Show Tips | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Show Tips Show Tips These guidelines are designed to help you prepare for exhibiting. Be sure that you are fully prepared before the event begins. Get Your Badge You will need a ...

  10. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR

  11. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter; Fontana, Jack J.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  12. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  13. Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar Cells Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar Cells Print Monday, 07 January 2013 00:00 Harald Ade, a physicist at North Carolina State University, led a study at the Advanced Light Source that revealed a second pathway to improved performances of polymer/organic solar cells. Whereas the first pathway demands crystals of ultrapure domains, the new pathway shows that impure domains if sufficiently small can

  14. Backstage at the Daily Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backstage footage from Secretary Chu's appearance on the Daily Show where he discuses the green room candy dish and possible lighting considerations.

  15. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  16. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  17. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Our results do not show a significant influence of nutrient regime on alternate production of surfactants or polymers. less Authors: Jorge Gabitto ; Maria Barrufet Publication ...

  18. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Our results do not show a significant influence of nutrient regime on alternate production of surfactants or polymers. less Authors: Jorge Gabitto ; Maria Barrufet Publication ...

  19. Understanding and Design of Polymer Device Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, Antoine

    2015-10-26

    The research performed under grant DE-FG02-04ER46165 between May 2008 and April 2011 focused on the understanding and control of interfaces of organic semiconductors in general, and polymer interfaces more specifically. This work was a joined effort by three experimentalists and a theoretician. Emphasis was placed on the determination of the electronic structure of these interfaces, i.e. the relative energy position of molecular levels across these interfaces. From these electronic structures depend the injection, extraction and transport of charge carriers into, from and across, respectively, all (opto)electronic devices made of these semiconductors. A significant fraction of our work focused on ways to modify and optimize interfaces, for example via chemical doping of the semiconductors to reduce interface energy barriers or via deposition of ultra-thin work function-reducing polymer or self-assembled monolayers of dipolar molecules. Another significant fraction of our work was devoted to exploring alternate and unconventional interface formation methods, in particular the soft-contact lamination of both metal contacts and polymer overlayers on top of polymer films. These methods allowed us to better understand the impact of hot metal atom evaporation on a soft organic surface, as well as the key mechanisms that control the energetics of polymer/polymer heterojunctions. Finally, a significant fraction of the research was directed to understanding the electronic structure of buried polymer heterojunctions, in particular within donor/acceptor blends of interest in organic photovoltaic applications. The work supported by this grant resulted in 17 publications in some of the best peer-reviewed journals of the field, as well as numerous presentations at US and international conferences.

  20. Benzodithiophene Based Semiconducting Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers » Working Here » Benefits Benefits Enjoy First Rate Federal Career Benefits As a DOE employee, you'll have access to exceptional Federal benefits with a variety of plan options that often exceed those offered in the private sector. In addition, you'll have competitive remuneration, continuous learning opportunities, and paid time off to help you construct an enjoyable work-life balance. You'll benefit from: Great salary Recruitment incentives Personal leave (vacation) Sick leave

  1. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  2. Silylene-diethynyl-arylene polymers having liquid crystalline properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ding, Yiwei

    1993-09-07

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including diethynyl-(substituted)arylene units, and a process for their preparation. These novel polymers possess useful properties including electrical conductivity, liquid crystallinity, and/or photoluminescence. These polymers possess good solubility in organic solvents. A preferred example is produced according to the following reaction scheme. ##STR1## These polymers can be solvent-cast to yield excellent films and can also be pulled into fibers from concentrated solutions. All possess substantial crystallinity as revealed by DSC analysis and observation through a polarizing microscope, and possess liquid crystalline properties.

  3. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  4. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  5. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  6. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1 with lesser effects in Pattern 2. These early observations did not continue to develop. The oil production for both patterns remained fairly constant to the rates established by the restart of waterflooding. The water production declined but stabilized in both patterns. The stabilization of the oil at prepolymer rates and water production at the lower rates can be attributed to the polymer injection, but the effect was not as great as originally predicted. The sweep improvement for the patterns appeared to be negatively impacted by extended shutdowns in the injection and production systems. Such problems as those experienced in this project can be expected when long-term polymer injection is started in old waterflood fields. To prevent these problems, new injection and production tubulars and pumps would be required at a cost prohibitive to the present, independent operators. Unless the future results from the continued waterflood show positive effects of the long-term polymer injection, it appears that the batch-type polymer treatment may have more promise than the long-term treatment and should be more cost effective.

  7. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm-3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application ofmore » infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.« less

  8. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm-3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.

  9. Superlattices Patterned by Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grafted onto their surfaces ("hairy nanoparticles," or polymer "brushes"), can be tailored to exhibit desired characteristics for applications ranging from nano- to biotechnology. ...

  10. Polymer Engineering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... * DEA is suitable for online- measurements of phase transitions in composite manufacturing Conclusions Summary Polymer Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Prof. ...

  11. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same

  12. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed

  13. Colorometric detection of water using MOF-polymer films and composites

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Colorometric detection of water using MOF-polymer films and composites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Colorometric detection of water using MOF-polymer films and composites A method including exposing a mixture of a porous metal organic framework (MOF) and a polymer to a predetermined molecular species, wherein the MOF has an open metal site for the predetermined molecular species and the polymer has a porosity for the predetermined molecular species;

  14. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  15. Polymers incorporating covalently attached organoimido polyoxometalates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maatta, Eric A.; Moore, Aaron R.

    2004-03-16

    New polyoxometalate compounds and polymers comprising recurring monomers of those compounds are provided. The compounds are formed by replacing at least one oxide of the starting polyoxometalate with an organoimido (NR) group bonded to the polyoxometalate via a triple bond to the nitrogen atom. The R of the (NR) group comprises a reactive functional group which renders the compound readily polymerizable, alone or with other monomers (e.g., divinylbenzene), to form the inventive polymers. Additionally, a countercation (e.g., bis(tetra-n-butylammonium)) can be mixed with the polyoxometalate compounds in order to neutralize the negative charge thereof as well as to make those compounds more soluble in organic solvents.

  16. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  17. Molecular modeling of responsive polymer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Calvo, Ernesto J; Szleifer, Igal

    2010-06-29

    In this perspective, we have shown three different cases of responsive polymers at surfaces where the properties of the surface can be varied in response to cues from the bulk solution or in the presence of an external field. The most important conclusion in all three cases is that the chemical reaction equilibrium, physical interactions and molecular organization are strongly coupled, and it is imperative to consider the global and local changes that occur to the surface structure and properties due to this coupling. In particular acid-base and redox equilibrium are very different in polymer-modified surfaces than in the corresponding bulk solutions. Moreover, the definition of apparent redox potentials and apparent pKaresults from the averaging over highly inhomogeneous values,and, therefore, they do not necessarily represent the state of the layer and the local values and their variation are very important for the design of functional surfaces. The very large variation on chemical equilibrium results from the optimization of all the interactions. The picture that emerges is that trying to deduce what the final state of the system is by looking at the individual optimization of each contribution leads to qualitative incorrect assumptions and only the minimization of the complete free energy leads to the proper behavior in these complex systems.In the cases where domain formation is possible in grafted weak polyacid layers charge regulation may lead to regimes of coexistence between aggregates with relatively low fraction of charged polymer segments surrounded by highly stretched chains that have a relatively high fraction of charged groups.Therefore, one can control the state of charge, local electrostatic potential and local pH in all three dimensions with im-portant gradients on length scales of nanometers. For hydrophobic redox polymers we show how the application of an electrode potential can lead to changes in the structure and type of morphological aggregates that can form on the surface.Again, these structures result from the optimization of chemical redox equilibrium, conformational entropy, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, changes in domains structure can manifest themselves in the capacitance-potential curves and then provide a link between macroscopic measurements and the formation of nanoscopic domains. It is clear that chemical engineers are in a unique position to use these switchable surfaces in the molecular design of sensors, biosensors, separation devices, microfluidic devices with on-off environmental switches and drug delivery systems among many others. Finally, we want to stress that the application of molecular theories, where the coupling between chemical equilibrium, physical interactions and molecular organization are explicitly included provide with quantitative predictions of the layers properties, as compared with experimental observations, and enable the fundamental understanding of the observed behavior. Moreover, the theory provides with a detailed microscopic picture and should be used as an integral part in the design of functional and responsive surfaces. It is important to emphasize that the molecular approaches are not exact, and, therefore, there is a need to continue their development and the incorporation of improved approximations to further broaden their applicability.

  18. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2007-11-27

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.

  19. Method of making soluble polyacetylenic and polyaromatic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud; Liepins, Raimond

    1985-01-01

    A soluble polyene polymer and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is of the class suitable for doping to produce an electrically conductive polymer. The method is generally applicable to acetylenic and aromatic monomers, proven examples of which include acetylene, benzene, anthracene and napthalene. In accordance with the method, the monomer is dissolved in arsenic trifluoride. Arsenic pentafluoride is then introduced into the solution to induce polymerization by what is speculated to be an ionic polymerization reaction. The resulting polymer differs from other polyene polymers in that it is soluble in common organic solvents, and further in that it can be melted without undergoing decomposition, thereby rendering it particularly suitable for processing to form various polymeric articles.

  20. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E.

    2012-04-03

    A polyamide membrane comprising reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst; and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant comprising one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane comprising the polyamide membrane on a porous support. A method of making a composite semipermeable membrane by coating a porous support with an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, a polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, to form an activated pre-polymer layer on the porous support and contacting the activated pre-polymer layer with an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional amine-reactive reactant to interfacially condense the amine-reactive reactant with the polyfunctional secondary amine, thereby forming a cross-linked, interfacial polyamide layer on the porous support. A method of impregnating a composite semipermeable membrane with nanoparticles selected from heavy metals and/or oxides of heavy metals.

  1. Colorometric detection of water using MOF-polymer films and composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Talin, Albert Alec

    2016-05-24

    A method including exposing a mixture of a porous metal organic framework (MOF) and a polymer to a predetermined molecular species, wherein the MOF has an open metal site for the predetermined molecular species and the polymer has a porosity for the predetermined molecular species; and detecting a color change of the MOF in the presence of the predetermined molecular species. A method including combining a porous metal organic framework (MOF) and a polymer, wherein the MOF has an open metal site for a predetermined molecular species and the polymer has a porosity for the predetermined molecular species. An article of manufacture including a mixture of a porous metal organic framework (MOF) and a polymer, wherein the MOF has an open metal site for a predetermined molecular species and the polymer has a porosity for the predetermined molecular species.

  2. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  3. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  4. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alnassar, M. Alfadhel, A.; Ivanov, Yu. P.; Kosel, J.

    2015-05-07

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156?mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  5. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For ...

  6. Microgreen Polymers Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microgreen Polymers Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Microgreen Polymers, Inc. Place: Washington State Zip: WA 98223 Product: MicroGREEN Polymers is an emerging technology...

  7. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  8. Organimetallic Fluorescent Complex Polymers For Light Emitting Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Song Q.; So, Franky

    1997-10-28

    A fluorescent complex polymer with fluorescent organometallic complexes connected by organic chain spacers is utilized in the fabrication of light emitting devices on a substantially transparent planar substrate by depositing a first conductive layer having p-type conductivity on the planar surface of the substrate, depositing a layer of a hole transporting and electron blocking material on the first conductive layer, depositing a layer of the fluorescent complex polymer on the layer of hole transporting and electron blocking material as an electron transporting emissive layer and depositing a second conductive layer having n-type conductivity on the layer of fluorescent complex polymer.

  9. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  10. Antithrombogenic Polymer Coating.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhi Heng; McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2003-01-21

    An article having a non-thrombogenic surface and a process for making the article are disclosed. The article is formed by (i) coating a polymeric substrate with a crosslinked chemical combination of a polymer having at least two amino substituted side chains, a crosslinking agent containing at least two crosslinking functional groups which react with amino groups on the polymer, and a linking agent containing a first functional group which reacts with a third functional group of the crosslinking agent, and (ii) contacting the coating on the substrate with an antithrombogenic agent which covalently bonds to a second functional group of the linking agent. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone, the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, the linking agent is a polyhydrazide and the antithrombogenic agent is heparin.

  11. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  12. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  13. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  14. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures with conductance switching properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Kai; Nuraje, Nurxat; Zhang, Lingzhi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yang, Nan Loh

    2015-03-03

    The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.

  15. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  16. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, David M.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  17. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100.degree. C.

  18. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100 C.

  19. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  20. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  1. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  2. Mesoporous carbons and polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, William; Dietz, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A mesoporous material prepared by polymerizing a resorcinol/formaldehyde system from an aqueous solution containing resorcinol, formaldehyde and a surfactant and optionally pyrolyzing the polymer to form a primarily carbonaceous solid. The material has an average pore size between 4 and 75 nm and is suitable for use in liquid-phase surface limited applications, including sorbent, catalytic, and electrical applications.

  3. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Peter F.

    2015-01-13

    Executive Summary Our work was devoted to understanding the structure and properties of a class of thin film polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). PNCs are composed of polymer hosts into which nanoparticles (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, C60, nanotubes) are incorporated. PNCs exhibit a diverse range of functional properties (optical, electronic, mechanical, biomedical, structural), determined in part by the chemical composition of the polymer host and the type of nanoparticle. The properties PNCs rely not only on specific functional, size-dependent, behavior of the nanoparticles, but also on the dispersion, and organizational order in some cases, inter-nanoparticle separation distances, and on relative interactions between the nanoparticles and the host. Therefore the scientific challenges associated with understanding the interrelations between the structure and function/properties of PNCs are far more complex than may be understood based only on the knowledge of the compositions of the constituents. The challenges of understanding the structure-function behavior of PNCs are further compounded by the fact that control of the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer hosts is difficult; one must learn how to disperse inorganic particles within an organic host. The goal of this proposal was to develop an understanding of the connection between the structure and the thermal (glass transition), mechanical and optical properties of a specific class of PNCs. Specifically PNCs composed of polymer chain grafted gold nanoparticles within polymer hosts. A major objective was to understand how to develop basic principles that enable the fabrication of functional materials possessing optimized morphologies and combinations of materials properties. Accomplishments: We developed: (1) fundamental principles that enabled the creation of thin film PNCs possessing more complex morphologies of homopolymers and block copolymer micellar systems [1-6]; (2) a new understanding of physical phenomena associated with the structure of PNC systems and the glass transition and dynamics [7-11], including surface dynamics [12, 13]; designed PNCs to understand the connection between structure and specific optical responses of the material [14, 15]; electrorheological phenomena [16-18]; coarsening/aggregation phenomena [19, 20]; directed assembly [21] and elastic mechanical properties of thin supported films [22]. We established procedures to design and control the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), onto which polystyrene (PS) chains were end-grafted, within thin film PS hosts.[1-3] We explained how enthalpic and entropic interactions between the grafted layers and the polymer host chains, the nanoparticle (NP) sizes and shapes determine the spatial distribution of NPs within the host (i.e.: the morphology). In brief, the chemistries of the grafted chains and the polymer hosts, the degrees of polymerization of grafted and host chains (N and P, respectively), and the surface grafting densities Σ influence the thermodynamic interactions. Thin films are unique: the external interfaces (substrate and free surface) profoundly influence the spatial distribution of NPs within the PNC. For example, thin films are thermodynamically less stable than their bulk analogs due to the preferential attraction between the brush-coated nanoparticles and the external interfaces (i.e.: the free surface/polymer interface and the polymer/substrate interface). We investigated the organization of the brush-coated nanoparticles within a host composed on block copolymer micelles in a homopolymer [4, 5]. Block copolymers, composed of a polymer of type A that is bonded covalently to another polymer of type B (A-b-B) are known to form micelles within homopolymers A or B. A micelle is composed of an inner core of the A component of the copolymer and an outer corona of the B-component, that resides within homopolymer B, which serves as the host. If the host is the A homopolymer then the core of the micelle is composed of the B component of the copolymer. One important objective in applications such as drug delivery is to incorporate nanoparticles into micelles. We developed phase diagrams and demonstrated how the nanoparticle could be located in different regions (micelle cores, interfaces, hompolymer hosts) of the system, based on manipulating the thermodynamic interactions [4, 5]. This work will enable the design of new PNC materials with specific functional properties. In a separate series of experiments, we investigated the connection between structure and dynamics of polymer systems composed on mixtures of BCPs with homopolymer hosts. We investigated the dynamics of the individual polymeric constituents within pure copolymers and within micelles confined within different polymer hosts. Interestingly the dynamics manifested the structure of the local environment. In other words, the dynamics of chains of type-A within a copolymer, or in the pure homopolymer, or within a micelle were different. This has practical as well as technological implications. The latter is related to the potential design of polymer membranes. In another series of experiments we investigated the dynamics of polymer chains at the free surface of a polymer/polymer blend of polystyrene and poly vinyl methyl ether (PS/PVME) and or a nanocomposite for which PS/PVME is the host [12, 13]. These measurements were performed using the sophisticated technique, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). We showed for the first time how the surface dynamics of a single component could be orders of magnitude faster than the same component in the bulk of the sample. This has implications toward understanding the interrelations between the surface dynamics, the structure and other properties. Having developed strategies to tailor the spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) of different sizes within polystyrene (PS) thin, supported, film hosts, we demonstrated the connection between the spatial distribution of Au-NPs within the polymer film and the optical properties (i.e.: surface plasmon response) [14, 15]. The optical spectra of samples (surface plasmon) manifest features associated with differences between the size and interparticle spacings as well as the proximity and organization of nanoparticles at the substrate and free surface. We also investigated a well know phenomenon that occurs in physical systems that include condensation, phase separation and coarsening in liquid/liquid mixtures, metal alloys etc. Parenthetically, symmetric BCPs self organize to form lamellar morphologies. Such BCPs form thin films on substrates, with free surfaces characterized by topographic structures of thickness equal to the interlamellar spacing. We showed that these surface structures coarsen in a manner reminiscent of 2-dimensional phase ordering systems of binary alloys, where the growth is self-similar, governed by classical capillarity driven Ostwald ripening and coalescence mechanisms. The coarsening dynamics in BCP/nanoparticle thin films, the dynamics are considerably slower, and the mechanism of coarsening occurs predominantly via coalescence. Our studies also involved the discovery and scientific explanation of the electrorheological behavior (this program provided partial support) of a specific new polymer/nanoparticle system [16-18]. It shows how the application of an electric field to the system, results in a significant increase in the mechanical strength, due to an electric field-induced change in the polarization of the system.

  4. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  5. Sulfur cathode hosted in porous organic polymeric matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Weng, Wei; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil

    2016-02-09

    A composite material includes a porous organic polymer and an electrochemically active material, wherein the porous organic polymer contains a plurality of pores having a diameter of from about 0.1 nm to about 100 nm, and the electrochemically active material is disposed within the pores.

  6. Enhanced photophysics of conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai; Xu, Su; McBranch, Duncan; Whitten, David

    2003-05-27

    The addition of oppositely charged surfactant to fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer forms a polymer-surfactant complex that exhibits at least one improved photophysical property. The conjugated polymer is a fluorescent ionic polymer that typically has at least one ionic side chain or moiety that interacts with the specific surfactant selected. The photophysical property improvements may include increased fluorescence quantum efficiency, wavelength-independent emission and absorption spectra, and more stable fluorescence decay kinetics. The complexation typically occurs in a solution of a polar solvent in which the polymer and surfactant are soluble, but it may also occur in a mixture of solvents. The solution is commonly prepared with a surfactant molecule:monomer repeat unit of polymer ratio ranging from about 1:100 to about 1:1. A polymer-surfactant complex precipitate is formed as the ratio approaches 1:1. This precipitate is recoverable and usable in many forms.

  7. Organization-About-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Mission Statement (PDF) Organization Contact Us organization This webpage is provided for legacy archive purposes only, as of 30 April 2015. The day to day operations of the University of Massachusetts Amherst PHaSE EFRC are administered by co-directors. Russell is the Samuel Conte Distingushed Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering, with years of previous experience at IBM Research, over 620 publications and 21 patents for polymer chemistry and physics. Lahti has over 29 years at

  8. Solution Processable n-Type Perylene Diimide Copolymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Z.; Cormier, R. A.; Nardes, A. M.; Gregg, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Perylene diimides are known as promising n-type semiconductor building blocks. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a set of three soluble poly(perylene diimide)s and their preliminary characterization in organic photovoltaic cells. These polymers are made through the polycondensation of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with a variety of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- or poly(propylene glycol) (PPG)-based diamine comonomers. The flexible spacer offers increased solubility in organic solvents and allows the perylene core to assume a conformation that promotes favorable cofacial {pi}-{pi} interactions. Mixtures of these polymers with the hole-transporting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) result in significant fluorescence quenching. However, the phase separation occurs on a scale too large for a bulk heterojunction solar cell. The PPGylated poly(perylene diimide) shows an unusually low free electron concentration ({approx}1.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) and therefore makes an excellent model system for future doping studies. These new polymers may have promise as stable electron-conductive layers with large light-absorptivities in solution-processable applications of organic electronics.

  9. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  10. polymers produced by nature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polymers produced by nature - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  11. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  12. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Show Me Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Show Me Ethanol, LLC Place: Carrollton, Missouri Zip: 64633 Product: Developing an ethanol project in Carrollton, Missouri....

  13. Detroit Auto Show 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit Auto Show 2012 Detroit Auto Show 2012 Addthis 1 of 10 Energy Secretary Steven Chu with Chrysler Chief Executive Sergio Marchionne. Image: Hantz Leger (Energy Department ...

  14. Semipermeable polymers and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Wayne E

    2014-04-01

    A polyamide membrane including reaction product of an anhydrous solution comprising an anhydrous solvent, at least one polyfunctional secondary amine and a pre-polymer deposition catalyst, and an anhydrous, organic solvent solution comprising a polyfunctional aromatic amine-reactive reactant having one ring. A composite semipermeable membrane including the polyamide membrane on a porous support.

  15. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  16. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  17. Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Charge-transfer absorption and emission in polymer: fullerene solar cells April 13, 2010 at 3pm/36-428 Koen Vandewal Linköping University vandewal-small abstract: For an efficient conversion of photons to electrons by organic materials, the presence of a material interface between an electron donating and electron accepting material is crucial. Most successful active layers for organic solar cells today comprise a blend of conjugated polymers as electron

  18. An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Authors: Peterson, Dominic S. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-01-29 OSTI Identifier: 1119594 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-20527 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos

  19. Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    triblock copolymers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Authors: Black Ramirez, A. L. ; Schmitt, A. K. ; Mahanthappa, M. K. ; Craig, S. L. [1] ; Duke) [2] + Show Author Affiliations UW ( Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235465 Resource Type: Journal

  20. The Paris Motor Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Paris Motor Show The Paris Motor Show October 4, 2010 - 9:39am Addthis David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow David Sandalow Former Under Secretary of Energy (Acting) and Assistant Secretary for Policy & International Affairs At the Paris Motor Show today, electric cars are everywhere. Chevrolet is showing off the Volt, its plug-in hybrid due in U.S. showrooms this December. (Motown music blared as a Chevy rep

  1. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  2. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  3. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  4. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  5. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  6. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  7. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  8. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  9. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  10. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z.; Davey, John R.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  11. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  12. Energetic Barrier Prevents Recombination in Organic Solar Photoconversion Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    NREL researchers unravel the factors that affect charge generation and loss in high-performance conjugated polymer-fullerene blends used in organic solar cells.

  13. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Fred D.; Hatch, Melvin J.; Shepitka, Joel S.; Donaruma, Lorraine G.

    1986-01-01

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  14. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  15. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  16. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Ames Laboratory Contact ... Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a process for producing more efficient polymer ...

  17. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  18. Microfluidic Polymer Valves - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact SNL About This Technology Check valve incorporating a mobile polymer
    monolith into a multiple-level silica microchannel. Check valve incorporating a mobile polymer ...

  19. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation PDF icon polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & ...

  20. Shape memory polymer medical device (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer medical device Title: Shape memory polymer medical device A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport ...

  1. Polymer Technology Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polymer Technology Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polymer Technology Corp Place: Menomonie, Wisconsin Zip: 54751 Sector: Services Product: A provider of contract...

  2. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also

  3. Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer treatment Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment Scientists have observed for the first time how a laser penetrates dense, electron-rich plasma to generate ions. ...

  4. Structural and Evolutionary Analyses Show Unique Stabilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Structural and Evolutionary Analyses Show Unique Stabilization Strategies in the Type IV Pili of Clostridium difficile Authors: Piepenbrink, Kurt H. ; Maldarelli, Grace A. ; ...

  5. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  6. Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.

    2013-11-28

    Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.

  7. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrissopoulou, K.; Fotiadou, S.; Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K.; Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M.; Frick, B.

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  8. DOE Booth Presentations From Grainger Show 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE hosted its solid-state lighting informational booth February 16–18 at the annual Grainger Show in Orlando, FL. With over 17,000 attendees and over 750 exhibitors, the show gathered a wide range of Grainger customers—from universities to large hotel chains as well as Grainger team members to learn the latest about LED lighting.

  9. 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  10. 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington Auto Show 2013 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:49 3 of 10 Energy

  11. 2015 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Washington Auto Show 2015 Washington Auto Show Addthis Moniz Delivers Keynote Remarks 1 of 10 Moniz Delivers Keynote Remarks Secretary Moniz touted the Department's investments in advanced vehicle technologies, infrastructure and manufacturing. Photo by Sarah Gerrity Date taken: 2015-01-22 04:33 Secretary Moniz Announces More than $55M in Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Funding 2 of 10 Secretary Moniz Announces More than $55M in Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Funding The funding opportunities will go towards a

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  14. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  15. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  16. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  17. Non-strinking siloxane polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2001-01-01

    Cross-linked polymers formed by ring-opening polymerization of a precursor monomer of the general formula R[CH.sub.2 CH(Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.2, where R is a phenyl group or an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms. A cross-linked polymer is synthesized by mixing the monomer with a co-monomer of the general formula CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O in the presence of an anionic base to form a cross-linked polymer of recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2 [CH.sub.2 CHR.sup.2 (SiMe.sub.2).sub.2 O].sub.n, where R.sup.2 is hydrogen, phenyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl. If the precursor monomer is a liquid, the polymer can be directly synthesized in the presence of an anionic base to a cross-linked polymer containing recurring units of the general formula R(Me.sub.2 SiOCH.sub.2 CHSiMe.sub.2).sub.2. The polymers have approximately less than 1% porosity and are thermally stable at temperatures up to approximately 500.degree. C. The conversion to the cross-linked polymer occurs by ring opening polymerization and results in shrinkage of less than approximately 5% by volume.

  18. The Workshop on Conductive Polymers: Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1985-10-01

    Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

  19. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  20. Geothermal Energy Featured on NBC's Today Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Iceland, there are five major geothermal power plants which produce about 26% (2006) of the country's electricity. In addition, geothermal heating meets the heating and hot water requirements for around 87% of the nation's buildings. As part of its "Ends of the Earth" series, NBC's Today Show presented a feature on the use of geothermal energy in Iceland.

  1. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. Gasoline price shows small increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  4. Polymer and Composite Materials Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office and Sandia National Laboratories held a Polymer and Composite Materials Meeting on October 17–18, 2012, in Washington, D.C., to share...

  5. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  6. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  7. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  8. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  9. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  10. Polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites and their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2007-01-09

    Polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites that exhibit superior properties compared to the polymer alone, and methods-for producing these polymer-phyllosilicate nanocomposites, are provided. Polymeric surfactant compatabilizers are adsorbed onto the surface of hydrophilic or natural phyllosilicates to facilitate the dispersal and exfoliation of the phyllosilicate in a polymer matrix. Utilizing polymeric glycol based surfactants, polymeric dicarboxylic acids, polymeric diammonium surfactants, and polymeric diamine surfactants as compatabilizers facilitates natural phyllosilicate and hydrophilic organoclay dispersal in a polymer matrix to produce nanocomposites.

  11. Soluble polyacetylenic and polyaromatic polymers and method of mking the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Liepins, R.

    1983-12-16

    A soluble polyene polymer and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is of the class suitable for doping to produce an electrically conductive polymer. The method is generally applicable to acetylenic and aromatic monomers, proven examples of which include acetylene, benzene, anthracene and napthalene. In accordance with the method, the monomer is dissolved in arsenic trifluoride. Arsenic pentafluoride is then introduced into the solution to induce polymerization by what is speculated to be an ionic polymerization reaction. The resulting polymer differs from other polyene polymers in that it is soluble in common organic solvents, and further in that it can be melted without undergoing decomposition, thereby rendering it particularly suitable for processing to form various polymeric articles.

  12. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  13. Polymer compositions based on PXE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit

    2015-09-15

    New polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about 210.degree. C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers.

  14. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Shanlin

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an electrochemical cell. For example, we are able to use this technique to track electroluminescence of single Au NPs, and the electrodeposition of individual Ag NPs in-situ. These metallic NPs are useful to enhance light harvesting in organic photovoltaic systems. The scattering at the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) working electrode was measured during a potential sweep. Utilizing Mie scattering theory and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the scattering data were used to calculate current-potential curves depicting the electrodeposition of individual Ag NPs. The oxidation of individual presynthesized and electrodeposited Ag NPs was also investigated using fluorescence and DFS microscopies. Our work has produced 1 US provisional patent, 15 published manuscripts, 1 submitted and two additional in-writing manuscripts. 5 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral student, 1 visiting professor, and two undergraduate students have received research training in the area of electrochemistry and optical spectroscopy under support of this award.

  15. Gasoline price shows small increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the New England States, at 3.52 a gallon, down 1/10 of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest at 2.87 a gallon in the Rocky Mountain States, with the biggest regional price drop at close to 7 cents.

  16. Biodegradation of polymer coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.R.; Walch, M.; Jones-Meehan, J.

    1994-12-31

    Conventional paint removal methods include chemical stripping with VOCs blasting with plastic media, and delamination with high pressure water. These methods have many limitations, in that they are labor intensive, pose human health risks, are relatively expensive and pose significant waste disposal problems. However, polymeric coatings are known to contain structural components, such as ester, amide and urea linkages, that can be degraded biologically. The authors are working to develop a stable, enzyme-based, non-toxic paint stripping strategy that will be environmentally safe and cost effective. The specific objectives are to identify and characterize microbial systems capable of degrading polymeric coatings, to develop a quantitative degradation assay and to optimize activity levels for subsequent purification and concentration of the biological products required for rapid degradation of coatings. A water-dispersed colloid of an ester-based polyurethane polymer has been used in solid growth medium to screen about 100 different bacteria for microbial degradation activity. Those with demonstrable activity have been grown in the presence of epoxy-polyamide paint- and polyester polyurethane paint-coated aluminum coupons. The authors have demonstrated delamination under certain conditions and have developed a spectrophotometric method for quantitating degradation activity as a function of dye release.

  17. Shape memory polymers (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Shape memory polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape memory polymers New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be

  18. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  19. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  20. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  1. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films A polymer assisted ...

  2. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stretchable polymer-based electronic device Title: Stretchable polymer-based electronic device A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to ...

  3. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers Title: Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, ...

  4. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ...

  5. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  6. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  7. Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Kim, Jang Sub; Pawlow, James H.; Murtuza, Shahid; Kacker, Smita; Wojcinski, III, Louis M.

    2001-01-01

    Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

  8. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  9. Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem Devices |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem Devices March 2, 2010 at 3pm/36-428 René Janssen Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of Technology ReneJanssen2-small_000 abstract: Polymer solar cells offer an opportunity for low-cost, large area renewable energy production. These devices use a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors with energy levels that lead to intermolecular charge transfer after

  10. Alejandro Briseño: Department of Polymer Science and Engineering,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Massachusetts Amherst | Center for Energy Efficient Materials Alejandro Briseño: Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst Feb 20, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM Alejandro Briseño Department of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst Dow logo Professor Briseño has been selected as the 2014 UC Santa Barbara Dow Distinguished Lecturer Crystal Chemistry, Molecular Order, and Charge Transport at Organic Semiconductor

  11. Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service- Meeting Proceedings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the results from an information-sharing meeting on the use of polymer and composite materials in hydrogen applications. The meeting, which was organized by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Office and Sandia National Laboratories staff along with consultant Jim Ohi, was held on October 17-18, 2012, in Washington, D.C.

  12. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Functionalization of polymer powders for SLS-processes using an atmospheric plasma jet in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmitt, Adeliene; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst

    2015-05-22

    Recently additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers have gained more importance for industrial applications [1]. Tailor-made modification of polymers is essential in order to make these processes more efficient and to cover the industrial demands. The so far used polymer materials show weak performance regarding the mechanical stability of processed parts. To overcome this limitation, a new route to functionalize the surface of commercially available polymer particles (PA12; PE-HD; PP) using an atmospheric plasma jet in combination with a fluidized bed reactor has been investigated. Consequently, an improvement of adhesion and wettability [2] of the polymer surface without restraining the bulk properties of the powder is achieved. The atmospheric plasma jet process can provide reactive species at moderate temperatures which are suitable for polymer material. The functionalization of the polymer powders improves the quality of the devices build in a SLS-process.

  14. Interfacial Widths of Conjugated Polymer Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NCSU; UC Berkeley; UCSB; Advanced Light Source; Garcia, Andres; Yan, Hongping; Sohn, Karen E.; Hexemer, Alexander; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Kramer, Edward J.; Ade, Harald

    2009-08-13

    The interfaces of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) bilayers cast from differential solvents are shown by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSoXR) to be very smooth and sharp. The chemical interdiffusion due to casting is limited to less than 0.6 nm, and the interface created is thus nearly 'molecularly' sharp. These results demonstrate for the first time and with high precision that the nonpolar MEH-PPV layer is not much disturbed by casting the CPE layer from a polar solvent. A baseline is established for understanding the role of interfacial structure in determining the performance of CPE-based polymer light-emitting diodes. More broadly, we anticipate further applications of RSoXR as an important tool in achieving a deeper understanding of other multilayer organic optoelectronic devices, including multilayer photovoltaic devices.

  15. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linton, Dias; Dadmun, Mark D; Sumpter, Bobby G; Teh, Say-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donoracceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  16. Controlling Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate the Dispersion of Fullerenes in Polymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G

    2011-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are materials based on a class of filled plastics that contain relatively small amounts of nanoparticles, which can impart improved structural, mechanical, and thermal properties relative to the neat polymer. However, the homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles into a polymer matrix is critical and an impeding factor for the controlled enhancement of PNC properties. In this work, we provide new insight into the importance of polymer chain connectivity and nanoparticle shape and curvature on the formation of noncovalent electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between polymers and nanoparticles. This is accomplished by experimentally monitoring the dispersion of nanoparticles in copolymers containing varying amounts of functional moieties that can form noncovalent interactions with carbon nanoparticles with corroboration through density functional calculations. The results show that the presence of a minority of interacting functional groups within a polymer chain leads to an optimum interaction between the polymer and fullerene. Density functional theory calculations that identify the binding energy and geometry of the interaction between the functional monomers and fullerenes correspond very well with the experimental results. Moreover, comparison of these results to similar studies with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) indicate a distinct difference in the ability of EDA interactions to improve the dispersion of fullerenes relative to their impact on SWNT. Thus, the polymer chain connectivity, the polymer chain conformation, and size and shape of the nanoparticle modulate the formation of intermolecular interactions and directly impact the dispersion of the resultant nanocomposite.

  17. Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated CVD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; Laurence, Ted; Hanania, Jiries; Hayes, Jeff; Harley, Stephen; Burkey, Daniel D.

    2015-11-09

    Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-processes occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition process and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)CVD, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as iCVD may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit themore » adoption of plasma polymers.« less

  18. Show your passion for innovation with a creative talk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechRev Day at Los Alamos ScienceFest Show your passion for innovation with a creative talk Organizers of Los Alamos ScienceFest are seeking innovative presentations from passionate people with a love of innovation. July 22, 2014 Credit: Los Alamos MainStreet Credit: Los Alamos MainStreet Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203 Email Potential TechRev Day presenters have until Aug. 8 to apply. Presentations sought for TechRev Day at Los Alamos ScienceFest LOS ALAMOS, N.M.,

  19. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Lauter, Valeria; Szulczewski, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    New, more efficient materials for spin valves - a device used in magnetic sensors, random access memories, and hard disk drives - may be on the way based on research using the magnetism reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Spin valve devices work by means of two or more conducting magnetic material layers that alternate their electrical resistance depending on the layers alignment. Giant magnetoresistance is a quantum mechanical effect first observed in thin film structures about 20 years ago. The effect is observed as a significant change in electrical resistance, depending on whether the magnetization of adjacent ferromagnetic layers is in a parallel or an antiparallel magnetic alignment. 'What we are doing here is developing new materials. The search for new materials suitable for injecting and transferring carriers with a preferential spin orientation is most important for the development of spintronics,' said Valeria Lauter, lead instrument scientist on the magnetism reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), who collaborated on the experiment. The researchers discovered that the conductivity of such materials is improved when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. Organic semiconductors are now the material of choice for future spin valve devices because they preserve spin coherence over longer times and distances than conventional semiconductors. While research into spin valves has been ongoing, research into organic semiconductors is recent. Previous research has shown that a 'conductivity mismatch' exists in spin valve systems in which ferromagnetic metal electrodes interface with such organic semiconductors as Alq3 ({pi}-conjugated molecule tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminium). This mismatch limits the efficient injection of the electrons from the electrodes at the interface with the semiconductor material. However, lithium fluoride (LiF), commonly used in light-emitting diodes, has been found to enhance the injection of electrons through the semiconductor. Researchers from the University of Alabama and ORNL used polarized neutrons at the magnetism reflectometer at SNS to investigate the electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of the electrodes in a novel system. In this system, the magnetic layers cobalt and Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} are interfaced with spacer layers composed of the organic semiconductor Alq3. A coupling layer of LiF is inserted to separate the magnetized layers from the semiconductor. 'ALQ3 is an organic semiconductor material,' said Lauter. 'Normally in these systems a first magnetic layer is grown on a hard substrate so that one can get the controlled magnetic parameters. Then you grow the organic semiconductor layer, followed by another magnetic material layer, such as cobalt.' In addition to determining the effect of the LiF layers on the efficiency of the electron injection, the researchers wanted to determine the magnetic properties of the cobalt and Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} as well as the interfacial properties: whether there is interdiffusion of cobalt through the LiF layer to the semiconductor, for example. The researchers used polarized neutrons at beam line 4A to probe the entire, layer-by-layer assembly of the system. 'Reflectometry with polarized neutrons is a perfect method to study thin magnetic films,' Lauter said. 'These thin films - if you put one on a substrate, you see it just like a mirror. However, this mirror has a very complicated internal multilayer structure. The neutrons look inside this complicated structure and characterize each and every interface. Due to the depth sensitivity of the method, we measure the structural and magnetic properties of each layer with the resolution of 0.5 nm. The neutron scattering results found that inserting LiF as a barrier significantly improves the quality of the interface, increasing the injection of electrons from the magnetic layer through the organic semiconductor in the spin valve and enhancing the overall properties of the system. In related work the magnetic properties of the cobalt film and the permalloy Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} were characterized. Cobalt in particular needed attention, as it cannot be grown epitaxially (i.e., deposited) on an organic semiconductor film. Cobalt becomes polycrystalline or amorphous, and this affects its magnetic properties. The data from the first experiment showed that the cobalt layer in the system 'did not have typical magnetic properties,' Lauter said. 'The results showed that the cobalt had low magnetization. To improve the efficiency, the cobalt magnetization should be much higher. So this experiment helped us to improve the growth conditions and to get a cobalt layer with better magnetic properties.' In a subsequent experiment the researchers increased the magnetization of the cobalt, and a follow-up paper is in progress.

  20. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  1. Ammonia Capture in Porous Organic Polymers Densely Functionalized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for such processes must be engendered with an exceptionally high enthalpy of adsorption for the analyte of interest. Rather than relying on a single strong interaction, the...

  2. Hypercrosslinked Phenolic Polymers with Well Developed Mesoporous Frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other aromatic-based polymers with robust frameworks.

  3. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  4. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  5. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  6. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-07-14

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance. 1 figure.

  7. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  8. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansur, Louis K.; Lee, Eal H.

    1992-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance.

  9. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  10. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  11. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 10:17am ...

  12. Clustering effects in ionic polymers: Molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-08-18

    Ionic clusters control the structure, dynamics, and transport in soft matter. Incorporating a small fraction of ionizable groups in polymers substantially reduces the mobility of the macromolecules in melts. Furthermore, these ionic groups often associate into random clusters in melts, where the distribution and morphology of the clusters impact the transport in these materials. Here, using molecular dynamic simulations we demonstrate a clear correlation between cluster size and morphology with the polymer mobility in melts of sulfonated polystyrene. We show that in low dielectric media ladderlike clusters that are lower in energy compared with spherical assemblies are formed. Reducing the electrostatic interactions by enhancing the dielectric constant leads to morphological transformation from ladderlike clusters to globular assemblies. Finally, decrease in electrostatic interaction significantly enhances the mobility of the polymer.

  13. Clustering effects in ionic polymers: Molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-08-18

    Ionic clusters control the structure, dynamics, and transport in soft matter. Incorporating a small fraction of ionizable groups in polymers substantially reduces the mobility of the macromolecules in melts. Furthermore, these ionic groups often associate into random clusters in melts, where the distribution and morphology of the clusters impact the transport in these materials. Here, using molecular dynamic simulations we demonstrate a clear correlation between cluster size and morphology with the polymer mobility in melts of sulfonated polystyrene. We show that in low dielectric media ladderlike clusters that are lower in energy compared with spherical assemblies are formed. Reducing themore » electrostatic interactions by enhancing the dielectric constant leads to morphological transformation from ladderlike clusters to globular assemblies. Finally, decrease in electrostatic interaction significantly enhances the mobility of the polymer.« less

  14. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  15. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-01-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  16. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  17. NREL Simulations Provide New Insight on Polymer-Based Energy Storage Materials (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomistic simulations correlate molecular packing and electron transport in polymer-based energy storage materials. In recent years, stable organic radical functional groups have been incorporated into a variety of polymeric materials for use within energy storage devices, for example, batteries and capacitors. With the complex nature of the charge-trans- fer processes in a polymer matrix, the morphologies of the polymer films can have a significant impact on the physiochemical properties of the

  18. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  19. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  20. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  1. Enhanced photophysics of conjugated polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Liaohai

    2007-06-12

    A particulate fluorescent conjugated polymer surfactant complex and method of making and using same. The particles are between about 15 and about 50 nm and when formed from a lipsome surfactant have a charge density similar to DNA and are strongly absorbed by cancer cells.

  2. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2007-03-06

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  3. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  4. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V.; Cash, David L.

    1986-01-01

    A method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer. A solid thermoplastic lymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infusant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  5. Method of forming a foamed thermoplastic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Cash, D.L.

    1984-11-21

    A solid thermoplastic polymer is immersed in an immersant solution comprising a compatible carrier solvent and an infusant solution containing an incompatible liquid blowing agent for a time sufficient for the immersant solution to infuse into the polymer. The carrier solvent is then selectively extracted, preferably by a solvent exchange process in which the immersant solution is gradually diluted with and replaced by the infusant solution, so as to selectively leave behind the infustant solution permanently entrapped in the polymer. The polymer is then heated to volatilize the blowing agent and expand the polymer into a foamed state.

  6. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  7. Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Watson, Lloyd D.; McAtee, Richard E.; Ploger, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous.

  8. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  9. Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHugh, K.M.; Watson, L.D.; McAtee, R.E.; Ploger, S.A.

    1993-10-12

    A method is described for forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous. 4 figures.

  10. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  11. Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Print Thursday, 03 December 2015 12:14 They are thin, light-weight, flexible, and can be produced cost- and energy-efficiently: printed microelectronic components made of synthetics. Flexible displays and touch screens, glowing films, RFID tags, and solar cells represent future markets. An international team of researchers has now observed the creation of razor-thin polymer electrodes during the printing

  12. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  13. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  14. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Organization Organization Organization OCIO Organizational Chart (Printable) News & Blog CIO Leadership Organization Contact Us

  15. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  16. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  17. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  18. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  19. For Stimul-Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2003-02-28

    Acrylamide-based hydrophobically modified (HM) polybetaines containing N-butylphenylacrylamide (BPAM) and varying amounts of either sulfobetaine (3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate, AMPDAPS) or carboxybetaine (4-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyldimethylammonio) butanoate, AMPDAB) comonomers were synthesized via micellar copolymerization. The terpolymers were characterized via {sup 13}C NMR and UV spectroscopies, classical and dynamic light scattering, and potentiometric titration. The response of aqueous polymer solutions to various external stimuli, including changes in solution pH, electrolyte concentration, and the addition of small molecule surfactants, was investigated using surface tension and rheological measurements. Low charge density terpolymers were found to show greater viscosity enhancement upon the addition of surfactant compared to the high charge density terpolymers. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produced the largest maximum in solution viscosity, while N-dodecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB3-12), and Triton X-100 tended to show reduced viscosity enhancement. In most cases, the high charge density carboxybetaine terpolymer exhibited diminished solution viscosities upon surfactant addition. In our last report, we discussed solution thermodynamic theory that described changes in polymer coil conformation as a function of solution temperature and polymer molecular weight. These polymers contained no ionic charges. In this report, we expand polymer solution theory to account for the electrostatic interactions present in solutions of charged polymers. Polymers with ionic charges are referred to as polyions or polyelectrolytes.

  20. Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. [Tucson, AZ; Martin, Peter M. [Kennewick, WA; Graff, Gordon L. [West Richland, WA; Burrows, Paul E. [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E. , Sapochak, Linda S.

    2005-06-21

    A method of making a composite polymer of a molecularly doped polymer. The method includes mixing a liquid polymer precursor with molecular dopant forming a molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture. The molecularly doped polymer precursor mixture is flash evaporated forming a composite vapor. The composite vapor is cryocondensed on a cool substrate forming a composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer, and the cryocondensed composite molecularly doped polymer precursor layer is cross linked thereby forming a layer of the composite polymer layer of the molecularly doped polymer.

  1. Aromatic carboxylate effect on dimensionality of three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ju-Wen; Gong, Chun-Hua; Hou, Li-Li; Tian, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2013-09-15

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers [Co(4-bbc){sub 2}(bbbm)] (1), [Co(3,5-pdc)(bbbm)]·2H{sub 2}O (2) and [Co(1,4-ndc)(bbbm)] (3) (4-Hbbc=4-bromobenzoic acid, 3,5-H{sub 2}pdc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid and bbbm=1,1-(1,4-butanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 is a 1D chain formed by the bbbm ligands and Co{sup II} ions. Polymer 2 exhibits a 2D network with a (3·4·5)(3{sup 2}·4·5·6{sup 2}·7{sup 4}) topology. Polymer 3 possesses a 3D three-fold interpenetrating framework. The versatile structures of title polymers indicate that the aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of 1–3. Moreover, the thermal stability, electrochemical and luminescent properties of 1–3 were investigated. - graphical abstract: Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The aromatic carboxylates play a key role in the dimensionality of three polymers. The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three bis(benzimidazole)-based cobalt(II) coordination polymers tuned by aromatic carboxylates were obtained. • The aromatic carboxylates have an important influence on the dimensionality of three polymers. • The electrochemical and luminescent properties of three polymers were investigated.

  2. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  3. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Bradley R.; Talley, Chad E.

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  4. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-12-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation. 17 figs.

  5. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  6. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Svec, Frantisek; Rohr, Thomas

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  7. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  8. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  9. Lithium uptake data of lithium imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-12-04

    Batch tests of lithium imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium from synthetic brines at T=45C. Initial selectivity data are included

  10. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Hydrogen Production by ...

  11. Modeling Methane Adsorption in Interpenetrating Porous Polymer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Methane Adsorption in Interpenetrating Porous Polymer Networks Previous Next List Richard L. Martin, Mahdi Niknam Shahrak, Joseph A. Swisher, Cory M. Simon, Julian P....

  12. Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Previous Next List Natalia Blinova and Frantisek Svec, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 600-604...

  13. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A workshop on Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Manufacturing (held January 13, 2014, in Arlington, VA) brought together stakeholders from industry and academia to discuss...

  14. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  15. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  16. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  17. Morphology evolution in high-performance polymer solar cells processed from nonhalogenated solvent

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cai, Wanzhu; Liu, Peng; Jin, Yaocheng; Xue, Qifan; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P.; Huang, Fei; Yip, Hin -Lap; Cao, Yong

    2015-05-26

    A new processing protocol based on non-halogenated solvent and additive is developed to produce polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies better than those processed from commonly used halogenated solvent-additive pair. Morphology studies show that good performance correlates with a finely distributed nanomorphology with a well-defined polymer fibril network structure, which leads to balanced charge transport in device operation.

  18. Polymer performance in cooling water: The influence of process variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amjad, Z.; Pugh, J.; Zibrida, J.; Zuhl, B.

    1997-01-01

    The key to the efficacy of phosphate and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment (CWT) programs is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in CWT programs can be adversely impacted by the presence of iron, phosphonate, or cationic polymer and influenced by a variety of process variables including system pH and temperature. In this article, the performance of several polymeric additives is evaluated under a variety of stressed conditions.

  19. Structure of rigid polymers confined to nanoparticles: Molecular dynamics simulations insight

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maskey, Sabina; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-02-04

    Nanoparticles (NPs) grafted with organic layers form hybrids able to retain their unique properties through integration into the mesoscopic scale. The organic layer structure and response often determine the functionality of the hybrids on the mesoscopic length scale. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we probe the conformation of luminescent rigid polymers, dialkyl poly(p-phenylene ethynylene)s (PPE), end-grafted onto a silica nanoparticle in different solvents as the molecular weights and polymer coverages are varied. We find that, in contrast to NP-grafted flexible polymers, the chains are fully extended independent of the solvent. In toluene and decane, which are good solvents, the graftedmore » PPEs chains assume a similar conformation to that observed in dilute solutions. In water, which is a poor solvent for the PPEs, the polymer chains form one large cluster but remain extended. The radial distribution of the chains around the core of the nanoparticle is homogeneous in good solvents, whereas in poor solvents clusters are formed independent of molecular weights and coverages. As a result, the clustering is distinctively different from the response of grafted flexible and semiflexible polymers.« less

  20. Healing of polymer interfaces: Interfacial dynamics, entanglements, and strength

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ge, Ting; Robbins, Mark O.; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-07-25

    Self-healing of polymer films often takes place as the molecules diffuse across a damaged region, above their melting temperature. Using molecular dynamics simulations we probe the healing of polymer films and compare the results with those obtained for thermal welding of homopolymer slabs. These two processes differ from each other in their interfacial structure since damage leads to increased polydispersity and more short chains. A polymer sample was cut into two separate films that were then held together in the melt state. The recovery of the damaged film was followed as time elapsed and polymer molecules diffused across the interface.more » The mass uptake and formation of entanglements, as obtained from primitive path analysis, are extracted and correlated with the interfacial strength obtained from shear simulations. We find that the diffusion across the interface is signifcantly faster in the damaged film compared to welding because of the presence of short chains. Though interfacial entanglements increase more rapidly for the damaged films, a large fraction of these entanglements are near chain ends. As a result, the interfacial strength of the healing film increases more slowly than for welding. For both healing and welding, the interfacial strength saturates as the bulk entanglement density is recovered across the interface. However, the saturation strength of the damaged film is below the bulk strength for the polymer sample. At saturation, cut chains remain near the healing interface. They are less entangled and as a result they mechanically weaken the interface. When the strength of the interface saturates, the number of interfacial entanglements scales with the corresponding bulk entanglement density. Chain stiffness increases the density of entanglements, which increases the strength of the interface. Our results show that a few entanglements across the interface are sufficient to resist interfacial chain pullout and enhance the mechanical strength.« less

  1. The rheology and processing of edge sheared colloidal polymer opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Hon Sum; Mackley, Malcolm Butler, Simon; Baumberg, Jeremy; Snoswell, David; Finlayson, Chris; Zhao, Qibin

    2014-03-15

    This paper is concerned with the rheology and processing of solvent-free core shell polymer opals that consist of a soft outer shell grafted to hard colloidal polymer core particles. Strong iridescent colors can be produced by shearing the material in a certain way that causes the initially disordered spheres to rearrange into ordered crystalline structures and produce colors by diffraction and interference of multiple light scattering, similar to gemstone opals. The basic linear viscoelastic rheology of a polymer opal sample was determined as a function of temperature, and the material was found to be highly viscoelastic at all tested temperatures. A Cambridge multipass rheometer was specifically modified in order to make controlled mechanical measurements of initially disordered polymer opal tapes that were sandwiched between protective polyethylene terephthalate sheets. Axial extension, simple shear, and a novel edge shearing geometry were all evaluated, and multiple successive experiments of the edge shearing test were carried out at different temperatures. The optical development of colloidal ordering, measured as optical opalescence, was quantified by spectroscopy using visible backscattered light. The development of opalescence was found to be sensitive to the geometry of deformation and a number of process variables suggesting a complex interaction of parameters that caused the opalescence. In order to identify aspects of the deformation mechanism of the edge shearing experiment, a separate series of in situ optical experiments were carried out and this helped indicate the extent of simple shear generated with each edge shear deformation. The results show that strong ordering can be induced by successive edge shearing deformation. The results are relevant to polymer opal rheology, processing, and mechanisms relating to ordering within complex viscoelastic fluids.

  2. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilraja Singaravelu

    2012-05-31

    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  3. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  4. Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: The Solid Polymer Fuel...

  5. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Electronic Systems | Department of Energy apep_05_dirk.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide gels, chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels, silicate-polymer, and chromium-xanthan gum gels did not alter an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution's ability to produce incremental oil. Incremental oil was reduced with the resorcinol-formaldehyde gel system. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were generally similar. Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow.

  7. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with

  8. Quantitative comparison of organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunction photostability under laser illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael D.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.; Carr, John A.; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A.

    2014-11-20

    The photostability of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic films containing a polymer donor and a fullerene-derivative acceptor was examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy and controlled laser power densities. The polymer donors were poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT), or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7). Four sample preparation methods were studied: (i) thin or (ii) thick films with fast solvent evaporation under nitrogen, (iii) thick films with slow solvent evaporation under nitrogen, and (iv) thin films dried under nitrogen followed by thermal annealing. Polymer order was assessed by monitoring a Raman peak’s full width at half-maximum and location as a function of illumination time and laser power densities from 2.5 × 103 to 2.5 × 105 W cm–2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy measurements show that before prolonged illumination, PCDTBT and PTB7 have the same initial order for all preparation conditions, while P3HT order improves with slow solvent drying or thermal annealing. All films exhibited changes to bulk heterojunction structure with 2.5 × 105 Wcm–2 laser illumination as measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy images show evidence of sample heating that affects the polymer over an area greater than the illumination profile. Furthermore, photostability data are important for proper characterization by techniques involving illumination and the development of devices suitable for real-world applications.

  9. Quantitative comparison of organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunction photostability under laser illumination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lesoine, Michael D.; Bobbitt, Jonathan M.; Carr, John A.; Elshobaki, Moneim; Chaudhary, Sumit; Smith, Emily A.

    2014-11-20

    The photostability of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic films containing a polymer donor and a fullerene-derivative acceptor was examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy and controlled laser power densities. The polymer donors were poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT), or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7). Four sample preparation methods were studied: (i) thin or (ii) thick films with fast solvent evaporation under nitrogen, (iii) thick films with slow solvent evaporation under nitrogen, and (iv) thin films dried under nitrogen followed by thermal annealing. Polymer order was assessed by monitoring a Raman peak’s full width at half-maximum and location as a function of illumination time and laser powermore » densities from 2.5 × 103 to 2.5 × 105 W cm–2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy measurements show that before prolonged illumination, PCDTBT and PTB7 have the same initial order for all preparation conditions, while P3HT order improves with slow solvent drying or thermal annealing. All films exhibited changes to bulk heterojunction structure with 2.5 × 105 Wcm–2 laser illumination as measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy images show evidence of sample heating that affects the polymer over an area greater than the illumination profile. Furthermore, photostability data are important for proper characterization by techniques involving illumination and the development of devices suitable for real-world applications.« less

  10. Performance limits of plasmon-enhanced organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Ginger, David S.; Salvador, Michael; Yao, Kai; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2014-07-21

    We use a combination of experiment and modeling to explore the promise and limitations of using plasmon-resonant metal nanoparticles to enhance the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We focus on optical properties typical of the current generation of low-bandgap donor polymers blended with the fullerene (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) and use the polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phenanthro[9,10-b]quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ) as our test case. We model the optical properties and performance of these devices both in the presence and absence of a variety of colloidal silver nanoparticles. We show that for these materials, device performance is sensitive to the relative z-position and the density of nanoparticles inside the active layer. Using conservative estimates of the internal quantum efficiency for the PIDT-PhanQ/PC{sub 71}BM blend, we calculate that optimally placed silver nanoparticles could yield an enhancement in short-circuit current density of over 31% when used with???80-nm-thick active layers, resulting in an absolute increase in power conversion efficiency of up to ?2% for the device based on optical engineering.

  11. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  12. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  13. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Apen, P.G.; Mitchell, M.A.

    1998-01-20

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes. 1 fig.

  14. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  15. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2010-12-07

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  16. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2011-11-22

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  17. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2008-10-21

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  18. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  19. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  20. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  1. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  2. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W.; VanDevender, J. Pace

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  3. Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.; Lee, Abraham P.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Decker, Derek E.; Jungreis, Charles A.

    2004-05-25

    An actuator system is provided for acting upon a material in a vessel. The system includes an optical fiber and a shape memory polymer material operatively connected to the optical fiber. The shape memory polymer material is adapted to move from a first shape for moving through said vessel to a second shape where it can act upon said material.

  4. Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.; Lee, Abraham P.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Decker, Derek E.; Jungreis, Charles A.

    2007-11-06

    An actuator system is provided for acting upon a material in a vessel. The system includes an optical fiber and a shape memory polymer material operatively connected to the optical fiber. The shape memory polymer material is adapted to move from a first shape for moving through said vessel to a second shape where it can act upon said material.

  5. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polymer foams for endovascular therapies Title: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment comprises a shape ...

  6. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and ... a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and ...

  7. Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy Performance Gold Certification Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy Performance Gold ...

  8. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview: 2012 DOE Polymer and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview: 2012 DOE Polymer and Composite Materials Meetings Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview: 2012 DOE Polymer and Composite Materials ...

  9. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having ...

  10. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers Title: Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers Compositions, and methods of making ...

  11. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ... Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte ...

  12. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Memory Polymer Foams in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water Authors: Singhal, P ; ...

  13. Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to occur with high quantum efficiency and with minimal losses in energy. Presently, the best polymer solar cells reach power ... polymers for efficient (>5%) solar cells ...

  14. An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Overview of Polymer Additive Manufacturing Technologies You are ...

  15. Status and Challenges of Hydroxide Ion-Conducting Polymers for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York State Center for Polymer Synthesis Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute DOE ... ion-containing polymer materials * Synthesis - Inexpensive, less hazardous chemicals ...

  16. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths ...

  17. FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8. Polymer Composites Research and Development FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development Lightweighting Materials ...

  18. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic devices and methods ...

  19. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI Part 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFI Part 2 DE-FOA-0001056: Summary of Responses Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite ... More Documents & Publications Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop ...

  20. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was delivered at the ...

  1. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer ...

  2. Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service - Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service - Meeting Proceedings This report describes the results from an information-sharing meeting on the use of polymer and ...

  3. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing - RFI DE-FOA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFI DE-FOA-0000980: Summary of Responses Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing ... More Documents & Publications Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing Workshop ...

  4. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  5. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  6. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  7. Flexible conductive polymer polarizer designed for a chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flexible conductive polymer polarizer designed for a chemical tag. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flexible conductive polymer polarizer designed for a chemical tag. ...

  8. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  9. Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body A peel and stick ...

  10. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies A system for ...

  11. Shape Memory Polymer Therapeutic Devices for Stroke (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape Memory Polymer Therapeutic Devices for Stroke Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape Memory Polymer Therapeutic Devices for Stroke You are accessing a document ...

  12. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer ...

  13. Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers You are accessing a ...

  14. Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Polymerization Crosslinked Polyurethane Shape-Memory Polymers Authors: Hearon, K ; ...

  15. Shape memory polymer (SMP) gripper with a release sensing system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) gripper with a release sensing system Title: Shape memory polymer (SMP) gripper with a release sensing system A system for releasing a target material, ...

  16. Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices Title: Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices A flexible extension for a ...

  17. A Shape Memory Polymer Dialysis Needle Adapter for the Reduction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Shape Memory Polymer Dialysis Needle Adapter for the Reduction of Hemodynamic Stress within Arteriovenous Grafts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Shape Memory Polymer ...

  18. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms Title: Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, ...

  19. Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter Title: Shape memory polymer actuator and catheter An actuator system is provided for acting upon a material in a vessel. The system ...

  20. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers ...

  1. Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. You are accessing a ...

  2. Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies Title: Shape memory polymer foams for endovascular therapies A system for occluding a physical anomaly. One embodiment ...

  3. Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Weight Effects on Particle and Polymer Microstructure in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Weight Effects on Particle ...

  4. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of ...

  5. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Pursuing the Promise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites are made by combining a plastic polymer resin together with strong reinforcing fibers, which forms a new composite material with enhanced overall performance.

  6. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries A polymer ...

  7. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  8. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries ...

  9. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  10. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semiconductor-nanocrystalconjugated polymer thin films You are accessing a...

  11. The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing...

  12. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics May 26-27, 2011 Ted Barnes DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, DOE Office of Advanced Computational Research Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  13. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  14. Organic fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Organic fuels Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056 Product: Biodiesel producer and distributor Coordinates: 29.76045, -95.369784 Show Map Loading...

  15. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  16. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  17. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chain Alignment | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment Thursday, March 31, 2016 The control of the electronic and optical properties of conjugated polymer thin films is of great interest for building more efficient solution processed organic electronic devices, e.g. photovoltaic (OPV) and light emitting (OLED) devices. The crystallinity and the chain orientation in the polymer film has been shown

  18. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  19. Simple extrapolation method to predict the electronic structure of conjugated polymers from calculations on oligomers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Larsen, Ross E.

    2016-04-12

    In this study, we introduce two simple tight-binding models, which we call fragment frontier orbital extrapolations (FFOE), to extrapolate important electronic properties to the polymer limit using electronic structure calculations on only a few small oligomers. In particular, we demonstrate by comparison to explicit density functional theory calculations that for long oligomers the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), and of the first electronic excited state are accurately described as a function of number of repeat units by a simple effective Hamiltonian parameterized from electronic structure calculations on monomers, dimers and, optionally,more » tetramers. For the alternating copolymer materials that currently comprise some of the most efficient polymer organic photovoltaic devices one can use these simple but rigorous models to extrapolate computed properties to the polymer limit based on calculations on a small number of low-molecular-weight oligomers.« less

  20. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  1. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  2. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  3. Guest-induced emergent properties in Metal–Organic Frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Foster, Michael E.; Léonard, François; Stavila, Vitalie; Feng, Patrick L.; Doty, F. Patrick; Leong, Kirsty; Ma, Eric Yue; Johnston, Scott R.; Talin, A. Alec; et al

    2015-03-19

    Metal–Organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline nanoporous materials comprised of organic electron donors linked to metal ions by strong coordination bonds. Applications such as gas storage and separations are currently receiving considerable attention, but if the unique properties of MOFs could be extended to electronics, magnetics, and photonics, the impact on material science would greatly increase. Recently, we obtained “emergent properties,” such as electronic conductivity and energy transfer, by infiltrating MOF pores with “guest” molecules that interact with the framework electronic structure. In this Perspective, we define a path to emergent properties based on the Guest@MOF concept, using zinc-carboxylate and copper-paddlewheelmore » MOFs for illustration. Energy transfer and light harvesting are discussed for zinc carboxylate frameworks infiltrated with triplet-scavenging organometallic compounds and thiophene- and fullerene-infiltrated MOF-177. In addition, we discuss the mechanism of charge transport in TCNQ-infiltrated HKUST-1, the first MOF with electrical conductivity approaching conducting organic polymers. Lastly, these examples show that guest molecules in MOF pores should be considered not merely as impurities or analytes to be sensed but also as an important aspect of rational design.« less

  4. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Workshop January 5-6, 2011 Dr. Karen Pao ASCR Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services John Shalf NERSC Advanced Technologies Group Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:22

  5. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Susan Gregurick Program Manager, BER Biological Systems Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC System Architecture Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  6. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Science August 3-4, 2010 Dr. John Mandrekas Advanced Fusion Simulations; FES HPC Allocations Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Alice Koniges NERSC Advanced Technologies Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  7. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Amber Boehnlein Division Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, on assignment to DOE Office of HEP. Glen Crawford Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, DOE Office of HEP. Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey

  8. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  9. Business Operations Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business Operations Organization Chart Business Operations Organization Chart A chart showing how the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Business Operations office is organized. PDF icon Business Operations org chart More Documents & Publications Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Organization Chart Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources OCIO Organization Chart (printable version)

  10. Organic Photovoltaics | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics As an overarching goal, the CEEM OPV group seeks to understand conjugated polymer and small molecule semiconductor blends that function as the active layer in solar cell devices. The effort brings together a cohesive and mutually complementary set of experts to understand what may appear at first sight to be unrelated phenomena. Indeed, the collective CEEM OPV effort very recently led to the design, processing, structural characterization, theoretical understanding and

  11. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  12. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2012-12-04

    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  13. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  14. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  15. Electrical condition monitoring method for polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Jr. Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J.; Masakowski, Daniel D.; Wong, Ching Ping; Luo, Shijian

    2010-02-16

    An electrical condition monitoring method utilizes measurement of electrical resistivity of a conductive composite degradation sensor to monitor environmentally induced degradation of a polymeric product such as insulated wire and cable. The degradation sensor comprises a polymeric matrix and conductive filler. The polymeric matrix may be a polymer used in the product, or it may be a polymer with degradation properties similar to that of a polymer used in the product. The method comprises a means for communicating the resistivity to a measuring instrument and a means to correlate resistivity of the degradation sensor with environmentally induced degradation of the product.

  16. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

    1992-04-28

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

  17. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Israel; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Sabatani, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventioonally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

  18. Conductive inks for metalization in integrated polymer microsystems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James Courtney; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Benett, William J.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2006-02-28

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  19. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  20. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  1. Cryogenic EBSD reveals structure of directionally solidified icepolymer composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donius, Amalie E.; Obbard, Rachel W.; Burger, Joan N.; Hunger, Philipp M.; Baker, Ian; Doherty, Roger D.; Wegst, Ulrike G.K.

    2014-07-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on directionally solidified or freeze-cast materials in recent years, little fundamental knowledge has been gained that links model with experiment. In this contribution, the cryogenic characterization of directionally solidified polymer solutions illustrates, how powerful cryo-scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscatter diffraction is for the structural characterization of icepolymer composite materials. Under controlled sublimation, the freeze-cast polymer scaffold structure is revealed and imaged with secondary electrons. Electron backscatter diffraction fabric analysis shows that the ice crystals, which template the polymer scaffold and create the lamellar structure, have a-axes oriented parallel to the direction of solidification and the c-axes perpendicular to it. These results indicate the great potential of both cryo-scanning electron microscopy and cryo-electron backscatter diffraction in gaining fundamental knowledge of structurepropertyprocessing correlations. - Highlights: Cryo-SEM of freeze-cast polymer solution reveals an ice-templated structure. Cryo-EBSD reveals the ice crystal a-axis to parallel the solidification direction. The honeycomb-like polymer phase favors columnar ridges only on one side. Combining cryo-SEM with EBSD links solidification theory with experiment.

  2. Tailorable 3D microfabrication for photonic applications: two-polymer microtransfer molding (proceedings paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; kim, Chang-Hwan; Constant, Kristen; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2006-02-28

    For photonic devices, extending beyond the planar regime to the third dimension can allow a higher degree of integration and novel functionalities for applications such as photonic crystals and integrated optical circuits. Although conventional photolithography can achieve both high quality and structural control, it is still costly and slow for three-dimensional (3D) fabrication. Moreover, as diverse functional polymers emerge, there is potential to develop new techniques for quick and economical fabrication of 3D structures. We present a 3D microfabrication technique based on the soft lithographic technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{micro}TM) to accomplish low cost, high structural fidelity and tailorable 3D microfabrication for polymers. Using 2P-{micro}TM, highly layered polymeric microstructures are achievable by stacking planar structures layer by layer. For increased processing control, the surface chemistry of the polymers is characterized as a function of changing ultraviolet dosage to optimize yield in layer transfer. We discuss the application of the 2P-{micro}TM to build polymer templates for woodpile photonic crystals, and demonstrate methods for converting the polymer templates to dielectric and metallic photonic crystal structures. Finally, we will show that 2P-{micro}TM is promising for fabricating 3D polymeric optical waveguides.

  3. NREL: Wind Research - Wind Career Map Shows Wind Industry Career...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Career Map Shows Wind Industry Career Opportunities, Paths A screenshot of the wind career map showing the various points on a chart that show different careers in the wind...

  4. Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show January 31, 2013 - 5:04pm Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary ...

  5. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, asmore » in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.« less

  6. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.

  7. Shanghai Hi Show Photovoltaic Science Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hi Show Photovoltaic Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Hi-Show Photovoltaic Science & Technology Co., Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China...

  8. Federal Energy Management Trade Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Energy Management Trade Show Federal Energy Management Trade Show Addthis 1 of 4 Timothy Unruh, Program Manager for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  9. NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae February 11, 2016 ...

  10. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released ...

  11. Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox Reliability Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox Reliability May 20, 2011 - 1:10pm ...

  12. Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building Retrofits Could Support 23,500 Jobs Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building Retrofits Could Support ...

  13. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Fermilab Organization Fermilab Org Chart International Relations Office Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Far-Site LBNF Project Near-Site LBNF Project Office LBNF Project LCLS-II Project Neutrino Division Office of Communication Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management Office of Project Support Services Office of the CFO Office of the CIO Office of the CPO PIP-II Project PPD

  14. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  15. Polymer Matrix Composites: A Perspective for a Special Issue of Polymer Reviews

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, Michael R.

    2012-09-04

    Polymer matrix composites, with their high specific strength and stiffness, are used in a wide range of applications from large wind turbine blades to microelectronics. This perspective article provides a brief primer on polymer matrix composites, discusses some of their advantages and limitations, and describes a number of emerging trends in the field. In addition, it introduces four review articles on the topics of recent developments in carbon fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, evaluation of the interface between the fiber reinforcement and polymer matrix, and carbon nanotube reinforced polymers.

  16. Tunable hydrophilicity on a hydrophobic fluorocarbon polymer coating on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolari, K.; Hokkanen, A. [VTT Information Technology, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    An efficient, economic, reliable, and repeatable patterning procedure of hydrophobic surfaces was developed. A fluorocarbon polymer derived from the C{sub 4}F{sub 8} gas in an inductively coupled plasma etcher was used as the hydrophobic coating. For a subsequent patterning of hydrophilic apertures on the polymer, a short O{sub 2} plasma exposure through a silicon shadow mask was utilized. The overall hydrophilicity of the patterned surface can be tuned by the duration of the O{sub 2} plasma exposure, and also by the density and the size of the hydrophilic apertures. The laborious photolithography and tricky lift-off procedures are avoided. Optimization of the whole patterning process is explained thoroughly and supported with experimental data. The hydrophilic adhesion of the patterned polymer was evaluated with aqueous droplets, which were studied on matrices of the hydrophilic apertures of different sizes. The deposition parameters of the fluorocarbon polymer, the size of the droplet required to enable rolling on the patterned surface, and the duration of the O{sub 2} plasma exposure were considered as the main parameters. To determine the achievable resolution of the patterning procedure, the subsurface etching beneath the shadow mask was evaluated. The results show that a resolution of less than 10 {mu}m can be achieved. The simple hydrophilic patterning procedure described here can be used for the production of on-plane microfluidics, where a controlled adhesion or decohesion of 8-50 {mu}l droplets on the surface with a variable hydrophilicity from one location to another can be achieved.

  17. Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Gross, Mark E [Pasco, WA; Affinito, John D [Kennewick, WA; Shi, Ming-Kun [Richland, WA; Hall, Michael [West Richland, WA; Mast, Eric [Richland, WA

    2003-02-18

    An encapsulated organic light emitting device. The device includes a first barrier stack comprising at least one first barrier layer and at least one first polymer layer. There is an organic light emitting layer stack adjacent to the first barrier stack. A second barrier stack is adjacent to the organic light emitting layer stack. The second barrier stack has at least one second barrier layer and at least one second polymer layer. A method of making the encapsulated organic light emitting device is also provided.

  18. Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

    2014-10-28

    Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

  19. Polymer scaffold degradation control via chemical control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Dirk, Shawn; Cicotte, Kirsten

    2016-01-05

    A variety of polymers and copolymers suitable for use as biologically compatible constructs and, as a non-limiting specific example, in the formation of degradable tissue scaffolds as well methods for synthesizing these polymers and copolymers are described. The polymers and copolymers have degradation rates that are substantially faster than those of previously described polymers suitable for the same uses. Copolymers having a synthesis route which enables one to fine tune the degradation rate by selecting the specific stoichiometry of the monomers in the resulting copolymer are also described. The disclosure also provides a novel synthesis route for maleoyl chloride which yields monomers suitable for use in the copolymer synthesis methods described herein.

  20. Polymer and Composite Materials Meeting Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda from the Polymer and Composite Materials Meeting held by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office and Sandia National Laboratories on October 17-18, 2012, in Washington, D.C.

  1. Polymer/Elastomer and Composite Material Science

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Kevin Simmons, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the U.S. Department of Energy's Polymer and Composite Materials Meeting, held October 17-18, 2012, in Washington, D.C.

  2. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  3. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  4. Polymers for Chemical Sensors Using Hydrosilylation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kaganove, Steven N.; Nelson, David A.

    2001-06-28

    Sorbent and functionalized polymers play a key role in a diverse set of fields, including chemical sensors, separation membranes, solid phase extraction techniques, and chromatography. Sorbent polymers are critical to a number of sensor array or "electronic nose" systems. The responses of the sensors in the array give rise to patterns that can be used to distinguish one compound from another, provided that a sufficiently diverse set of sensing materials is present in the array. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of several sensors, each with a different sensor coating, giving rise to variable responses to an analyte that appear as a pattern in bar graph format. Using hydrosilylation as the bond-forming reaction, we have developed a versatile and efficient approach to developing sorbent polymers with diverse interactive properties for sensor applications. Both the chemical and physical properties of these polymers are predictable and tunable by design.

  5. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J.; Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2009-04-14

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  6. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher ...

  7. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2013-03-12

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  8. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2010-12-07

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  9. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H

    2015-03-03

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  10. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | DOEPatents Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces

  11. Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

  12. Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    luminescence properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties The new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand incorporating furfurysalicylamide terminal groups, namely, 1,4-bis([(2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl)-2,5-bismethylbenzene (L) was synthesized and used as building

  13. Molecular Design of Doped Polymers for Thermoelectric Systems-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2013-10-09

    The self-assembly of organic semiconducting molecules and polymers is critical for their electrical properties. This project addressed the design of organic semiconductors with novel synthetic building blocks for proton-dopable conducting materials and the molecular order and microstructure of high performance semiconducting polymers blended with charge transfer dopants. Novel azulene donor-acceptor materials were designed and synthesized with unique electronic effects upon protonation to generate charged species in solution. The microstructure and optical properties of these derivatives were examined to develop structure-property relationships. Studies of the microstructure of blends of charge transfer doped semiconducting polymers revealed highly ordered conductive phases in blends. The molecular packing of one blend was studied in detail using a combination of solid-state NMR and x-ray scattering revealing that dopant incorporation is unlikely to be random as assumed in transport models. Studies of the electrical properties of these highly ordered blends revealed a universal trend between the thermopower and electrical conductivity of semiconducting polymers that is independent of the doping mechanism.

  14. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ahre, P.E.; Dupuy, P.C.

    1997-08-19

    A mold assembly is disclosed with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10`s of micros ({micro}m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 {micro}m in length up to 150 {micro}m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly. 6 figs.

  15. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (1428 Whitecliff Way, Walnut Creek, CA 94596); Northrup, M. Allen (923 Creston Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Ahre, Paul E. (1299 Gonzaga Ct., Livermore, CA 94550); Dupuy, Peter C. (1736 Waldo Ct., Modesto, CA 95358)

    1997-01-01

    A mold assembly with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10's of micros (.mu.m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 .mu.m in length up to 150 .mu.m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly.

  16. Plastic flow modeling in glassy polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, Brad

    2010-12-13

    Glassy amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers exhibit strong rate, temperature, and pressure dependent polymeric yield. As a rule of thumb, in uniaxial compression experiments the yield stress increases with the loading rate and applied pressure, and decreases as the temperature increases. Moreover, by varying the loading state itself complex yield behavior can be observed. One example that illustrates this complexity is that most polymers in their glassy regimes (i.e., when the temperature is below their characteristic glass transition temperature) exhibit very pronounced yield in their uniaxial stress stress-strain response but very nebulous yield in their uniaxial strain response. In uniaxial compression, a prototypical glassy-polymer stress-strain curve has a stress plateau, often followed by softening, and upon further straining, a hardening response. Uniaxial compression experiments of this type are typically done from rates of 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} up to about 1 s{sup -1}. At still higher rates, say at several thousands per second as determined from Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar experiments, the yield can again be measured and is consistent with the above rule of thumb. One might expect that that these two sets of experiments should allow for a successful extrapolation to yet higher rates. A standard means to probe high rates (on the order of 105-107 S-I) is to use a uniaxial strain plate impact experiment. It is well known that in plate impact experiments on metals that the yield stress is manifested in a well-defined Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL). In contrast however, when plate impact experiments are done on glassy polymers, the HEL is arguably not observed, let alone observed at the stress estimated by extrapolating from the lower strain rate experiments. One might argue that polymer yield is still active but somehow masked by the experiment. After reviewing relevant experiments, we attempt to address this issue. We begin by first presenting our recently developed glassy polymer model. While polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior we have found the need for incorporating both equilibrium and non-equilibrium volumetric behavior into our theory. Experimental evidence supporting the notion of non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Our polymer yield model accurately captures the stress plateau, softening and hardening and its yield stress predictions agree well with measured values for several glassy polymers including PMMA, PC, and an epoxy resin. We then apply our theory to plate impact experiments in an attempt to address the questions associated with high rate polymer yield in uniaxial strain configurations.

  17. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise February 27, 2013 - 2:21pm Addthis New geothermal ...

  18. ANL Study Shows Wind Power Decreases Power Sector Emissions ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ANL Study Shows Wind Power Decreases Power Sector Emissions ANL Study Shows Wind Power Decreases Power Sector Emissions May 1, 2012 - 3:38pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the ...

  19. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Monday, 28 November 2011 14:52 Movement is fundamental to life. It...

  20. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  1. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  2. Conducting interpenetrating polymer network sized to fabricate microactuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaldi, Alexandre; Plesse, Cedric; Vidal, Frederic; Teyssie, Dominique; Soyer, Caroline; Cattan, Eric; Legrand, Christiane

    2011-04-18

    Interpenetrating polymer networks can become successful actuators in the field of microsystems providing they are compatible with microtechnologies. In this letter, we report on a material synthesized from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polytetrahydrofuran/poly(ethylene oxide) and microsized by decreasing its thickness to 12 {mu}m and patterning the lateral side using plasma etching at high etch rates and with vertical sidewalls. A chemical process and a 'self degradation' are proposed to explain such etching rates. Preliminary actuation results show that microbeams can move with very large displacements. These microsized actuators are potential candidates in numerous applications, including microswitches, microvalves, microoptical instrumentation, and microrobotics.

  3. Getting the Most Out of a Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications, Exhibits, & Logos » Getting the Most Out of a Show Getting the Most Out of a Show These guidelines are designed to assist you during the event, in order to get the most out of the showing of your exhibit. Look the Part Create a good impression for EERE by looking polished and professional. Wear business-like, comfortable attire. Don't forget your nametag! Get plenty of rest before the show, and pace yourself during the show (you will need breaks, so schedule them). Staffing

  4. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  5. Impact of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity for Platinum Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Wang, H.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-30

    The impact of model membrane degradation compounds on the relevant electrochemical parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction (i.e. electrochemical surface area and catalytic activity), was studied for both polycrystalline Pt and carbon supported Pt electrocatalysts. Model compounds, representing previously published, experimentally determined polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products, were in the form of perfluorinated organic acids that contained combinations of carboxylic and/or sulfonic acid functionality. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids of carbon chain length C1 – C6 were found to have an impact on electrochemical surface area (ECA). The longest chain length acid also hindered the observed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, resulting in a 17% loss in kinetic current (determined at 0.9 V). Model compounds containing sulfonic acid functional groups alone did not show an effect on Pt ECA or ORR activity. Lastly, greater than a 44% loss in ORR activity at 0.9V was observed for diacid model compounds DA-Naf (perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa-5-sulfonic pentanoic) acid) and DA-3M (perfluoro(4-sulfonic butanoic) acid), which contained both sulfonic and carboxylic acid functionalities.

  6. Impact of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity for Platinum Electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Wang, H.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-30

    The impact of model membrane degradation compounds on the relevant electrochemical parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction (i.e. electrochemical surface area and catalytic activity), was studied for both polycrystalline Pt and carbon supported Pt electrocatalysts. Model compounds, representing previously published, experimentally determined polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products, were in the form of perfluorinated organic acids that contained combinations of carboxylic and/or sulfonic acid functionality. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids of carbon chain length C1 – C6 were found to have an impact on electrochemical surface area (ECA). The longest chain length acid also hindered the observed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, resultingmore » in a 17% loss in kinetic current (determined at 0.9 V). Model compounds containing sulfonic acid functional groups alone did not show an effect on Pt ECA or ORR activity. Lastly, greater than a 44% loss in ORR activity at 0.9V was observed for diacid model compounds DA-Naf (perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa-5-sulfonic pentanoic) acid) and DA-3M (perfluoro(4-sulfonic butanoic) acid), which contained both sulfonic and carboxylic acid functionalities.« less

  7. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells Print Monday, 28 April 2014 09:03 Work done on ALS Beamlines 11.0.1.2, 7.3.3, and 5.3.2.2. reveals that preferential orientation of polymer chains with respect to the fullerene domain leads to a high photovoltaic performance. Featured on the cover of Nature Photonics 8. Article link

  8. Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanocrystals for optoelectronics | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectronics December 5, 2014 at 3pm/RLE Haus 36-428 Laurens D.A. Siebbeles Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology Siebbeles01 Abstract: The seminar will report studies on excitons and charge carriers in conjugated polymers, covalent organic frameworks and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials have fascinating

  9. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  10. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  11. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  12. Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelena, Piotr; Bashyam, Rajesh

    2009-06-23

    A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

  13. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2007-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  14. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released its first map of the sky, including the first measurements of how often black holes flicker on and off. It has also caught pulsars, supernova remnants, and other bizarre cosmic beasts. April 24, 2016 Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Three new sources of gamma rays spotted by HAWC. Credit:

  15. CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE The Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) and its partners created Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) to promote home energy upgrades in single-family homes, multifamily housing units, and commercial buildings to help the region meet its 2008 Chicago Climate Action Plan and longer term GO TO 2040 Strategic Plan. EI2 enlisted the help of the Elevate Energy, a

  16. 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show Addthis WORLD&#039;S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility-with funding support from the Energy

  17. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blmel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  18. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Finnerty, P. 1 ; Elliott, Steven R. 2 ; Boswell, Melissa 2 ; Kidd, Mary 2 ; Rielage, Keith R. 2 ; Ronquest, Michael 2 ; Steele, Steven 2 + Show Author ...

  19. New Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems, with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems, with 11 Advanced Stage Projects ... in offshore wind farms, increasing the amount of electricity delivered to consumers. ...

  20. NREL: Technology Transfer - New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy Through Grid Integration January 23, 2015 NREL is spearheading engineering innovations that will help...

  1. NREL: Wind Research - New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy Through Grid Integration January 23, 2015 NREL is spearheading engineering innovations that will help...

  2. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The report shows that the installed price of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power ... for residential and non-residential photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in the United ...

  3. Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Revenues and Improve System Reliability Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and Improve System Reliability January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis ...

  4. Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Wang, Argonne senior scientist and lead on the GREET model Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude oil By Tona Kunz * October 15, 2015 Tweet ...

  5. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  6. Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location Find your way to the Center for Nanoscale Materials on the Argonne National Laboratory campus. PDF icon CNM-Argonne_map

  7. Widget:ShowRefFieldsButton | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    widget provides supporting functionality to forms that want to capture references for specific values. Specifically, this widget creates the Show Reference Fields button, which...

  8. SLIDESHOW: Secretary Moniz Tours 2014 Washington Auto Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A slideshow featuring highlights from Secretary Moniz's tour of the 2014 Washington Auto Show is currently posted on the Energy Department's blog.

  9. User:Nlangle/show map test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    show map test < User:Nlangle Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","H...

  10. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

  11. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of non-biological polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2006-04-25

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  12. Polymer arrays from the combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong

    2004-09-21

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  13. DOE Booth Presentations From Grainger Show 2015 Downloads

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE hosted its solid-state lighting informational booth February 16–18 at the annual Grainger Show in Orlando, FL. With over 17,000 attendees and over 750 exhibitors, the show gathered a wide range of Grainger customers—from universities to large hotel chains as well as Grainger team members to learn the latest about LED lighting.

  14. Stretchable polymer-based electronic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Benett, William J.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2008-02-26

    A stretchable electronic circuit or electronic device and a polymer-based process to produce a circuit or electronic device containing a stretchable conducting circuit. The stretchable electronic apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body. The circuit line extends in the longitudinal direction and has a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and has an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction. The longitudinal component and the offset component allow the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the circuit line.

  15. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  16. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  17. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  18. X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds June 30, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather.

  19. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-18

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation.

  20. Interfacial Behavior of Polymers: Using Interfaces to Manipulate Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-02-26

    The self-assembly of block copolymers into arrays of nanoscopic domains with areal densities approaching 10 terbit/in2 offer tremendous promise for the fabrication of ultrahigh density storage devices, batteries and other energy relevant devices. Interfacial interactions play a key role in dictating the orientation and ordering of these self-assembling materials. We have investigated the use of preferential and neutral solvents to overcome interfacial interactions and to rapid accelerate the dynamics of these materials, since the high molecular weight of the polymers significantly slows diffusion processes. Using a tailor-made chamber, we have introduced solvent vapor annealing (SVA) where solvent with a well-defined vapor pressures sells the copolymer film, enabling control over the solvent content in the film and, therefore, the thermodynamics governing the microphase separation of the copolymer, the interactions with the substrate and air interfaces and the dynamics. This tailor-made chamber also allows us to perform in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering studies where the copolymer films can be characterized on the nanoscopic level over macroscopic distances. The methodologies developed in our laboratories are now used in numerous laboratories world-wide. We have found that arrays of block copolymer microdomains with perfect orientational order can be achieved over macroscopic areas using the SVA processes but the translational order is perturbed during the film drying process. As the copolymer film is swollen, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces a frustration to the ordering of the microdomains. After equilibrium is achieved, when the swollen films are brought very close to the ordering transition, near perfect ordering is achieved. However, upon removal of the solvent, the confinement of the film to the substrate introduces translational disorder. We have investigated the influence of the rate of solvent removal and have found that most rapid solvent removal process drives the copolymer film to below its glass transition temperature, freezing in the lateral order. We have quantitatively described the ordering and the parameters influencing the disruption of the ordering in these studies. We have also used e-beam lithography to generate shallow trench patterns on planar surface where the topographic patterning provides an additional constraint on the self-assembly of the block copolymer. The pitches of the trenches were varied while the depth and the trench width of patterns were maintained by constant at 89 and 30nm, respectively. Unidirectional PS-b-PEO line patterns over large area on the shallow trench patterns were obtained by solvent vapor annealing. We extended the solvent annealing process to an in-line coating process using a mini-slot die coater developed in our laboratories. This coater uses minimal materials with operating parameters that can mimic actual industrial processing on a roll-to-roll line. Most important, with this mini-slot die coater, it could also characterize the structure of the film using grazing incidence x-ray scattering. Using the fundamental characterization of the ordering of the block copolymers, we could optimize the coating conditions to enhance lateral ordering of block copolymer in a well-defined manner. The structures produced in this process are directly transferable to flexible electronics where the arrays of block copolymer microdomains can be used for the fabrication of nanostructured components. We have also controlled the orientation of BCP microdomains at the air and substrate interfaces by manipulating the interfacial interactions with selective solvents. This has enabled us to generate nanoporous membranes where the size of the pores is dictated by the size of the bloc copolymer microdomains. We have produced robust nanoporous membranes that can tolerate high pressures and have high throughput using thick films of block copolymers. Exceptional size selectivity has been achieved. The membranes are tolerant against acid and base washing and can be prepared over large areas. These membranes are finding applications in a water-purification and separations processes.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the components composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of its characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  2. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-03-11

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10{sup -10} Scm{sup -1} is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system is 1.36x10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  3. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B E

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  4. Conducting polymer for high power ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the purposes of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, the present invention is directed to an electrode having a conducting polymer active material for use in an ultracapacitor. The conducting polymer active material is electropolymerized onto a carbon paper substrate from a mixed solution of a dimer of (3,3' bithiophene) (BT) and a monomer that is selected from the group of thiophenes derived in the 3-position, having an aryl group attached to thiophene in the 3-position or having aryl and alkly groups independently attached to thiophene in the 3 and 4 positions.

  5. The Chemistry Magic Show Captivates Kids | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Magic Show Captivates Kids Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Chemistry Magic Show Captivates Kids Vin Smentkowski 2012.11.16 My colleague, Christopher (Chris) Dosch, also known as Ignito the Magician, shared a recap on the Global Research Chemistry Magic Show that took place last week during

  6. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Memory Polymer Foams in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water You are accessing a ...

  7. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films You are accessing a ...

  8. Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Polymer-Based Penetrating Array for Chronic Neural Recording Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a Large-Scale Recording System: Demonstration of Polymer-Based ...

  9. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light ...

  10. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  11. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  12. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose ...

  13. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl more oil than only water injection.

  14. New Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department released a new report showing progress for the U.S. offshore wind energy market in 2012, including 11 commercial-scale U.S. projects reaching an advanced stage of development.

  15. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New geothermal prospects in the western United States show promise, according to the new 2013 Annual U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Report, published by the Geothermal Energy Association this week.

  16. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    at the 2010 Washington Auto Show, Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need. He also announced that the Department of Energy had...

  17. Considering removing "Show Preview" button on utility rate form...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...

  18. JSON shows incomplete info | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    found several rates where the JSON file doesn't show all of the information shown in the web interface. This is not an approval issue since I see it on both rates that say "This...

  19. Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing Enough Home > Blogs > Dc's blog Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 5 November, 2014 - 14:49 The latest...

  20. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version) The U.S. average retail ... Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.04 a gallon, up 2 cents from a ...