National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for organic non-fossil material

  1. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-12-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020 ; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  2. Plutonium recovery from organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1973-12-11

    A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

  3. Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Update ...

  4. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  5. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  6. Purification of metal-organic framework materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-06-30

    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  7. Purification of metal-organic framework materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-12-04

    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  8. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA); Bryan, Garry H. (Kennewick, WA); Geeting, John G. H. (West Richland, WA); Butner, R. Scott (Port Orchard, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell.

  9. Apparatus and method for oxidizing organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surma, J.E.; Bryan, G.H.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Butner, R.S.

    1998-01-13

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  10. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  11. Center Organization | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Organization People People Scientific Advisory Board Center Organization

  12. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  13. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  14. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  15. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, MW; Gu, ZY; Bosch, M; Perry, Z; Zhou, HC

    2015-06-15

    Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic MOMs is still at its embryonic stage, considerable progress has been made in the past few years. In this critical review, we will highlight the recent advances in the design, development and application of biomimetic MOMs, and illustrate how the incorporation of biological components into MOMs could further enrich their structural and functional diversity. More importantly, this review will provide a systematic overview of different methods for rational design of MOMs with biomimetic features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 30, 2015, Research Highlights Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries Images for Organic Anolyte Materials Scientific Achievement All-organic anolyte materials for nonaqueous redox flow batteries with high stability at all redox states were designed through an iterative study. Anolyte materials exhibit two chemically

  17. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  18. Apparatus and method for constant flow oxidizing of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Nelson, Norvell; Steward, G. Anthony; Bryan, Garry H.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus using high cerium concentration in the anolyte of an electrochemical cell to oxidize organic materials. The method and apparatus further use an ultrasonic mixer to enhance the oxidation rate of the organic material in the electrochemical cell. A reaction vessel provides an advantage of independent reaction temperature control and electrochemical cell temperature control. A separate or independent reaction vessel may be used without an ultrasonic mixer to oxidize gaseous phase organic materials.

  19. Directed Organization of Functional Materials at Inorganic-Macromolecu...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directed Organization of Functional Materials at Inorganic-Macromolecular Interfaces Research The purpose of this project is to develop a quantitative physical picture of...

  20. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  1. Elastomeric organic material for switching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiju, K. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Praveen, T. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Preedep, P. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Organic Electronic devices like OLED, Organic Solar Cells etc are promising as, cost effective alternatives to their inorganic counterparts due to various reasons. However the organic semiconductors currently available are not attractive with respect to their high cost and intricate synthesis protocols. Here we demonstrate that Natural Rubber has the potential to become a cost effective solution to this. Here an attempt has been made to fabricate iodine doped poly isoprene based switching device. In this work Poly methyl methacrylate is used as dielectric layer and Aluminium are employed as electrodes.

  2. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  3. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  4. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  5. Organic Photovoltaics | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics As an overarching goal, the CEEM OPV group seeks to understand conjugated polymer and small molecule semiconductor blends that function as the active layer in solar cell devices. The effort brings together a cohesive and mutually complementary set of experts to understand what may appear at first sight to be unrelated phenomena. Indeed, the collective CEEM OPV effort very recently led to the design, processing, structural characterization, theoretical understanding and

  6. 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials database (Dataset) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3D Covalent Organic Framework Materials ... DOE Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data ...

  7. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Rhonda F.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-01-27

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  8. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian; Esler, James

    2011-10-18

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  9. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  10. Organic materials and devices for detecting ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2007-03-06

    A .pi.-conjugated organic material for detecting ionizing radiation, and particularly for detecting low energy fission neutrons. The .pi.-conjugated materials comprise a class of organic materials whose members are intrinsic semiconducting materials. Included in this class are .pi.-conjugated polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules, and quinolates. Because of their high resistivities (.gtoreq.10.sup.9 ohmcm), these .pi.-conjugated organic materials exhibit very low leakage currents. A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation can be made by applying an electric field to a layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material to measure electron/hole pair formation. A layer of the .pi.-conjugated polymer material can be made by conventional polymer fabrication methods and can be cast into sheets capable of covering large areas. These sheets of polymer radiation detector material can be deposited between flexible electrodes and rolled up to form a radiation detector occupying a small volume but having a large surface area. The semiconducting polymer material can be easily fabricated in layers about 10 .mu.m to 100 .mu.m thick. These thin polymer layers and their associated electrodes can be stacked to form unique multi-layer detector arrangements that occupy small volume.

  11. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John

    2005-06-07

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  12. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D.A.; Miron, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  13. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  14. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  15. Structured organic materials and devices using low-energy particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Li, Sergey; Delong, Matthew C.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2005-09-13

    Organic materials exposed to an electron beam for patterning a substrate (1) to make an optoelectronic organic device which includes a source, a drain, gate dielectric layer (4), and a substrate for emitting light.

  16. High Performance Organic Photovoltaics via Novel Materials Combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, Dr Darin; McGuiness, Dr Christine; Storch, Mark

    2011-01-20

    OPV cell efficiencies have increased significantly over the last decade and verified champion efficiencies are currently at 8.3% for both single and multi-junction device types. These increases in efficiency have been driven through the development and optimization of the donor and acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction active layers. Plextronics and Solarmer Energy Inc. are two of the world leading developers of these donor and acceptor materials. Solarmer Energy has reported NREL certified 6.77% efficiencies using optimized low band gap donor materials in combination with PC61BM and PC71BM acceptors and recently reported a champion NREL certified efficiency of 8.1%. Plextronics has reported Newport certified efficiencies of 6.7% using PC71BM acceptors with low band gap materials. In addition, Plextronics has also demonstrated that OPV efficiency of P3HT based materials can be improved by 50% by improving the Voc using alternative acceptors (indene substituted C60 and C70) to PC61BM and PC71BM. However, performance of these alternative acceptors in combination with low band gap materials has not been investigated and the potential for efficiency improvement is evident. In this collaboration, four low band gap donor materials from Solarmer Energy Inc were combined with Plextronics indene-class acceptors Plextronics indene substituted C60 and C70 acceptors to demonstrate OPV performance greater than 7%. Two main indene class C60 acceptors (codenamed Mono-indene[C60] Mono-indene[C60] , Bis-indene[C60] ) were screened with the Solarmer polymers. These four polymers were screened and optimized with the indene class acceptors at both Plextronics and Solarmer. A combination was identified which produced 6.7% (internal measurement) with a Solarmer polymer and a Plextronics fullerene acceptor. This was accomplished primarily by improving the Voc as well as improving the current (Jsc) and FF.

  17. Containerless synthesis of amorphous and nanophase organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benmore, Chris J.; Weber, Johann R.

    2016-05-03

    The invention provides a method for producing a mixture of amorphous compounds, the method comprising supplying a solution containing the compounds; and allowing at least a portion of the solvent of the solution to evaporate while preventing the solute of the solution from contacting a nucleation point. Also provided is a method for transforming solids to amorphous material, the method comprising heating the solids in an environment to form a melt, wherein the environment contains no nucleation points; and cooling the melt in the environment.

  18. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  19. Metal-organic framework materials based on icosahedral boranes and carboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkin, Chad A.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Mulfort, Karen L.

    2010-11-02

    Disclosed herein are metal-organic frameworks of metals and boron rich ligands, such as carboranes and icosahedral boranes. Methods of synthesizing and using these materials in gas uptake are disclosed.

  20. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  1. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials | Center for GasSeparationsRele...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimicry in metal-organic materials Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Zhi-Yuan Gu, Mathieu Bosch, Zachary Perry, Hong-Cai Zhou, Coordination Chemistry Reviews, (2014) DOI: 10.1016...

  2. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-08-02

    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  3. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-08-05

    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  4. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  5. Method for monitoring the crystallization of an organic material from a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asay, Blaine W.; Henson, Bryan F.; Sander, Robert K.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Son, Steven F.; Dickson, Peter M.

    2004-10-05

    Method for monitoring the crystallization of at least one organic material from a liquid. According to the method, a liquid having at least one organic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is prepared. The liquid is interrogated with a laser beam at a chosen wavelength. As at least a portion of the at least one organic material crystallizes from the liquid, the intensity of any light scattered by the crystallized material at a wavelength equal to one-half the chosen wavelength of the interrogating laser beam is monitored. If the intensity of this scattered light, increases, then the crystals that form include at least one non-cetrosymmetric phase.

  6. Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.

    1997-04-01

    A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: (a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; (b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and (c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300 C to about 450 C; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. 5 figs.

  7. Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.

    1997-01-01

    A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C.; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  8. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  9. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Min

    2011-11-30

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  10. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun -Hi; Noh, Yong -Young; Yun Jaung, Jae; Kim, Yong -Hoon; Kyu Park, Sung

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  11. Scalable sub-micron patterning of organic materials toward high density soft electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung -Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong -Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; et al

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. Inmore » this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. As a result, the successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.« less

  12. Effects of surfactants on the desorption of organic contaminants from aquifer materials. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brickell, J.L.

    1989-08-01

    The efficiency of removing organic contaminants from groundwater aquifers by the pump and treat process is adversely affected by the retardation of the contaminant's mobility due to adsorption onto aquifer material. The use of surfactants in conjunction with the pump and treat process has the potential for improving contaminant mobility by solubilizing the adsorbed contaminant.

  13. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  14. Certification of a Standard Reference Material for organics in crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-20

    The objective of this program was to provide a complex matrix Standard Reference Material (SRM) certified for the concentrations of selected toxic organic compounds. This SRM will be useful in the chemical characterization and quality assurance efforts and methods development research of laboratories involved in the organic compound characterization of fuels. A petroleum crude oil (Wilmington crude) was selected as the matrix to be used in this effort. This material, when certified, will serve as a companion to SRM 1580, Organics in Shale Oil, that was certified in 1980 with Department of Energy support. The use of both SRM's will provide researchers with two points of calibration for analyses of compounds that are certified in both materials. In general, the certification of SRM's is accomplished through utilization of at least two totally independent techniques of analysis. In order for a parameter to be certified, the results of analyses by these independent methods must agree. The degree of agreement is specified as the uncertainty on the Certificate of Analysis. We have determined the concentrations of dibenzothiophene, phenol, o-cresol, and six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by two independent analytical procedures each. Carbazole and benzo(e)pyrene were determined by electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) only. A summary of all results to date appears in the table appended to this report.

  15. Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, B.J.; Sellers, J.P.; Thomsen, J.U.

    1993-06-08

    Apparatus and processes are described for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

  16. Neural network system and methods for analysis of organic materials and structures using spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Bernd J.; Sellers, Jeffrey P.; Thomsen, Jan U.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and processes for recognizing and identifying materials. Characteristic spectra are obtained for the materials via spectroscopy techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared absorption analysis, x-ray analysis, mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Desired portions of the spectra may be selected and then placed in proper form and format for presentation to a number of input layer neurons in an offline neural network. The network is first trained according to a predetermined training process; it may then be employed to identify particular materials. Such apparatus and processes are particularly useful for recognizing and identifying organic compounds such as complex carbohydrates, whose spectra conventionally require a high level of training and many hours of hard work to identify, and are frequently indistinguishable from one another by human interpretation.

  17. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake

    2008-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and %22flexible%22 force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing %242

  18. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, H; Gandara, F; Zhang, YB; Jiang, JC; Queen, WL; Hudson, MR; Yaghi, OM

    2014-03-19

    Water adsorption in porous materials is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water in remote areas. In this study, we have identified three criteria for achieving high performing porous materials for water adsorption. These criteria deal with condensation pressure of water in the pores, uptake capacity, and recyclability and water stability of the material. In search of an excellently performing porous material, we have studied and compared the water adsorption properties of 23 materials, 20 of which are metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Among the MOFs are 10 zirconium(IV) MOFs with a subset of these, MOF-801-SC (single crystal form), -802, -805, -806, -808, -812, and -841 reported for the first time. MOF-801-P (microcrystalline powder form) was reported earlier and studied here for its water adsorption properties. MOF-812 was only made and structurally characterized but not examined for water adsorption because it is a byproduct of MOF-841 synthesis. All the new zirconium MOFs are made from the Zr6O4(OH)(4)(-CO2)(n) secondary building units (n = 6, 8, 10, or 12) and variously shaped carboxyl organic linkers to make extended porous frameworks. The permanent porosity of all 23 materials was confirmed and their water adsorption measured to reveal that MOF-801-P and MOF-841 are the highest performers based on the three criteria stated above; they are water stable, do not lose capacity after five adsorption/desorption cycles, and are easily regenerated at room temperature. An X-ray single-crystal study and a powder neutron diffraction study reveal the position of the water adsorption sites in MOF-801 and highlight the importance of the intermolecular interaction between adsorbed water molecules within the pores.

  19. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  20. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Literature Survey and Recommendation of Potential Sorbent Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F

    2010-04-29

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special type of porous material with a number of unique properties, including exceptionally high surface areas, large internal pore volumes (void space) and tunable pore sizes. These materials are prepared through the assembly of molecular building blocks into ordered three-dimensional structures. The bulk properties of the MOF are determined by the nature of the building blocks and, as such, these materials can be designed with special characteristics that cannot be realized in other sorbent materials, like activated carbons. For example, MOFs can be constructed with binding sites or pockets that can exhibit selectivity for specific analytes. Alternatively, the framework can be engineered to undergo reversible dimensional changes (or 'breathing') upon interaction with an analyte, effectively trapping the molecule of interest in the lattice structure. In this report, we have surveyed the 4000 different MOF structures reported in the open literature and provided recommendations for specific MOF materials that should be investigated as sorbents for this project.

  1. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  2. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  3. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  4. Highly efficient organic multi-junction solar cells with a thiophene based donor material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meerheim, Rico Krner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2014-08-11

    The efficiency of organic solar cells can be increased by serial stacked subcells even upon using the same absorber material. For the multi-junction devices presented here, we use the small molecule donor material DCV5T-Me. The subcell currents were matched by optical transfer matrix simulation, allowing an efficiency increase from 8.3% for a single junction up to 9.7% for a triple junction cell. The external quantum efficiency of the subcells, measured under appropriate light bias illumination, is spectrally shifted due to the microcavity of the complete stack, resulting in a broadband response and an increased cell current. The increase of the power conversion efficiency upon device stacking is even stronger for large area cells due to higher influence of the resistance of the indium tin oxide anode, emphasizing the advantage of multi-junction devices for large-area applications.

  5. Optimisation of the material properties of indium tin oxide layers for use in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doggart, P.; Bristow, N.; Kettle, J.

    2014-09-14

    The influence of indium tin oxide [(In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn), ITO] material properties on the output performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has been modelled and investigated. In particular, the effect of altering carrier concentration (n), thickness (t), and mobility (?{sub e}) in ITO films and their impact on the optical performance, parasitic resistances and overall efficiency in OPVs was studied. This enables optimal values of these parameters to be calculated for solar cells made with P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM and PCPDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM active layers. The optimal values of n, t and ?{sub e} are not constant between different OPV active layers and depend on the absorption spectrum of the underlying active layer material system. Consequently, design rules for these optimal values as a function of donor bandgap in bulk-heterojunction active layers have been formulated.

  6. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  7. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, R.M.; Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B. Jr.

    1987-12-29

    A process is described for the preparation of a multimetallic catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which process comprises: (a) forming a precatalyst itself comprising: (1) a first metal compound selected from compounds of nickel, cobalt or mixtures thereof; (2) a second metal compound selected from compounds of chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, or mixtures thereof; and (3) an inorganic support; (b) heating the precatalyst of step (a) with a source of sulfide in a first non-oxidizing gas at a temperature and for a time effective to presulfide the precatalyst; (c) adding in a second non-oxidizing gas to the sulfided precatalyst of step (b) an organometallic transition metal moiety selected from compounds of iridium, rhodium, iron, ruthenium, tungsten or mixtures thereof for a time and at a temperature effective to chemically combine the metal components; and (d) optionally heating the chemically combined catalyst of step (b) in vacuum at a temperature and for a time effective to remove residual volatile organic materials. 12 figs.

  8. Viscosity of α-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2013-05-14

    Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by α-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ≤ 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ≤ 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ≥ 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ≤ 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

  9. Quantitative Phase Fraction Detection in Organic Photovoltaic Materials through EELS Imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dyck, Ondrej; Hu, Sheng; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong; Xiao, Kai; Khomami, Bamin; Duscher, Gerd

    2015-11-24

    Organic photovoltaic materials have recently seen intense interest from the research community. Improvements in device performance are occurring at an impressive rate; however, visualization of the active layer phase separation still remains a challenge. Our paper outlines the application of two electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) imaging techniques that can complement and enhance current phase detection techniques. Specifically, the bulk plasmon peak position, often used to produce contrast between phases in energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), is quantitatively mapped across a sample cross section. One complementary spectrum image capturing the carbon and sulfur core loss edges is compared with themore » plasmon peak map and found to agree quite well, indicating that carbon and sulfur density differences between the two phases also allows phase discrimination. Additionally, an analytical technique for determining absolute atomic areal density is used to produce an absolute carbon and sulfur areal density map. We also show how these maps may be re-interpreted as a phase ratio map, giving quantitative information about the purity of the phases within the junction.« less

  10. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; et al

    2015-09-14

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm−2. In conclusion, althoughmore » the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.« less

  11. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-09-14

    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm−2. In conclusion, although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.

  12. Silver-halide/organic-composite structures: Toward materials with multiple photographic functionalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bringley, Joseph F. . E-mail: joseph.bringley@kodak.com; Rajeswaran, Manju; Olson, Leif P.; Liebert, Nancy M.

    2005-10-15

    We report the synthesis and structure of the novel silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(PPD){sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 4}(TMBD), and Ag{sub 2}I{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O. 1,4-phenylenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(PPD){sub 2}] crystals are monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n), with unit-cell dimensions, a=10.1915(3)A, b=7.7562(2)A, c=12.4340(5)A and {beta}=93.109(1){sup o}. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexabromodiargentate(I) monohydrate [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] crystals are monoclinic (space group P2{sub 1}/c) with a=10.8434(2)A, b=11.4293(2)A, c=14.3729(1)A, and {beta}=96.153(1){sup o}. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,4-benzenediammonium tetrabromodiargentate(I) [Ag{sub 2}Br{sub 4}(TMBD)] crystals are orthorhombic (space group Pbcn) with a=17.0030(6)A, b=6.6163(2)A, and c=15.9762(6)A. N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzenediammonium hexaiododiargentate(I) monohydrate, [Ag{sub 2}I{sub 6}(CD-2){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O], are monoclinic (C2/c), with unit-cell dimensions, a=21.4691(4)A, b=12.1411(2)A, c=14.3102(2)A, and {beta}=98.657(1){sup o}. The novel structures are members of a class of silver-halide-based organic-inorganic hybrids based upon the assembly of [Ag{sub a}X{sub b}]{sup n-} clusters and protonated organoamines in aqueous mineral acids. The clusters display short intracluster Ag-Ag distances, and computational methods are used to evaluate intracluster Ag-Ag bonding. The diverse stoichiometries and cluster connectivities observed suggest a rich compositional and structural chemistry based upon the general assembly method. We have extended the methodology to include a silver-halide-organoamonium chemistry in which the organic moiety is chosen to serve a specific photographic function and demonstrate the first examples of such materials. The methodology allows for the direct assembly of [Ag{sub a}X{sub b}]{sup n-} clusters with commercial photographic color

  13. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin

  14. Assembly of three organicinorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1?-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4?-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UVvis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metalorganic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 13-CPE and magnetic properties of 13 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. 3 shows unusual layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6

  15. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  16. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.; Diebold, James P.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  17. Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Gross, Mark E [Pasco, WA; Affinito, John D [Kennewick, WA; Shi, Ming-Kun [Richland, WA; Hall, Michael [West Richland, WA; Mast, Eric [Richland, WA

    2003-02-18

    An encapsulated organic light emitting device. The device includes a first barrier stack comprising at least one first barrier layer and at least one first polymer layer. There is an organic light emitting layer stack adjacent to the first barrier stack. A second barrier stack is adjacent to the organic light emitting layer stack. The second barrier stack has at least one second barrier layer and at least one second polymer layer. A method of making the encapsulated organic light emitting device is also provided.

  18. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  19. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Understanding and manipulating the most fundamental properties of materials can lead to major breakthroughs in solar power, reactor fuels, optical computing, telecommunications. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Yu Seung Kim (left) and Kwan-Soo Lee (right) New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost A new class of fuel cells based on a newly discovered polymer-based material could bridge

  20. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyman, J. N. Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41?S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f???2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  1. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-09-11

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  2. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  3. Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First Principles Modeling of the Decomposition Mechanisms of Organic Nitro Energetic Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman; Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija

    2016-02-19

    Our review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our ownmore » first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Lastly, our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.« less

  4. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  5. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  6. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  7. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  8. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H{sub 2} Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salles, F.; Maurin, G.; Jobic, H.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  9. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M.; Hirschon, Albert S.; Wilson, Jr., Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for forming a catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which includes (a) obtaining a precatalyst comprising cobalt and molybdenum or nickel and molybdenum; (b) adding in a non-oxidizing an atmosphere selected from hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, neon, argon, carbon monoxide or mixtures thereof to the precatalyst of step (a), a transition met ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of research partially sponsored by the Department of Energy through grants DE-FG22-83P C60781 and DE-FG-85-PC80906, and partially supported by grant CHE82-19541 of the National Science Foundation. The invention is subject to Public Law 96-517 (and amendments), and the United States Government has rights in the present invention.

  10. Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

    2001-07-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

  11. Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2008-10-15

    We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

  12. Cesium-137 inventories in Alaskan Tundra, lake and marine sediments: An indicator of recent organic material transport?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grebmeier, J.M.; Cooper, L.W. |; Larsen, I.L.; Solis, C.; Olsen, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    Tundra sampling was accomplished in 1989--1990 at Imnavait Creek, Alaska (68{degree}37` N, 149{degree}17` W). Inventories of {sup 137}Cs (102--162 mBq/cm{sup 2}) are close to expectations, based upon measured atmospheric deposition for this latitude. Accumulated inventories of {sup 137}Cs in tundra decrease by up to 50% along a transect to Prudhoe Bay (70{degree}13` N, 148{degree}30` W). Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs decreased with latitude in the Arctic, but declines in deposition would have been relatively small over this distance (200 km). This suggests a recent loss of {sup 137}Cs and possibly associated organic matter from tundra over the northern portions of the transect between Imnavait Creek and Prudhoe Bay. Sediments from Toolik Lake (68{degree}38` N, 149{degree}38` W) showed widely varying {sup 137}Cs inventories, from a low of 22 mBq/cm{sup 2} away from the lake inlet, to a high between 140 to >200 mBq/cm{sup 2} near the main stream inflow. This was indicative of recent accumulation of cesium and possibly organic material associated with it in arctic lakes, although additional sampling is needed.

  13. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functional Materials Researchers in NETL's Functional Materials Development competency work to discover and develop advanced functional materials and component processing technologies to meet technology performance requirements and enable scale-up for proof-of-concept studies. Research includes separations materials and electrochemical and magnetic materials, specifically: Separations Materials Synthesis, purification, and basic characterization of organic substances, including polymers and

  14. THE REINCARNATION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST: THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC REFRACTORY MATERIAL IN INFRARED SPECTRA OF COMETARY COMAE AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-20

    We consider the reincarnation of interstellar dust to be reborn in protoplanetary disks as aggregates consisting of submicron-sized grains with a crystalline or amorphous silicate core and an organic-rich carbonaceous mantle. We find that infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust reproduce emission peaks at correct wavelengths where the peaks were observed in cometary comae, debris disks, and protoplanetary disks if the volume fraction of organic refractory meets the constraints on elemental abundances. We discuss what we can learn from the infrared spectra of reincarnated interstellar dust in cometary comae and circumstellar disks.

  15. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  16. Materials Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Videos Materials

  17. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  18. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  19. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  20. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  1. Development of New Absorber Materials to Achieve Organic Photovoltaic Commercial Modules with 15% Efficiency and 20 Years Lifetime: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-498

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    Under this CRADA the parties will develop intermediates or materials that can be employed as the active layer in dye sensitized solar cells printed polymer systems, or small molecule organic photovoltaics.

  2. Timelines | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A listing of timelines about various materials of interest to rare earths and critical materials, organized by those specific to rare earth elements, general chemistry and uses. ...

  3. Water-Stable Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework Material with High-Surface Area and Gas-Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutov, OV; Bury, W; Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Krungleviciute, V; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Mondloch, JE; Sarjeant, AA; Al-Juaid, SS; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK

    2014-08-14

    We designed, synthesized, and characterized a new Zr-based metal-organic framework material, NU-1100, with a pore volume of 1.53 ccg(-1) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 4020 m(2)g(-1); to our knowledge, currently the highest published for Zr-based MOFs. CH4/CO2/H-2 adsorption isotherms were obtained over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions. The total hydrogen adsorption at 65 bar and 77 K is 0.092 gg(-1), which corresponds to 43 gL(-1). The volumetric and gravimetric methane-storage capacities at 65 bar and 298 K are approximately 180 v(STP)/v and 0.27 gg(-1), respectively.

  4. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming; Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci; Lu Canzhong

    2008-12-15

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  5. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  6. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  7. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  8. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  9. Cybersecurity Awareness Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The OCIO develops and distributes a variety of materials to enhance cyber awareness campaigns, address emerging cyber threats, and examine hot topics. These materials are available to all DOE organizations, and public and private institutions.

  10. Material Transfer Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Transfer Agreements Material Transfer Agreements Enables the transfer of tangible consumable research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use the material for research purposes Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Overview The ability to exchange materials freely and without delay is an important part of a healthy scientific laboratory. Los Alamos National

  11. weapons material | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material

  12. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saïl, K. Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  13. Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials Previous Next List ... Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials. Inorg. Chem. ...

  14. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications...

  15. Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Establishment of the Heavy Isotopes Lead Materials Management Organization (LMMO) Authors: ...

  16. Organic containment separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  17. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mar, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  18. Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laser spectroscopy, molecular beam epitaxy, and novel approaches for hybrid, organic and nanoparticle materials synthesis. Research activities include: Low-dimensional materials...

  19. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  20. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  1. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan; Rand, Barry P.

    2011-09-06

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  2. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  3. Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contract Research Material Transfer Agreements (MTA) Materials Transfer Agreements (MTAs) are used to transfer materials, biological or non-biological, between institutions from all sectors of the scientific community. Before you sign a materials transfer agreement, receive materials transferred from another organization, or send materials to another organization, contact the Office of Sponsored Research (OSRA) so that we may review the terms and conditions of the agreement (osra@ameslab.gov,

  4. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in extreme environments (high-temperature, high-stress, erosive, and corrosive environments, including the performance of materials in contact with molten slags and salts). Research includes materials design and discovery, materials processing and manufacturing, and service-life prediction of materials

  5. Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propulsion Materials FY 2013 Progress Report ii CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Project 18516 - Materials for H1ybrid and Electric Drive Systems ...................................................... 4 Agreement 19201 - Non-Rare Earth Magnetic Materials ............................................................................ 4 Agreement 23278 - Low-Cost

  6. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2002-02-12

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  7. Combinatorial sythesis of organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2002-07-16

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  8. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  9. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    1999-12-21

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  10. Combinatorial synthesis of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2001-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  11. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Materials Physics and Applications» Materials Science and Technology» Institute for Materials Science» Materials Science Rob Dickerson uses a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope at the Electron Microscopy Laboratory managed by Los

  12. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter...

  13. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation...

  14. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in ...

  15. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  16. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  17. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  18. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  19. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  20. Lab Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizations Lab Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Leadership Team Organization Chart PRINCIPAL ASSOCIATE DIRECTORATES Capital Projects, Larry Simmons Global Security, Terry Wallace Operations and Business, Craig Leasure Science, Technology, and Engineering, Alan Bishop

  1. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics May 26-27, 2011 Ted Barnes DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, DOE Office of Advanced Computational Research Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  2. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:05

  3. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  4. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light ... The prospect of electronic devices incorporating lightweight...

  5. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  6. Materials Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization Researchers in the Materials Characterization Research competency conduct studies of both natural and engineered materials from the micropore (nanometers) to macropore (meters) scale. Research includes, but is not limited to, thermal, chemical, mechanical, and structural (nano to macro) interactions and processes with regard to natural and engineered materials. The primary research investigation tools include SEM, XRD, micro XRD, core logging, medical CT, industrial

  7. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us » Organization Organization Organization OCIO Organizational Chart (Printable) News & Blog CIO Leadership Organization Contact Us

  8. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, ...

  9. Multifunctional Nanostructured Materials for Processing of Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical commodities. The nanostructured materials will be composed of organic and inorganic species that will work cooperatively to effectively promote chemical conversions...

  10. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  11. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Workshop January 5-6, 2011 Dr. Karen Pao ASCR Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services John Shalf NERSC Advanced Technologies Group Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:22

  12. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Susan Gregurick Program Manager, BER Biological Systems Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC System Architecture Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  13. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Science August 3-4, 2010 Dr. John Mandrekas Advanced Fusion Simulations; FES HPC Allocations Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Alice Koniges NERSC Advanced Technologies Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  14. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Amber Boehnlein Division Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, on assignment to DOE Office of HEP. Glen Crawford Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, DOE Office of HEP. Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey

  15. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-04

    This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Supersedes DOE M 460.2-1.

  16. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  17. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  18. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  19. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  20. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  1. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of materials under ideal and realistic process conditions such as those found in coal-fired power plant and integrated gasification combined cycle fuel gas. Performance ...

  2. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Fermilab Organization < Back to About Fermilab Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Far-Site LBNF Project Near-Site LBNF Project Office LBNF Project LCLS-II Project Neutrino Division Office of Communication Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management Office of Project Support Services Office of the CFO Office of the CIO Office of the CPO PIP-II Project PPD

  3. Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research January 5-6, 2011 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  5. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE ASCR Program Manager Yukiko Sekine Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:54

  6. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  7. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  8. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials discovery serves as a foundation for technological progress in renewable energies. Our experimental activities in inorganic solid-state materials innovation span a broad range of technological readiness levels-from basic science through applied research to device development-relying on a high-throughput combinatorial materials science approach, followed by traditional targeted experiments. In addition, our researchers work

  9. Reticulated Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiros T.; Yager K.; Mannsfeld S.; Chiu C.-Y.; Ciston J.; Gorodetsky A.; Palma M.; Bullard Z.; Kramer T.; Delongchamp D.; Fischer D.; Kymissis I.; Toney M.F.; Nuckolls C.

    2012-03-21

    This paper shows how the self-assembled interlocking of two nanostructured materials can lead to increased photovoltaic performance. A detailed picture of the reticulated 6-DBTTC/C{sub 60} organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction, which produces devices approaching the theoretical maximum for these materials, is presented from near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The complementary suite of techniques shows how self-assembly can be exploited to engineer the interface and morphology between the cables of donor (6-DBTTC) material and a polycrystalline acceptor (C{sub 60}) to create an interpenetrating network of pure phases expected to be optimal for OPV device design. Moreover, we find that there is also a structural and electronic interaction between the two materials at the molecular interface. The data show how molecular self-assembly can facilitate 3-D nanostructured photovoltaic cells that are made with the simplicity and control of bilayer device fabrication. The significant improvement in photovoltaic performance of the reticulated heterojunction over the flat analog highlights the potential of these strategies to improve the efficiency of organic solar cells.

  10. Stacked organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Xue, Jiangeng; Uchida, Soichi; Rand, Barry P.

    2007-03-27

    A device is provided having a first electrode, a second electrode, a first photoactive region having a characteristic absorption wavelength .lamda..sub.1 and a second photoactive region having a characteristic absorption wavelength .lamda..sub.2. The photoactive regions are disposed between the first and second electrodes, and further positioned on the same side of a reflective layer, such that the first photoactive region is closer to the reflective layer than the second photoactive region. The materials comprising the photoactive regions may be selected such that .lamda..sub.1 is at least about 10% different from .lamda..sub.2. The device may further comprise an exciton blocking layer disposed adjacent to and in direct contact with the organic acceptor material of each photoactive region, wherein the LUMO of each exciton blocking layer other than that closest to the cathode is not more than about 0.3 eV greater than the LUMO of the acceptor material.

  11. Materials at LANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory,' LA-UR-08

  12. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  13. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  14. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  15. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences August 3-4, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors [not available] NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion

  16. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  17. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  18. Meeting Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Meeting Materials Meeting Materials Here you will find various items to be used before and during the requirements review. The following documents are included: Case study worksheet to be filled in by meeting participants Sample of a completed case study from a Nuclear Physics requirements workshop held in 2011 A graph of NERSC and HEP usage as a function of time A powerpoint template you can use at the requirements review Downloads CaseStudyTemplate.docx | unknown Case Study Worksheet -

  19. Engineered Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Engineered Materials Materials design, fabrication, assembly, and characterization for national security needs. Contact Us Group Leader (Acting) Kimberly Obrey Email Deputy Group Leader Dominic Peterson Email Group Office (505)-667-6887 We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly, characterization, and field support. We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly,

  20. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Organization Organization Organization Download Printable PDF PDF icon Organization Chart - Dated: 07122015 Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM ...

  1. Organic electrophosphorescence device having interfacial layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choulis, Stelios A.; Mathai, Mathew; Choong, Vi-En; So, Franky

    2010-08-10

    Techniques are described for forming an organic light emitting diode device with improved device efficiency. Materials having at least one energy level that is similar to those of a phosphorescent light emitting material in the diode are incorporated into the device to directly inject holes or electrons to the light emitting material.

  2. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Isy; Ross, Debra A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xian-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2010-08-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  3. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  4. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also

  5. Improved Organic Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics B4 Materials For Organic Semiconductor Applications, Including Molecular Electronics And Organic Photovoltaics University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2768B (Organic PV) Marketing Summary_1.pdf (146 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Traditionally, photosensitive optoelectronic devices such as solar cells have been constructed of a number of inorganic semiconductors. Purity and crystalline grain size are a large

  6. Training Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Materials Training Materials The following tutorials are produced by NERSC staff and are intended to provide basic instruction on NERSC systems. Sort by: Default | Name | Date (low-high) | Date (high-low) | Source | Category Introduction to Hybrid OpenMP/MPI Programming June 24, 2004 | Author(s): Helen He | Download File: hybridTalk.pdf | pdf | 1005 KB sample managed list Using OpenMP October 20, 2010 | Author(s): Helen He | Introduction to MPI January 11, 2010 | Author(s): Richard

  7. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy Nevada Field Office webpage Public Reading Room NTA Public Reading Facility Open Monday through Friday, 7:30 am to 4:30 pm (except holidays) 755C East Flamingo Road Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Phone (702) 794-5106 http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/testingarchive.aspx DOE Electronic Database Also available to the public is an

  8. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.; Dourado, Sunil K.; Dulebohn, Joel I.; Hanchar, Robert J.

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  9. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  10. Critical Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Major Trends in Selected Clean Energy Application Areas ........................................................... 5 6 2.1.1 Permanent Magnets for Wind

  11. Composite material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Samuels, William D.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2004-04-20

    The composite material and methods of making the present invention rely upon a fully dense monolayer of molecules attached to an oxygenated surface at one end, and an organic terminal group at the other end, which is in turn bonded to a polymer. Thus, the composite material is a second material chemically bonded to a polymer with fully dense monolayer there between.

  12. Physics and Chemistry of Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Physics and Chemistry of Materials Developing new science and technologies needed for the national security of the United States by understanding how basic forces operating at the atomic level manifest themselves in the properties of matter at the macroscopic level. Molecular docking simulations The influence of small organic molecules on the operation and mechanism of electron transfer in enzymatic anodes. Molecular docking simulations The influence of small organic molecules on the operation

  13. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  14. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Brice{hacek over }o, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  15. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  16. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID 412- 11/16/2012 - Page 1 Log No 2012-263 Reference Materials * Transporting Radioactive Waste to the Nevada National Security Site fact sheet (ww.nv.energy.gov/library/factsheets/DOENV_990.pdf) - Generators contract with commercial carriers - U.S. Department of Transportation regulations require carriers to select routes which minimize radiological risk * Drivers Route and Shipment Information Questionnaire completed by drivers to document routes taken to the NNSS upon entry into Nevada -

  17. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  18. Sulfur cathode hosted in porous organic polymeric matrices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Weng, Wei; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil

    2016-02-09

    A composite material includes a porous organic polymer and an electrochemically active material, wherein the porous organic polymer contains a plurality of pores having a diameter of from about 0.1 nm to about 100 nm, and the electrochemically active material is disposed within the pores.

  19. Blackbody material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.

    1994-01-01

    A light emitting article comprises a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light emitting composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  20. CRC materials science and engineering handbook. Third edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shackelford, J.F.; Alexander, W.

    1999-01-01

    This definitive reference is organized in an easy-to-follow format based on materials properties. It features new and existing data verified through major professional societies in the materials fields, such as ASM International and the American Ceramic Society. The third edition has been significantly expanded, most notably by the addition of new tabular material for a wide range of nonferrous alloys and various materials. The contents include: Structure of materials; Composition of materials; Phase diagram sources; Thermodynamic and kinetic data; Thermal properties of materials; Mechanical properties of materials; Electrical properties of materials; Optical properties of materials; Chemical properties of materials.

  1. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  2. Nuclear materials management storage study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  3. Alloy materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  4. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  5. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  6. Megahertz organic/polymer diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Howard Edan; Sun, Jia; Pal, Nath Bhola

    2012-12-11

    Featured is an organic/polymer diode having a first layer composed essentially of one of an organic semiconductor material or a polymeric semiconductor material and a second layer formed on the first layer and being electrically coupled to the first layer such that current flows through the layers in one direction when a voltage is applied in one direction. The second layer is essentially composed of a material whose characteristics and properties are such that when formed on the first layer, the diode is capable of high frequency rectifications on the order of megahertz rectifications such as for example rectifications at one of above 100KHz, 500KhZ, IMHz, or 10 MHz. In further embodiments, the layers are arranged so as to be exposed to atmosphere.

  7. Organic-Acid-Assisted Fabrication of Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2) for Lithium-Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-24

    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2 (0.4Li(2)MnO(3-)0.6LiFe(1/3)Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2)) was synthesized by a solgel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical alpha-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3 m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.54.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the solgel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Liion batteries.

  8. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  9. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  10. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  11. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  12. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  13. Hydrogen gettering packing material, and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D.; Thompson, Lisa M.; Smith, Henry Michael; Schicker, James R.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen gettering system for a sealed container is disclosed comprising packing material for use within the sealed container, and a coating film containing hydrogen gettering material on at least a portion of the surface of such packing material. The coating film containing the hydrogen gettering material comprises a mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and one or more catalysts capable of catalyzing the reaction of hydrogen with such one or more organic materials. The mixture of one or more organic materials capable of reacting with hydrogen and the one or more catalysts is dispersed in a suitable carrier which preferably is a curable film-forming material. In a preferred embodiment, the packing material comprises a foam material which is compatible with the coating film containing hydrogen gettering material thereon.

  14. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type ... developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. ...

  15. Electrochemical destruction of organic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gendes, J.D.; Hartsough, D.; Super, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    An electrochemical process for removing organic acids from an aqueous waste stream has been characterized. Biological treatment of aqueous organic acid waste streams has been the typical means of degrading organic acids, and the resultant biosludge is landfilled. In the electrochemical approach, aqueous organic acids may be efficiently converted to useful fuel in a one or two electron process. The possible reactions occurring are outlined here. The electrolysis of the sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids has been studied both as single component solutions and mixtures. The reaction products as well as relative rates of destruction of the acid salts were measured. The effect of experimental variables such as current density, temperature, and anode material on the current efficiency and product distribution was investigated. Electrode stability due to platinum corrosion was identified as the major limitation to the process.

  16. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  17. High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High ...

  18. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  19. Pricing of Departmental Materials and Services

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-12-18

    The order establishes DOE requirements for prices and charges for materials and services sold or provided to external organizations, other Federal agencies, or the private sector either directly or through a Departmental site/facility management contract.

  20. Sulfur cathode hosted in porous organic polymeric matrices (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  1. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode ...

  2. Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials Previous Next List ... This work also offers a general perspective for the design and synthesis of ...

  3. In silico screening of metal-organic frameworks in separation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    frameworks in separation applications Abstract: Porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) offer considerable...

  4. Review of the Emergency Response Organization at the Los Alamos...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Materials Program Emergency Plan describes and identifies the mechanisms for integrating local agencies and other external organizations. These include policy letters and ...

  5. Thio-,amine-,nitro-,and macrocyclic containing organic aerogels & xerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Glenn A.; Tillotson, Thomas M.

    2005-08-02

    An organic aerogel or xerogel formed by a sol-gel reaction using starting materials that exhibit similar reactivity to the most commonly used resorcinol starting material. The new starting materials, including thio-, amine- and nitro-containing molecules and functionalized macrocyclic molecules will produce organic xerogels and aerogels that have improved performance in the areas of detection and sensor technology, as well as water stream remediation. Also, further functionalization of these new organic aerogels or xerogels will yield material that can be extracted with greater facility than current organic aerogels.

  6. Method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Dow, Jerome P.

    2004-03-23

    A method for removing organic liquids from aqueous solutions and mixtures. The method employs any porous material preferably in granular form and having small pores and a large specific surface area, that is hydrophobic so that liquid water does not readily wet its surface. In this method, organics, especially organic solvents that mix with and are more volatile than water, are separated from aqueous solution by preferentially evaporating across the liquid/solid boundary formed at the surfaces of the hydrophobic porous materials. Also, organic solvents that are immiscible with water, preferentially wet the surfaces of the hydrophobic material and are drawn within the porous materials by capillary action.

  7. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  8. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  9. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  10. Mapping the March to Methodical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the March to Methodical Materials Mapping the March to Methodical Materials Computational Chemistry Provides Proof of Popular MOF's Reactivity September 18, 2014 Contact: Kristin Manke, kristin.manke@pnnl.gov, +1 509.372.6011 marchmof Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory demonstrated the fundamental reactions that occur when synthesizing the building blocks of a metal-organic framework. Image: PNNL Selective and reactive, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could replace

  11. Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasenko, Elena; Cherry, Joel; Xu, Feng

    2008-04-08

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermentating microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  12. Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasenko, Elena; Cherry, Joel; Xu, Feng

    2011-05-17

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microorganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  13. Critical Materials Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentations during the Critical Materials Workshop held on April 3, 2012 overviewing critical materials strategies

  14. Optical Spectroscopy for Materials Applications | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical Spectroscopy for Materials Applications The two main objectives of the Smith research group are: (1) to measure the organization and dynamics of biological structures, and...

  15. Materials Modeling for High-Performance Radiation Detectors ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, ...

  16. Recovering Americium and Curium from Mark-42 Target Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMERICIUM; CURIUM; PROCESSING; ...

  17. Ultrafast observation of shocked states in a precompressed material...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ... MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  18. Marketing Materials and Posters for Energy Entrepreneurs | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Energy Entrepreneurs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Marketing Materials and Posters for Energy Entrepreneurs AgencyCompany Organization: GVEP...

  19. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  20. DOE-EERE/NIST Joint Workshop on Combinatorial Materials Science...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    half-day sessions were focused on discovery of hydrogen storage materials, one half-day session on fuel cell membranes, and one half-day session on organic photovoltaic materials. ...

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  3. Hydrogenation process for solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, John L.; Wilcox, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    Coal or other solid carbonaceous material is contacted with an organic solvent containing both hydrogen and a transition metal catalyst in solution to hydrogenate unsaturated bonds within the carbonaceous material. This benefaction step permits subsequent pyrolysis or hydrogenolysis of the carbonaceous fuel to form gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon products of increased yield and quality.

  4. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  5. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum).

  6. weapons material protection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material protection

  7. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  8. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  9. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-23

    Ceramic materials are disclosed which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200--550 C or organic salt (including SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) at temperatures of 25--200 C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components. 1 fig.

  10. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.