National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for organic matter cpom

  1. Microfiltration of colloids and natural organic matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Schwicke, U.; Fischer, M. M.; Fane, Anthony G.; Waite, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    Surface waters contain colloids and natural organic matter, largely composed of humic substances. In this work the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) and humic substances (IHSS stream humic and fulvic acid reference ...

  2. Microbial production and consumption of marine dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jamie William

    2013-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are the principal producers of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM), the organic substrate responsible for secondary production by heterotrophic microbes in the sea. Despite the importance of DOM in ...

  3. Reversibility of Soil Productivity Decline with Organic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    of stable organic matter (biochar and sawdust) to improve productivity by enhancing SOC. Maize productivity, biochar), whereas productivity was 8, 15, and 39% greater (P both nutrient delivery (with green manure) and improvement of SOC (with biochar). Key words

  4. Hydrogen Isotopic (D/H) Composition of Organic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessions, Alex L.

    Hydrogen Isotopic (D/H) Composition of Organic Matter During Diagenesis and Thermal Maturation difficult to interpret because the effects of hydrogen exchange and kinetic fractionations are confounded- crease in the D/H ratio of most organic hydrogen at the bulk and molecular levels, and suggest

  5. Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter Andrew R. Zimmermana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    as sequestration of pollutants in soils and sediments (Luthy et al., 1997), turnover of natural soil organic carbon that organic matter (OM) may be protected from enzymatic degradation by sequestration within mineral mesopores observations. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration and preservation

  6. Nature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assimilated and produced; however, little is known about the chemical nature and fate of DOM in treatment degradation of specific components of the DOM (6). Free water surface treatment wetlands consist of semiNature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Treatment Wetlands L A R R Y B . B A R B E

  7. UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Soil Organic Matter and Compost Utilization Background High clay content soils is yard waste compost, and composting is becoming increasingly common in urban areas due to municipal yard waste collection and composting programs such as the one in Plano, Texas. Wastewater biosolids

  8. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Sarah L.; Iversen, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a wide range of soil processes, from the exudation of labile C compounds to the development of fungal associations. For example, Zoe Cardon demonstrated that the root-mediated redistribution of deep soil water to relatively dry shallower soil, increased soil CO{sub 2} efflux and nutrient cycling near the surface in an arid ecosystem. Andrew Kulmatiski also discussed the importance of rooting distribution throughout the soil profile for strategies of water uptake by different species in an African savanna. Later, Julie Jastrow demonstrated that living roots shape soil physical structure by promoting the formation of soil aggregates, which facilitated accrual of SOM in restored grasslands. Taken together, the evidence is compelling that living roots, and organic matter derived from root detritus, are important parts of the continuum of organic matter in the soil. Larger soil organisms (i.e. 50 {micro}m to many cm in body size) play an important role in the root-SOM continuum by grazing on roots and microbes, comminuting organic matter and aggregating soil in fecal pellets. However, litterbag and soil incubation studies necessarily exclude invertebrates, and research on faunal activity and trophic dynamics tends to be independent from research on the biogeochemistry of SOM cycling. Tim Filley used plant-derived biomarkers in invertebrate residues to bridge the gap between larger soil organisms, such as earthworms and beetle larvae, and SOM distribution. He found that larger soil organisms help to stabilize root-derived organic matter in soil aggregates. Similar coupling of biogeochemistry with food web studies could prove fruitful for describing mechanisms that underlie critical ecosystem processes. Despite considerable research efforts, the breadth of the microbial role in the root-SOM continuum remains unresolved. Using advanced pyrosequencing techniques, David Nelson demonstrated the importance of archea as nitrifiers in agricultural systems exposed to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. Rising atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and other changing environmental factors add a layer of complexity t

  9. Role of natural organic matter in governing the bioavailability of toxic metals to american oysters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haye, Jennifer Marcelle

    2006-08-16

    Colloidal macromolecular organic matter (COM), which makes up a large portion of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine environments, has the capability to modify the bioavailability of potentially toxic metals ...

  10. Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2011-10-18

    Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

  11. Project title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation to mineralization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    and Food Research). Topic: Soluble organic matter is of interest due to its role in carbon and nitrogenProject title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation examined. The study will seek to understand the role that soluble organic matter plays in regulating

  12. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  13. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  14. VARIETY OF ORGANIC MATTER IN STARDUST RETURN SAMPLES FROM COMET 81P/WILD 2. B. T. De Gregorio1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    into the silica aerogel capture medium [5]. Cometary carbonaceous matter is derived from in- terstellar organic

  15. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  16. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply of detrital and algal organic matter to the metazoan food web in this large estuarine ecosystem. BackgroundBioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal

  17. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect decomposition pathways and stabilization. These factors influence the stability of SOM in part by shaping its molecular characteristics, which play a fundamental role in nearly all processes governing SOM stability but are not the focus of this chapter. We review here the most important controls on the distribution and dynamics of SOM at plot to global scales, and methods used to study them. We also explore the concepts of controls, processes, and mechanisms, and how they operate across scales. The concept of SOM turnover, or mean residence time, is central to this chapter and so it is described in some detail. The Appendix details the use of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), a powerful isotopic tool for studying SOM dynamics. Much of the material here was originally presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on 'Soils and Global Change: Carbon Cycle, Trace Gas Exchange and Hydrology', held June 16-27, 1997, at the Chateau de Bonas, France.

  18. A Lipid Biomarker Investigation of Organic Matter Sources and Methane Cycling in Alaskan Thaw Lake Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    the most recalcitrant. The diagenesis of organic matter isorganisms and, during diagenesis, are reduced in chemicalskeleton to survive through diagenesis and catagenesis while

  19. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jamie William

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...

  20. Removal of boron, fluoride and nitrate by electrodialysis in the presence of organic matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banasiak, Laura J.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    H and the degree of demineralization. Dissolved organic matter (humic acid, tannic acid and alginic acid) resulted in enhanced removal of boron and F? as a result of the binding of F? within the organic matter structure and complexation of boric acid (B(OH)3...

  1. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments for review August 29, 2005) The long-term burial of organic carbon in sediments results in the net and atmosphere. Sediment microbial activity plays a major role in determining whether particulate organic carbon

  2. An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex freshwater environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex October 2013 Accepted 12 October 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: CDOM Algorithm Freshwater environments Saginaw River Lake Huron This study evaluated fifteen algorithms representing four major

  3. Organic Matter Analysis of Sediments from Simpson Bay, Alaska using Elemental, Stable Isotopic, and Molecular Signatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pondell, Christina

    2008-08-19

    Sediment samples from Simpson Bay, Alaska were analyzed to determine the influence of earthquake events on the accumulated organic matter. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb activity in the sediment dated the cores and determined the depths...

  4. Aeolian Delivery of Organic Matter to a Middle Permian Deepwater Ramp 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artan, Sinem

    2012-07-16

    of the Brushy Canyon Formation sandstones and siltstones to evaluate the significance of windblown dust in delivery of sediment and terrestrial organic matter to the Middle Permian Delaware Basin. Ramp siltstones of the basin have been interpreted...

  5. Impact of organic matter and speciation on the behaviour of uranium in submerged ultrafiltration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semião, Andrea J.C.; Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Influence of organic matter (OM) on uranium removal mechanisms by ultrafiltration (UF) over a pH range of 3–11 was investigated. Humic, alginic and tannic acid were used as OM. It was found that uranium adsorbed strongly ...

  6. Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Christina Estefana

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing ...

  7. Direct and indirect photoreactions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter : roles of reactive oxygen species and iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstone, Jared Verrill, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical transformations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are one of the principal processes controlling its fate in coastal waters. The photochemical decomposition of CDOM leads to the formation of a ...

  8. Radiocarbon and stable isotope geochemistry of organic matter in the Amazon headwaters, Peruvian Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, Michael

    (such as resuspension or photosynthesis) may control riverine POM composition as opposed to terrestrial consistency in the geochemical composition of organic matter (OM) in the Amazon, leading to the conclusion

  9. ORGANIC MATTER DISTRIBUTION AND TURNOVER ALONG A GRADIENT FROM FOREST TO TIDAL CREEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    i ORGANIC MATTER DISTRIBUTION AND TURNOVER ALONG A GRADIENT FROM FOREST TO TIDAL CREEK A Thesis. A nested plot design was used to harvest vegetation, obtain soil cores, and collect quantitative data... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .18 Qualitative Vegetation Analysis

  10. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater : structure, cycling, and the role of biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quan, Tracy M. (Tracy Michelle), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate three different areas relating to the characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): further determination of the chemical compounds present in high molecular weight DOM ...

  11. Identification of Location and Nature of Organic Matter and Contaminants on Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Location and Nature of Organic Matter and Contaminants on Sediments U. Ghosh matter in natural sediments. Such knowledge is important in understanding the fundamental nature), and nitroaromatics such as TNT. The role of hard carbonaceous materials in sediments such as coal-derived particles

  12. Generative morphologies of architectural organization in matter force field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates generative methods of architectural form finding in matter force fields that produce spatial subdivision and organizational variation. Unlike the style driven contemporary free-form architecture ...

  13. Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences laminated, Cenoma- nian­Santonian black shale sequences contain between 2% and 15% organic carbon about the depositional conditions leading to the black shale accumulations. The low d13 Corg values

  14. SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    using pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils Pyrolysis GC/MS Á Soil organic carbon Introduction Boreal soils have been accumulating carbon (C) sinceSYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest

  15. Influence of compost on soil organic matter quality under tropical conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Influence of compost on soil organic matter quality under tropical conditions Carmen Riveroa , T was conducted in Puerto Rico to evaluate the impact of compost on soil quality and crop production in an ultisol. In particular, the effect of compost on the quality of soil organic mater (SOM) was investigated. Compost

  16. EAOG Sville The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    during early diagenesis (Marchand et al., 2003; 2004; 2005; in press). Here, we propose to present an integrated conceptual model for organic sedimentation and diagenesis in French Guiana mangroves, taking

  17. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torn, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412 , 785. Fried,Plant Litter. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological2007). Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage:

  18. Lattice Boltzmann prediction of transport properties in reconstructed nanostructures of organic matters in shales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Tao, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Size, morphology and distributions of pores in organic matters of shale matrix are discussed based on high resolution images from experiments in the literature. 150 nanoscale structures of the organic matters are then reconstructed by randomly placing pore spheres with different diameters and overlap tolerances. Effects of porosity, the mean diameter and the overlap tolerance on void space connectivity and pore size distribution are studied. Further, a pore-scale model based on the Lattice Boltzmann method is developed to predict the Knudsen diffusivity and permeability of the reconstructed organic matters. The simulation results show that the mean pore diameter and overlap tolerance significantly affect the transport properties. The predicted Knudsen effective diffusivity is compared with Bruggeman equation and it is found that this equation underestimate the tortuosity. A modified Bruggeman equation is proposed based on the simulation results. The predicted intrinsic permeability is in acceptable agreement ...

  19. Introduction It is well established that dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    weeks or more, with the frequency and duration limited only by power consumption and data storage in biogeochemical processes: it supplies energy to heterotrophic organisms, binds metals and pesti- cides, affects may rapidly change in response to aperiodic as well as periodic physi- cal and biological forcing

  20. Variability in diatom contributions to biomass, organic matter production and export across a frontal gradient in the California Current Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    than to autotrophic biomass Diatom growth in a cyclonic eddydiatom contributions to biomass, organic matter productionbe stimulated, resulting in biomass accumulations, in some

  1. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States); Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L. [Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Water Research 37 (2003) 10151022 Heterogeneity of natural organic matter from the Chena River,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    2003-01-01

    continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py rights reserved. Keywords: Natural organic matter; Colloid; Stable isotope; Size fractionation; Pyrolysis that northern ecosystems have accumulated 25­33% of the world's soil carbon [8]. Carbon currently sequestered

  3. A simple method for the removal of dissolved organic matter and N analysis of NO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    ,11] or by the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide gas (N2O) by bacteria[12,13] or by using cadmium or sodium in nitrate (NO3 ­ ) are frequently used to identify nitrate sources and to study nitrogen (N) transformation, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) can interfere with the d15 N signature of nitrate. We therefore have

  4. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 22922299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 2292­2299 Modifications of degradation-resistant soil organic matter by soil saprobic microfungi Veronika R eza´ c ova´ a,b,Ã, Hana Hrs elova´ a , Hana Gryndlerova in their solutions and in sterile soil by microfungal species and two well-known HA degraders were studied

  5. Coupling between 210 Pbex and organic matter in sediments of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeager, Kevin M.

    Coupling between 210 Pbex and organic matter in sediments of a nutrient-enriched lake: An example Abstract Sediment cores were collected from deep-water areas of Lake Chenghai, China in June 1997 that sediment accumulation rates in deep-water areas of Lake Chenghai were relatively constant in recent decades

  6. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devernal, Anne

    Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE Uranium Witwatersrand a b s t r a c t Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal

  7. Caloric Values of Organic Matter in Woodland, Swamp, and Lake Soils Author(s): Eville Gorham and Jon Sanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Caloric Values of Organic Matter in Woodland, Swamp, and Lake Soils Author(s): Eville Gorham VALUES OF ORGANIC MATTER IN WOODLAND, SWAMP, AND LAKE SOILS' EVILLE GORHAM AND JON SANGER Department, and lake soils and in certain plants. Mean values in kilocalories per gram are: 11 woodland soils, 5.04; 20

  8. Biodiversity and food web structure influence short-term accumulation of sediment organic matter in an experimental seagrass system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, J. Emmett

    microalgae (chlorophyll a) and the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, a proxy for labile algal organic matter) and branched FA (a proxy for bacterial biomass). On average, increasing grazer biomass and accumulation of algal organic matter in sediments, and enhancing the quality of SOM

  9. Effect of Combustion Temperature on Soil and Soil Organic Matter Properties: A Study of Soils from the Western Elevation Transect in Central Sierra Nevada, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araya, Samuel Negusse

    2014-01-01

    during pyrolysis compared to untreated soils, Rosa et al. (soil organic matter as reflected by 13 C natural abundance, pyrolysis

  10. by the ratio of biogas production to organic matter input : 0.20 to 0.3 M3/kg organic When considering the period of steady operation, i.e. without technical problems such

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by the ratio of biogas production to organic matter input : 0.20 to 0.3 M3/kg organic matter. When produced and mainly cor- responded to the heating of fresh manure. Selfconsumption was all the larger

  11. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  12. Evaluating the origins and transformations of organic matter and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in two contrasting North Sea estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahad, Jason Michael Elias

    In order to delineate the potential sources and to understand the main controls on the biogeochemical cycling of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM, POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) during estuarine ...

  13. COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA) AND PLUM ISLAND SOUND, MA (USA) A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the School of Marine Science............................... 55 DISCUSSION ................................................................... 57 Plum Island

  14. Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÀ1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. ROLE OF TRIVALENT Mn IN OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MATTER Christopher J. Matocha and D.L. Sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    organic matter^ M AT E R I A L S A N D M E T H O D S Reactivity studies of solid Mn(lll,IV) (hydr) oxide of available Mn(lli). R E S U L T S No correlation existed between the initial reductive dissolution ratesROLE OF TRIVALENT Mn IN OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MATTER Christopher J. Matocha and D.L. Sparks Dept

  16. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzeo, M., E-mail: marco.mazzeo@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Genco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gambino, S. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  17. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore »data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1, 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  19. How Soil Organic Matter Composition Controls Hexachlorobenzene-Soil-Interactions: Adsorption Isotherms and Quantum Chemical Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashour; Kühn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soil soil soil+3 HWE soil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption behaviour combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HC...

  20. Approaches to mitigate the impact of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by porous carbonaceous sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil [Clemson University, Anderson, SC (United States). Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences

    2007-11-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least impact of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore »and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1), 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  2. A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohaus, T.

    In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

  3. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  4. Using finished compost is a way of returning organic matter to the soil in a usable form. Soil organic matter benefits plant growth by improving the moisture and nutrient-holding capacity of sandy soils, by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Using finished compost is a way of returning organic matter to the soil in a usable form. Soil and by helping prevent soil erosion. Think of compost primarily as a soil conditioner rather than a fertilizer will be necessary for adequate plant growth. A soil test will determine if compost-amended garden soil requires

  5. Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anandha Rao, Balaji [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and SCN-, and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S2-) and sulfite (SO32-) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 104 thiols cell-1 (or ~0.07 mol g-1 wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 mol g-1, respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg.

  6. PII S0016-7037(00)00511-1 Reaction of forest floor organic matter at goethite, birnessite and smectite surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    PII S0016-7037(00)00511-1 Reaction of forest floor organic matter at goethite, birnessite carbon (DOC) concentrations (0­140 g C m 3 ) for reaction with goethite ( -FeOOH), birnessite ( -MnO2 different NOM adsorption, fractionation and transformation patterns. Goethite exhibited a steep initial

  7. Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Effects of Soil Organic Matter on the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Pb(II) Sorption and Desorption in Soil Daniel G. Strawn* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT make better predictions about the mobility and threat from Pb contami- and desorption behavior on soil be understood, as wellnated soil, it is critical

  8. Source and transport of terrigenous organic matter in the upper Yukon River: Evidence from isotope (D13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    that turnover pathways and transport mechanisms vary with organic matter size fractions. The high abundance of COC and its contemporary 14 C ages points to a predominant source from modern terrestrial primary in the Yukon River watershed would enhance the mobilization and export of old terrestrial OC, but largely

  9. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR increases significantly after exposure of CDOM to solar radiation.4,9,10,11­13 This increase in bacterial

  10. Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen; published 8 August 2007. [1] Results are presented of export production, dissolved organic matter (DOM ± 6 Pg C yrÀ1 . Model means of globally averaged particle export, the fraction of total export

  11. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhe, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    et al. [1997], this HF demineralization procedure does notMatter [ 38 ] HF demineralization of soil samples prior to

  12. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  13. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  14. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L?-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore »the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  15. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore »degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  16. Genome-Based Models to Optimize In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium and Harvesting Electrical Energy from Waste Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-28

    The goal of this research was to provide computational tools to predictively model the behavior of two microbial communities of direct relevance to Department of Energy interests: 1) the microbial community responsible for in situ bioremediation of uranium in contaminated subsurface environments; and 2) the microbial community capable of harvesting electricity from waste organic matter and renewable biomass. During this project the concept of microbial electrosynthesis, a novel form of artificial photosynthesis for the direct production of fuels and other organic commodities from carbon dioxide and water was also developed and research was expanded into this area as well.

  17. The effect of various cropping systems upon organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, conductivity and reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannan, Mohammad Abdul

    1958-01-01

    of organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium, potassium and magnesium, conductivity and pH were made from the samples of seven different crop- ping systems. These cropping systems were started in January of 1950... significant variation in concentration of exchangeable sodium with depth. Exchan sable Potassium The exchangeable potassium content of the plots under various cropping systems ranged from 0. 96 to 1. 22 m. e. /100 gms in the surface layer, from 0. 57 to 0...

  18. Warming-enhanced preferential microbial mineralization of humified boreal forest soil organic matter: Interpretation of soil profiles along a climate transect using laboratory incubations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jianwei; Ziegler, Susan E.; Lane, Chad S.; Billings, Sharon A.

    2012-06-01

    Humified soil organic matter storage in boreal forests is large, and its responses to warming over relatively long timescales is critical for predicting soil feedbacks to climate change. To derive information relevant ...

  19. Trace metal behaviour in riverine sediments: role of organic matter and sulphides Adeline Charriaua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    matter during early diagenesis leads to major changes in the redox conditions between the overlying oxic; Canavan et al., 2007, Miller and Orbock Miller, 2007). Moreover, resuspension events from natural

  20. Organic Matter Composition, Recycling Susceptibility, and the Effectiveness of the Biological Pump – An Evaluation Using NMR Spectra of Marine Plankton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paytan, Adina [UCSC] [UCSC

    2014-02-19

    Carbon (C) sequestration through fertilization of phytoplankton with micronutrients and enhancement of the absorption and retention of atmospheric C by ocean biota heavily depends on the efficiency of the “biological pump”. The long-term effectiveness of this strategy depends on a net transfer of C from the upper ocean-atmosphere system to the deep ocean where the C is removed from contact with the atmosphere for an extended period of time. This C removal can be equated to the amount of C fixation by phytoplankton minus the C cycling and regeneration in the euphotic zone. If the regeneration efficiency is increased, then despite increased C fixation, no net loss (sequestration) of C will result. A reduction in cycling efficiency in the euphotic zone, on the other hand, will increase the effectiveness of the “biological pump” and thus C sequestration. The degree of organic matter biodegradation and recycling depends on the “reactivity” of compounds synthesized by the biota, which in turn, is controlled by the structural characteristic of these compounds. There is considerable evidence that different phytoplankton taxa differ substantially in their biogeochemical characteristics and it is likely that the relative abundance of different compounds synthesized by these distinct taxa, and even within each group at different growth conditions, will differ too. This variability in biosynthesis and thus abundance of a wide range of organic compounds in the water column would lend itself to different susceptibility for biodegradation and regeneration. Knowledge of the distribution of various organic matter structural groups synthesized by distinct taxa, the dependence of the organic matter compound classes on different growth conditions (temperature, light, nutrients) and the selective susceptibility of these compound to regeneration is crucial for estimating the potential for rapid regeneration in the euphotic zone, and thus the effectiveness of the “biological pump”.

  1. The temporal dynamics of terrestrial organic matter transfer to the oceans : initial assessment and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drenzek, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    This thesis employs compound-specific stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analysis of organic biomarkers to (a) resolve petrogenic from pre-aged vascular plant organic carbon (OC) in continental margin sediments, (b) ...

  2. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

  3. The role of various dissolved organic matter forms on chlorpyrifos bioavailability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decho, Alan

    microenvironment that facilitates the binding of highly hydrophobic organic contaminants. DOM properties such as organic car- bon content, abundance of hydrophobic and polar macromolecules, organic mat- ter composition of many contaminants potentially reducing their bio- availability and toxicity to marine and estuarine

  4. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  5. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    utilized a mixture of sewage sludge and clay as substratemixture of clay and sewage sludge, had higher organic matteradditional fill, whereas sewage sludge and the underlying

  6. Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 151-2 Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions Along Hillslope Transects: Importance of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    minerals in the soils. We used both C-NEXAFS and pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py- FIMSShare | Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 151-2 Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions Soil Mineralogy See more from this Session: Symposium--Mineral-Organic Interactions Across Time

  7. Riverine input of macronutrients, iron, and organic matter to the coastal ocean off Oregon, U.S.A., during the winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    Riverine input of macronutrients, iron, and organic matter to the coastal ocean off Oregon, U near the coast and contained elevated macronutrient, iron, and organic carbon concentrations. Wind ecosystem structure. The coastal ocean plays a key role in global bio- geochemical cycles and marine food

  8. Mineralization of Sediment Organic Matter under Anoxic Conditions P.M. Gale,* K.R. Reddy, and D.A. Graetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Mineralization of Sediment Organic Matter under Anoxic Conditions P.M. Gale,* K.R. Reddy, and DH, exchangeable NH4-N,and soluble re- active P. First-order rate constants for C mineralization (defined was mineralized to CO2and CU4oThe biodegradability of sediment organic C ranked in the order UCF > CF > peat. Net

  9. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed of complex or 'recalcitrant' compounds will erroneously attribute a greater temperature sensitivity to those materials than they may actually possess.

  10. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  11. Studies of the Ammonia-soluble Organic Matter of the Soil. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Hamner, N.C.

    1910-01-01

    to the nature of the soil, of a brownish red ash. This ash is evidently in chemical combination, because if merely soluble in the alkaline solutions used for extraction, the mineral matter would not be precipitated with hydrochloric acid, but would be removed... in the filtrate and washing solutions empl.oyed." The average composi- tion of eight samples of ash from good productive soils yielding 2.5 per . - lmus was found by Snyder to be as follows : Per Cent. 3ilica...

  12. 22th International Meeting on org. geochem. The fate of organic matter in mangrove sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the behaviour of carbohydrates and lignin during early diagenesis (Marchand et al., 2003; 2004; 2005; in press). Here, we propose to present an integrated conceptual model for organic sedimentation and diagenesis

  13. FIA-12-0054- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 14, 2012, California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) filed an appeal from a final determination issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of...

  14. Historical Reconstruction of Terrestrial Organic Matter Inputs to Fiordland, NZ Over the Last ~500 Years 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard

    2012-10-19

    Fjords contain a significant quantity of sediments deposited in coastal zones over the last ~100,000 years. Studies of Northern Hemisphere fjords have shown that a large part of the high concentration of sedimentary organic ...

  15. FIA-12-0004- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals issued one Decision relating to two appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) from two determination letters issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  16. FIA-12-0005- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals issued one Decision relating to two appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) from two determination letters issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  17. FIA-12-0020- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals granted a Motion for Reconsideration of part of a Decision we issued on March 23, 2012, relating to appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  18. FTIR spectroscopy can predict organic matter quality in2 regenerating cutover peatlands3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    emissions51 Soil Biology and Biochemistry #12;3 show a return to net carbon sequestration (Tuittila et al sequestration potential. Increased losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)55 have been observed from many area. Peat46 extraction for fuel and horticultural use has steadily diminished this carbon stock,47

  19. Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van de Waals Solid for Tunable Light-matter Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Lin; Cong, Chunxiao; Wu, Chunyang; Wu, Di; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Wang, Xingli; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Fu, Qundong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I; Tay, Beng Kang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Sum, Tze Chien; Jin, Chuanhong; He, Haiyong; Yu, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Van de Waals (vdW) solids, as a new type of artificial materials that consisting of alternative layers bonded by weak interactions, have shed light on fantastic optoelectronic devices. As a result, a large variety of shining vdW devices have been engineered via layer-by-layer stacking of two-dimensional materials, although shadowed by the difficulties of fabrication. Alternatively, direct growth of vdW solids have been proved a scalable and swift way towards vdW solids, reflected by the successful synthesis of graphene/h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) vertical heterostructures from controlled vapor deposition. Enlightened by it, with a three-step deposition and reaction, we realize high-quality organic and inorganic vdW solids, using methylammonium lead halide as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D monolayers inorganic as counterpart. Being a perfect light absorbent, the electrons and holes generated in organic perovskite couple with its inorganic 2D companions, and behave dramaticall...

  20. Effects of wildfire and permafrost on soil organic matter and soil climate in interior Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    Abstract The influence of discontinuous permafrost on ground-fuel storage, combustion losses, and postfire and nonpermafrost). Soil organic layers (which comprise ground-fuel storage) were thicker in permafrost than and thermal setting for variations in vegetation, decomposition, and carbon balance across these landscapes

  1. Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    in the Pacific Ocean Chantal M. Swan a,Ã, David A. Siegel a,b , Norman B. Nelson a , Craig A. Carlson c , Elora Available online 19 September 2009 Keywords: CDOM AOU Pacific Water masses Hydrography Bio-optical a b s t r a c t Recent in situ observations of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the Pacific

  2. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD reduced this by 7% while the EvCh reduced it by 13%. For other operating conditions, PM treated for volatile removal actually exhibited an increase in organic fraction on the order of 5%. This addition appears to be sensitive to the gaseous hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust although a precise correlation has not yet been derived. It has been concluded that VOCs are tightly bound to the PM carbon core and thus are not effectively removed by either treatment method.

  3. Recovery of semi-volatile organic compounds during sample preparation: Compilation for characterization of airborne particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartz, Erick; Stockburger, Leonard; Gundel, Lara

    2002-05-01

    Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide volatility and polarity range. To meet these challenges, solutions of n-alkanes (nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 40}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs (naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene) were reduced in volume from a solvent mixture (equal volumes of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol), to examine recovery after reduction in volume. When the extract solution volume reached 0.5 mL the solvent was entirely methanol, and the recovery averaged 60% for n-alkanes nC{sub 12} to nC{sub 25} and PAHs from naphthalene to chrysene. Recovery of higher MW compounds decreased with MW, because of their insolubility in methanol. When the walls of the flasks were washed with 1 mL of equal parts hexane and dichloromethane (to reconstruct the original solvent composition), the recovery of nC{sub 18} and higher MW compounds increased dramatically, up to 100% for nC{sub 22}-nC{sub 32} and then slowly decreasing with MW due to insolubility. To examine recovery during extraction of the components of the High Capacity Integrated Gas and Particle Sampler, the same standards were used to spike its denuders and filters. For XAD-4 coated denuders and filters, normalized recovery was > 95% after two extractions. Recovery from spiked quartz filters matched the recovery from the coated surfaces for alkanes nC{sub 18} and larger, and for fluoranthene and larger PAHs. Lower MW compounds evaporated from the quartz filter with the spiking solvent. This careful approach allowed quantification of organics by correcting for volatility- and solubility-related sample preparation losses. This method is illustrated for an ambient sample collected with this sampler during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000.

  4. Summary of the issues with regard to the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and exposure of polycyclic organic matter (POM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Polycyclic organic matter (POM) is emitted from a variety of sources in the environment. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (includes tire wear), asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing, catalytic cracking residential coal combustion, industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, and iron and steel processes is presented. The contribution of the POM fraction to the carcinogenicity of the mixture is evaluated for gasoline engine exhaust condensate and coal combustion effluent and appears to contribute the majority of the carcinogenic potential for those mixtures. Evidence of the mutagenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (including tire wear), industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, iron and steel processes, forest fires and open burning, residential solid fuel (wood) combustion, commercial and other incineration, commercial/industrial oil combustion, residential oil combustion, and asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing is also presented. The problem in the use of a chemical surrogate to sample for POM-containing emissions is discussed. A discussion of the problems in evaluating the carcinogenic potential of different POM-containing mixtures is also presented.

  5. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  6. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  7. Towards a better understanding on agglomeration mechanisms and thermodynamic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles interacting with natural organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loosli, Frédéric; Berret, Jean-François; Stoll, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between engineered nanoparticles and natural organic matter is investigated by measuring the exchanged heat during binding process with isothermal titration calorimetry. TiO2 anatase nanoparticles and alginate are used as engineered nanoparticles and natural organic matter to get an insight into the thermodynamic association properties and mechanisms of adsorption and agglomeration. Changes of enthalpy, entropy and total free energy, reaction stoichiometry and affinity binding constant are determined or calculated at a pH value where the TiO2 nanoparticles surface charge is positive and the alginate exhibits a negative structural charge. Our results indicate that strong TiO2-alginate interactions are essentially entropy driven and enthalpically favorable with exothermic binding reactions. The reaction stoichiometry and entropy gain are also found dependent on the mixing order. Finally correlation is established between the binding enthalpy, the reaction stoichiometry and the zeta potential values ...

  8. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Steam treatment of surface soil: how does it affect water-soluble organic matter, C mineralization, and bacterial community composition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux-Michollet, Dad; Dudal, Yves; Jocteur-Monrozier, Lucile; Czarnes, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    organic components Water extraction was performed by shakingresulting from hot water extraction, as measured by Sparlingboiling soil in water resulted in the extraction of both

  10. Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of carbon sequestration. The quality and quantity of soil organic carbon is probably influenced. It is suggested that, in conservation projects based on higher carbon sequestration, the plant species with more sequestration, Plant species, Soil organic carbon, Vegetation type, Prangus uloptera stands. hal-00875310

  11. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 30-059 Krakow, Poland a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 March 2013 Received matter Gold Uranium Witwatersrand a b s t r a c t Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au­U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate

  12. The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic 2012 Keywords: Marine CDOM Solar irradiation Surface Photobleaching Photoproduction a b s t r a c Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ

  13. A model for remote estimation of ultraviolet absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter based on the global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    climate. These include photo- and biogeochemical cycling of organic material, release of sulfur and carbon of photo- chemical rate processes and CDOM cycling in the open ocean due to its simplicity and optimization to be critical for determining visible light abso

  14. Matter & Energy Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    See also: Matter & Energy Detectors· Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Weapons Technology · Organic Chemistry· Reference Hydrogen chloride· Photography· Catalytic converter· Nanomedicine a series of tiny colored dots ­ each a different pigment ­ on an inert backing such as paper, plastic

  15. Longitudinal and seasonal variation of stream N uptake in an urbanizing watershed: effect of organic matter, stream size, transient storage and debris dams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claessens, Luc; Tague, Christina L.; Groffman, Peter M.; Melack, John M.

    2010-01-01

    streams, organic debris dams can play an important role inin ?ow velocity when debris dams are hydraulically activecontact time. Therefore, debris dams can have an important

  16. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joseph Silk

    2010-01-08

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    of chlorine, added to the water for inactivation of pathogen microorganisms, with natural organic matter

  18. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of...

  19. Anticipating Patentable Subject Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burk, DL

    2015-01-01

    February 2013] PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER patentability—imports into patent law’s subject matter provisions theunder either novelty or subject matter. The proper question

  20. Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masayasu Tsuge

    2009-03-24

    A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.

  1. Isotope study on organic nitrogen of Westphalian anthracites from the Western Middle field of Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) and from the Bramsche

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that nitrogen is released by sedimentary organic matter during diagenesis and metamorphism. Improvements of our

  2. Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2015-02-12

    The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

  3. Baryonic matter and beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Fukushima

    2014-10-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  4. Correlated microanalysis of cometary organic grains returned by Stardust Bradley T. De GREGORIO1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector present in the early solar nebula or protosolar molecular cloud. Although primitive organic matter and thermal processing of organic matter on comets is minimal and contemporary cometary organic matter should

  5. Hollow nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao-Chan Yong

    2015-12-18

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  6. Hollow nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. And the size of inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. Existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  7. Book Chapter Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation from Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    oxygen demand (BOD) sensors, bioremediation, hydrogen production and electricity generation (Logan Book Chapter Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation from Organic Wastes by Microbes Kun) are bioreactors that convert chemical energy stored in the bonds of organic matters into electricity through

  8. Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic/water mixtures is becoming increasingly important. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic referred to as "silicone rubber", exhibiting excellent film-forming ability, thermal stability, chemical for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy #12;

  9. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  10. Design of programmable matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...

  11. Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi

    2006-07-07

    The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.

  12. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  13. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  14. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  15. Cosmology with Mimetic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2014-06-01

    We consider minimal extensions of the recently proposed Mimetic Dark Matter and show that by introducing a potential for the mimetic non-dynamical scalar field we can mimic nearly any gravitational properties of the normal matter. In particular, the mimetic matter can provide us with inflaton, quintessence and even can lead to a bouncing nonsingular universe. We also investigate the behaviour of cosmological perturbations due to a mimetic matter. We demonstrate that simple mimetic inflation can produce red-tilted scalar perturbations which are largely enhanced over gravity waves.

  16. Energy Matters Mailbag

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This edition of the mailbag tackles follow-up questions from our Energy Matters discussion on breaking our reliance on foreign oil.

  17. Dipolar Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Blanchet; Lavinia Heisenberg

    2015-05-19

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because the two types of dark matter interact through the vector field, a ghostly degree of freedom in the decoupling limit is reintroduced in the dark matter sector. Crucial questions to address in future work is whether the polarisation mechanism can be realized in absence of ghosts, and what are the cosmological implications of the model.

  18. Energy and matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    Our work is an approach between matter and energy. Using the famous equation E = mc^2, Einstein and the Law of Universal Gravitation of Newton, we estimate that a small amount matter converted into energy is needed to lift, using the gravitational potential energy equation on the surface, a mountain of solid iron or even Mount Everest.

  19. Dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudis, Laura

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultr...

  20. Dark matter axions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sikivie

    2009-09-04

    The hypothesis of an `invisible' axion was made by Misha Shifman and others, approximately thirty years ago. It has turned out to be an unusually fruitful idea, crossing boundaries between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. An axion with mass of order $10^{-5}$ eV (with large uncertainties) is one of the leading candidates for the dark matter of the universe. It was found recently that dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter (CDM) in the non-linear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles. Because there is evidence for these phenomena, unexplained with ordinary CDM, an argument can be made that the dark matter is axions.

  1. Dissipation of dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermano Velten; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2012-10-01

    Fluids often display dissipative properties. We explore dissipation in the form of bulk viscosity in the cold dark matter fluid. We constrain this model using current data from supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations and the cosmic microwave background. Considering the isotropic and homogeneous background only, viscous dark matter is allowed to have a bulk viscosity $\\lesssim 10^7$ Pa$\\cdot$s, also consistent with the expected integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (which plagues some models with bulk viscosity). We further investigate the small-scale formation of viscous dark matter halos, which turns out to place significantly stronger constraints on the dark matter viscosity. The existence of dwarf galaxies is guaranteed only for much smaller values of the dark matter viscosity, $\\lesssim 10^{-3}$ Pa$\\cdot$s.

  2. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  3. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575...

  4. Axion BEC Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erken, Ozgur; Tam, Heywood; Yang, Qiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.

  5. Axion BEC Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgur Erken; Pierre Sikivie; Heywood Tam; Qiaoli Yang

    2011-11-16

    Cold dark matter axions thermalize through gravitational self-interactions and form a Bose-Einstein condensate when the photon temperature reaches approximately 500 eV. Axion Bose-Einstein condensation provides an opportunity to distinguish axions from the other dark matter candidates on the basis of observation. The rethermalization of axions that are about to fall in a galactic potential well causes them to acquire net overall rotation, whereas ordinary cold dark matter falls in with an irrotational velocity field. The inner caustics of galactic halos are different in the two cases.

  6. Dark Matter 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Schumann

    2015-01-06

    This article gives an overview on the status of experimental searches for dark matter at the end of 2014. The main focus is on direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using underground-based low-background detectors, especially on the new results published in 2014. WIMPs are excellent dark matter candidates, predicted by many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics, and are expected to interact with the target nuclei either via spin-independent (scalar) or spin-dependent (axial-vector) couplings. Non-WIMP dark matter candidates, especially axions and axion-like particles are also briefly discussed.

  7. Research Article Connecting Soil Organic Carbon and Root Biomass with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon. Introduction Soils constitute the greatest stock of terrestrial organic carbon [1] and soil properties can major pathways of organic matter input--root tissue and exudates--directly involve plants [22]. Roots

  8. Matter & Energy Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Detectors· Optics· Civil Engineering· Engineering· Nature of Water Yonggang Huang, Joseph Cummings Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering· Electronics· Reference Photography· Infrared· Mechanical engineering · Optics· ScienceDaily (Jan. 17, 2011

  9. Gaseous dark matter detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martoff, C. J.

    Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the ...

  10. The Heart of Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2010-06-30

    In this article I trace the development of the human understanding of the "Heart of Matter" from early concepts of "elements" (or alternatively "Panchmahabhootas") to the current status of "quarks" and "leptons" as the fundamental constituents of matter, interacting together via exchange of the various force carrier particles called "gauge bosons" such as the photon, W/Z-boson etc. I would like to show how our understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter has gone hand in hand with our understanding of the fundamental forces in nature. I will also outline how the knowledge of particle physics at the "micro" scale of less than a Fermi(one millionth of a nanometer), enables us to offer explanations of Cosmological observations at the "macro" scale. Consequently these observations, may in turn, help us address some very fundamental questions of the Physics at the "Heart of the Matter".

  11. Hot and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Eramo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we build new Effective Field Theory tools to describe the propagation of energetic partons in hot and dense media, and we propose two new reactions for dark matter in the early universe. In the first part, ...

  12. Dark matter searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2015-09-02

    One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultra low-background detectors, or indirectly, via secondary radiation produced when they pair annihilate. They could also be generated at particle colliders such as the LHC, where associated particles produced in the same process are to be detected. After a brief motivation and an introduction to the phenomenology of particle dark matter detection, I will discuss the most promising experimental techniques to search for axions and WIMPs, addressing their current and future science reach, as well as their complementarity.

  13. Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches: Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Abercrombie; Nural Akchurin; Ece Akilli; Juan Alcaraz Maestre; Brandon Allen; Barbara Alvarez Gonzalez; Jeremy Andrea; Alexandre Arbey; Georges Azuelos; Patrizia Azzi; Mihailo Backovi?; Yang Bai; Swagato Banerjee; James Beacham; Alexander Belyaev; Antonio Boveia; Amelia Jean Brennan; Oliver Buchmueller; Matthew R. Buckley; Giorgio Busoni; Michael Buttignol; Giacomo Cacciapaglia; Regina Caputo; Linda Carpenter; Nuno Filipe Castro; Guillelmo Gomez Ceballos; Yangyang Cheng; John Paul Chou; Arely Cortes Gonzalez; Chris Cowden; Francesco D'Eramo; Annapaola De Cosa; Michele De Gruttola; Albert De Roeck; Andrea De Simone; Aldo Deandrea; Zeynep Demiragli; Anthony DiFranzo; Caterina Doglioni; Tristan du Pree; Robin Erbacher; Johannes Erdmann; Cora Fischer; Henning Flaecher; Patrick J. Fox; Benjamin Fuks; Marie-Helene Genest; Bhawna Gomber; Andreas Goudelis; Johanna Gramling; John Gunion; Kristian Hahn; Ulrich Haisch; Roni Harnik; Philip C. Harris; Kerstin Hoepfner; Siew Yan Hoh; Dylan George Hsu; Shih-Chieh Hsu; Yutaro Iiyama; Valerio Ippolito; Thomas Jacques; Xiangyang Ju; Felix Kahlhoefer; Alexis Kalogeropoulos; Laser Seymour Kaplan; Lashkar Kashif; Valentin V. Khoze; Raman Khurana; Khristian Kotov; Dmytro Kovalskyi; Suchita Kulkarni; Shuichi Kunori; Viktor Kutzner; Hyun Min Lee; Sung-Won Lee; Seng Pei Liew; Tongyan Lin; Steven Lowette; Romain Madar; Sarah Malik; Fabio Maltoni; Mario Martinez Perez; Olivier Mattelaer; Kentarou Mawatari; Christopher McCabe; Théo Megy; Enrico Morgante; Stephen Mrenna; Siddharth M. Narayanan; Andy Nelson; Sérgio F. Novaes; Klaas Ole Padeken; Priscilla Pani; Michele Papucci; Manfred Paulini; Christoph Paus; Jacopo Pazzini; Björn Penning; Michael E. Peskin; Deborah Pinna; Massimiliano Procura; Shamona F. Qazi; Davide Racco; Emanuele Re; Antonio Riotto; Thomas G. Rizzo; Rainer Roehrig; David Salek; Arturo Sanchez Pineda; Subir Sarkar; Alexander Schmidt; Steven Randolph Schramm; William Shepherd; Gurpreet Singh; Livia Soffi; Norraphat Srimanobhas; Kevin Sung; Tim M. P. Tait; Timothee Theveneaux-Pelzer; Marc Thomas; Mia Tosi; Daniele Trocino; Sonaina Undleeb; Alessandro Vichi; Fuquan Wang; Lian-Tao Wang; Ren-Jie Wang; Nikola Whallon; Steven Worm; Mengqing Wu; Sau Lan Wu; Hongtao Yang; Yong Yang; Shin-Shan Yu; Bryan Zaldivar; Marco Zanetti; Zhiqing Zhang; Alberto Zucchetta

    2015-07-03

    This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.

  14. The aging of organic aerosol in the atmosphere : chemical transformations by heterogeneous oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Sean Herbert

    2013-01-01

    The immense chemical complexity of atmospheric organic particulate matter ("aerosol") has left the general field of condensed-phase atmospheric organic chemistry relatively under-developed when compared with either gas-phase ...

  15. Isotopic constraints on the sources and associations of organic compounds in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01

    To provide a new perspective on the fate of both natural organic matter and hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in marine sediments, we have investigated the relationship between radiocarbon (14C) age and the different ...

  16. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizingOrganizing

  17. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  18. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Stern

    2014-03-21

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  19. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, I

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  20. Thermodynamics of clusterized matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli

    2009-08-26

    Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.

  1. Natural minimal dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  2. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Stern

    2015-11-17

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  3. Cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Dorso; P. A. Giménez Molinelli; J. I. Nichols; J. A. López

    2013-05-09

    The behavior of nuclear matter is studied at low densities and temperatures using classical molecular dynamics with three different sets of potentials with different compressibility. Nuclear matter is found to arrange in crystalline structures around the saturation density and in non-homogeneous (i.e. pasta-like) structures at lower densities. Similar results were obtained with a simple Lennard-Jones potential. Finite size effects are analysed and the existence of the non-homogeneous structures is shown to be inherent to the use of periodic boundary conditions and the finitude of the system. For large enough systems the non-homogeneous structures are limited to one sphere, one rod or one slab per simulation cell, which are shown to be minimal surface structures under cubic periodic boundary conditions at the corresponding volume fraction. The relevance of these findings to the simulations of neutron star and supernovae matter is discussed.

  4. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Sannino; Ian M. Shoemaker

    2015-08-05

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting phenomenology of this "asymptotically safe DM" is quite distinct. One interesting effect of this is to partially offset the low-energy constraints from direct detection experiments without affecting thermal freeze-out processes which occur at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter.

  5. Safe Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Sannino; Ian M. Shoemaker

    2015-07-29

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting phenomenology of this "safe DM" is quite distinct. One interesting effect of this is to partially offset the low-energy constraints from direct detection experiments without affecting thermal freeze-out processes which occur at higher energies. High-energy collider and indirect annihilation searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover safe dark matter.

  6. Molecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    Decomposition Carbon Pyrolysis-GC/MS Disturbance 1. Introduction Soil organic matter (SOM) is an importantMolecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil in spectroscopic and other chemical methods have greatly enhanced our ability to characterize soil organic matter

  7. Organization Chart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganization Chart Organization Charts

  8. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout EventsOrganizing

  9. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizing Committee

  10. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizing

  11. Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  12. Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  13. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass...

  14. The Role of Particulate Matter in the Development of Hypoxia on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran, Emma Mary

    2013-07-31

    Controlling Hypoxia program (hypoxia.tamu.edu). Discrete samples of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration were obtained for analysis and calibration of optical instruments interfaced with a profiling CTD, a towed undulating...

  15. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  16. Tunguska Dark Matter Ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Froggatt; H. B. Nielsen

    2015-05-10

    It is suggested that the Tunguska event in June 1908 cm-large was due to a cm-large ball of a condensate of bound states of 6 top and 6 anti-top quarks containing highly compressed ordinary matter. Such balls are supposed to make up the dark matter as we earlier proposed. The expected rate of impact of this kind of dark matter ball with the earth seems to crudely match a time scale of 200 years between the impacts. The main explosion of the Tunguska event is explained in our picture as material coming out from deep within the earth, where it has been heated and compressed by the ball penetrating to a depth of several thousand km. Thus the effect has some similarity with volcanic activity as suggested by Kundt. We discuss the possible identification of kimberlite pipes with earlier Tunguska-like events. A discussion of how the dark matter balls may have formed in the early universe is also given.

  17. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  18. Energy Matters - Fall 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. This issue focus of this edition of the Energy Matters Newsletter is on energy and environmental issues. Read more about compressed air's role in productivity, making good motor decisions, and more.

  19. Subject Matters Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subject Matters Introduction The AS and A Level subject choices you make when in Year 11 (or assessing applicants at the University of Cambridge, we consider not only the individual A Level subjects taken but also the combination of these. We generally prefer applicants to have taken certain subjects

  20. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Solar Energy· Electronics· Materials Science· Earth & Climate Energy at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry Electronics Over 1.2 Million Electronics Parts, Components and Equipment. www.AlliedElec.com solar energy

  1. Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2005-11-29

    More than 90% of matter in the Universe could be composed of heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they froze-out from the primordial soup. I will review current searches for these hypothetical particles, both via interactions with nuclei in deep underground detectors, and via the observation of their annihilation products in the Sun, galactic halo and galactic center.

  2. A developmental study of the structural integrity of white matter in autism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A developmental study of the structural integrity of white matter in autism Timothy A. Keller in Autism (CPEA) Grant HD35469 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Received in the organization of white matter in a large sample of male participants with autism and controls between the ages

  3. Soft matter and fractional mathematics: insights into mesoscopic quantum and time-space structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mesoscopic quantum mechanics and time-space structures governing "anomalous" behaviors of soft matter. Our and space. But the theory does not hold at the microscopic subatomic level, where quantum mechanics theory-known soft matter are polymers, colloids, emulsions, foams, living organisms, rubber, oil, soil, other porous

  4. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters David L. Carr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    1 Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters David L. Carr Assistant-4060 Paper submitted to Human Organization Please do not cite without permission of the author Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters Abstract Virtually all migration research examines

  5. Energy Matters in Washington State Page 1 Energy Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 1 Energy Matters in Washington State June 2008 Updated November 2009 Updated and Revised October 2013 Grand Coulee Dam #12;Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 2 Copyright © 2013 Washington State University Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, P.O. Box 43169

  6. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  7. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2014-07-24

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  8. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    soils, probably depending on the conditions under which they were produced, which suggests that pyrolysis

  9. Impacts of engineering nanoparticles on dissolved organic matter assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chi-Shuo

    2012-01-01

    for the marine food web in the deep ocean, the possibilityfor the marine food web in the deep ocean, the possibility

  10. Microbial responses and coral reef resilience to organic matter inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garren, Melissa Sara

    2011-01-01

    Table 4-2. Abundances of microbes and particles (DAPI yelloweffect on coral reef microbes. Environmental Microbiologyeffect on coral reef microbes. Environmental Microbiology

  11. Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) and assorted minor species. The sampling sites are in silt or clay loams of the Tish Tang or Strawberry soil

  12. Decomposition and Organic Matter Quality in Continental Peatlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    deglaciation and represent a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Soil temperatures incubations to quantify carbon dioxide (CO2) pro- duction in peat formed under different permafrost regimes (Alberta, Sas- katchewan) or within depth intervals (surface, deep). Internal lawn peat produces more CO2

  13. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01

    A study was installed in the upper Coastal Plains of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Two sites were examined which differed in soil textural composition: sandy vs. clay.

  14. Microbial responses and coral reef resilience to organic matter inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garren, Melissa Sara

    2011-01-01

    Microbiology 12: 28-39. Seymour JR, Simo R, Ahmed T, Stocker371: 140-146. Patten NL, Seymour JR, Mitchell JG (2006).Microbiology 12: 28-39. Seymour JR, Mitchell JG, Pearson L,

  15. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Belgium. 8 Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State10 Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell Center for

  16. Levitating Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemanja Kaloper; Antonio Padilla

    2009-10-07

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark $U(1)'$ charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic $wdark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  17. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  18. Self-Interacting Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin D. Wandelt; Romeel Dave; Glennys R. Farrar; Patrick C. McGuire; David N. Spergel; Paul J. Steinhardt

    2000-06-28

    Spergel and Steinhardt have recently proposed the concept of dark matter with strong self-interactions as a means to address numerous discrepancies between observations of dark matter halos on subgalactic scales and the predictions of the standard collisionless dark matter picture. We review the motivations for this scenario and discuss some recent, successful numerical tests. We also discuss the possibility that the dark matter interacts strongly with ordinary baryonic matter, as well as with itself. We present a new analysis of the experimental constraints and re-evaluate the allowed range of cross-section and mass.

  19. Hidden vector dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hambye

    2010-03-16

    We show that dark matter could be made of massive gauge bosons whose stability doesn't require to impose by hand any discrete or global symmetry. Stability of gauge bosons can be guaranteed by the custodial symmetry associated to the gauge symmetry and particle content of the model. The particle content we consider to this end is based on a hidden sector made of a vector multiplet associated to a non-abelian gauge group and of a scalar multiplet charged under this gauge group. The hidden sector interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal quartic scalar interaction in such a way that the gauge bosons behave as thermal WIMPS. This can lead easily to the observed dark matter relic density in agreement with the other various constraints, and can be tested experimentally in a large fraction of the parameter space. In this model the dark matter direct detection rate and the annihilation cross section can decouple if the Higgs portal interaction is weak.

  20. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  1. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  2. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  3. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout Events

  4. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout

  5. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roepstorff, G

    1998-01-01

    In a previous paper, the superconnection formalism was used to naturally fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory where we aimed at the reconstruction of the standard model. The approach provides an alternative to non-commutative geometry. This work is now continued by including matter field (leptons). The essentially new ingredient is the right-handed neutrino field and a new kind of interaction that goes with it. All interactions follow from one Dirac operator associated to a superconnection.

  6. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Roepstorff

    2000-08-17

    In a previous paper (hep-th/9801040), the superconnection formalism was used to fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory with particular emphasis on the n=2 case, aiming at the reconstruction of certain parts of the Standard Model. The approach provides an alternative to the one bases on non-commutative geometry. This work is continued by including matter fields (leptons only). We extend the Standard Model by including the right-handed neutrino field. The possibility of a finite neutrino mass is thus accounted for.

  7. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  8. Thermodynamics of electroweak matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gynther

    2006-09-21

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a PhD thesis, also containing the articles hep-ph/0303019, hep-ph/0510375 and hep-ph/0512177. We provide a short history of the research of electroweak thermodynamics and a brief introduction to the theory as well as to the necessary theoretical tools needed to work at finite temperatures. We then review computations regarding the pressure of electroweak matter at high temperatures (the full expression of the perturbative expansion of the pressure is given in the appendix) and the electroweak phase diagram at finite chemical potentials. Finally, we compare electroweak and QCD thermodynamics.

  9. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric G. Speckhard; Kenny C. Y. Ng; John F. Beacom; Ranjan Laha

    2015-07-31

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will reach the required 0.1% level. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  10. Dark matter axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The physics of axions is briefly reviewed theoretically, and various constraints on the axion mass are recounted. Then the two main contributions to the present cosmological axion energy density, that due to the realignment of the vacuum during the QCD phase transition and that from axions radiated by cosmic axion strings, are discussed. Next, two detection schemes for axions that are sensitive to different mass ranges, an electromagnetic cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field and a system of superconducting wires embedded in a material transparent to microwave radiation, are described. Finally, the phase space structure of cold dark matter galactic halos is considered. (RWR)

  11. Dark matter axions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Theoretical Physics]|[Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-09-01

    The physics of axions is briefly reviewed theoretically, and various constraints on the axion mass are recounted. Then the two main contributions to the present cosmological axion energy density, that due to the realignment of the vacuum during the QCD phase transition and that from axions radiated by cosmic axion strings, are discussed. Next, two detection schemes for axions that are sensitive to different mass ranges, an electromagnetic cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field and a system of superconducting wires embedded in a material transparent to microwave radiation, are described. Finally, the phase space structure of cold dark matter galactic halos is considered. (RWR)

  12. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDSMaterials andMaterials/Condensed Matter Print

  13. Thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heng-Tong Ding; Frithjof Karsch; Swagato Mukherjee

    2015-04-21

    We review results from lattice QCD calculations on the thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter with emphasis on input these calculations can provide to the exploration of the phase diagram and properties of hot and dense matter created in heavy ion experiments. This review is organized as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, 3) QCD phase diagram at high temperature, 4) Bulk thermodynamics, 5) Fluctuations of conserved charges, 6) Transport properties, 7) Open heavy flavors and heavy quarkonia, 8) QCD in external magnetic fields, 9) Summary.

  14. Double-Disk Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, JiJi; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Based on observational tests and constraints on halo structure, dark matter is generally taken to be cold and essentially collisionless. On the other hand, given the large number of particles and forces in the visible world, a more complex dark sector could be a reasonable or even likely possibility. This hypothesis leads to testable consequences, perhaps portending the discovery of a rich hidden world neighboring our own. We consider a scenario that readily satisfies current bounds that we call Partially Interacting Dark Matter (PIDM). This scenario contains self-interacting dark matter, but it is not the dominant component. Even if PIDM contains only a fraction of the net dark matter density, comparable to the baryonic fraction, the subdominant component's interactions can lead to interesting and potentially observable consequences. Our primary focus will be the special case of Double-Disk Dark Matter (DDDM), in which self-interactions allow the dark matter to lose enough energy to lead to dynamics similar ...

  15. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V

    2006-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole can capture a large number of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during its lifetime. WIMP annihilation energy release in low- to medium-mass stars is comparable with or even exceeds the luminosity of such stars due to thermonuclear burning. The excessive energy release in the stellar core may result in an evolution scenario different from what is expected for a regular star. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars within the central parsec of galactic nuclei. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter. The excess luminosity of such stars attributed to WIMP "burning" can be used to infer the local WIMP matter density. A white dwarf with a highly eccentric orbit around the central black hole may exhibit variations in brightness correlated with the orbital phase. On the other hand, white dwarfs shown to lack such orbital brightness variations can be used...

  16. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    helimagnets and the development of a cryogen-free apparatus for spherical neutron polarimetry." Read more... Cutting-edge condensed matter physics research, high magnetic field...

  17. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baltz, Ted

    2009-09-01

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  18. Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Colonna

    2009-02-26

    Highlights on the recent research activity, carried out by the Italian Community involved in the "Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics" field, will be presented.

  19. ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER .:I- By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY Wisconsin Geological and Natural HistolY Sun'ey .:I- CONTENTS Page Introductlon; ~ - - _________ 185 I.-Data__u u n _ 186 Dissolved carbon; 194 n.-Discussion o(the data-Contd. Total organic content u _ Total organic matter, including

  20. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskalenko, I V; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  1. Dark matter burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Moskalenko; Lawrence L. Wai

    2007-02-24

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

  2. Energy Matters in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State Energy Matters in Washington State www.energy.wsu.edu/library/ November 2009 #12;905 Plum Street SE, Building 3 P.O. Box 43169 Olympia, Washington 98504-3169 Energy University Extension Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, Building 3, P.O. Box 43169, Olympia, Washington

  3. Astronomical Evidence for Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golwala, Sunil

    dark matter (assumed non-baryonic) #12;A word about constitutes an energy density from the Friedmann Equation: (Assuming no curvature) #12;Definitions C Critical Density X X/C = 1 => flat universe, what Rotation curve: Virial Theorem: #12;Spiral Galaxies Luminous Matter ~ follows: Asymptotes to constant value

  4. dark matter dark energy inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wayne

    theory dark matter dark energy inflation The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation NSF Site Review November 28-29, 2005 #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site Visit ­ November 28 - 29, 2005The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation The Theoretical Web UHE cosmic rays B

  5. Dark matter on the lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randy Lewis

    2014-11-26

    Several collaborations have recently performed lattice calculations aimed specifically at dark matter, including work with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and SO(4) gauge theories to represent the dark sector. Highlights of these studies are presented here, after a reminder of how lattice calculations in QCD itself are helping with the hunt for dark matter.

  6. Charmonium mass in nuclear matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.

    2003-01-01

    The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...

  7. Quantum vacuum and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-11-21

    Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

  8. The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fuÈr ErnaÈhrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische UniversitaÈt MuÈnchen, D-85350

  9. Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.

    1989-07-01

    A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.

  10. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  11. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  12. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

  13. Casting Light on Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis

    2011-06-15

    The prospects for detecting a candidate supersymmetric dark matter particle at the LHC are reviewed, and compared with the prospects for direct and indirect searches for astrophysical dark matter. The discussion is based on a frequentist analysis of the preferred regions of the Minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with universal soft supersymmetry breaking (the CMSSM). LHC searches may have good chances to observe supersymmetry in the near future - and so may direct searches for astrophysical dark matter particles, whereas indirect searches may require greater sensitivity, at least within the CMSSM.

  14. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Barr

    2011-09-18

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  15. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, S M

    2011-01-01

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  16. Terrorist Safe Havens: Towards an Understanding of What They Accomplish for Terrorist Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Baptiste, Ari

    2010-07-29

    How do safe havens help facilitate a militant terrorist organization's activities and operations? This study expects to find that safe havens do matter, that they provide safety, training, rest, etc. The researcher presumes ...

  17. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, E. C.

    Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particulate matter (PM) concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. ...

  18. Teaching Organic Farming and Gardening: Resources for Instructors, 3rd Edition. Part 2 - Applied Soil Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    by plants a) From water and air Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H),b) Soil organic matter c) Water and air i. 1/2 soil volume =A soil through which water, air, or roots penetrate slowly

  19. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and ...

  20. Correlated microanalysis of cometary organic grains returned by Stardust Bradley T. De GREGORIO1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector

  1. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  2. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  3. Lorentz-violating dark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondragon, Antonio Richard

    2009-05-15

    was originally motivated by an unconventional fundamental theory, but which in this dissertation is defined as matter which has a nonzero minimum velocity. Furthermore, the present investigation evolved into the broader goal of exploring the properties of Lorentz...

  4. Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this installment of the livechat series "Energy Matters," Dr. Arun Majumdar takes questions from the public about the investments we're making today that will move us off of foreign oil and...

  5. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  6. Dark Matter Triggers of Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. Graham; Surjeet Rajendran; Jaime Varela

    2015-05-17

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ rules out primordial black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{19}$ gm - $10^{20}$ gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as $10^{24}$ gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range $10^{20}$ gm - $10^{22}$ gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large space-time volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  7. Cosmology, Thermodynamics and Matter Creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. S. Lima; M. O. Calvao; I. Waga

    2007-08-24

    Several approaches to the matter creation problem in the context of cosmological models are summarily reviewed. A covariant formulation of the general relativistic imperfect simple fluid endowed with a process of matter creation is presented. By considering the standard big bang model, it is shown how the recent results of Prigogine et alii \\cite{1} can be recovered and, at the same time their limits of validity are explicited.

  8. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    shocked nuclear matter during the compression and expansionand isentropic expansion were valid in nuclear collisions.

  9. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range.

  10. Double-Disk Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Andrey Katz; Lisa Randall; Matthew Reece

    2013-07-31

    Based on observational constraints on large scale structure and halo structure, dark matter is generally taken to be cold and essentially collisionless. On the other hand, given the large number of particles and forces in the visible world, a more complex dark sector could be a reasonable or even likely possibility. This hypothesis leads to testable consequences, perhaps portending the discovery of a rich hidden world neighboring our own. We consider a scenario that readily satisfies current bounds that we call Partially Interacting Dark Matter (PIDM). This scenario contains self-interacting dark matter, but it is not the dominant component. Even if PIDM contains only a fraction of the net dark matter density, comparable to the baryonic fraction, the subdominant component's interactions can lead to interesting and potentially observable consequences. Our primary focus will be the special case of Double-Disk Dark Matter (DDDM), in which self-interactions allow the dark matter to lose enough energy to lead to dynamics similar to those in the baryonic sector. We explore a simple model in which DDDM can cool efficiently and form a disk within galaxies, and we evaluate some of the possible observational signatures. The most prominent signal of such a scenario could be an enhanced indirect detection signature with a distinctive spatial distribution. Even though subdominant, the enhanced density at the center of the galaxy and possibly throughout the plane of the galaxy can lead to large boost factors, and could even explain a signature as large as the 130 GeV Fermi line. Such scenarios also predict additional dark radiation degrees of freedom that could soon be detectable and would influence the interpretation of future data, such as that from Planck and from the Gaia satellite. We consider this to be the first step toward exploring a rich array of new possibilities for dark matter dynamics.

  11. Bimetric gravity and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Bernard; Luc Blanchet; Lavinia Heisenberg

    2015-07-10

    We review some recent proposals for relativistic models of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. The aim is to solve the problems of cold dark matter (CDM) at galactic scales, and to reproduce the phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), while still being in agreement with the standard cosmological model $\\Lambda$-CDM at large scales. In this context a promising alternative is dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter particles are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. The phenomenology of MOND then results from a mechanism of gravitational polarization. Probably the best formulation of the model is within the framework of recently developed massive bigravity theories. Then the gravitational sector of the model is safe by construction, but a ghostly degree of freedom in the decoupling limit is still present in the dark matter sector. Future work should analyse the cosmological solutions of the model and check the post-Newtonian parameters in the solar system.

  12. Engaging Irrigation Organizations in Water Reallocation Ronald C. Griffin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Ronald

    foodstuffs is a matter of rising consequences as is the establishment of efficient energy and water use in water markets, efficiency in urban use is achievable by scarcity-inclusive water rates and new Organizations in Water Reallocation When urban and environmental water demand groups cannot bargain

  13. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  14. Departmental Organization and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  15. The DAMIC dark matter experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    The DAMIC (Dark Matter in CCDs) experiment uses high resistivity, scientific grade CCDs to search for dark matter. The CCD's low electronic noise allows an unprecedently low energy threshold of a few tens of eV that make it possible to detect silicon recoils resulting from interactions of low mass WIMPs. In addition the CCD's high spatial resolution and the excellent energy response results in very effective background identification techniques. The experiment has a unique sensitivity to dark matter particles with masses below 10 GeV/c$^2$. Previous results have demonstrated the potential of this technology, motivating the construction of DAMIC100, a 100 grams silicon target detector currently being installed at SNOLAB. In this contribution, the mode of operation and unique imaging capabilities of the CCDs, and how they may be exploited to characterize and suppress backgrounds will be discussed, as well as physics results after one year of data taking.

  16. Dark Matter in 3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Wacker, Jay G.

    2012-04-01

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our method using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. We conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.

  17. Static Response of Neutron Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buraczynski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the problem of strongly interacting neutron matter by adding a periodic external modulation. This allows us to study from first principles a neutron system that is extended and inhomogeneous, with connections to the physics of both neutron-star crusts and neutron-rich nuclei. We carry out fully non-perturbative microscopic Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the energy of neutron matter at different densities, as well as different strengths and periodicities of the external potential. In order to remove systematic errors, we examine finite-size effects and the impact of the wave function ansatz. We also make contact with energy-density functional theories of nuclei and disentangle isovector gradient contributions from bulk properties. Finally, we calculate the static density-density linear response function of neutron matter and compare it with the response of other physical systems.

  18. Chiral condensate in neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2008-08-06

    A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

  19. Fluid Mechanics Explains Cosmology, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson

    2012-11-02

    Observations of the interstellar medium by the Herschel, Planck etc. infrared satellites throw doubt on standard {\\Lambda}CDMHC cosmological processes to form gravitational structures. According to the Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson (1996), and the quasar microlensing observations of Schild (1996), the dark matter of galaxies consists of Proto-Globular-star-Cluster (PGC) clumps of Earth-mass primordial gas planets in metastable equilibrium since PGCs began star production at 0.3 Myr by planet mergers. Dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the universe inferred from SuperNovae Ia are systematic dimming errors produced as frozen gas dark matter planets evaporate to form stars. Collisionless cold dark matter that clumps and hierarchically clusters does not exist. Clumps of PGCs began diffusion from the Milky Way Proto-Galaxy upon freezing at 14 Myr to give the Magellanic Clouds and the faint dwarf galaxies of the 10^22 m diameter baryonic dark matter Galaxy halo. The first stars persist as old globular star clusters (OGCs). Water oceans and the biological big bang occurred at 2-8 Myr. Life inevitably formed and evolved in the cosmological primordial organic soup provided by 10^80 big bang planets and their hot oceans as they gently merged to form larger binary planets and small binary stars.

  20. Matter-wave interferometry with composite quantum objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Arndt; Nadine Dörre; Sandra Eibenberger; Philipp Haslinger; Jonas Rodewald; Klaus Hornberger; Stefan Nimmrichter; Marcel Mayor

    2015-01-30

    We discuss modern developments in quantum optics with organic molecules, clusters and nanoparticles -- in particular recent realizations of near-field matter-wave interferometry. A unified theoretical description in phase space allows us to describe quantum interferometry in position space and in the time domain on an equal footing. In order to establish matter-wave interferometers as a universal tool, which can accept and address a variety of nanoparticles, we elaborate on new quantum optical elements, such as diffraction gratings made of matter and light, as well as their absorptive and dispersive interaction with complex materials. We present Talbot-Lau interferometry (TLI), the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI) and interferometry with pulsed optical gratings (OTIMA) as the most advanced devices to study the quantum wave nature of composite matter. These experiments define the current mass and complexity record in interferometric explorations of quantum macroscopicity and they open new avenues to quantum assisted metrology with applications in physical chemistry and biomolecular physics.

  1. Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ionofPumpSystemsMatter.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Pump Systems Matter Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization...

  2. Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, Anticipating the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01

    Review: Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, AnticipatingUSA Macdougall, Doug. Why Geology Matters: Decoding theE-book available. Why Geology Matters pursues two goals: to

  3. October 1999 1999, Elsevier Science Inc., 1040-6190/99/$see front matter PII S1040-6190(99)00074-3 77 Transmission Rights and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    October 1999 © 1999, Elsevier Science Inc., 1040-6190/99/$­see front matter PII S1040 not necessarily reflect the views of any of the organizations listed above. H #12;78 © 1999, Elsevier Science Inc

  4. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  5. Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Robin

    Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling-Doppler and subrecoil cooling, as well as new technologies, such as semiconductor diode lasers. Most of those

  6. States of Matter Deepak Dhar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    - logical classification of different animal species) or some mixture of these (e.g. books in a library answer in this case is that states of matter is a classification scheme, like filing cabinets classification schemes could be alphabetical (e.g. in a dictionary), or based on some common properties ( zoo

  7. Wino dark matter under siege

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Pierce, Aaron; Slatyer, Tracy R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu

    2013-10-01

    A fermion triplet of SU(2){sub L} — a wino — is a well-motivated dark matter candidate. This work shows that present-day wino annihilations are constrained by indirect detection experiments, with the strongest limits coming from H.E.S.S. and Fermi. The bounds on wino dark matter are presented as a function of mass for two scenarios: thermal (winos constitute a subdominant component of the dark matter for masses less than 3.1 TeV) and non-thermal (winos comprise all the dark matter). Assuming the NFW halo model, the H.E.S.S. search for gamma-ray lines excludes the 3.1 TeV thermal wino; the combined H.E.S.S. and Fermi results completely exclude the non-thermal scenario. Uncertainties in the exclusions are explored. Indirect detection may provide the only probe for models of anomaly plus gravity mediation where the wino is the lightest superpartner and scalars reside at the 100 TeV scale.

  8. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  9. Neutrino Mass and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David O. Caldwell

    1998-12-01

    Despite direct observations favoring a low mass density, a critical density universe with a neutrino component of dark matter provides the best existing model to explain the observed structure of the universe over more than three orders of magnitude in distance scale. In principle this hot dark matter could consist of one, two, or three species of active neutrinos. If all present indications for neutrino mass are correct, however, only the two-species (muon neutrino and tau neutrino) possibility works. This requires the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino to explain the solar electron neutrino deficit via nu(e)->nu(s), leaving nu(mu)->nu(tau) as the explanation for the anomalous nu(mu)/nu(e) ratio produced by atmospheric neutrinos, and having the LSND experiment demonstrating via anti-nu(mu)-> anti-nu(e) the mass difference between the light nu(e)-nu(s) pair and the heavier nu(mu)-nu(tau) pair required for dark matter. Other experiments do not conflict with the LSND results when all the experiments are analyzed in the same way, and when analyzed conservatively the LSND data is quite compatible with the mass difference needed for dark matter. Further support for this mass pattern is provided by the need for a sterile neutrino to rescue heavy-element nucleosynthesis in supernovae, and it could even aid the concordance in light element abundances from the early universe.

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report "BEYOND ORGANIC @ BEATY'S CAF"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report "BEYOND ORGANIC @ BEATY or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;UBC FOOD SYSTEM PROJECT 2008 SCENARIO 6 "BEYOND ORGANIC @ BEATY'S CAFÉ" AGSC 450 GROUP 10 MEGHAN BERKYTO SAINA

  11. Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon-poor soil, whereas the difference was only 0.1 kg/m2 .year with Tithonia diversifolia green manure. Biochar of biochar exceeds that of a labile organic matter addition such as green manure. Additional keywords

  12. "The disintegration of organic compounds by microorganisms is accompanied by the liberation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    comple- ment of enzymes necessary to completely oxidize organic fuels to carbon dioxide is not yet they are `carbon-neutral'; the oxidation of the organic matter only releases recently fixed carbon back and sediments. The ubiquitous and innocuous properties of fuels for microbial fuel cells alleviates the need

  13. Heterotrophic microbial activity in lake sediments: effects of organic electron donors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Heterotrophic microbial activity in lake sediments: effects of organic electron donors Isabela C organic matter deposited in benthic sediments are mineralized by microbial communities, resulting in release of nutrients to the water column. Lakes with different trophic states may have sediments

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  16. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2008-12-08

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition . At high baryon density and low temperature, large $N_c$ arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  17. Indirect searches for neutralino dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Edsjo

    2002-11-15

    There is mounting evidence for dark matter in the Universe and one of the favourite dark matter candidates is the neutralino, which naturally appears as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in many supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The neutralino has the desired properties to be a good dark matter candidate and we will here review the different indirect searches for neutralino dark matter and discuss the implications on these from recent direct searches.

  18. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  19. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  20. Impact of organic matrix compounds on the retention of steroid hormone estrone by a ‘loose’ nanofiltration membrane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Nghiem, L. D.; Meier, Anja; Neale, Peta A.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of solute-solute interactions on retention and membrane adsorption of the micropollutant estrone was determined in the presence of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), natural organic matter (NOM) and ...

  1. A tale of shales: the relative roles of production, decomposition, and dilution in the accumulation of organic-rich strata,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sageman, Brad

    may have played a key role in organic matter burial by creating a ``eutrophication pump.'' This pump of the 20th century, this interest was intensified through the efforts of the petroleum industry

  2. Nuclear matter to strange matter transition in holographic QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngman Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2009-11-19

    We construct a simple holographic QCD model to study nuclear matter to strange matter transition. The interaction of dense medium and hadrons is taken care of by imposing the force balancing condition for stable D4/D6/D6 configuration. By considering the intermediate and light flavor branes interacting with baryon vertex homogeneously distributed along R^3 space and requesting the energy minimization, we find that there is a well defined transition density as a function of current quark mass. We also find that as density goes up very high, intermediate (or heavy) and light quarks populate equally as expected from the Pauli principle. In this sense, the effect of the Pauli principle is realized as dynamics of D-branes.

  3. Dark Matter Searches with Representing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    · Supernova Remnants · Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources · Gamma-Ray Bursts · Solar Physics · Dark Matter #12;SCIPP talk Larry Wai / SLAC 4 Talk overview 1. What is GLAST? 2. How does dark matter shine in gamma rays? 3. Where should we look for dark matter with GLAST? #12;SCIPP talk Larry Wai / SLAC 5 GLAST

  4. Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Mark

    Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter Name: Registration number: Department: Year of study of your portfolio. #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter2 Contents Timetable Page 3 Introduction 16 #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter3 Timetable Friday 6.00 pm Introduction

  5. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  6. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics...

  7. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-04-27

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  8. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  9. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-11-11

    We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological/astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  10. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-Jun Cai; Chun Shen; Che Ming Ko; Jun Xu; Bao-An Li

    2009-11-17

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K_{sat,2} can be expressed as K_{sat,2}=K_{sym}-6L-J_{0}/{K_{0}L in terms of the slope parameter $L$ and the curvature parameter $K_{\\mathrm{sym}}$ of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter $J_0$ of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order $J_0$ contribution to K_{sat,2} generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K_{sym} and $L$ as well as between $J_{0}/K_{0}$ and $K_{0}$. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on $K_{0}$ and $L$, the nuclear symmetry energy $E_sym(\\rho_{0})$ at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K_{sat,2}=-370 +- 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density.

  11. Two-portal Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karim Ghorbani; Hossein Ghorbani

    2015-06-14

    We propose a renormalizable dark matter model in which a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate communicates with the standard model particles through two distinct portals: Higgs and vector portals. The dark sector is charged under a $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry while the standard model has a leptophobic interaction with the dark vector boson. The leading contribution of DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section begins at one-loop level. The model meets all the constraints imposed by direct detection experiments provided by LUX and XENON100, observed relic abundance according to WMAP and Planck, and the invisible Higgs decay width measured at the LHC. It turns out that the dark matter mass in the viable parameter space can take values from a few GeV up to 1 TeV. This is a new feature which is absent in the models with only one portal. In addition, we can find in the constrained regions of the parameter space a DM mass of $\\sim 34$ GeV annihilating into $b$ quark pair, which explains the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray excess.

  12. On Math, Matter and Mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piet Hut; Mark Alford; Max Tegmark

    2006-01-15

    We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose's math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Some physicists believe that current physics has already found the basic framework for a complete description of reality, and only has to fill in the details. Others suspect that no single framework, from physics or other sources, will ever capture reality. Yet others guess that reality might be approached arbitrarily closely by some form of future physics, but probably based on completely different frameworks. We will designate these three approaches as the fundamentalist, secular and mystic views of the world, as seen by practicing physicists. We present and contrast each of these views, which arguably form broad categories capturing most if not all interpretations of physics. We argue that this diversity in the physics community is more useful than an ontological monoculture, since it motivates physicists to tackle unsolved problems with a wide variety of approaches.

  13. Heavy Dark Matter Through the Higgs Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John March-Russell; Stephen M. West; Daniel Cumberbatch; Dan Hooper

    2008-06-17

    Motivated by Higgs Portal and Hidden Valley models, heavy particle dark matter that communicates with the supersymmetric Standard Model via pure Higgs sector interactions is considered. We show that a thermal relic abundance consistent with the measured density of dark matter is possible for masses up to $\\sim 30\\tev$. For dark matter masses above $\\sim 1\\tev$, non-perturbative Sommerfeld corrections to the annihilation rate are large, and have the potential to greatly affect indirect detection signals. For large dark matter masses, the Higgs-dark-matter-sector couplings are large and we show how such models may be given a UV completion within the context of so-called "Fat-Higgs" models. Higgs Portal dark matter provides an example of an attractive alternative to conventional MSSM neutralino dark matter that may evade discovery at the LHC, while still being within the reach of current and upcoming indirect detection experiments.

  14. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsuk Kang; Young-Gui Yoon; D. Thirumalai; Changbong Hyeon

    2015-06-03

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast ($N\\approx 1.2\\times 10^7$, $\\phi<\\phi_c^{\\infty}$) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  15. Gravitational confinement of photons and matter from Induced Matter theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2012-04-19

    Using an Extended Scharzschild-Anti de Sitter (ESAdS) metric here introduced, where the noncompact extra dimension is time-like, we study the gravitational confinement of matter and photons from a 5D vacuum. The important result here obtained is that the photon trajectories (in general, massless particles) are periodic. They are confined to a radius $r\\leq 2 m G/c^2$ by the gravitational field. Massive test particles are also gravitationally confined, but their trajectories are not periodic.

  16. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  17. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  18. Flavored dark matter beyond minimal flavor violation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3)x associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter ? which transforms asmore »triplet under U(3)x , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator ? with a coupling ?. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of ? which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. The combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of ? turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  19. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T., E-mail: armen@phy.syr.edu, E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  20. An evaluation of the relationships between fecal nitrogen and digestibility, crude protein and dry matter intake of forages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngugi, Kinuthia Robinson

    1982-01-01

    outputs were collected and measured daily. Samples of fecal material were taken at 8-h intervals during the first 2 d of each trial and after that twice per day. Total urine produced was measured volumetrically at 8-h intervals during the first 2 d...) Nitrogen balance (g/d) 6. 2 7. 4 2. 0 2. 0 3. 7' 2. 8 16. 1 13. 8 7. 9 6. 5 2. 1 2. 1 4. 6 3. 9 8. 5 6. 6 Organic matter digestibility (0) (in vi tz'o) 73 67 57 53 Organic matter digestibility (%)(in vi vo) Retention time (h) 63 44 59 43...

  1. Organization and Functions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Organization and Functions Mission Unit EM-30 Deputy Assistant SecretaryADAS Waste Management Director Office of Packaging and Transportation EM-33 Regulations & Standards...

  2. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  3. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  4. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot; S. Vagnozzi

    2014-12-15

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken $U(1)^{'}$ gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength $\\epsilon \\sim 10 ^{-9}$ appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at Hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focussing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modelled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  5. The CRESST Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Majorovits; G. Angloher; C. Bucci; P. Christ; C. Cozzini; F. von Feilitzsch; D. Hauff; S. Henry; Th. Jagemann; J. Jochum; H. Kraus; V. Mikhailik; J. Ninkovic; F. Petricca; W. Potzel; F. Proebst; Y. Ramachers; M. Razeti; W. Rau; W. Seidel; M. Stark; L. Stodolsky; A. J. B. Tolhurst; D. Wahl; W. Westphal; H. Wulandari

    2004-11-15

    We present first competitive results on WIMP dark matter using the phonon-light-detection technique. A particularly strong limit for WIMPs with coherent scattering results from selecting a region of the phonon-light plane corresponding to tungsten recoils. The observed count rate in the neutron band is compatible with the rate expected from neutron background. CRESST is presently being upgraded with a 66 channel SQUID readout system, a neutron shield and a muon veto system. This results in a significant improvement in sensitivity.

  6. Dark Matter in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2009-04-07

    We have recently examined a large number of points in the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, the 19-dimensional parameter space of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis provides insight into general features of the MSSM without reference to a particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions at the GUT scale. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both in colliders and in astrophysical experiments. Here we shall discuss the implications of this analysis relevant to the study of dark matter.

  7. BBN with light dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhiani, Zurab [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università dell'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy); Dolgov, Aleksander; Tkachev, Igor, E-mail: Zurab.Berezhiani@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particles, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-01

    Effects of light millicharged dark matter particles on primordial nucleosynthesis are considered. It is shown that if the mass of such particles is much smaller than the electron mass, they lead to strong overproduction of Helium-4. An agreement with observations can be achieved by non-vanishing lepton asymmetry. Baryon-to-photon ratio at BBN and neutrino-to-photon ratio both at BBN and at recombination are noticeably different as compared to the standard cosmological model. The latter ratio and possible lepton asymmetry could be checked by Planck. For higher mass of new particles the effect is much less pronounced and may even have opposite sign.

  8. Geometry Matters | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing RadiationSNACGeographyGeometry Matters

  9. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.

  10. Baryon Destruction by Asymmetric Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman Davoudiasl; David E. Morrissey; Kris Sigurdson; Sean Tulin

    2011-06-21

    We investigate new and unusual signals that arise in theories where dark matter is asymmetric and carries a net antibaryon number, as may occur when the dark matter abundance is linked to the baryon abundance. Antibaryonic dark matter can cause {\\it induced nucleon decay} by annihilating visible baryons through inelastic scattering. These processes lead to an effective nucleon lifetime of 10^{29}-10^{32} years in terrestrial nucleon decay experiments, if baryon number transfer between visible and dark sectors arises through new physics at the weak scale. The possibility of induced nucleon decay motivates a novel approach for direct detection of cosmic dark matter in nucleon decay experiments. Monojet searches (and related signatures) at hadron colliders also provide a complementary probe of weak-scale dark-matter--induced baryon number violation. Finally, we discuss the effects of baryon-destroying dark matter on stellar systems and show that it can be consistent with existing observations.

  11. Baryon Destruction by Asymmetric Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    We investigate new and unusual signals that arise in theories where dark matter is asymmetric and carries a net antibaryon number, as may occur when the dark matter abundance is linked to the baryon abundance. Antibaryonic dark matter can cause {\\it induced nucleon decay} by annihilating visible baryons through inelastic scattering. These processes lead to an effective nucleon lifetime of 10^{29}-10^{32} years in terrestrial nucleon decay experiments, if baryon number transfer between visible and dark sectors arises through new physics at the weak scale. The possibility of induced nucleon decay motivates a novel approach for direct detection of cosmic dark matter in nucleon decay experiments. Monojet searches (and related signatures) at hadron colliders also provide a complementary probe of weak-scale dark-matter--induced baryon number violation. Finally, we discuss the effects of baryon-destroying dark matter on stellar systems and show that it can be consistent with existing observations.

  12. Dark matter as a cancer hazard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chashchina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    We comment on the paper "Dark Matter collisions with the Human Body" by K.~Freese and C.~Savage (Phys.\\ Lett.\\ B {\\bf 717}, 25 (2012) [arXiv:1204.1339]) and describe a dark matter model for which the results of the previous paper do not apply. Within this mirror dark matter model, potentially hazardous objects, mirror micrometeorites, can exist potentially leading to diseases triggered by multiple mutations, such as cancer.

  13. Dark matter as a cancer hazard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olga Chashchina; Zurab Silagadze

    2015-09-17

    We comment on the paper "Dark Matter collisions with the Human Body" by K.~Freese and C.~Savage (Phys.\\ Lett.\\ B {\\bf 717}, 25 (2012) [arXiv:1204.1339]) and describe a dark matter model for which the results of the previous paper do not apply. Within this mirror dark matter model, potentially hazardous objects, mirror micrometeorites, can exist potentially leading to diseases triggered by multiple mutations, such as cancer.

  14. Galaxy Structure, Dark Matter, and Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Weinberg

    1996-10-01

    The structure of galaxies, the nature of dark matter, and the physics of galaxy formation were the interlocking themes of DM 1996: Dark and Visible Matter in Galaxies and Cosmological Implications. In this conference summary report, I review recent observational and theoretical advances in these areas, then describe highlights of the meeting and discuss their implications. I include as an appendix the lyrics of The Dark Matter Rap: A Cosmological History for the MTV Generation.

  15. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  16. Maximally incompressible neutron star matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy S. Olson

    2000-12-07

    Relativistic kinetic theory, based on the Grad method of moments as developed by Israel and Stewart, is used to model viscous and thermal dissipation in neutron star matter and determine an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars. In the context of kinetic theory, the equation of state must satisfy a set of constraints in order for the equilibrium states of the fluid to be thermodynamically stable and for perturbations from equilibrium to propagate causally via hyperbolic equations. Application of these constraints to neutron star matter restricts the stiffness of the most incompressible equation of state compatible with causality to be softer than the maximally incompressible equation of state that results from requiring the adiabatic sound speed to not exceed the speed of light. Using three equations of state based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei up to twice normal nuclear energy density, and the kinetic theory maximally incompressible equation of state at higher density, an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars averaging 2.64 solar masses is derived.

  17. Interaction of gravitational waves with matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cetoli; C. J. Pethick

    2011-10-03

    We develop a unified formalism for describing the interaction of gravitational waves with matter that clearly separates the effects of general relativity from those due to interactions in the matter. Using it, we derive a general expression for the dispersion of gravitational waves in matter in terms of correlation functions for the matter in flat spacetime. The self energy of a gravitational wave is shown to have contributions analogous to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic contributions to the self energy of an electromagnetic wave. We apply the formalism to some simple systems - free particles, an interacting scalar field, and a fermionic superfluid.

  18. Dark matter annihilation or unresolved astrophysical sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    should be a powerful tool for revealing the CGB origin, and potentially for the first detection of dark matter annihilation. Authors: Ando, Shin'ichiro ; Komatsu, Eiichiro ;...

  19. Does Management Matter? Evidence from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Nicholas; Eifert, Benn; Mahajan, Aprajit; McKenzie, David; Roberts, John

    2012-01-01

    DOES MANAGEMENT MATTER? EVIDENCE FROM INDIA Nicholas Bloombadly managed? Our experiment does not directly answer thisworks, imagine a plant that does not record quality defects.

  20. Does Management Matter? Evidence from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Nicholas; Eifert, Benn; Mahajan, Aprajit; McKenzie, David; Roberts, John

    2012-01-01

    MATTER? EVIDENCE FROM INDIA Nicholas Bloom a , Benn Eifertorganization, productivity and India. Acknowledgements:textile industry? Despite India’s recent rapid growth, total

  1. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01

    University of California. LBL-12095 Probing Dense NuclearMatter Nuclear Collisions* v~a H. Stocker, M.Gyulassy and J. Boguta Nuclear Science Division Lawrence

  2. Dark matter from decaying topological defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hindmarsh, Mark [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki University (Finland); Kirk, Russell; West, Stephen M., E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: russell.kirk.2008@live.rhul.ac.uk, E-mail: stephen.west@rhul.ac.uk [Dept. of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We study dark matter production by decaying topological defects, in particular cosmic strings. In topological defect or ''top-down'' (TD) scenarios, the dark matter injection rate varies as a power law with time with exponent p?4. We find a formula in closed form for the yield for all p < 3/2, which accurately reproduces the solution of the Boltzmann equation. We investigate two scenarios (p = 1, p = 7/6) motivated by cosmic strings which decay into TeV-scale states with a high branching fraction into dark matter particles. For dark matter models annihilating either by s-wave or p-wave, we find the regions of parameter space where the TD model can account for the dark matter relic density as measured by Planck. We find that topological defects can be the principal source of dark matter, even when the standard freeze-out calculation under-predicts the relic density and hence can lead to potentially large ''boost factor'' enhancements in the dark matter annihilation rate. We examine dark matter model-independent limits on this scenario arising from unitarity and discuss example model-dependent limits coming from indirect dark matter search experiments. In the four cases studied, the upper bound on G? for strings with an appreciable channel into TeV-scale states is significantly more stringent than the current Cosmic Microwave Background limits.

  3. Does Management Matter? Evidence from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Nicholas; Eifert, Benn; Mahajan, Aprajit; McKenzie, David; Roberts, John

    2012-01-01

    DOES MANAGEMENT MATTER? EVIDENCE FROM INDIA Nicholas Bloomis whether differences in management practices across firmsTo investigate this, we ran a management field experiment on

  4. Dark galactic halos without dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. K. Nesbet

    2015-03-03

    Using standard Einstein theory, baryonic mass cannot account for observed galactic rotation velocities and gravitational lensing, attributed to galactic dark matter halos. In contrast, theory constrained by Weyl conformal scaling symmetry explains observed galactic rotation in the halo region without invoking dark matter. An explanation of dark halos, gravitational lensing, and structural stabilization, without dark matter and consistent with conformal theory, is proposed here. Condensation of uniform primordial matter into a material cloud or galaxy vacates a large surrounding spherical halo. Within such an extended vacancy in the original cosmic background mass-energy density, conformal theory predicts centripetal acceleration of the observed magnitude.

  5. Universal Ownership: Why Environmental Externalities Matter to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Ownership: Why Environmental Externalities Matter to Institutional Investors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Universal Ownership: Why...

  6. Dark Energy and Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2015-08-27

    We revisit the problems of dark energy and dark matter and several models designed to explain them, in the light of some latest findings.

  7. Dark Energy and Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2015-11-30

    We revisit the problems of dark energy and dark matter and several models designed to explain them, in the light of some latest findings.

  8. ISOTOPICALLY ANOMALOUS ORGANIC GLOBULES FROM COMET 81P/WILD 2. B. T. De Grego-, R. M. Stroud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    . Organic matter is present in several particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 captured in silica aerogel) were S-embedded, ultramicrotomed, and placed on SiO-coated Cu TEM grids (Track 2 sections prepared by K (CIW). Results: Each organic globule is near aerogel from the Stardust sample collector, and both

  9. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  10. Departmental Organization Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-27

    Public Law 95-91, 42 United States Code 7101, Department of Energy Organization Act, Section 642 gives to the Secretary of the Department of Energy the responsibility to approve organization changes affecting the number, designation, or mission of Departmental Elements and to approve the addition, deletion, or transfer of missions and/or functions of or between Departmental Elements. In order to streamline the organizational change process, the Secretary has delegate to the Heads of Departmental Headquarters and Field Elements the authority to approve organization changes. No cancellations.

  11. On Pictorial Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wollheim, Richard

    2002-01-01

    , 2001 © Copyright 200~ by Department of Philosophy University of Kansas On Pictorial Organization Richard Wollhcim U nivcrsity of California, Berkeley 1. Paintings arc organized objects. That much we know, and, in an area where not much is secure... painting works or doesn't work has something to do with its organization, and this idea gains support from the fact that it is only at a late stage in the creative process that the painter will start to think about the painting's working. No serious...

  12. Dark Matter Searche with GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Nuss

    2007-04-20

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled to be launched in fall 2007, is the next generation satellite for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST main instrument, with a wide field of view (> 2 sr), a large effective area (> 8000 cm^2 at 1 GeV) and 20 MeV - 300 GeV energy range, will provide excellent high energy gamma-ray observations for Dark Matter searches. In this paper we examine the potential of the LAT to detect gamma-rays coming from WIMPS annihilation in the context of supersymmetry. As an example, two search regions are investigated: the galactic center and the galactic satellites.

  13. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. ? ? 3e, ? ? e??, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6? deviation of the muon g – 2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale more »TeV). Here, we suggest that it may not be a coincidence that both the muon g – 2 and the relic density can be satisfied by a new-physics scale ?1 TeV. We consider the possibility of a gauged lepton-flavor interaction that couples at tree level only to ?- and ?-flavored leptons and the dark sector. Dark matter thus interacts appreciably only with particles of ? and ? flavor at tree level and has loop-suppressed couplings to quarks and electrons. Remarkably, if such a gauged flavor interaction exists at a scale O(100 GeV–1 TeV), it allows for a consistent phenomenological framework, compatible with the muon g – 2, the relic density, direct detection, indirect detection, charged-lepton decays, neutrino trident production, and results from hadron and e?e? colliders. We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  14. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. ? ? 3e, ? ? e??, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6? deviation of the muon g – 2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale matter thus interacts appreciably only with particles of ? and ? flavor at tree level and has loop-suppressed couplings to quarks and electrons. Remarkably, if such a gauged flavor interaction exists at a scale O(100 GeV–1 TeV), it allows for a consistent phenomenological framework, compatible with the muon g – 2, the relic density, direct detection, indirect detection, charged-lepton decays, neutrino trident production, and results from hadron and e?e? colliders. We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)

  15. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  16. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Fries, Rainer J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum PT. In particular...

  17. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume de Haro; Jaume Amorós

    2014-11-27

    It is shown that teleparallel $F({\\mathcal T})$ theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked thatthese bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  18. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2010-11-14

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  19. Dimensionless constants, cosmology and other dark matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Tegmark; Anthony Aguirre; Martin J Rees; Frank Wilczek

    2006-01-11

    We identify 31 dimensionless physical constants required by particle physics and cosmology, and emphasize that both microphysical constraints and selection effects might help elucidate their origin. Axion cosmology provides an instructive example, in which these two kinds of arguments must both be taken into account, and work well together. If a Peccei-Quinn phase transition occurred before or during inflation, then the axion dark matter density will vary from place to place with a probability distribution. By calculating the net dark matter halo formation rate as a function of all four relevant cosmological parameters and assessing other constraints, we find that this probability distribution, computed at stable solar systems, is arguably peaked near the observed dark matter density. If cosmologically relevant WIMP dark matter is discovered, then one naturally expects comparable densities of WIMPs and axions, making it important to follow up with precision measurements to determine whether WIMPs account for all of the dark matter or merely part of it.

  20. Dark Matter Studies Entrain Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susan Gardner; George Fuller

    2013-03-19

    We review theoretically well-motivated dark-matter candidates, and pathways to their discovery, in the light of recent results from collider physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Taken in aggregate, these encourage broader thinking in regards to possible dark-matter candidates --- dark-matter need not be made of "WIMPs," i.e., elementary particles with weak-scale masses and interactions. Facilities dedicated to nuclear physics are well-poised to investigate certain non-WIMP models. In parallel to this, developments in observational cosmology permit probes of the relativistic energy density at early epochs and thus provide new ways to constrain dark-matter models, provided nuclear physics inputs are sufficiently well-known. The emerging confluence of accelerator, astrophysical, and cosmological constraints permit searches for dark-matter candidates in a greater range of masses and interaction strengths than heretofore possible.

  1. FIRE SYSTEMS Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    FIRE SYSTEMS Professional Organizations: American Fire Sprinkler Association (AFSA) Society for Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) Events & Training: UVa Center for Leadership Excellence classes SkillSoft classes American Fire Sprinkler Association events American Fire

  2. Allies in Sport Organizations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Elizabeth

    2012-10-19

    Employee support is a key factor in creating more welcoming and accepting work environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in sport. As such, organizations need to understand what factors ...

  3. Organic Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funds research and development projects related to organic photovoltaics (OPV) due to the unique benefits of the technology. Below is a list of the projects, summary of the benefits, and...

  4. ENGINEERING Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    ENGINEERING Professional Organizations: National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Virginia Society of Professional Engineers (VSPE) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) American Institute

  5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations: Association of Collegiate Computing Services) Project Management Institute (PMI) Events & Training: UVA Local Support Partners (LSP) program training Project Management Institute webinars Project Management Institute events Scrum Alliance events Learning

  6. RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION Professional Organizations: Society of Research Administrators (SRA) International National Council of University Research Administrators (NCURA) National Council of University Research Administrators (NCURA) Region III Society of Clinical Research Associates (SOCRA) Central Virginia

  7. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    PROJECT MANAGEMENT Professional Organizations: Project Management Institute International Association of Project and Program Management (IAPPM) Events & Training: UVa Center for Leadership Excellence classes SkillSoft classes PMO Symposium through PMI Project Management Institute (PMI) webinars American

  8. ORGANIZATIONS Wisconsin Foundation &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS Wisconsin Foundation & Alumni Association UW Medical Foundation The Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Organizational Chart Vice Management Division Faculty and Staff Programs General Library System HIPAA Quality Improvement, Office

  9. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOffice of theOpenOrganizationOrganization

  10. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOffice ofOrganization Organization

  11. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvesting inServices »About Us » Organization Organization

  12. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  13. Detecting the invisible universe with neutrinos and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaboth, Asher C. (Asher Cunningham)

    2012-01-01

    Recent work in astrophysics has show that most of the matter in the universe is non-luminous. This work investigates two searches for non-luminous matter: hot dark matter formed from cosmic relic neutrinos from the Big ...

  14. GEOC Martial Taillefert Wednesday, April 10, 2013 187 Mechanisms of ferrihydriteorganic matter complex formation via adsorption and coprecipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    compared the chemical fractionation of the organic matter and the mechanisms of ferrihydriteOM complex edges was employed to study the spatial distribution, macromolecular structure, and chemical composition Center Room: R05 *ACS does not own copyrights to the individual abstracts. For permission, please

  15. Food Exemption Request Organization Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Exemption Request Organization Information Organization Received ______ Organizations are permitted one food exemption per semester. Requests must be submitted and Regulations Your group has requested a food exemption for an event. The rules and regulations for use

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Distribution of organic facies in recent sediments in northern part of Lake Tanganyika

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huc, A.Y.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Bessereau, G.; Le Fournier, J.

    1987-05-01

    A better understanding of the relation between the organic facies and the depositional environments is a basic prerequisite to allow predictions of the lateral variations of source rocks and then to achieve realistic quantitative evaluation of the petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin. Lake Tanganyika is a suitable example to address the problem of organic sedimentology in an environment related to a rifting situation. More than 400 dredged samples have been used to construct detailed maps of the organic facies in the surficial sediments of the northern part of Lake Tanganyika. These maps include Bujumbura and Rumonge basins. Beyond an apparent complex pattern, the distribution of the organic facies can be explained in terms of differential preservation and sedimentological processes including pelagic sedimentation on the top of structural blocks, winnowing processes which drive the low-density organic matter from the shallow agitated waters (above the thermocline) toward depocenters in the deepest parts of the basin, and gravity transport mechanisms which dispatch sediments together with their specific organic content along sedimentary transit pathways. In this lake the main biological precursors for the sedimentary organic matter are diatoms. Organic geochemical studies including kerogen analyses and pyrolysis-GC show that the preeminent factor controlling the quality of the organic material, principally its hydrogen richness (in other words, its petroleum potential), is the extent of its degradation which is closely related to the depositional environment (oxic environment above the thermocline versus anoxic environment below the thermocline).

  18. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

  19. Social Media and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and Tools |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and Tools Social Media and Messages that Matter - Top Tips and Tools Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Social...

  20. How Much Do Local Regulations Matter? Exploring the Impact of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulations Matter? Exploring the Impact of Permitting and Local Regulatory Processes on PV Prices in the United States How Much Do Local Regulations Matter? Exploring the Impact...

  1. How Much Do Local Regulations Matter? Exploring the Impact of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Matter? Exploring the Impact of Permitting and Local Regulatory Processes on PV Prices in the United States How Much Do Local Regulations Matter? Exploring the Impact of...

  2. JETS OF NUCLEAR MATTER FROM HIGH ENERGY HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2013-01-01

    of California. LBL-11774 Jets of Nuclear Matter from Highclusters. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter areExperimental analysis of the jet phenomena is in progress.

  3. Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Authors:...

  4. The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private Partnerships for Engine Development The Right Technology Matters: The Importantce of Public-Private Partnerships for...

  5. Osmotic pressure of matter and vacuum energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. E. Volovik

    2009-10-04

    The walls of the box which contains matter represent a membrane that allows the relativistic quantum vacuum to pass but not matter. That is why the pressure of matter in the box may be considered as the analog of the osmotic pressure. However, we demonstrate that the osmotic pressure of matter is modified due to interaction of matter with vacuum. This interaction induces the nonzero negative vacuum pressure inside the box, as a result the measured osmotic pressure becomes smaller than the matter pressure. As distinct from the Casimir effect, this induced vacuum pressure is the bulk effect and does not depend on the size of the box. This effect dominates in the thermodynamic limit of the infinite volume of the box. Analog of this effect has been observed in the dilute solution of 3He in liquid 4He, where the superfluid 4He plays the role of the non-relativistic quantum vacuum, and 3He atoms play the role of matter.

  6. Mechanisms of Organic-inorganic Interactions in Soils and Aqueous Environments Elucidated using Calorimetric Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Omar R.

    2011-08-08

    : bacteria, viruses and spores; roads, tire and brake abrasions; and fine soil particles [20]. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed through condensation of VOCs in the atmosphere [20]. Estimates of atmospheric organic matter production are very... of the biochar formed during pyrolysis is dependent on combustion conditions (eg. temperature, combustion duration and oxygen supply) and the chemistry of the original plant tissues. As combustion temperature increases transformation of plant tissues occur via...

  7. The soil organic matter dynamic by using different compost organic manure in a vegetable system in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qinping; Li, Jijin; Liu, Bensheng; Zou, Guoyuan; Liu, Baocun

    2009-01-01

    to cattle manure compost and biogas residue compost. Higherafter crop harvest in biogas residue compost treatment.2) cattle compost, 3) biogas residue, 4) control, no

  8. The soil organic matter dynamic by using different compost organic manure in a vegetable system in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Qinping; Li, Jijin; Liu, Bensheng; Zou, Guoyuan; Liu, Baocun

    2009-01-01

    following the long-term application of manure compost.Chicken manure compost showed the highest soil organicwhen compared to cattle manure compost and biogas residue

  9. Asymmetric dark matter in braneworld cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of a braneworld expansion era on the relic density of asymmetric dark matter. We find that the enhanced expansion rate in the early universe predicted by the Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) model leads to earlier particle freeze-out and an enhanced relic density. This effect has been observed previously by Okada and Seto (2004) for symmetric dark matter models and here we extend their results to the case of asymmetric dark matter. We also discuss the enhanced asymmetric annihilation rate in the braneworld scenario and its implications for indirect detection experiments.

  10. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-07

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter. We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  11. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper [Cosmology, Particle Astrophysics and String Theory, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r{sup -1.3{+-}}{sup 0.2}, at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r{sup -1.9{+-}}{sup 0.2}, with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73{+-}0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks.

  12. Brane World Dynamics and Adiabatic Matter creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gopakumar; G. V. Vijayagovindan

    2006-04-10

    We have treated the adiabatic matter creation process in various three-brane models by applying thermodynamics of open systems. The matter creation rate is found to affect the evolution of scale factor and energy density of the universe. We find modification at early stages of cosmic dynamics. In GB and RS brane worlds, by chosing appropriate parameters we obtain standard scenario, while the warped DGP model has different Friedmann equations. During later stages, since the matter creation is negligible the evolution reduces to FRW expansion, in RS and GB models.

  13. Quintessence with quadratic coupling to dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Chan, Nyein; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Lazkoz, Ruth; Maartens, Roy

    2010-04-15

    We introduce a new form of coupling between dark energy and dark matter that is quadratic in their energy densities. Then we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is in the form of exponential quintessence. The three types of quadratic coupling all admit late-time accelerating critical points, but these are not scaling solutions. We also show that two types of coupling allow for a suitable matter era at early times and acceleration at late times, while the third type of coupling does not admit a suitable matter era.

  14. Direct Detection of Cold Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Baudis

    2007-11-25

    We know from cosmological and astrophysical observations that more than 80% of the matter density in the Universe is non-luminous, or dark. This non-baryonic dark matter could be composed of neutral, heavy particles, which were non-relativistic, or 'cold', when they decoupled from ordinary matter. I will review the direct detection methods of these hypothetical particles via their interactions with nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground experiments. The emphasis is on most recent results and on the status of near future projects.

  15. From Photons to Atoms - The Electromagnetic Nature of Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Funaro

    2012-05-07

    Motivated by a revision of the classical equations of electromagnetism that allow for the inclusion of solitary waves in the solution space, the material collected in these notes examine the consequences of adopting the modified model in the description of atomic structures. The possibility of handling "photons" in a deterministic way opens indeed a chance for reviewing the foundations of quantum physics. Atoms and molecules are described as aggregations of nuclei and electrons joined through organized photon layers resonating at various frequencies, explaining how matter can absorb or emit light quanta. Some established viewpoints are subverted, offering an alternative scenario. The analysis seeks to provide an answer to many technical problems in physical chemistry and, at the same time, to raise epistemological questions.

  16. LIGHT PHOTINOS AS DARK MATTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; Edward W. Kolb

    1995-04-24

    There are good reasons to consider models of low-energy supersymmetry with very light photinos and gluinos. In a wide class of models the lightest $R$-odd, color-singlet state containing a gluino, the $\\r0$, has a mass in the 1-2 GeV range and the slightly lighter photino, $\\pho$, would survive as the relic $R$-odd species. For the light photino masses considered here, previous calculations resulted in an unacceptable photino relic abundance. But we point out that processes other than photino self-annihilation determine the relic abundance when the photino and $R^0$ are close in mass. Including $\\r0\\longleftrightarrow\\pho$ processes, we find that the photino relic abundance is most sensitive to the $\\r0$-to-$\\pho$ mass ratio, and within model uncertainties, a critical density in photinos may be obtained for an $\\r0$-to-$\\pho$ mass ratio in the range 1.2 to 2.2. We propose photinos in the mass range of 500 MeV to 1.6 GeV as a dark matter candidate, and discuss a strategy to test the hypothesis.

  17. Photonic dark matter portal revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Alavi; F S Kazemian

    2015-11-18

    In our previous paper [1], we studied a model of dark matter (DM) in which the hidden sector interacts with standard model particles via a hidden photonic portal (HP). We investigated the effects of this new interaction on the hydrogen atom and obtained an upper bound for the coupling of the model. In this work, we study the effects of HP on two interesting exotic atoms namely muonium and positronium. We obtain a tighter upper limit on the coupling. We also calculate the change (shift) in the Aharonov-Bohm phase due to HP and find that the phase shift is negligibly small (for DM particles mass in the GeV range). Recently a 3.5 keV X ray line signal observed in the spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters, reported by the XXM-Newton X ray observatory. Since in HP model the DM particles can decay directly into photons, so we finally calculate the value of the coupling constant f using the condition Delta E=3.5 keV.

  18. Dark matter burners: Preliminary estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. V. Moskalenko; L. L. Wai

    2007-02-24

    We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole can capture a large number of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during its lifetime. WIMP annihilation energy release in low- to medium-mass stars is comparable with or even exceeds the luminosity of such stars due to thermonuclear burning. The excessive energy release in the stellar core may result in an evolution scenario different from what is expected for a regular star. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars within the central parsec of galactic nuclei. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter. White dwarfs seem to be the most promising candidates to look for. The signature of a white dwarf burning WIMPs would be a very hot star with mass and radius characteristic for a white dwarf, but with luminosity exceeding the typical luminosity of a white dwarf by orders of magnitude <50L_sun. A white dwarf with a highly eccentric orbit around the central black hole may exhibit variations in brightness correlated with the orbital phase.

  19. DEAP-3600 Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. -A. Amaudruz; M. Batygov; B. Beltran; J. Bonatt; M. G. Boulay; B. Broerman; J. F. Bueno; A. Butcher; B. Cai; M. Chen; R. Chouinard; B. T. Cleveland; K. Dering; J. DiGioseffo; F. Duncan; T. Flower; R. Ford; P. Giampa; P. Gorel; K. Graham; D. R. Grant; E. Guliyev; A. L. Hallin; M. Hamstra; P. Harvey; C. J. Jillings; M. Ku?niak; I. Lawson; O. Li; P. Liimatainen; P. Majewski; A. B. McDonald; T. McElroy; K. McFarlane; J. Monroe; A. Muir; C. Nantais; C. Ng; A. J. Noble; C. Ouellet; K. Palladino; P. Pasuthip; S. J. M. Peeters; T. Pollmann; W. Rau; F. Retière; N. Seeburn; K. Singhrao; P. Skensved; B. Smith; T. Sonley; J. Tang; E. Vázquez-Jáuregui; L. Veloce; J. Walding; M. Ward

    2014-10-27

    The DEAP-3600 experiment is located 2 km underground at SNOLAB, in Sudbury, Ontario. It is a single-phase detector that searches for dark matter particle interactions within a 1000-kg fiducial mass target of liquid argon. A first generation prototype detector (DEAP-1) with a 7-kg liquid argon target mass demonstrated a high level of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for reducing $\\beta$/$\\gamma$ backgrounds and helped to develop low radioactivity techniques to mitigate surface-related $\\alpha$ backgrounds. Construction of the DEAP-3600 detector is nearly complete and commissioning is starting in 2014. The target sensitivity to spin-independent scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on nucleons of 10$^{-46}$ cm$^2$ will allow one order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current searches at 100 GeV WIMP mass. This paper presents an overview and status of the DEAP-3600 project and discusses plans for a future multi-tonne experiment, DEAP-50T.

  20. Dark Matter Triggers of Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Peter W; Varela, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ rules out primordial black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{19}$ gm - $10^{20}$ gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as $10^{24}$ gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range $10^{20}$ gm - $10^{22}$ gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism p...

  1. EPOK Centre for Organic Food & Farming ORGANIC FOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPOK ­ Centre for Organic Food & Farming ORGANIC FOOD ­ food quality and potential health effects.slu.se/epok/english #12;ORGANIC FOOD ­ food quality and potential health effects Publishing year: 2015, Uppsala Publisher: SLU, EPOK ­ Centre for Organic Food & Farming Lay-out: Pelle Fredriksson, SLU, EPOK Photo, cover: i

  2. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  3. Organic aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  4. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  5. Superheavy sterile neutrinos as dark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yongjun

    2000-01-01

    neutrinos as a dark matter candidate, produced through MSW conversion of active neutrinos. Recently Allen proposed a different nonthermal mechanism for the production of superheavy sterile neutrinos. Such neutrinos are predicted by an SO(10) grand...

  6. Exploring the Nature of Matter | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of matter." And you might ask, what do they mean? At Jefferson Laboratory, we scatter electrons like Hofstadter did in the '50s when he explored nuclei. That's why one of our roads...

  7. A Scenario of Heavy Baryonic Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huo, Ran; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    We consider a general class of models in which dark matter is a composite baryonic and antibaryonic particle of some hidden vector-like strong gauge theory. The model building provides simple answers to two basic questions: Annihilation between dark baryon and antibaryon saturates the unitarity bound, which in thermal freeze out predicts the scale of dark matter particle to be about 150 TeV. And the dark matter stability is a result of the accidental dark baryon number, which can still be violated by operators suppressed by large scales, leading to tiny decay rate. We show that annihilation between dark baryon and anti-baryon seems difficult to be detected in the galaxy center in the near future. On the other hand in the minimal model of $SU(3)$ hidden strong gauge group with a Planck scale suppression, the dark matter life time happens to be marginal to the current detection bound, and can explain the current AMS-02 antiproton results.

  8. Particulate matter in the central subtropical Pacific 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colgan, Annette Renee

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) in the Central Subtropical Pacific and its relationships with water masses and currents were determined from optical and hydrographic data. Beam attenuation data were collected with a Sea Tech...

  9. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-06-22

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, ...

  10. Low-scale seesaw and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Fabbrichesi; S. Petcov

    2013-04-15

    We discuss how two birds---the little hierarchy problem of low-scale type-I seesaw models and the search for a viable dark matter candidate---are (proverbially) killed by one stone: a new inert scalar state

  11. Antigravitation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter - Alternative Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2009-01-01

    Collisional damping of gravitational waves in the Newtonian matter is investigated. The generalized theory of Landau damping is applied to the gravitational physical systems in the context of the plasma gravitational analogy.

  12. Indirect dark matter search with AMS-02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Di Falco

    2006-07-06

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station, will provide data on cosmic radiations in the energy range from 0.5 GeV to 3 TeV. The main physics goals are the anti-matter and the dark matter searches. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of unknown Dark Matter. It should be composed of non baryonic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP). In R-parity conserving models a good WIMP candidate is the lightest SUSY particle. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study simultaneously SUSY dark matter in three decay channels resulting from the neutralino annihilation: e+, antiproton and gamma. Either in the SUSY frame and in alternative scenarios (like extra-dimensions) the expected flux sensitivities as a function of energy in 3 year exposure for the e+/e- ratio, gamma and antiproton yields are presented.

  13. Disentangling Dark Matter Dynamics with Directional Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-16

    Inelastic dark matter reconciles the DAMA anomaly with other null direct detection experiments and points to a non-minimal structure in the dark matter sector. In addition to the dominant inelastic interaction, dark matter scattering may have a subdominant elastic component. If these elastic interactions are suppressed at low momentum transfer, they will have similar nuclear recoil spectra to inelastic scattering events. While upcoming direct detection experiments will see strong signals from such models, they may not be able to unambiguously determine the presence of the subdominant elastic scattering from the recoil spectra alone. We show that directional detection experiments can separate elastic and inelastic scattering events and discover the underlying dynamics of dark matter models.

  14. Shocking Signals of Dark Matter Annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Jonathan H; Boehm, Celine; Kotera, Kumiko; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether charged particles injected by self-annihilating Dark Matter into regions undergoing Diffuse Shock Acceleration (DSA) can be accelerated to high energies. We consider three astrophysical sites where shock acceleration is supposed to occur, namely the Galactic Centre, galaxy clusters and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). For the Milky Way, we find that the acceleration of cosmic rays injected by dark matter could lead to a bump in the cosmic ray spectrum provided that the product of the efficiency of the acceleration mechanism and the concentration of DM particles is high enough. Among the various acceleration sources that we consider (namely supernova remnants (SNRs), Fermi bubbles and AGN jets), we find that the Fermi bubbles are a potentially more efficient accelerator than SNRs. However both could in principle accelerate electrons and protons injected by dark matter to very high energies. At the extragalactic level, the acceleration of dark matter annihilation products could be responsible fo...

  15. Scalar Dark Matter From Theory Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkedal-Hansen, Andreas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2003-12-26

    The scalar dark matter candidate in a prototypical theory space little Higgs model is investigated. We review all details of the model pertinent to a relic density calculation. We perform a thermal relic density calculation including couplings to the gauge and Higgs sectors of the model. We find two regions of parameter space that give acceptable dark matter abundances. The first region has a dark matter candidate with a mass {Omicron}(100 GeV), the second region has a candidate with a mass greater than {Omicron}(500 GeV). The dark matter candidate in either region is an admixture of an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singlet, thereby constituting a possible WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle).

  16. Light Dark Matter Annihilations into Two Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Boehm; J. Orloff; P. Salati

    2006-07-19

    We compute the pair annihilation cross section of light (spin-0) dark matter particles into two photons and discuss the detectability of the monochromatic line associated with these annihilations.

  17. Modeling the strangeness content of hadronic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Toledo Sanchez; J. Piekarewicz

    2001-09-06

    The strangeness content of hadronic matter is studied in a string-flip model that reproduces various aspects of the QCD-inspired phenomenology, such as quark clustering at low density and color deconfinement at high density, while avoiding long range van der Waals forces. Hadronic matter is modeled in terms of its quark constituents by taking into account its internal flavor (u,d,s) and color (red, blue, green) degrees of freedom. Variational Monte-Carlo simulations in three spatial dimensions are performed for the ground-state energy of the system. The onset of the transition to strange matter is found to be influenced by weak, yet not negligible, clustering correlations. The phase diagram of the system displays an interesting structure containing both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions. Strange matter is found to be absolutely stable in the model.

  18. Manual for Classified Matter Protection and Control

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-09

    Provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter which supplement DOE O 471.2A. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1 dated 09/26/1995.

  19. Nuclear Matter with Relativistic Quark Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suisso, E.F.; Batista, E.F.; Araujo, W.R.B. de; Frederico, T.; Carlson, B.V. [Dep. de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico da Aeronautca, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12.228-901, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-12-02

    We investigate a quark-meson coupling model of the nuclear matter with a light-front nucleon model, where the quarks interact with flavor independent contact force. We found results comparable to the ones obtained with a confining interaction.

  20. Interaction of Radiation with Matter Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    Module 2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter · Gammas · Electrons · Charged Particles · Neutron of mass. · Energy from radiation only deposited if it interacts with the material. · Only the amount;Pair Production #12;Gamma Interaction with Water #12;http://physics

  1. Scalar Dark Matter: Direct vs. Indirect Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Duerr; Pavel Fileviez Perez; Juri Smirnov

    2015-09-14

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 100 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  2. Scalar Dark Matter: Direct vs. Indirect Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duerr, Michael; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 100 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  3. Antigravitation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter - Alternative Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris V. Alexeev

    2009-09-04

    Collisional damping of gravitational waves in the Newtonian matter is investigated. The generalized theory of Landau damping is applied to the gravitational physical systems in the context of the plasma gravitational analogy.

  4. Washington and Lee University STUDENT ORGANIZATION APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, David

    Washington and Lee University STUDENT ORGANIZATION APPLICATION Organization Name mission statement of your organization. How will your organization be beneficial to Washington and Lee

  5. Mechanisms of dissipation in wet granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Fingerle; S. Herminghaus

    2007-08-20

    The impact dynamics between wet surfaces, which dominates the mechanical properties of wet granular matter, is studied both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the hysteretic formation and rupture of liquid capillary bridges between adjacent grains accounts reasonably well for most relevant cases of wet granular matter. The various dissipation mechanisms are discussed with particular emphasis on their relevance. Variations of the rupture energy loss with the impact energy are quantified and discussed.

  6. Directional detection of galactic dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayet, F; Santos, D

    2012-01-01

    Directional detection is a promising Dark Matter search strategy. Taking advantage on the rotation of the Solar system around the galactic center through the Dark Matter halo, it allows to show a direction dependence of WIMP events that may be a powerful tool to identify genuine WIMP events as such. Directional detection strategy requires the simultaneous measurement of the energy and the 3D track of low energy recoils, which is a common challenge for all current projects of directional detectors.

  7. The C-4 Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonicalzi, Ricco; Collar, J. I.; Colaresi, J.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Reid, Douglas J.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wiseman, Clinton G.; Yocum, K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Abstract We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact (PPC) germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.

  8. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Engvik; M. Hjorth-Jensen; E. Osnes; G. Bao; E. Oestgaard

    1994-06-23

    We calculate properties of neutron stars such as mass and radius using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner-hartree-Fock apprach for asymmetric nuclear matter. For pure neutron matter we find the maximum mass to be 2.4 solar masses with a radius of 12 km. For a proton fraction of 30% we find a max mass of 2.1 solar masses and a radius of 10.5 km. The implications are discussed.

  9. From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Jha

    2009-02-02

    Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

  10. A Multifunctional 3D Ferroelectric and NLO-Active Porous Metal-Organic Zhengang Guo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    A Multifunctional 3D Ferroelectric and NLO-Active Porous Metal-Organic Framework Zhengang Guo, Rong, second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have also undergone rapid development owing of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  11. Supplementary information for: Insights into the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Contemporary Carbon PCF : Primary Fossil Carbon PM : Particulate Matter POA : Primary Organic Aerosol POC 293 306 163 147 129 73 relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147129 73 0 100 200 300 400 m/z relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147 129 73 m/z 0 100 200 300 400 relativeintensity[%] selected fragment: m

  12. Cosmological effects of coupled dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sophie C. F. Morris; Anne M. Green; Antonio Padilla; Ewan R. M. Tarrant

    2013-10-15

    Many models have been studied that contain more than one species of dark matter and some of these couple the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) to a light scalar field. In doing this we introduce additional long range forces, which in turn can significantly affect our estimates of cosmological parameters if not properly accounted for. It is, therefore, important to study these models and their resulting cosmological implications. We present a model in which a fraction of the total cold dark matter density is coupled to a scalar field. We study the background and perturbation evolution and calculate the resulting Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy spectra. The greater the fraction of dark matter coupled to the scalar field and the stronger the coupling strength, the greater the deviation of the background evolution from LCDM. Previous work, with a single coupled dark matter species, has found an upper limit on the coupling strength of order O(0.1). We find that with a coupling of this magnitude more than half the dark matter can be coupled to a scalar field without producing any significant deviations from LCDM.

  13. Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio Marra

    2015-06-21

    This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.

  14. Coupling dark energy to dark matter perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marra, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This Letter proposes that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter perturbations. The idea is that dark matter particles could annihilate/interact inside dense clumps and transfer energy to the scalar field, which would then enter an accelerated regime. This hypothesis is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter perturbations become sufficiently dense. Here we study a possible realization of this general idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. Moreover, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this ...

  15. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactions of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. The ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.

  16. Measuring the dark matter equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ana Laura Serra; Mariano Javier de León Domínguez Romero

    2011-05-30

    The nature of the dominant component of galaxies and clusters remains unknown. While the astrophysics community supports the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm as a clue factor in the current cosmological model, no direct CDM detections have been performed. Faber and Visser 2006 have suggested a simple method for measuring the dark matter equation of state that combines kinematic and gravitational lensing data to test the widely adopted assumption of pressureless dark matter. Following this formalism, we have measured the dark matter equation of state for first time using improved techniques. We have found that the value of the equation of state parameter is consistent with pressureless dark matter within the errors. Nevertheless, the measured value is lower than expected because typically the masses determined with lensing are larger than those obtained through kinematic methods. We have tested our techniques using simulations and we have also analyzed possible sources of error that could invalidate or mimic our results. In the light of this result, we can now suggest that the understanding of the nature of dark matter requires a complete general relativistic analysis.

  17. Registered Student Organization Officer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    website: gradorg.syr.edu #12;Important Information Registered Graduate Student Organization Handbook Fiscal Policy document provides additional fiscal guidelines and procedures ­ The Fiscal Policy can with Office of Student Activities If any of the required information changes, contact Internal VP

  18. Project organizations and schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) faces the challenge of simultaneously carrying out a large-scale construction project with demanding cost, schedule, and performance goals; and creating a scientific laboratory capable of exploiting this unique scientific instrument. This paper describes the status of the laboratory organization developed to achieve these goals, and the major near-term schedule objectives of the project.

  19. FOOD SERVICE Professional Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    FOOD SERVICE Professional Organizations: National Association of College and University Food National Association of College and University Food Services (NACUFS) conference NACUFS Mid-Atlantic Region of Colleges and University Food Services e-newsletter Social Media: National Association of College

  20. RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science Strong Correlation Physics Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    Quantum Condencsed Matter Research Group Macroscopic Quantum Coherence Research Team Superconducting

  1. Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF$_4$, CS$_2$ and $^{3}$He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.

  2. Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Catena

    2015-05-24

    We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF$_4$, CS$_2$ and $^{3}$He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.

  3. A Window in the Dark Matter Exclusion Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrijela Zaharijas; Glennys R. Farrar

    2005-06-28

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter candidates ($m=0.4$ to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range.

  4. Dark Matter Through the Neutrino Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Falkowski; Jose Juknevich; Jessie Shelton

    2009-08-13

    We consider a model of dark matter whose most prominent signature is a monochromatic flux of TeV neutrinos from the galactic center. As an example of a general scenario, we consider a specific model where the dark matter is a fermion in the adjoint representation of a hidden SU(N) gauge group that confines at GeV energies. The absence of light fermionic states in the dark sector ensures stability of dark matter on cosmological time scales. Dark matter couples to the standard model via the neutrino portal, that is, the singlet operator H L constructed from the Higgs and lepton doublets, which is the lowest dimensional fermionic singlet operator in the standard model. This coupling prompts dark matter decay where the dominant decay channel has one neutrino (and at least one dark glueball) in the final state. Other decay channels with charged standard model particles involve more particles in the final state and are therefore suppressed by phase space. In consequence, the standard indirect detection signals like gamma-ray photons, antiprotons and positrons are suppressed with respect to the neutrino signal. This coupling via the neutrino portal is most robustly constrained by Super-Kamiokande, which restricts the dark matter lifetime to be larger than 10^25 seconds. In the near future, the scenario will be probed by the new generation of neutrino telescopes. ANTARES will be sensitive to a dark matter lifetime of order 10^26 seconds, while IceCube/DeepCore can probe a lifetime as large as 10^27 seconds.

  5. Working Group Report: Dark Matter Complementarity (Dark Matter in the Coming Decade: Complementary Paths to Discovery and Beyond)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrenberg, Sebastian; et al.,

    2013-10-31

    In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.

  6. Status Organizing Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Joseph; Rosenholtz, Susan J; Zelditch, Morris Jr

    2015-08-15

    STATUS ORGANIZING PROCESSES Joseph Berger Susan J. Rosenholtz Morris Zelditch, Jr. Technical Report #77 Stanford University January 1980 To appear in the Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 6, 1980. This paper was prepared while Or. Rosenholtz was a... to take place--in such a way that the expectation-states are confirmed, hence maintained, by the very interaction that depends on them (Berger, 1958; Berger & Snell, 1961; Berger, Conner & McKeown, 1969; Berger & Conner, 1969, 1974; Fisek, 1968, 1974...

  7. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOffice of theOpenOrganization

  8. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvesting inServices »About Us » Organization

  9. Color superconductivity and dense quark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Mannarelli

    2008-12-26

    The properties of cold and dense quark matter have been the subject of extensive investigation, especially in the last decade. Unfortunately, we still lack of a complete understanding of the properties of matter in these conditions. One possibility is that quark matter is in a color superconducting phase which is characterized by the formation of a diquark condensate. We review some of the basic concepts of color superconductivity and some of the aspects of this phase of matter which are relevant for compact stars. Since quarks have color, flavor as well as spin degrees of freedom many different color superconducting phases can be realized. At asymptotic densities QCD predicts that the color flavor locked phase is favored. At lower densities where the QCD coupling constant is large, perturbative methods cannot be applied and one has to rely on some effective model, eventually trying to constrain such a model with experimental observations. The picture is complicated by the requirement that matter in the interior of compact stars is in weak equilibrium and neutral. These conditions and the (possible) large value of the strange quark mass conspire to separate the Fermi momenta of quarks with different flavors, rendering homogenous superconducting phases unstable. One of the aims of this presentation is to introduce non-experts in the field to some of the basic ideas of color superconductivity and to some of its open problems.

  10. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Klasen; Martin Pohl; Günter Sigl

    2015-07-14

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators.

  11. Asymptotic safety of gravity-matter systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meibohm, Jan; Reichert, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We study the ultraviolet stability of gravity-matter systems for general numbers of minimally coupled scalars and fermions. This is done within the functional renormalisation group setup put forward in \\cite{Christiansen:2015rva} for pure gravity. It includes full dynamical propagators and a genuine dynamical Newton's coupling, which is extracted from the graviton three-point function. We find ultraviolet stability of general gravity-fermion systems. Gravity-scalar systems are also found to be ultraviolet stable within validity bounds for the chosen generic class of regulators, based on the size of the anomalous dimension. Remarkably, the ultraviolet fixed points for the dynamical couplings are found to be significantly different from those of their associated background counterparts, once matter fields are included. In summary, the asymptotic safety scenario does not put constraints on the matter content of the theory within the validity bounds for the chosen generic class of regulators.

  12. Cold Positrons from Decaying Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Dodelson, Scott; Vives, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Many models of dark matter contain more than one new particle beyond those in the Standard Model. Often heavier particles decay into the lightest dark matter particle as the Universe evolves. Here we explore the possibilities that arise if one of the products in a (Heavy Particle) $\\rightarrow$ (Dark Matter) decay is a positron, and the lifetime is shorter than the age of the Universe. The positrons cool down by scattering off the cosmic microwave background and eventually annihilate when they fall into Galactic potential wells. The resulting 511 keV flux not only places constraints on this class of models but might even be consistent with that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite.

  13. Bi-metric Gravity and "Dark Matter"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    2000-08-18

    We present a bi-metric theory of gravity containing a length scale of galactic size. For distances less than this scale the theory satisfies the standard tests of General Relativity. For distances greater than this scale the theory yields an effective gravitational constant much larger than the locally observed value of Newton's constant. The transition from one regime to the other through the galactic scale can explain the observed rotation curves of galaxies and hence the effects normally attributed to the presence of dark matter. Phenomena on an extragalactic scale such as galactic clusters and the expansion of the universe are controlled by the enhanced gravitational coupling. This provides an explanation of the missing matter normally invoked to account for the observed value of Hubble's constant in relation to observed matter.

  14. Exotic Matter and Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidezumi Terazawa

    2015-04-15

    Exotic forms of matter such as carbon nanofoams, hexalambdas, super-hypernuclei, strange stars, pentaquarks, color-balls, etc. and their relations to current problems in cosmo-particle physics such as dark matter and energy are discussed in some details. This is an extended version of the invited talk presented at the International Conference on New Trends in High-Energy Physics , Yalta, Crimea(Ukraine), September 10-17, 2005, which has been published in the Proceedings, edited by P.N.Bogolyubov, P.O.Fedosenko, L.L.Jenkovszky, and Yu.A.Karpenko(Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, 2005). In an extended and up-dated version of the Chapters I and III, entitled "Exotic Nuclei and Strange Stars", which has been published in Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems 18(2015)25-30, new forms of matter such as exotic nuclei and strange stars are discussed in some detail.

  15. Higgs Portal Vector Dark Matter : Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seungwon Baek; P. Ko; Wan-Il Park; Eibun Senaha

    2013-04-15

    We revisit the Higgs portal vector dark matter model including a hidden sector Higgs field that generates the mass of the vector dark matter. The model becomes renormalizable and has two scalar bosons, the mixtures of the standard model (SM) Higgs and the hidden sector Higgs bosons. The strong bound from direct detection such as XENON100 is evaded due to the cancellation mechanism between the contributions from two scalar bosons. As a result, the model becomes still viable in large range of dark matter mass, contrary to some claims in the literature. The Higgs properties are also affected, the signal strengths for the Higgs boson search being universally suppressed relative to the SM value, which could be tested at the LHC in the future.

  16. Neutrino matter potentials induced by Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Linder

    2006-01-15

    An instructive method of deriving the matter potentials felt by neutrinos propagating through matter on Earth is presented. This paper thoroughly guides the reader through the calculations involving the effective weak Hamiltonian for lepton and quark scattering. The matter potentials are well-known results since the late 70's, but a detailed and pedagogical calculation of these quantities is hard to find. We derive potentials due to charged and neutral current scattering on electrons, neutrons and protons. Intended readership is for undergraduates/graduates in the fields of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. In addition to the derivation of the potentials for neutrinos, we explicitely study the origin of the reversed sign for potentials in the case of antineutrino-scattering.

  17. Neutralino Dark Matter in BMSSM Effective Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus Berg; Joakim Edsjo; Paolo Gondolo; Erik Lundstrom; Stefan Sjors

    2009-06-03

    We study thermal neutralino dark matter in an effective field theory extension of the MSSM, called "Beyond the MSSM" (BMSSM) in Dine, Seiberg and Thomas (2007). In this class of effective field theories, the field content of the MSSM is unchanged, but the little hierarchy problem is alleviated by allowing small corrections to the Higgs/higgsino part of the Lagrangian. We perform parameter scans and compute the dark matter relic density. The light Higgsino LSP scenario is modified the most; we find new regions of parameter space compared to the standard MSSM. This involves interesting interplay between the WMAP dark matter bounds and the LEP chargino bound. We also find some changes for gaugino LSPs, partly due to annihilation through a Higgs resonance, and partly due to coannihilation with light stops in models that are ruled in by the new effective terms.

  18. Neutralino dark matter in BMSSM effective theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Marcus; Edsjö, Joakim; Lundström, Erik; Sjörs, Stefan; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: edsjo@physto.se E-mail: erik@physto.se

    2009-08-01

    We study thermal neutralino dark matter in an effective field theory extension of the MSSM, called ''Beyond the MSSM'' (BMSSM) in Dine, Seiberg and Thomas (2007). In this class of effective field theories, the field content of the MSSM is unchanged, but the little hierarchy problem is alleviated by allowing small corrections to the Higgs/higgsino part of the Lagrangian. We perform parameter scans and compute the dark matter relic density. The light higgsino LSP scenario is modified the most; we find new regions of parameter space compared to the standard MSSM. This involves interesting interplay between the WMAP dark matter bounds and the LEP chargino bound. We also find some changes for gaugino LSPs, partly due to annihilation through a Higgs resonance, and partly due to coannihilation with light top squarks in models that are ruled in by the new effective terms.

  19. Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asorey, J; Garcia-Alvarez, D

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin three gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.

  20. Symplectic gauge fields and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Asorey; M. Asorey; D. Garcia-Alvarez

    2015-11-02

    The dynamics of symplectic gauge fields provides a consistent framework for fundamental interactions based on spin three gauge fields. One remarkable property is that symplectic gauge fields only have minimal couplings with gravitational fields and not with any other field of the Standard Model. Interactions with ordinary matter and radiation can only arise from radiative corrections. In spite of the gauge nature of symplectic fields they acquire a mass by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism which generates Higgs-like mass terms where the gravitational field is playing the role of a Higgs field. Massive symplectic gauge fields weakly interacting with ordinary matter are natural candidates for the dark matter component of the Universe.

  1. Towards a 'Thermodynamics' of Active Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sho C. Takatori; John F. Brady

    2014-11-21

    Self-propulsion allows living systems to display unusual collective behavior. Unlike passive systems in thermal equilibrium, active matter systems are not constrained by conventional thermodynamic laws. A question arises however as to what extent, if any, can concepts from classical thermodynamics be applied to nonequilibrium systems like active matter. Here we use the new swim pressure perspective to develop a simple theory for predicting phase separation in active matter. Using purely mechanical arguments we generate a phase diagram with a spinodal and critical point, and define a nonequilibrium chemical potential to interpret the "binodal." We provide a generalization of thermodynamic concepts like the free energy and temperature for nonequilibrium active systems. Our theory agrees with existing simulation data both qualitatively and quantitatively and may provide a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of nonequilibrium active systems.

  2. Unified Description of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Petry

    2008-11-09

    Dark energy in the universe is assumed to be vacuum energy. The energy-momentum of vacuum is described by a scale-dependent cosmological constant. The equations of motion imply for the density of matter (dust) the sum of the usual matter density (luminous matter) and an additional matter density (dark matter) similar to the dark energy. The scale-dependent cosmological constant is given up to an exponent which is approximated by the experimentally decided density parameters of dark matter and dark energy. This yields that dark matter is one third of dark energy for all times implying an explanation of the coincidence of dark matter and dark energy. In the final state, the universe becomes dark, consisting of dark matter and dark energy.

  3. Oxidation of atmospheric organic carbon : interconnecting volatile organic compounds, intermediate-volatility organic compounds, and organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, James Freeman

    2015-01-01

    .Organic molecules have many important roles in the atmosphere, acting as climate and biogeochemical forcers, and in some cases as toxic pollutants. The lifecycle of atmospheric organic carbon is extremely complex, with ...

  4. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingers, Robert H.

    1976-01-01

    of businesses and marriages, and (2) failure rates of variously structured intentional communities. Both tests support the hypothesis that communal organizations, which permit structural freewheeling, are more stable than formal organizations, which donot....

  5. The Effects of Ozone Deposition and Dissolved Organic Matter on Manganese Speciation in the Surface Ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Alison Michelle

    2014-07-31

    Despite the known reactivity of ozone (O_(3)) in water and ozone’s environmental importance in the atmosphere, there are relatively few studies published examining the chemistry of O_(3) in seawater. This study focused on ...

  6. Models of soil organic matter decomposition: the SoilR package, version 1.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra, C. A; Muller, M.; Trumbore, S. E

    2012-01-01

    m-2)",xlab="Time (years)", lwd=2) lines(times, CtBare[,1],2"), lty=c(1,2,3),col=c(1,1,2),lwd=c(2,1,2), bty="n") If the

  7. Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulleman, M M; Six, J; van Breemen, N; Jongmans, A G

    2005-01-01

    and arable soil: a study using pyrolysis techniques. Soilsame soils by Nierop et al. (2001). Using pyrolysis GC/MS,

  8. Predicting pyrogenic organic matter mineralization from its initial properties and implications for carbon management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    for carbon management Thea Whitman, Kelly Hanley, Akio Enders, Johannes Lehmann Department of Crop and Soil to higher pyrolysis temperatures is more stable. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction combustion or pyrolysis (Bird and Ascough, 2012). While PyC can be degraded both chemically and biologically

  9. Characterization of organic matter in the Oligocene (Chattian) turbiditic fine grained deposits, offshore Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is discontinuous and produces layers of sediment in which OM quantity, type and diagenesis are heterogeneous (Cowie

  10. Molecular Level Characterization and Mobility of Radionuclide-Carrying Natural Organic Matter in Aquatic Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Chen

    2012-10-19

    reactor accident (1986, ~1.3 kg); ____________ This dissertation follows the style of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2 has been overwhelmed by anthropogenic release, which included atmospheric bomb atmospheric release by the Hanford nuclear... facility in Washington (1944-1972, ~260 kg); fuel reprocessing releases from facilities in La Hague in France and Sellafield in England (~2600 kg) to the ocean and about a decade ago, ~ 6 kg/yr to the atmosphere (Santschi and Schwehr, 2004). From 1944...

  11. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  12. Organic matter added to bareroot nursery beds influences soil properties and morphology of Fraxinus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Natural Resources, 715 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; *Author for correspondence (e rose with addition of 67 t haÀ1 of peat, sludge and bark and 43 t haÀ1 of sawdust (1.2 cm amended

  13. FIA-12-0060- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 1, 2012, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy...

  14. Global-scale variations of the ratios of carbon to phosphorus in exported marine organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teng, YC; Primeau, FW; Moore, JK; Lomas, MW; Martiny, AC; Martiny, AC

    2014-01-01

    in the Community Earth System Model CESM1(BGC): Comparisonand climate. Present Earth System Models (which assume fixed

  15. A Spatial Deconvolution of Molecular Signals in Oceanic Dissolved Organic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meador, Travis B

    2008-01-01

    subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1595-the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature 388: Karl, D. ,central equatorial Pacific Ocean, 1992: Daily and finescale

  16. Impacts of Natural Organic Matter on Perchlorate Removal by an Advanced Reduction Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Yuhang

    2012-10-19

    reductants (e.g. sulfite) with activating methods (e.g. UV light) in order to produce highly reactive reducing free radicals that are capable of rapid and effective perchlorate reduction. However, other compounds in a real system might inhibit or promote...

  17. A direct approach to quantifying organic matter lost as a result of peatland wildfire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    or biomass loss during fire or of changes in carbon emissions following fire in peatlands (Zoltai et al. 1998 combustion as well as post-disturbance ef- fects on biogeochemical processes directly involved in carbon than 20% of the emis- sions linked to global biomass burning. Many studies have recorded long

  18. INVESTIGATING ORGANIC MATTER-MINERAL INTERACTIONS AT THE MOLECULAR SCALE: AN INTEGRATED FIELD AND LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    with field site selections and sampling, as well as numerous valuable advice and enlightening discussions. I can still remember the days of digging soil pits in the Stroud watershed with Dr. Yoo and Dr

  19. FIA-12-0059- In the Matter of California Arizona Nevada District Organization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 31, 2012, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the California Arizona Nevada District...

  20. Impact of speciation on removal of manganese and organic matter by nanofiltration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Munari, Annalisa; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The removal of manganese and humic acid (HA) by two nanofiltration membranes, TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3, was investigated in order to highlight the influence of speciation on manganese and HA retention. Manganese speciation ...

  1. Organic Matter Decomposition: Interactions of Temperature, Moisture and Substrate Type Major Paper by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . Pine and hardwood litters, popsicle sticks, aspen and pine wood stakes were subjected to 4 temperature

  2. Structural stability of coprecipitated natural organic matter and ferric iron under reducing conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henneberry, Y.

    2013-01-01

    W. , 1989. Formation of goethite from ferrihydrite atferrihydrite, and goethite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Actaon the formation of goethite and hematite from ferrihydrite.

  3. FIA-12-0053- In the Matter of Arizona Nevada District Organization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 11, 2012, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the California Arizona Nevada District...

  4. Organic matter preserved in modern ooids from Shark Bay and the Bahamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Aimée L

    2013-01-01

    Ooids - small, concentrically laminated carbonate grains - are an important component of the sedimentary rock record, yet many details of their formation are not well understood. In particular, the role of microorganisms ...

  5. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    of natural and created marsh soils. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.2007. Freshwater Input Structures Soil Properties, VerticalS.S. , Hoover, K.L. 1996. Soil properties of reference

  6. Soil organic matter stability and the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Nancy Rosalind

    2012-11-29

    Soil respiration is an important source of atmospheric CO2, with the potential for large positive feedbacks with global warming. The size of these feedbacks will depend on the relative sensitivity to temperature of very ...

  7. Fractionation of Dissolved Solutes and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter During Experimental Sea Ice Formation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephanie 1990-

    2012-04-16

    concentrations were determined by Winkler titration using an autotitration system (Met- tler Toledo) with potentiometric equivalence point determination (Graneli and Graneli, 1991). Samples for oxygen determination were incubated in acid- washed and rinsed...

  8. Burial and decomposition of particulate organic matter in a temperate, siliciclastic, seasonal wetland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, Lisa Williamson

    2009-05-15

    vi Page CONCLUSIONS??????????????????????????.. 45 REFERENCES???????????????????????????. 47 VITA???????????????????????????????. 51 vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Norman Landfill Slough research site????????????.. 5 2 Average... monthly rainfall compared to average days of soil surface exposure???????????????????????? 6 3 Norman Landfill Slough water levels from spring 1996 to fall 2006... 7 4 Core description from Norman Landfill Slough????????... 16 5 The distribution...

  9. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER DURING A BLOOM ON THE WEST FLORIDA SHELF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    to equivalents of quinine sulfate and expressed in parts per billion (ppb). The total fluorescence was determined

  10. MEMBRANES FOR THE CONTROL OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER FROM SURFACE WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Joe

    , Boulder Reservoir Water; CHFP, chloral hydrate formation potential; Dalton, indicative of membrane pore, heterotrophic plate count; LSI, Langelier saturation index; MWCO, molecular weight cuto; MTBE, methyl tert.0), silt density index SDI ` 3), and Langelier saturation index LSI ` 0). A potential major role

  11. Sources and Fate of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the Arctic Ocean and Surrounding Watersheds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Sally Annette

    2012-10-19

    of the Canadian Archipelago, 17 % of the DOM pool is of terrestrial origin, even though waters are diluted with sea ice melt, suggesting the likelihood of a subsurface plume of tDOM entrained within river runoff from Arctic Rivers. In the interior Arctic...

  12. Temperature effects on decomposition rates of soil organic matter with differing proportions of labile and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    that the carbon dioxide loss from soil declines over time then picks up again after approximately15 years properties will change and thus their role as a carbon sink. This experiment uses forest soils since the microbial physiological properties change over long-term warming and if it is a result of a change in carbon

  13. Tracing global biogeochemical cycles and meridional overturning circulation using chromophoric dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    of the ocean, ultraviolet light penetration, and photochemical reactions that influence the cycling) within the top kilometer of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. However, a much weaker correspondence is found encompass all three ocean basins transecting the subtropics where satelliteretrieved surface ocean CDOM

  14. Colored dissolved organic matter dynamics across the shelf-basin interface in the western Arctic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    Ocean Ce´line Gue´guen,1,2 Laodong Guo,1,3 Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai,1,4 and Noriyuki Tanaka1,5 Received 14 Ocean were examined by three-dimensional excitation/emission matrix (3-D EEM) spectroscopy. CDOM and Beaufort Sea transects. Penetration of the high CDOM signal, formed on the shelves, into the Canada Basin

  15. Dissolved Organic Matter Cycling on the Louisiana Shelf: Implications for the Formation of Hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Li

    2012-02-14

    .44 ?1.01 2.40 ?1.64 Fluorescence 0.52 ?0.51 0.25 ?0.14 0.26 ?0.14 0.19 ?0.20 0.10 ?0.02 0.22 ?0.18 TSM (mg/L) 18.05 ?11.75 7.27 ?3.33 9.72 ?6.82 6.25 ?4.08 1.54 ?0.94 2.67 ?2.23 TDN (?M) ND ND ND 12.11 ?3.08 10....10 ?2.03 15.30 ?3.26 DOC (?M) 103.98 ?31.73 58.04 ?15.42 95.88 ?13.41 105.32 ?40.79 103.21 ?34.80 119.30 ?48.49 DON (?M) ND ND ND 7.44 ?3.40 7.42 ?2.28 8.11 ?3.51 DFAA (nM) 381.9 261.6 280.5 328.2 249.7 257.5 Table 2...

  16. Biomass combustion as a source of terrigenous organic matter to the coastal ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Kayce

    2012-04-12

    consumption (Elmquist et al. 2007; Griffin and Goldberg 1983; Kuo et al. 2011a; Wakeham et al. 2005). Such historical records are paramount to the efforts of climate modelers since they provide data against which the wide-scale distribution of BC emissions... the 20 th century. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 6786–6790. Brandenberger, J., G.A. Gill, E. Crecelius, P. Louchouarn, and L-J. Kuo. 2010. Study of atmospheric deposition of air toxics to the waters of Puget Sound: Year one data report...

  17. Combined dynamics of mercury and terrigenous organic matter following impoundment of Churchill Falls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falls Hydroelectric Reservoir, Labrador Roman Teisserenc · Marc Lucotte · Rene´ Canuel · Matthieu Moingt in the Churchill Falls Hydroelectric complex in Labrador, Canada. Lignin biomarkers in TOM, which exclusively

  18. A spatial deconvolution of molecular signals in oceanic dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meador, Travis Blake

    2008-01-01

    subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1595-the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature 388: Karl, D. ,in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature 388: Karl, D;

  19. A Lipid Biomarker Investigation of Organic Matter Sources and Methane Cycling in Alaskan Thaw Lake Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    in anoxic cold seep sediments”. PNAS. 11. 7663-7668.Cycling in Alaskan Thaw Lake Sediments A Thesis submitted inin Alaskan Thaw Lake Sediments by Mark Richard Williams

  20. Soil Organic Matter of Natural and Restored Coastal Wetland Soils in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elgin, Barbara K.

    2012-01-01

    year record of carbon sequestration from a coastal lagoonR.E. , Milarn, C.S. 2012. Carbon sequestration and SedimentJ.C. 2003. Global carbon sequestration in tidal saline

  1. Chemical Addition prior to Membrane Processes for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Fane, Anthony G.; Waite, T. D.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane processes for surface water treatment include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF), depending on the target material to be removed and the limiting process economics. MF will remove ...

  2. Supporting Organizations | National Security | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the following three organizations: Measurement Science and Systems Engineering Division Nuclear Security and Isotope Technology Division Computational Sciences and Engineering...

  3. Supporting Organizations | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Science Engineering Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Nuclear Science Home | Science & Discovery | Nuclear Science | Supporting Organizations SHARE Supporting...

  4. Melody Meyer: Organic Foods Distributor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    out. Farmer: Yes, with GMO [genetically modified organism]said that in some instances, GMO products can be better for

  5. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  6. A SM Singlet Scalar as Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tonatiuh Matos; Ricardo Lopez-Fernandez

    2014-03-20

    In this work we investigate the possibility that a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) can be the dark matter of the universe. We postulate the existence of a scalar field singlet like the Higgs as an extra term in the SM Lagrangian. We find that from the astrophysical point of view a very small mass and self-interaction is more convenient to agree with observations and from particle detectors observations we do not see any essential constrain to this settings. Thus, we conclude that a scalar field singlet with a small mass and self-interaction is a good candidate to be the nature of the dark matter.

  7. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3? by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}?

  8. Microscopic calculations in asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Alonso; F. Sammarruca

    2003-02-06

    A microscopic calculation of the equation of state for asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. We employ realistic nucleon-nucleon forces and operate within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach to nuclear matter. The focal point of this paper is a (momentum-space) G-matrix which properly accounts for the asymmetry between protons and neutrons. This will merge naturally into the development of an effective interaction suitable for applications to asymmetric nuclei, which will be the object of extensive study in the future.

  9. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mads T. Frandsen; Subir Sarkar

    2010-06-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino fluxes may be measurable by the Borexino and SNO+ experiments.

  10. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  11. Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-07-09

    The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP), is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, $m$, and gravitational, $m_g$, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no proof for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear -- current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits $-65 International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC).

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. Organizations | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout Events About Us

  15. Organizations | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout Events About Us

  16. FUNDING BY ORGANIZATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtrans -ORGANIZATION FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015

  17. FUNDING BY ORGANIZATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » Program ManagementAct FAQs RelatedInc.8ORGANIZATION FY

  18. Persistent Organic By Steven Jackson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Persistent Organic Pollutants By Steven Jackson #12;What are POP's? · POP's are organic compounds ¹,²- (Fungicide) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ¹,² (Industrial processes eg paint additives) Polychlorinated by accumulating in the body fat of living organisms and becoming more concentrated as they move from one creature

  19. Insect Controls for Organic Gardeners. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Kenneth R.; Turney, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    ................................................................... 9 Acknowledgments ...................................................... 10 References ............................................................. 10 INSECT CONTROLS FOR ORGANIC GARDENERS Kenneth R. Lewis and H. A. Turney* Interest in organic... gardening has increased in recent years. Organic gardening means enriching the garden soil with natural products (mulches, composts and animal manures) and controlling insects, diseases and weeds with cultural, mechanical and biological methods rather...

  20. Nuclear Organization and Genome Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corces, Victor G.

    Nuclear Organization and Genome Function Kevin Van Bortle and Victor G. Corces Department-range interactions and have proposed roles in nuclear organization. In this review, we explore recent findings for the roles of insulators in nuclear organization. 163 Annu.Rev.CellDev.Biol.2012.28:163-187.Downloadedfromwww