National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for organic inorganic resins

  1. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed

  2. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and ...

  3. SEPARATION OF INORGANIC SALTS FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzin, L.I.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1958-06-24

    A process is described for recovering the nitrates of uranium and plutonium from solution in oxygen-containing organic solvents such as ketones or ethers. The solution of such salts dissolved in an oxygen-containing organic compound is contacted with an ion exchange resin whereby sorption of the entire salt on the resin takes place and then the salt-depleted liquid and the resin are separated from each other. The reaction seems to be based on an anion formation of the entire salt by complexing with the anion of the resin. Strong base or quaternary ammonium type resins can be used successfully in this process.

  4. Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

    2011-03-29

    Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

  5. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  6. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  7. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  8. Directed Organization of Functional Materials at Inorganic-Macromolecu...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directed Organization of Functional Materials at Inorganic-Macromolecular Interfaces Research The purpose of this project is to develop a quantitative physical picture of...

  9. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josowicz, Mira A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

  10. Inorganic-organic composite polymers and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josowicz, M.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1996-10-29

    The invention is a composition of an inorganic-organic polymer composite and a method of making it. The inorganic portion of the fundamental polymer composite polymer repeat is a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound, and the organic portion of the polymer repeat is a cyclic organic radical anion compound having at least two charged sites. The composition of the present invention is made by combining a cyclic organic radical anion compound with a speciated inorganic heterocyclic compound by a nucleophilic substitution thereby forming a polymer of an inorganic-organic composite. The cyclic organic radical anion compound is preferably generated electrochemically. The nucleophilic substitution is alternately carried out chemically or electrochemically. A preferred embodiment of the present invention includes performing the nucleophilic substitution at the cathode of an electrochemical cell. 2 figs.

  11. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  12. Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Demonstrates self-catalytic schemes for large-scale synthesis of compound semiconductor ...

  13. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  14. Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demonstrates self-catalytic schemes for large-scale synthesis of compound semiconductor nanowire powders for inorganic-organic hybrid thermoelectric cells

  15. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS{sub 2}/WSe{sub 2}/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  16. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  17. Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Light Emitting Diodes | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Fabrication of Organic-inorganic Perovskites for Highly Efficient Solar Cells and Light Emitting Diodes January 19, 2016 at 4:30pm/36-428 Sandeep Pathak Oxford University Pathak The unprecedented worldwide interest in organic-inorganic lead halide-based perovskite (HC(NH2)2PbX3 or CH3NH3PbX3) solar cells is rooted in its solution process-ability at low temperature as well as its extraordinary device performance. Perovskite

  18. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  19. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  20. Elucidating the Complex Recombination Kinetics in Organic-Inorganic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trihalide Perovskites* | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Elucidating the Complex Recombination Kinetics in Organic-Inorganic Trihalide Perovskites* December 8, 2015 at 4:30pm/36-428 Dane de Quilettes University of Washington deQuilettes-2 Solution processed semiconductors are often plagued by performance limiting defects, surprisingly organometal trihalide perovskites (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3) have exhibited excellent photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies comparable to meticulously refined

  1. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  2. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-07-29

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

  3. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  4. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, Theodore (Berkeley, CA); Grens, II, Edward A. (Danville, CA); Holten, Ronald R. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  5. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  6. Hybrid polaritons in a resonant inorganic/organic semiconductor microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höfner, M. Sadofev, S.; Henneberger, F.; Kobin, B.; Hecht, S.

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrated the strong coupling regime in a hybrid inorganic-organic microcavity consisting of (Zn,Mg)O quantum wells and ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene) molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by an epitaxially grown lower ZnMgO Bragg reflector and a dielectric mirror deposited atop of the organic layer. A clear anticrossing behavior of the polariton branches related to the Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons, and the cavity photon mode with a Rabi-splitting reaching 50 meV, is clearly identified by angular-dependent reflectivity measurements at low temperature. By tailoring the structural design, an equal mixing with weights of about 0.3 for all three resonances is achieved for the middle polariton branch at an incidence angle of about 35°.

  7. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  8. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties.

  9. Inorganics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qureshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook is valuable when doing routine analysis or developing new methods of chromatography of organic materials. Section I presents the principles, techniques, quantitative determinations and detection methods used in chromatographic analysis. In the major part of the book, Section II summarizes data in voluminous tabular/graphic form on paper, thin layer, liquid and gas chromatography. Section III lists important books on electrophoresis, gel permeation chromatography, and ion exchange, in addition to the other forms of chromatography mentioned above.

  10. Surfactant-modified zeolites as permeable barriers to organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, R.S.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-10-01

    We have shown in laboratory experiments that natural zeolites treated with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) are effective sorbents for nonpolar organics, inorganic cations, and inorganic anions. Due to their low cost ({approximately}$0.75/kg) and granular nature, HDTMA-zeolites appear ideal candidates for reactive, permeable subsurface barriers. The HDTMA-zeolites are stable over a wide range of pH (3-13), ionic strength (1 M Cs{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+}), and in organic solvents. Surfactant-modified zeolites sorb nonpolar organics (benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorinated aliphatics) via a partitioning mechanism, inorganic cations (Pb{sup 2+}) via ion exchange and surface complexation, and inorganic anions (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) via surface precipitation.The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of surfactant-modified zeolite as a permeable barrier to ground water contaminants.

  11. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2007-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  12. Solid state radioluminescent sources: Mixed organic/inorganic hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Smith, H.M. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This concept brings a condensed source of tritium into close proximity with an inorganic phosphor. That source may thus become the equivalent of many atmospheres of tritium gas pressure. If both phosphor and tritium source material are optically clear, then a lamp's brightness may be made to scale with optical path length. Proof of principle of this concept has been demonstrated and will be described. A theoretical treatment is presented for the results here and for results from aerogel experiments. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Wendy Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Eiden, Anna; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2014-04-28

    Ultra-thin flakes of 2D organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 4} are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas are identified using optical and atomic force microscopy, with an interlayer spacing of 1.6?nm. Refractive indices extracted from the optical spectra reveal a sample thickness dependence due to the charge transfer between organic and inorganic layers. These measurements demonstrate a clear difference in the exciton properties between bulk (>15 layers) and very thin (<8 layer) regions as a result of the structural rearrangement of organic molecules around the inorganic sheets.

  14. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  15. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.; Diebold, James P.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  16. Elucidating the Complex Recombination Kinetics in Organic-Inorganic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    *This talk is part of the Perovskites Seminar Series organized by Sam Stranks and sponsored by the Center for Excitonics. For more info contact Sam Stranks: stranks@mit.edu

  17. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maverick, Andrew W

    2011-12-17

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  18. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals

  19. Atom probe tomographic mapping directly reveals the atomic distribution of phosphorus in resin embedded ferritin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Liu, Jia; Bartrand, Jonah A. G.; Dicken, Quinten G.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai Theva; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.

    2016-02-29

    In this study, we report the atomic-scale analysis of biological interfaces using atom probe tomography. Embedding the protein ferritin in an organic polymer resin lacking nitrogen provided chemical contrast to visualize atomic distributions and distinguish organic-organic and organic-inorganic interfaces. The sample preparation method can be directly extended to further enhance the study of biological, organic and inorganic nanomaterials relevant to health, energy or the environment.

  20. Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2013-07-01

    A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

  1. Organic-Inorganic Complexes Containing a Luminescent Rare Earth-Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocluster and an Antenna Ligand, Luminescent Articles, and Methods of Making Luminescent Articles - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Organic-Inorganic Complexes Containing a Luminescent Rare Earth-Metal Nanocluster and an Antenna Ligand, Luminescent Articles, and Methods of Making Luminescent Articles

  2. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  3. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  4. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  5. Crystal structure and catalytic properties of three inorganicorganic hybrid constructed from heteropolymolybdate and aminopyridine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Qian; Huang, Yilan; Peng, Zhenshan; Dai, Zengjin; Lin, Minru; Cai, Tiejun

    2013-04-15

    Three new organicinorganic hybrid compounds (2-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 3}(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})(C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 4}){sub 0.5}(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}N{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), (3-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 8}(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 8}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (2) and (4-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 6}(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}) (3) composed the heteropolymolybdate ?-H{sub 4}SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} and the organic substrate 2/3/4-aminopyridine have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by routine methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a three-dimensional supramolecular network via hydrogen bond and ?? stacking interactions. Compound 2 contains a tetramolecular water cluster which consists of four water molecules connected by hydrogen bonds. These compounds exhibit good thermal stability and photoluminescent phenomena. Compounds 1 and 3 are active for catalytic oxidation of methanol in a continuous-flow fixed-bed micro-reactor, when the initial concentration of methanol is 2.75 g m{sup ?3} in air and flow rate is 10 mL min{sup ?1} at 150 C, corresponding to the elimination rate of methanol i.e. 87.7% and 76.8%, respectively. - Three new Keggin type inorganicorganic hybrid frameworks were synthesized. Compounds exhibit an extended three-dimensional supramolecular network. Compounds 1 and 3 have better catalytic activity for eliminating methanol. Highlights: ? Three 3-D Keggin inorganicorganic hybrid frameworks were synthesized. ? The ?? stacking interactions are existed in Compounds 1 and 2. ? Compound 2 contains a tetramolecular water cluster connected by hydrogen bond. ? Compounds 1 and 3 are active in the catalytic oxidation of methanol into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  6. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino; Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a meringue type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the meringue approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo; Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  8. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?C as compared with 175?C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?C.

  9. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  10. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Brent J.; Zhang, Yaping; Zuo, Xiaochen; Martinez, Raul E.; Walker, Michael J.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-11

    Here, atmospheric aerosol composition is often analyzed using thermal desorption techniques to evaporate samples and deliver organic or inorganic molecules to various designs of detectors for identification and quantification. The organic aerosol (OA) fraction is composed of thousands of individual compounds, some with nitrogen- and sulfur-containing functionality and, often contains oligomeric material, much of which may be susceptible to decomposition upon heating. Here we analyze thermal decomposition products as measured by a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) capable of separating thermal decomposition products from thermally stable molecules. The TAG impacts particles onto a collection and thermal desorption (CTD) cell, and upon completionmore » of sample collection, heats and transfers the sample in a helium flow up to 310 °C. Desorbed molecules are refocused at the head of a gas chromatography column that is held at 45 °C and any volatile decomposition products pass directly through the column and into an electron impact quadrupole mass spectrometer. Analysis of the sample introduction (thermal decomposition) period reveals contributions of NO+ (m/z 30), NO2+ (m/z 46), SO+ (m/z 48), and SO2+ (m/z 64), derived from either inorganic or organic particle-phase nitrate and sulfate. CO2+ (m/z 44) makes up a major component of the decomposition signal, along with smaller contributions from other organic components that vary with the type of aerosol contributing to the signal (e.g., m/z  53, 82 observed here for isoprene-derived secondary OA). All of these ions are important for ambient aerosol analyzed with the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), suggesting similarity of the thermal desorption processes in both instruments. Ambient observations of these decomposition products compared to organic, nitrate, and sulfate mass concentrations measured by an AMS reveal good correlation, with improved correlations for OA when compared to the AMS

  11. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  12. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  13. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  14. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  15. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Lee, Denise L; Taylor, Paul Allen; Collins, Robert T; Hunt, Rodney Dale

    2010-09-01

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance

  17. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  18. Spatially separated charge densities of electrons and holes in organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dan; Liang, Chunjun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huimin; You, Fangtian; He, Zhiqun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Chunxiu

    2015-02-21

    Solution-processable methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites exhibit remarkable high-absorption and low-loss properties for solar energy conversion. Calculation from density functional theory indicates the presence of non-equivalent halogen atoms in the unit cell because of the specific orientation of the organic cation. Considering the ?100? orientation as an example, I{sub 1}, one of the halogen atoms, differs from the other iodine atoms (I{sub 2} and I{sub 3}) in terms of its interaction with the organic cation. The valance-band-maximum (VBM) and conduction-band-minimum (CBM) states are derived mainly from 5p orbital of I{sub 1} atom and 6p orbital of Pb atom, respectively. The spatially separated charge densities of the electrons and holes justify the low recombination rate of the pure iodide perovskite. Chlorine substitution further strengthens the unique position of the I{sub 1} atom, leading to more localized charge density around the I{sub 1} atom and less charge density around the other atoms at the VBM state. The less overlap of charge densities between the VBM and CBM states explains the relatively lower carrier recombination rate of the iodine-chlorine mixed perovskite. Chlorine substitution significantly reduces the effective mass at a direction perpendicular to the Pb-Cl bond and organic axis, enhancing the carrier transport property of the mixed perovskite in this direction.

  19. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sena, Rennio F. de Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-09-15

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  20. Assembly of three organicinorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1?-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4?-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UVvis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metalorganic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 13-CPE and magnetic properties of 13 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. 3 shows unusual layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6

  1. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  2. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  3. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  4. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in hybrid organic-inorganic film of chitosan/sol-gel/carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Xinhuang; Wang, Jun; Tang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-04-15

    A hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite film of chitosan/sol-gel/multi-walled carbon nanotubes was constructed for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Direct electron transfer (DET) and bioelectrocatalysis of HRP incorporated into the composite film were investigated. The results indicate that the film can provide a favorable microenvironment for HRP to perform DET on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes with a pair of quasi-reversible redox waves and to retain its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide.

  5. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu Shao, Jinyou; Wang, Yushu

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  6. Semivolatile organic (GC-MS) and inorganic analyses of groundwater samples during the hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) field test in Visalia, CA, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarappa, M; Knauss, K G; Kumamoto, G; Leif, R N; Newmark, R L

    1998-02-05

    Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) is a novel, in situ, thermal-remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely oxidize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed during the summer of 1997 at the Southern California Edison Pole Yard in Visalia, California, a site contaminated with creosote. The goal of the field experiment was to confirm the success of HPO under field remediation conditions. The groundwater was heated by steam injections, and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. The progress of the HPO remediation process was evaluated by monitoring groundwater from multiple wells for dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic contaminant levels. Analyses of groundwater chemistry allowed us to measure the concentrations of creosote components and to identify oxygenated intermediates produced by the HPO treatment. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections because of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of phenols and benzoic acid were measured in wells affected by the steam injections. Concentrations of other oxygenated compounds (i.e., fluorenone, anthrone, and 9,10-anthracenedione) increased in response to the steam injections. The production of these partially oxidized compounds is consistent with the aqueous-phase HPO reactions of creosote. Additional changes in the groundwater in response to steam injection were also consistent with the groundwater HPO chemistry. A drop in dissolved oxygen was observed in the aquifer targeted for the steam injections, and isotope shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool reflected the input of oxidized carbon derived from the creosote carbon.

  7. Multi-scale Detection of Organic and Inorganic Signatures Provides Insights into Gas Shale Properties and Evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, S.; Horsfield, B; Schultz, H; Schreiber, A; Wirth, R; Thi AnhVu, T; Perssen, F; Konitzer, S; Volk, H; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Organic geochemical analyses, including solvent extraction or pyrolysis, followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, are generally conducted on bulk gas shale samples to evaluate their source and reservoir properties. While organic petrology has been directed at unravelling the matrix composition and textures of these economically important unconventional resources, their spatial variability in chemistry and structure is still poorly documented at the sub-micrometre scale. Here, a combination of techniques including transmission electron microscopy and a synchrotron-based microscopy tool, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, have been used to characterize at a multiple length scale an overmature organic-rich calcareous mudstone from northern Germany. We document multi-scale chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities within the sample, from the millimetre down to the nanometre-scale. From the detection of different types of bitumen and authigenic minerals associated with the organic matter, we show that the multi-scale approach used in this study may provide new insights into gaseous hydrocarbon generation/retention processes occurring within gas shales and may shed new light on their thermal history.

  8. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  9. Resinous binders for coal and chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic-inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with T{sub c}{approx}21 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Elvira M. Bellitto, Carlo; Gomez Garcia, Carlos J. Righini, Guido

    2008-05-15

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni{sub 2}[(NDI-BP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl{sub 2}. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 A. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at T{sub c}{approx}21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound. - Graphical abstract: A new layered hybrid organic-inorganic Ni(II) N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)-naphthalene 1,4:5,8 tetracarboxydiimide complex has been synthesized and characterized. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and at different fields show that the compound is magnetically ordered below T{sub c}{approx}21 K.

  11. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  12. Epoxy resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Glenn R.; Salyer, Ival O.; Ball, III, George L.

    1976-07-13

    By mixing one part of a prepolymer containing a polyamine partially polymerized with an organic epoxide and subsequently reacted with a fatty acid containing from 8 to 32 carbon atoms, and then reacting this prepolymer mixture with 3 parts of an organic epoxide, a composition was obtained which made a gas frothable, shear-stable, room temperature curing, low density foam. A particularly advantageous prepolymer was prepared using a polyamine selected from the group consisting of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine, partially polymerized with an organic epoxide having an average molecular weight of about 350 and having an epoxide equivalent of 185 to 192, and reacted with 2-10 weight percent linoleic acid. When one part of this prepolymer was reacted with about three parts of epoxy, and frothed by whipping in air or nitrogen an epoxy foam was produced which could be troweled onto surfaces and into corners or crevices, and subsequently cured, at near ambient temperature, to a strong dimensionally stable foam product.

  13. Chemical Control of Charge Trapping and Charge Transfer Processes at the Organic-Inorganic Interface within Quantum Dot-Organic Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Emily A.

    2015-11-06

    Within the research program funded through the Early Career Research Award we designed complexes of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and organic molecules in which the interfacial chemistry controls the electronic structure and dynamics of the excitonic state of the QD. The program included two main projects; (1) investigation of the mechanisms by which organic surfactants control the quantum confinement of excitonic charge carriers; and (2) development of models for electron transfer between QDs and adsorbed molecules as a function of interfacial chemistry. This project was extremely successful in that our achievements in those two areas addressed the great majority of questions we outlined in the original proposal and answered questions I did not think to ask in that original proposal. Our work led to the discovery of “exciton delocalizing ligands”, which change the electronic structure of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals by altering, with small synthetic modifications to their surfaces, their most defining characteristic – the quantum confinement of their excited states. It also led to detailed, quantitative descriptions of how the surface chemistry of a QD dictates, thermodynamically and kinetically, the probability of exchange of electrons between the QD and a small molecule. We used two of the three major techniques in the proposal (transient photoluminescence and transient absorption). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence was also proposed, but was too technically difficult with these systems to be useful. Instead, NMR spectroscopy emerged as a major analytical tool in our studies. With the fundamental advancements we made with this project, we believe that we can design QDs to be the next great class of visible-light photocatalysts.

  14. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  15. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  17. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  18. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  19. Resin Wafer Electrodeionization Technology Reduces the Cost of Clean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Chemicals, and Industrial Process Water - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Resin Wafer Electrodeionization Technology Reduces the Cost of Clean Energy, Chemicals, and Industrial Process Water Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Figure 1. Argonne&#39;s patented resin wafer electrodeionization technology allows for the continuous removal of charged products like organic acids from

  20. Neutron powder diffraction study of the layer organic-inorganic hybrid iron(II) methylphosphonate-hydrate, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Philippe Bellitto, Carlo; Bauer, Elvira M.; Righini, Guido; Andre, Gilles; Bouree, Francoise

    2008-11-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the hybrid organic-inorganic layer compound Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] have been studied by neutron powder diffraction as a function of temperature down to 1.5 K. The neutron diffraction pattern recorded at 200 K shows that the fully deuterated compound crystallizes in one of the two known forms of the undeuterated Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)]. The crystal structure is orthorhombic, space group Pmn2{sub 1}, with the following unit-cell parameters: a=5.7095(1) A, b=8.8053(3) A and c=4.7987(1) A; Z=2. The crystal structure remains unchanged on cooling from 200 to 1.5 K. Moreover, at low temperature, Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] shows a commensurate magnetic structure (k=(0,0,0)). As revealed by bulk susceptibility measurements on Fe[(CH{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O)], the magnetic structure corresponds to a canted antiferromagnet with a critical temperature T{sub N}=25 K. Neutron powder diffraction reveals that below T{sub N}=23.5 K the iron magnetic moments in Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)] are antiferromagnetically coupled and oriented along the b-axis, perpendicular to the inorganic layers. No ferromagnetic component is observable in the neutron powder diffraction experiment, due to its too small value (<0.1{mu}{sub B}). - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and magnetic structure of Fe[(CD{sub 3}PO{sub 3})(D{sub 2}O)].

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  3. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  4. Results of sediment and water sampling for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide analysis at recreation areas and water intakes -- Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Lakes. Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-10-01

    Suspected water quality contamination in Watts Bar Reservoir as a result of activities in past decades at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge facility is of public concern. DOE, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the State of Tennessee, and other agencies and officials have received many inquiries from the public in recent years concerning this suspected pollution, especially how this potential contamination may affect the health and safety of those persons who use beaches in the area for swimming or other water-body-contact sports. As a result of these concerns, TVA conducted a study in May and June 1991 to obtain data on potential contaminants of concern in the water and sediment of Watts Bar Reservoir. TVA collected water and sediment samples at a total of 29 sites, including 18 recreation areas and 11 water intake locations, located throughout Norris, Melton Hill, and Watts Bar Reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds which could pose a threat to human health.

  5. Chromatography resin support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  6. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation

  7. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  8. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  9. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  10. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  11. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  12. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

    1994-06-07

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

  13. Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Yi, Ye; Yu, Qiang

    1994-01-01

    A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

  14. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-12-17

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

  15. Fermentative process for making inorganic nanoparticles (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative process for making inorganic nanoparticles Title: Fermentative process for making inorganic nanoparticles A method for producing mixed metal oxide compounds includes ...

  16. Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes A theoretical model simulating ...

  17. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  18. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  19. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  20. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  1. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  2. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  3. Method for loading resin beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notz, Karl J.; Rainey, Robert H.; Greene, Charles W.; Shockley, William E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Inorganic chemical composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsInorganic chemical composition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Inorganic chemical composition The chemical composition of an aerosol, with the exception of those with hydrocarbons, and usually including carbides, oxides of carbon, metallic carbonates, carbon sulfur compounds, and carbon nitrogen compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is

  5. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Isy; Ross, Debra A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xian-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2010-08-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  6. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  7. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Brice{hacek over }o, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  8. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  9. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-01-14

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

  10. Selective Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perchlorate [(CIO{sub 4}{sup -})] from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, B.

    1999-05-20

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a novel bifunctional anion exchange resin for the cost-effective, in situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}). Both laboratory and field studies were performed to determine the selectivity and capacity of the bifunctional synthetic resins to sorb ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from simulated or actual contaminated groundwater. A number of synthetic bifunctional resins, including two commercial versions made by Purolite International and three commercially available, mono-functional resins, were tested. Initial laboratory batch and column breakthrough studies determined the best synthetic resins and the optimal conditions for the field experiment. Laboratory results indicated that the bifunctional synthetic resins, D-3696 and RO-02-119 were highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed {approx}5 times better than the best commercial nitrate resin (Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than some nonselective commercial resins (e.g. Amberlite{reg_sign} IRA-900). The bifunctional resins were particularly effective in removing trace quantities of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater to below the detection limit ({approx} 3 {micro}g/L). A field trial demonstrated that the bifunctional resin (D-3696) was able to treat {approx} 110,000 bed volumes of groundwater before a 10% breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred under the column flow-through conditions (running at {approx} 2 bed volumes per minute). On the other hand, the Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E resin was able to treat {approx} 23,000 bed volumes of groundwater under the same experimental conditions. No pretreatment was needed to remove either dissolved organic matter or other competing anions (such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) in the groundwater, and the treatment process did not alter the water quality by removing or adding secondary by-products because of the high selectivity of the

  11. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael P.; Snyder, Seth W.; St. Martin, Edward; Arora, Michelle; de la Garza, Linda

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  12. The many faces of ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutty, J.T.

    1997-06-01

    Ion-exchange resins have been used commercially for over 60 years. Softening and demineralization of water for boiler feed and process use were then, and continue to be, the most familiar and widespread applications of ion-exchange resins throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Several types of membrane-based technologies, such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis and, more recently, electrodeionization are recognized as alternative methods for water treatment. Yet, modern versions of ion-exchange resins remain a major player in water treatment. In addition, these versatile materials can be found performing a wide range of tasks in both aqueous and nonaqueous environments. Some of these diverse applications include: acid or base catalysis; manufacture of high-purity solvents and reagent chemicals; separation of by-products of fermentation processes; deacidification of organic solvents; high-purity water production for semiconductor manufacture; recovery of valuable waste from dilute process effluents; controlled release of pharmaceutical products; and chromatography, both on the analytical and the industrial scale. The key to understanding the potential of ion-exchange resins is to look beyond their exchange and adsorptive characteristics, and to see their fundamental nature. In other words, it`s necessary to first consider them as spherical, particulate reactive polymers that perform chemical reactions.

  13. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  14. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  15. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues ...

  16. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Nano-scale ...

  17. Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, I.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1990-10-01

    The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this paper is one possible solution to preserving the integrity of these solidified waste forms: the encapsulation of beaded anion exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground granulated blast furnace slag, Type I-II (mixed) portland cement, and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the study reported herein show the cured waste form tested has a low leach rate for nitrate ion from the resin (and a low leach rate is inferred for Tc-99) and acceptable durability as assessed by the water immersion and freezing/thawing test protocols. The results also suggest a tested surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Ortho-ortho aramatic bis maleimide-diamine resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zupancic, J.J.; Swedo, R.J.; Jamieson, D.R.; Schumacher, E.F.; Buehler, A.J.

    1991-06-18

    APO-BMI is a chain-extended with certain diamines to provide thermosetting resins retaining the improved properties of APO-BMI resins, but having increased toughness in the cured resins.

  19. New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. The new resin was installed at the 100-DX ...

  20. New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RICHLAND, Wash. - A new resin EM, the Richland Operations Office, and contractor CH2M HILL ... The new resin retains more than 15 times the amount of chromium than previous resins. As ...

  1. 2D-network of inorganic-organic hybrid material built on Keggin type polyoxometallate and amino acid: [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alizadeh, M.H. Mirzaei, M.; Razavi, H.

    2008-03-04

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material based on polyoxometallate, [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O, has been successfully synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential thermal analysis techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c{sub ,} with a = 12.4938 (8) A, b = 19.9326 (12) A, c = 17.9270 (11) A, {beta} = 102.129 (1){sup o}, V = 4364.8 (5) A{sup 3}, Z = 4 and R{sub 1}(wR{sub 2}) = 0.0513, 0.0877. The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid can be described as two-dimensional inorganic infinite plane-like (2D/{infinity} [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-}) which forming via weak Van der Waals interactions along the z axis. The characteristic band of the Keggin anion [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-} appears at 210 nm in the UV spectrum. Thermal analysis indicates that the Keggin anion skeleton begins to decompose at 520 deg. C.

  2. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  3. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  4. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resins ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  5. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  6. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. John Gordon of LANL's Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry group guest edited the issue. The journal Inorganic Chemistry

  7. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. Aspects of inorganic chemistry related to nuclear energy. John Gordon of LANL's Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry group guest edited the issue. The journal Inorganic Chemistry

  8. Chemically stabilized ionomers containing inorganic fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit

    2013-12-31

    Ionomeric polymers that are chemically stabilized and contain inorganic fillers are prepared, and show reduced degradation. The ionomers care useful in membranes and electrochemical cells.

  9. Inorganic Membranes for Refinery Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to push the performance limits of inorganic membranes for large-scale gas separations in refinery applications.

  10. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  11. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  12. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  13. Resin Wafer Electrodeionization | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m3day pilot-scale water desalination system. Argonne's resin-wafer electrodeionization technology has been demonstrated in a 50-150 m3day pilot-scale water desalination system. ...

  14. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  15. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  16. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  17. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Gu, Baohua; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  18. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  19. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  20. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on COsub 2 Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on COsub 2 ...

  1. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  3. Screening combinatorial arrays of inorganic materials with spectroscopy or microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2004-02-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  4. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  5. Sulfur cathode hosted in porous organic polymeric matrices (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

  6. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, Jr., Thomas M.; Wells, Barbara J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  7. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  8. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve

  9. Nanomaterials: Organic and Inorganic for Next-Generation Diesel Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  10. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  11. Inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductor nanomaterials: (ZnSe)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    method in a ternary solution and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, ultraviolet-visible ...

  12. Nanomaterials: Organic and Inorganic for Next-Generation Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OFCVT). deer07vanderwal.pdf (6.56 MB) More Documents & Publications 21st Century Truck Partnership - Roadmap and Technical White Papers Appendix of Supporting ...

  13. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    remain before perovskite solar cells can become a competitive commercial technology. ... semiconductor applications, including thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes, ...

  14. applications Gozani, Tsahi 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DETECTION; HADRON REACTIONS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; NUCLEAR REACTIONS; NUCLEON REACTIONS; RADIATION DETECTION; RADIATION DETECTORS 400101* -- Activation, Nuclear Reaction,...

  15. Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Keyan [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China); Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

  16. Single Frequency Characterization of a Commercial Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, Isidor; Tuncer, Enis; Polizos, Georgios; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2009-10-01

    Electrical impedance measurement methods are extensively utilized to characterize dielectric materials. There are not many inexpensive commercially available measurement systems for low frequencies. In this paper an impedance measurement method using an electrometer is presented. The method can be employed for frequencies lower than 100 mHz. To illustrate the usefulness of the presented method, an epoxy resin is characterized and the influence of thermal aging is investigated.

  17. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  18. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  19. An inorganic capping strategy for the seeded growth of versatile bimetallic nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pei, Yuchen; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian -Wei; Brashler, Kyle; Gustafson, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Wenyu

    2015-09-11

    Metal nanostructures have attracted great attention in various fields due to their tunable properties through precisely tailored sizes, compositions and structures. Using mesoporous silica (mSiO2) as the inorganic capping agent and encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as the seeds, we developed a robust seeded growth method to prepare uniform bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells (PtM@mSiO2, M = Pd, Rh, Ni and Cu). Unexpectedly, we found that the inorganic silica shell is able to accommodate an eight-fold volume increase in the metallic core by reducing its thickness. The bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells showed enhanced catalytic properties and thermalmore » stabilities compared with those prepared with organic capping agents. As a result, this inorganic capping strategy could find a broad application in the synthesis of versatile bimetallic nanostructures with exceptional structural control and enhanced catalytic properties.« less

  20. Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huszagh, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

  1. Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huszagh, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including means for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

  2. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  3. Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamori, Naoki; Yokoi, Junji; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi

    1984-01-01

    Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

  4. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Brown; G. Matthern; A. Glenn; J. Kauffman; S. Rock; M. Kuperberg; C. Ainsworth; J. Waugh

    2000-02-01

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies.

  5. Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    southeast Washington state. The material, an ion exchange resin, is used in groundwater treatment systems to strip contaminants from the water-in this case, hexavalent...

  6. Assessment of the potential for refinery applications of inorganic membrane technology: An identification and screening analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, H.E.; Schulman, B.L.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial application of membrane technology in the separation of gas, liquid, and solid streams has grown to a business with worldwide revenues exceeding $1 billion annually. Use of organic membranes for industrial gas separation, particularly in the refining industry, is one of the major growth areas. However, organic membranes based on polymeric separation barriers, are susceptible to damage by liquids, and careful precautions must be taken to retain the system integrity. Researchers are currently developing small pore sized inorganic membranes which may substantially increase the efficiency and economics in selected refinery separation applications. Expected advantages of these advanced inorganic membranes include high permeability, high selectivity, and low manufacturing cost. SFA Pacific conducted a screening analysis to identify applications for inorganic membrane technology in the petroleum refining industry and their potential cost advantages over competing separation systems. Two meetings were held in connection with this project. Copies of Viewgraphs presented by SFA Pacific at these meetings are attached in Appendices A and C. Potential high priority applications and market impacts of advanced inorganic membrane technology in the refining industry are addressed in this report, and include the following areas: Competitive separation technologies; application of those technologies; incentives for inorganic membranes; market benefits and impacts of inorganic membranes.

  7. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1986-01-01

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  8. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  9. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  10. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowden, William L. (Nashua, NH); Dey, Arabinda N. (Needham, MA)

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  11. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jay Thatcher; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Glenn, Anne Williams; Kauffman, J.; Rock, S.; Kuperberg, M.; Ainsworkth, C.; Waugh, J.

    2000-02-01

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies. More specifically, the objectives of the workshop were to: · Determine the status of the existing baseline, including technological maturation, · Identify areas for future potential research, · Identify the key issues and recommendations for issue resolution, · Recommend a strategy for maturing key aspects of phytoremediation, · Improve communication and collaboration among organizations currently involved in phytoremediation research, and · Identify technical barriers to making phytoremediation commercially

  12. Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

  13. Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, William R.; Irvin, David J.; Irvin, Jennifer A.; Tarver, Edward E.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Wang, James C. F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

  14. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  15. 2007 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Gordon Research Conference-February 18-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreja Bakac Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-01-01

    This conference focuses on kinetic, mechanistic, and thermodynamic studies of reactions that play a role in fields as diverse as catalysis, energy, bioinorganic chemistry, green chemistry, organometallics, and activation of small molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, alkanes). Participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories present results and engage in discussions of pathways, intermediates, and outcome of various reactions of inorganic, organic, coordination, organometallic, and biological species. This knowledge is essential for rational development and design of novel reactions, compounds, and catalysts.

  16. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  17. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  18. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  19. PHOTOELECTROCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCATALYSIS IN NANOSCALE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Mallouk

    2007-05-27

    The goal of our DOE-supported research has been to explore the use of solid state materials as organizing media for, and as active components of, artificial photosynthetic systems. In this work we strive to understand how photoinduced electron and energy transfer reactions occur in the solid state, and to elucidate design principles for using nanoscale inorganic materials in photochemical energy conversion schemes. A unifying theme in this project has been to move beyond the study of simple transient charge separation to integrated chemical systems that can effect permanent charge separation in the form of energy-rich chemicals. This project explored the use of zeolites as organizing media for electron donor-acceptor systems and artificial photosynthetic assemblies. Layer-by-layer synthetic methods were developed using lamellar semiconductors, and multi-step, visible light driven energy/electron transfer cascades were studied by transient specroscopic techniques. By combining molecular photosensitizers with lamellar semiconductors and intercalated catalyst particles, the first non-sacrificial systems for visible light driven hydrogen evolution were developed and studied. Oxygen evolving catalyst particles and semiconductor nanowires were also studied with the goal of achieving photocatalytic water splitting using visible light.

  20. Viscoelasticity of Glass-Forming Materials: What about inorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Viscoelasticity of Glass-Forming Materials: What about inorganic sealing glasses?. ... Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics held June 8-11, 2015 in Costa Mesa, CA

  1. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. ...

  2. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  3. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  4. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  5. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  6. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  7. Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled silicone elastomers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled ... Publication Date: 2016-03-24 OSTI Identifier: 1236865 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  8. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W.; Roybal, Herman E.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  9. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  10. Affordable Resins and Adhesives From Optimized Soybean Varieties (ARA Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Richard WOol; Dr. X. Susan Sun; Rich Chapas

    2004-04-21

    The Mission of the ARA Program was to develop the Corporate Infrastructure to mass-produce new bio-based materials from Soybeans. The resins were integrated with the bio-fuels program. (1) to research, develop, and commercialize low cost adhesives and resins from soy oil and protein, the co-products of the soy bio-diesel process. (2) to study structure-functionality of soy oil and proteins at molecular and genomic levels

  11. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept that has been developed and tested on a limited scope for feasibility. From environmental as well as the economic viewpoints, it is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. During the reporting period, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991, the following progress has been made: (1) A batch mode screening procedure was developed to evaluate performance of candidate resins, relatively easily and quickly. (2) Using this procedure, screening experiments were carried out for IRA-68 (base case) and IRA-35 resins. From preliminary results, IRA-68 resin appears to perform better than the IRA-35 resin. Also, both the resins appear to maintain their SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ion capacity very well, up to 4 cycles.

  12. 2013 INORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (MARCH 3-8, 2013 - HOTEL GALVEZ, GALVESTON TX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.

    2012-12-08

    The 2013 Gordon Conference on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms will present cutting-edge research on the molecular aspects of inorganic reactions involving elements from throughout the periodic table and state-of-the art techniques that are used in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, metallobiochemistry, electron-transfer in energy reactions, polymerization, nitrogen fixation, green chemistry, oxidation, solar conversion, alkane functionalization, organotransition metal chemistry, and computational chemistry. The talks will cover themes of current interest including energy, materials, and bioinorganic chemistry. Sections cover: Electron-Transfer in Energy Reactions; Catalytic Polymerization and Oxidation Chemistry; Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Catalysts; Metal-Organic Chemistry and its Application in Synthesis; Green Energy Conversion;Organometallic Chemistry and Activation of Small Molecules; Advances in Kinetics Modeling and Green Chemistry; Metals in Biology and Disease; Frontiers in Catalytic Bond Activation and Cleavage.

  13. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  14. Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

    1998-12-01

    Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

  15. The effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex trademark HPQ, a new macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin, and on four conventional polystyrene anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    This study compares the effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex{trademark} HPQ, a recently available macroporous copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene, and on four conventional strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. The polystyrene resins investigated included one gel type, Dowex{trademark} 1 {times} 4, and three macroporous resins: Dow{trademark} MSA-1, Amberlite{trademark} IRA-900, and Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK. Each resin, in 7 M nitric acid, was subjected to seven different levels of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 1000 megarads. Irradiated resins were measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, chloride and Pu(IV) exchange capacities, and thermal stability. In separate experiments, each resin was subjected to approximately 340 megarads of in situ alpha particles from sorbed plutonium. Resin damage from alpha particles was less than half that caused by gamma rays, which may be a consequence of different production rates of radiolytic nitrite and nitro radicals in the two systems. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin provided the greatest radiation stability, whereas Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK was the least stable of the resins tested. Thermogravimetric analyses of dry, nitrate-form resin revealed that dry Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin offered the best thermal stability for absorbed gamma doses to 370 megarads, but the worst thermal stability after exposures of 550 megarads or more. 25 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Uranium Removal from Contaminated Groundwater by Synthetic Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Debra H.; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Parmele, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic resins are shown to be effective in removing uranium from contaminated groundwater. Batch and field column tests showed that strong-base anion-exchange resins were more effective in removing uranium from both near-neutral-pH (6.5)- and high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing ground waters, than metal-chelating resins, which removed more uranium from acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Y-12 S-3 Ponds area in Tennessee, USA. Dowex 1-X8 and Purolite A-520E anion-exchange resins removed more uranium from high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing synthetic groundwater in batch tests than metal-chelating resins. The Dowex{trademark} 21K anion-exchange resin achieved a cumulative loading capacity of 49.8 mg g{sup -1} before breakthrough in a field column test using near-neutral-pH (6.5)-low-nitrate-containing groundwater. However, in an acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater, metal-chelating resins Diphonix and Chelex-100 removed more uranium than anion-exchange resins. In 15 mL of acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater spiked with 20 mg L{sup -1} uranium, the uranium concentrations ranged from 0.95 mg L{sup -1} at 1-h equilibrium to 0.08 mg L{sup -1} at 24-h equilibrium for Diphonix and 0.17 mg L{sup -1} at 1-h equilibrium to 0.03 mg L{sup -1} at 24-h equilibrium for Chelex-100. Chelex-100 removed more uranium in the first 10 min in the 100 mL of acidic-(pH 5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater (5 mg L{sup -1} uranium); however, after 10 min, Diphonix equaled or out-performed Chelex-100. This study presents an improved understanding of the selectivity and sorption kinetics of a range of ion-exchange resins that remove uranium from both low- and high-nitrate-containing groundwaters with varying pHs.

  17. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practicalmore » methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.« less

  18. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practical methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.

  19. Epoxy foams using multiple resins and curing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.

  20. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  1. Process for loading weak-acid ion exchange resin with uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notz, Karl J.

    1976-01-01

    A method for loading ion exchange resins is described. The process comprises contacting a weak acid cation exchange resin in the ammonium form with a uranyl fluoride salt solution.

  2. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  3. Improved Organic Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics B4 Materials For Organic Semiconductor Applications, Including Molecular Electronics And Organic Photovoltaics University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2768B (Organic PV) Marketing Summary_1.pdf (146 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Traditionally, photosensitive optoelectronic devices such as solar cells have been constructed of a number of inorganic semiconductors. Purity and crystalline grain size are a large

  4. Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors ... milling system for preparation of electrodes for use in a solid state lithium-ion battery. ...

  5. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  6. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-03-10

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  7. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  8. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  9. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  10. An investigation of the radiolytic stability of a resorcinol- formaldehyde ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.; Bibler, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Radiolytic stability of a resorcinol-formaldehyde polycondensation-type cation exchange resin was investigated for up to lE09 rads total dose. The resorcinol-formaldehyde resin is a resin that has potential cesium decontamination applications at Pacific Northwest and Savannah River. We have determined both radiation and storage effects on performance of the resin using 101-AW Hanford simulant and ASTM Type-I water. Distribution coefficient determinations, total carbon analysis, and physical observations lead us to conclude that radiation up to lE08 rads does not significantly affect the performance of the resin. The resin is more stable to radiation in water than in 101-AW Hanford simulant. Also radiation or storage does not affect the thermal stability of the resin. Gas production rates for several resin slurries increased in the order of resin/101-AW Hanford simulant, resin/ASTM water, and resin/0.5 M HNO{sub 3}. H{sub 2} is produced from radiolysis of resin in 101-AW Hanford simulant with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.11 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/100eV and in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} with a G value of G(H{sub 2}) of 0.27 {plus_minus} 0.02 molecules/lOOeV.

  11. Release of organic chelating agents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic complexing agents from simulated decontamination resin wastes solidified in cement and vinyl ester-styrene. The simulated waste consisted of either mixed bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid, formic acid, simulated LOMI reagent or the LND-101A decontamination reagent. The standard procedure ANS 16.1 appeared to be adequate for determining a leachability index for organic acids for comparing the leach resistance of decontamination waste forms. Leachability indexes appeared to be specific for each organic acid. Further, the apparent diffusivities were generally less than those observed for Cs releases from cement wastes forms. The finder material and the composition of the simulated wastes affected the release of the reagents.

  12. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  13. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Colvin, Vicki L.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

  14. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

    1998-05-12

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

  15. Treatment of organic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  16. Amino resin modified polymer gels for permeability control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1989-03-07

    An aqueous cross-linked gel formed by a polysaccharide polymer, an aminoplast resin, and transitional metal ions is described, comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross-linkable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharide bipolymers and cellulose derivatives having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the polymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in a formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  17. Rheology Analysis of Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compacting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trammell, Michael P.

    2012-06-01

    The AGR-1 and AGR-2 overcoating and compacting method utilized a wet mixing process where liquid resin (Hexion Durite SC-1008) was blended with natural and synthetic graphite to produce a graphite/resin matrix for overcoating. The matrix production method specified in the scale-up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered resin and graphite are fed at the same time into a jet mill. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC-1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. Also, attempts to dry out matrix made with SC-1008 for use in the overcoating process at B&W had mixed results. The SC-1008 resin became tacky when dried which caused the matrix to build up inside the overcoater. The scale- up jet milling/mixing and overcoating processes required that a suite of solid or powdered resins be identified. Suitable resins candidates were down selected to two resins, specifically Plenco 14838 and Hexion SD-1708. These resins are referred to as novolac or two-stage resins because they require the addition of a curing agent such as hexamethylenetetramine (Hexa) to promote an increased level of cross linking. The overcoating matrix is made of 3 components; natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and resin. The most influential component of the compacting process is the resin component and how it behaves with regards to time, temperature, and pressure. The selected scale-up resins are considered fast curing which means that the increase in molecular weight (curing) occurs over a relatively short period of time, ranging from a few seconds to several minutes depending on the temperature. To find the optimal compacting conditions it is useful to quantify this behavior. In this report, rheology is used to investigate viscosity as a function of time at specific temperatures for the previously mentioned resins.

  18. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.; Bourne, Gary L.; McFee, John N.; Burdge, Bradley G.; McConnell, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  19. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  20. Next generation of PTFE resins for improved performance in CPI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libert, S.A.; Ebnesajjad, S.

    1999-11-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymers are well known for chemical resistance, low friction, dielectric constant, purity and broad temperature range. A second generation of granular PTFE resins has been specially designed to provide additional characteristics while maintaining all of the basic properties of PTFE. The new properties, which include resistance to permeation and creep, weldability, increased dielectric breakdown strength and smooth surface are reviewed in the following discussion.

  1. Ion Exchange Kinetics Testing with SRF Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site contains more than 53 million gallons of legacy waste generated as a byproduct of plutonium production and reprocessing operations. The wastes are a complex mixture composed mostly of NaNO3, NaNO2, NaOH, NaAlO2, Na3PO4, and Na2SO4, with a number of minor and trace metals, organics, and radionuclides stored in underground waste tanks. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted Bechtel National Incorporated (BNI) to build a pretreatment facility, the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP), that will separate long-lived transuranics (TRU) and highly radioactive components (specifically 137Cs and, in selected cases, 90Sr) from the bulk (non-radioactive) constituents and immobilize the wastes by vitrification. The plant is designed to produce two waste streams: a high-volume low-activity waste (LAW) and a low-volume high-activity waste (HLW).

  2. Injection repair of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite panels with bisphenol E cyanate ester resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thunga, Mahendra; Bauer, Amy; Obusek, Kristine; Meilunas, Ray; Akinc, Mufit; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Resin injection of bisphenol E cyanate ester, a low viscosity resin that cures into a high temperature thermoset polymer, is investigated as a reliable repair method to restore strength and stiffness in delaminated carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites used in aircraft panels. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of the uncured resin was measured to optimize the injection conditions for high resin infiltration into the delaminations. The repair efficiency of the resin was evaluated by varying the panel thickness and the method by which the delamination damage was created in the composite specimens. Ultrasonic scanning (C-scan), flash thermography images, and cross-section analysis of repaired panels revealed excellent resin infiltration into the damaged region. Evaluation of mechanical repair efficiency using both bending stiffness and in-plain compressive strength of the composite panels as the repair metrics showed values exceeding 100%.

  3. Turbine superalloy component defect repair with low-temperature curing resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, David W.; Allen, David B.

    2015-09-08

    Voids, cracks or other similar defects in substrates of thermal barrier coated superalloy components, such as turbine blades or vanes, are filled with resin, without need to remove substrate material surrounding the void by grinding or other processes. The resin is cured at a temperature under 200.degree. C., eliminating the need for post void-filling heat treatment. The void-filled substrate and resin are then coated with a thermal barrier coating.

  4. TREATMENT FOR IMPROVING THE OPERATION OF STRONG BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, P.C.

    1960-11-29

    A process is offered for improving quaternary ammonium type strongly basic anion exchange resins so that centain zinc and cadmium residues, which normally stick to and "poison" this type of resin, can be removed by elution. Specifically, the resin as obtained commercially is treated with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide of about 1 to 4 M concentration by heating therein and periodically adding small amounts of oxidizing agent selected from hydrogen peroxide, sodium peroxide and hypochlorite. Zinc and cadmium values may then be adsorbed onto the resin from a 0.1 to 3 M HCl and thereafter eluted therefrom with very dilute HCl solutions.

  5. DGEBF epoxy blends for use in the resin impregnation of extremely large composite parts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Madhukar, M. S.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-01-16

    Large superconducting electromagnets used in fusion reactors utilize a large amount of glass/epoxy composite for electrical insulation and mechanical and thermal strengths. Moreover, the manufacture of these magnets involves wrapping each superconducting cable bundle with dry glass cloth followed by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding of the entire magnet. Due to their enormous size (more than 100 tons), it requires more than 40 h for resin impregnation and the subsequent pressure cycles to ensure complete impregnation and removal of any trapped air pockets. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F epoxy resin cross-linked with methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride with an accelerator has been shownmore » to be a good candidate for use in composite parts requiring long impregnation cycles. Viscosity, gel time, and glass transition temperature of four resin-blends of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F resin system were monitored as a function of time and temperature with an objective to find the blend that provides a working window longer than 40h at low viscosity without lowering its glass transition temperature. A resin-blend in the weight ratios of resin:hardener:accelerator=100:82:0.125 is shown to provide more than 60h at low resin viscosity while maintaining the same glass transition temperature as obtained with previously used resin-blends, based on the results.« less

  6. DGEBF epoxy blends for use in the resin impregnation of extremely large composite parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhukar, M. S.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2015-01-16

    Large superconducting electromagnets used in fusion reactors utilize a large amount of glass/epoxy composite for electrical insulation and mechanical and thermal strengths. Moreover, the manufacture of these magnets involves wrapping each superconducting cable bundle with dry glass cloth followed by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding of the entire magnet. Due to their enormous size (more than 100 tons), it requires more than 40 h for resin impregnation and the subsequent pressure cycles to ensure complete impregnation and removal of any trapped air pockets. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F epoxy resin cross-linked with methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride with an accelerator has been shown to be a good candidate for use in composite parts requiring long impregnation cycles. Viscosity, gel time, and glass transition temperature of four resin-blends of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F resin system were monitored as a function of time and temperature with an objective to find the blend that provides a working window longer than 40h at low viscosity without lowering its glass transition temperature. A resin-blend in the weight ratios of resin:hardener:accelerator=100:82:0.125 is shown to provide more than 60h at low resin viscosity while maintaining the same glass transition temperature as obtained with previously used resin-blends, based on the results.

  7. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  8. ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

    2011-03-31

    The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

  9. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-07-02

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  10. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. )

    1991-09-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  12. All-inorganic Germanium nanocrystal films by cationic ligand exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we introduce a new paradigm for group IV nanocrystal surface chemistry based on room temperature surface activation that enables ionic ligand exchange. Germanium nanocrystals synthesized in a gas-phase plasma reactor are functionalized with labile, cationic alkylammonium ligands rather than with traditional covalently bound groups. We employ Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to demonstrate the alkylammonium ligands are freely exchanged on the germanium nanocrystal surface with a variety of cationic ligands, including short inorganic ligands such as ammonium and alkali metal cations. This ionic ligand exchange chemistry is used to demonstrate enhanced transport inmore » germanium nanocrystal films following ligand exchange as well as the first photovoltaic device based on an all-inorganic germanium nanocrystal absorber layer cast from solution. This new ligand chemistry should accelerate progress in utilizing germanium and other group IV nanocrystals for optoelectronic applications.« less

  13. Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, properties, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment, chemical recovery, separation, purification, catalysis, desalination, and ore treatment. Regeneration and disposal of ion exchange resins are also covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  15. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  16. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  17. Release of organic reagents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. The waste streams consisted of either mixed-bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent. These simulated resin wastes were solidified in either cement or vinyl ester-styrene. Samples were tested by a fixed interval leach procedure or according to the standard ANS 16.1 procedure. The leachability indices, which were calculated as prescribed in ANS 16.1, varied with leach period for some of the composites tested. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  18. High Performance Laminates Using Blended Urethane Resin Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Jones, George G.; Walsh, Sean P.; Wood, Geoff M.

    2005-03-24

    Hybrid blended resin systems have the potential to provide excellent impact performance in structured laminates. Although mostly under development for sheet molding compound (SMC) applications using glass fiber with high levels of fillers, the resins have been found to be useful in liquid molding applications with other high-performance fiber systems. A research pro-gram to develop the molding capability, property data, and capability to model the composites using newly de-veloped codes and modeling techniques was initiated through the Department of Energys Office of Freedom-Car and Vehicle Technologies. Results have shown ex-cellent adhesion to different fiber systems as evidenced by mechanical properties, and a capability to develop very good impact results thereby allowing thin panel structures to be developed. Comparison to predicted me-chanical properties has been achieved and mechanisms for the development of observed high energy absorption under impact loadings are being investigated. Scale ef-fects based on panel thickness, fiber type loading, and position in laminate are being investigated. DOE pro-gram sponsorship was provided by Dr. Sidney Diamond, Technical Area Development Manager for High-Strength Weight-Reduction Materials.

  19. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L.; Nichols, Sheldon T.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  20. Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional inorganic aerogels are mad via the hydrolysis and condensation of metal alkoxides. Recently, we reported the synthesis of organic aerogels based upon the aqueous polycondensation of (1) resorcinol with formaldehyde and (2) melamine with formaldehyde. The former materials can also be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form vitreous carbon aerogels. In both the inorganic and organic systems, the structure and properties of the dried aerogel are dictated by polymerization conditions. Factors such as pH, reactant ratio, and temperature influence the crosslinking chemistry and growth processes taking place prior to gelation. The ability to tailor the structure and properties of aerogels at the nanometer scale opens up exciting possibilities for these novel materials. This paper addresses the chemistry-structure-property relationships of organic aerogels. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  2. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  3. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  4. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  5. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  6. Non-magnetic organic/inorganic spin injector at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Shinto P.; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Naaman, Ron; Moshe, Hagay; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2014-12-15

    Spin injection into solid-state devices is commonly performed by use of ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Here, we present a spin injector design without permanent magnet; rather, the spin selectivity is determined by a chiral tunneling barrier. The chiral tunneling barrier is composed of an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that is deposited on top of a chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which consists of cysteine or oligopeptide molecules. The experimentally observed magnetoresistance can be up to 20% at room temperature, and it displays an uncommon asymmetric curve as a function of the applied magnetic field. These findings show that the spin injector transmits only one spin orientation, independent of external magnetic field. The sign of the magnetoresistance depends on the handedness of the molecules in the SAM, which act as a spin filter, and the magnitude of the magnetoresistance depends only weakly on temperature.

  7. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyman, J. N. Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41?S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f???2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  8. metals Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C. 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IGNITION; MIXTURES; PRODUCTION; REACTION HEAT; SPECIFIC HEAT; STABILITY Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Hierarchical Assembly of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Si Negative Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

  10. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ? The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ? The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ? PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ? The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.