Sample records for organic compound emissions

  1. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , acetone + propanal, dimethylsulfide, and m/z 109 (likely 4-methyl-phenol). The compounds with highest. Agricultural pro- cesses, notably animal operations, are no longer exempt from emission controls as a result with a pro

  2. A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions an abundant source of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). These emissions are known to vary in quantity and composition due to both biogenic and anthropogenic stressors. In this study, BVOC emissions from bristlecone

  3. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

  4. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  5. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, S. C.

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

  6. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL...

  7. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  8. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  9. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from stationary combustion sources: Numerical modeling capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kee, R.J.; Lutz, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative research program initiated to study the emissions of a wide variety of chemical species from stationary combustion systems. These product species have been included in the Clean Air act legislation and their emissions must be rigidly controlled, but there is a need for much better understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that produce and consume them. We are using numerical modeling study the chemical reactions and fluid mechanical factors that occur in industrial processes: we are examining systems including premixed and diffusion flames, stirred reactors and plug flow reactors in these modeling studies to establish the major factors leading to emissions of these chemicals. In addition, we are applying advanced laser diagnostic techniques to validate the model predictions and to study the possibilities of developing sophisticated sensors to detect emissions of undesirable species in real time. This paper will discuss the organization of this collaborative effort and its results to date.

  10. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  11. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  12. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  13. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss emissions lie somewherea contribution from running loss evaporative emissions. Asof diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss evaporative emissions

  14. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. R. , and Hao, W. M. : Emissions from forest fires nearM. O. and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsW. : Automo- bile Emissions of Acetonitrile: Assessment of

  15. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  16. Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    emissions associated with venting of fuel tank vapors as temperature increases during the day, running loss

  17. Analysis of C1, C2, and C10 through C33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    from heavy-duty diesel engines Z. Gerald Liu a,*, Devin R. Berg a , Victoria N. Vasys a , Melissa E 18 November 2009 Keywords: Organic compound emissions Particulate matter emissions Heavy-duty diesel engines Aftertreatment technology Diesel particulate filter Chemical speciation a b s t r a c t To meet

  18. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

  19. Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

    emission sources, SCE has identified and evaluated a number of alternative solutions and is currently implementing four demonstrations for promising technologies. The SCE program focuses on three major strategies: (1) reformulation, (2) application... is primarily a three-pronged approach, consisting of problem identification, alternatives evaluation, and technology demonstrations. For problem identification, the main thrust was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the California state and the South...

  20. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  1. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  2. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  3. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  4. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

  6. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a low cost, reliable system that would lead to early detection of lung cancer. Tests involved the quantitation of gaseous metabolic emissions from immortalized lung ...

  7. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  8. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  9. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  16. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  17. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  18. Adsorption -capacity data for 283 organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is a widely used method for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gases and other exhaust streams. This article presents a compilation of adsorption-capacity data as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The results are useful in engineering and environmental studies, and in the design of carbon-based adsorption systems to remove unwanted organic pollutants from gases. For vapor control, carbon-based systems typically combine a carbon-adsorption unit with a secondary control method to reclaim or destroy the vapors desorbed during carbon-bed regeneration. To remove organics dissolved in wastewater, air stripping is typically used to transfer the organics to a vapor stream. Carbon adsorption is then used to separate the organics from the stripper exhaust. Collected vapors can be recovered for reuse or destroyed, depending on their value.

  19. Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Mutolo, Kristin L. (Hollywood, CA); Mayo, Elizabeth (Alhambra, CA); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

  20. Field emission from organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

  1. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  2. Second-harmonic generation in transition-metal-organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, C.C.; Harvey, M.A.; Cockerham, M.P.; Hand, H.M.; Chauchard, E.A.; Lee, C.H.

    1986-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The second-harmonic generation efficiencies of over 60 transition-metal-organic compounds in powder form were measured, using 1.06 ..mu..m light from a Nd:YAG laser. Most of the studied compounds were either group VI metal carbonyl arene, pyridyl, or chiral phosphine complexes. Four the complexes doubled the laser fundamental as well as or better than ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP). The study shows that the same molecular features (e.g., conjugation and low-lying spectroscopic charge transfer) that contribute to second-order optical nonlinearity in organic compounds also enhance second-order effects in transition-metal-organic compounds.

  3. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  4. Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

  5. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  6. The Effect of Organic Compounds in Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 174 APRIL, 1915 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Effect of Organic Compounds in Pot Experiments POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS VON BOECK~UNN-JON&S CO ?? PRINTERS, AUSTIN, TEXAS... 19 15 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL A116-715-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 174 APRIL,. 1915 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Effect of Organic Compounds In Pot Experiments BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist in Charge; State Chemist...

  7. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  8. Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidized to nitrates. The direct study of the changes in organic matter or carbon in the soil is more satisfactory than any assumption. A considerable amount of work upon the oxidation of organic matter in the soil has been clone hy Wollny... cflpo8city, so the re1ati~-e power of the soil to support oxidizing organisms ma!r he termed its oxidafion cnpaciiy. The nitrif-ing capac- it" the oxidatioa capacity 'and the capacit~ of the soil to convert am- monia into nitrates and ammonia are to a...

  9. Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAUFFER, L.A.

    1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

  10. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  11. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  12. Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical Modification of Host Materials . Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...

  13. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Fehsenfeld, F. C. : Emission sources and ocean uptake ofand No- vakov, T. : Emissions of trace gases and particlesGroot, W. J. : Future emissions from Canadian boreal forest

  14. Hybrid inorganic-organic, organic charge transfer, and radical based compounds with chalcofulvalene donors and organic acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinheimer, Eric Wade

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HYBRID INORGANIC-ORGANIC, ORGANIC CHARGE TRANSFER, AND RADICAL BASED COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995 P A U L, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 µg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known

  16. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  17. Fiber optic micromirror sensor for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Buss, R. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the growing concern over environmental pollution, there is a need for sensors to locate and measure the distribution of a wide range of pollutants. In this paper the authors report a fiber optic sensor, based on a thin film micromirror, which responds to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This generic class of sensor will be useful for monitoring applications where the pollutant has already been identified.

  18. Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

  19. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  20. Process for removing an organic compound from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Kamaruddin, Henky D. (San Francisco, CA)

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from water is disclosed. The process involves gas stripping followed by membrane separation treatment of the stripping gas. The stripping step can be carried out using one or multiple gas strippers and using air or any other gas as stripping gas. The membrane separation step can be carried out using a single-stage membrane unit or a multistage unit. Apparatus for carrying out the process is also disclosed. The process is particularly suited for treatment of contaminated groundwater or industrial wastewater.

  1. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor vehicles are major sources of primary organic characterization of motor vehicle POA emissions in a roadway tunnel with a mass closure of >60%. The observed POA

  2. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms. Environmental Health Perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Farrington

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussng chemkal and geochemical aspects ofbiogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuckar aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food meb transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a nt source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly.

  3. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, a chemical sensor was developed which showed almost perfect selectivity to vapors of chlorinated solvents. When interfaced to an instrument, a chemical analyzer will be produced that has near- absolute selectivity to vapors of volatile chlorinated organic compounds. TRI has just completed the second of a 2-phase program to develop this new instrument system, which is called the RCL MONITOR. In Phase II, this instrument was deployed in 5 EM40 operations. Phase II applications covered clean-up process monitoring, environmental modeling, routine monitoring, health and safety, and technology validation. Vapor levels between 0 and 100 ppM can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.5 ppM using the hand-portable instrument. Based on the favorable performance of the RCL MONITOR, the commercial instrument was released for commercial sales on Sept. 20, 1996.

  4. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  5. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  6. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  7. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  9. anthropogenic organic compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agency inventory, and is consistent with field are poorly quantified in emission inventories, as shown by air quality studies in eastern Texas (Ryerson et al 2003, Parrish et...

  10. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Departments of Chemistry and Environmental and Molecular Toxicology

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  12. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  13. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

  14. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  15. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  16. 1. PRECONCENTRATION, THERMAL DESORPTION & ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : peltier, liq. N?.. Heated transfer line 2) Desorption & transfer by fastheatlng Cooled & heated trap jas trap. The trap is then quickly heated, under a low flow of hélium, to desorb and inject thé compounds. This highly concentrated plug of sample is transferred via a heated transfer line, to a capillary

  17. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  18. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, E. C.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

  19. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  20. Progress in Understanding Low-Temperature Organic Compound Oxidation Using a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Progress in Understanding Low-Temperature Organic Compound Oxidation Using a Jet-Stirred Reactor Lorraine, CNRS, ENSIC, BP 20451, 1 rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy, France Abstract The jet-stirred reactor compounds: rapid compression machines, shock tubes, and heated continuous flow reactors, such as flow tubes

  1. Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compounds; Groundwater management; Drinking water. Introduction Approximately one-half of the U and Hitt 2006 , or more complex process-based analyses utilizing groundwater models Eberts et al. 2005Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability

  2. Concentration of light organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption on bound silicalite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Kathryn Louise

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONCENTRATION OF LIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ADSORPTION ON BOUND SILICALITE A Thesis by KATHRYN LOUISE FLORES Approved...

  3. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  4. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  5. Clean process to destroy arsenic-containing organic compounds with recovery of arsenic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wang, F.T.

    1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction method is provided for the treatment of arsenic-containing organic compounds with simultaneous recovery of pure arsenic. Arsenic-containing organic compounds include pesticides, herbicides, and chemical warfare agents such as Lewisite. The arsenic-containing compound is decomposed using a reducing agent. Arsine gas may be formed directly by using a hydrogen-rich reducing agent, or a metal arsenide may be formed using a pure metal reducing agent. In the latter case, the arsenide is reacted with an acid to form arsine gas. In either case, the arsine gas is then reduced to elemental arsenic. 1 fig.

  6. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a deuterium enriched material by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the working material a gas phase photolytically dissociable organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom which is adjacent to a carbonyl group and consisting of molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as deuterium and molecules wherein said hydrogen atom is present as another isotope of hydrogen. The organic carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of the deuterium containing species to yield a deuterium enriched stable molecular product. Undissociated carbonyl compound, depleted in deuterium, is preferably redeuterated for reuse.

  7. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  8. Sources of organic aerosol investigated using organic compounds as tracers measured during CalNex in Bakersfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    to be mainly through gas-to-particle condensation of gas-phase oxidation products during the day. Our results) and provide insights into secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, positive matrix factorization analysis in the afternoon. Although contributions to SOA from oxidation of biogenic gas-phase compounds were less

  9. Absorption of organic compounds and organometallics on ceramic substrates for wear reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, P.J.; Agarwala, V.S. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of employing thermally stable compounds (that is, metal oxides) as high temperature vapor phase ceramic lubricants was investigated. A major part of this study was devoted to the development of various calorimetric and tribological techniques that could be used to determine interfacial reactions between thermally stable compounds and ceramic substrates such as zirconia and alumina. This interaction is pivotal in understanding the mechanism of high temperature lubricity. The approach consisted of selecting low sublimation temperature materials and measuring their thermodynamic interactions as vapors with the ceramic substrates. The materials studied included two easily sublimable organic compounds (that is, naphthalene and salicylic acid) and several organometallics (for example, copper phthalocyanine). Thermodynamic data such as heat of adsorption, packing density, and reversibility of the adsorption were obtained on some of these compounds and were related to wear characteristics. All of these compounds provided effective lubrication at room temperature. Copper phthalocyanine was an effective lubricant at temperatures up to 400 C.

  10. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  11. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  12. Deuterium enrichment by selective photoinduced dissociation of a multihalogenated organic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B. (Livermore, CA); Herman, Irving P. (Oakland, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for deuterium enrichment by photoinduced dissociation which uses as the deuterium source a multihalogenated organic compound selected from the group consisting of a dihalomethane, a trihalomethane, a 1,2-dihaloethene, a trihaloethene, a tetrahaloethane and a pentahaloethane. The multihalogenated organic compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation at a preselected wavelength to selectively excite and thereby induce dissociation of substantially only those molecules containing deuterium to provide a deuterium enriched dissociation product. The deuterium enriched product may be combusted with oxygen to provide deuterium enriched water. The deuterium depleted undissociated molecules may be redeuterated by treatment with a deuterium source such as water.

  13. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degree}C, 30 {degree}C, 40 {degree}C, and 50 {degree}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic salts, especially the succinate and caproate salts.

  14. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  15. Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity a b s t r a c t In this study, we examined the feasibility of membrane distillation (MD) for removing

  16. ARTIFACT FORMATION IN HIGH VOLUME SAMPLING OF VOC's AND SOLID ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    when sampling polluted air. Purified air containing 180 ppbv ozone seems to destroy PAH according Atmospheriques, Boite 7059, UNIVERSITE PARIS 7, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 PARIS Cedex 05 ABSTRACT Pollutants from well äs solid (SOC's) organic compounds. High volume samplers are commonly used m air quality

  17. Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

  18. Supporting Information1 Condensational Uptake of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Gasoline3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supporting Information1 2 Condensational Uptake of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Gasoline31A 0H3 Canada (now at Department of Chemistry,13 University of Christchurch, Canterbury 8041, New Zealand)14 15 For submission to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16 17 Revised Version: May 31, 201118 19

  19. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  20. Detection and Differentiation of Neutral Organic Compounds by [superscript 19]F NMR with a Tungsten Calix[4]arene Imido Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yanchuan

    Fluorinated tungsten calix[4]arene imido complexes were synthesized and used as receptors to detect and differentiate neutral organic compounds. It was found that the binding of specific neutral organic molecules to the ...

  1. Laboratory and field investigation of the adsorption of gaseous organic compounds onto quartz filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Corrigan, Craig E.; Novakov, T.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common method for measuring the mass of organic carbon in airborne particulate matter involves collection on a quartz filter and subsequent thermal analysis. If unaccounted for, the adsorption of organic gases onto quartz filters will lead to the overestimation of aerosol organic carbon concentrations (positive artifact). A recommended method of correction for the positive artifact involves sampling with a backup filter. Placed behind either the primary quartz filter, or behind a Teflon filter and collected in parallel with the primary quartz filter, the carbon content of the quartz backup filter is a measure of the adsorbed organic material on the primary quartz filter. In this paper, we illustrate the application of this technique to samples collected in Berkeley, California. While the tandem quartz filter method can be successfully applied to correct for the positive artifact, we discuss two cases when this method will fail. We have found that the capacity for adsorption of organic gases is not uniform for all filters. Instead, filters manufactured by the same company, but having different lot numbers, exhibit variable adsorption capacity. Thus, a filter pair composed of filters from different lots may lead to significant under- or overestimation of particulate organic carbon concentration. Additionally, we have observed that the tandem filter method under-corrects for the positive artifact if the sampling time is short (few hours). Laboratory experiments with vapors of single organic compounds corroborate results based on ambient samples. The evolution of adsorbed organic gases, particularly polar compounds, during thermal analysis indicates that a single compound may experience two distinct adsorbent-adsorbate binding energies. Adsorbed gases may co-evolve with particles at temperatures in excess of 250-degree C.

  2. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  3. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J. (3705 Creekside Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83404); Curry, Randy Dale (1104 Merrill Ct., Columbia, MO 65203); Clevenger, Thomas E. (2512 Bluff Blvd., Columbia, MO 65201); Golden, Jeffry (12612 Cedarbrook La., Laurel, MD 20708)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  4. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  5. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  6. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Thornberg, Steven Michael (Peralta, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  7. GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W.C. KEENE 3, D.S. LEE 4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS INVENTORIES OF ACID-RELATED COMPOUNDS T.E. GRAEDEL t , C.M. BENKOVITZ 2, W, and future rely in part on inventories of emissions constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales and the regulatory and policy communities. The production of global emissions inventories is the task of the GlobalEmissionsInventory

  8. Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor exposures to toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of general concern. Recently, VOCs in portable or relocatable classrooms (RCs) have received particular attention. However, very little was known about indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the sources, composition, and indoor concentrations of VOCs in RCs. This project task focused on developing and demonstrating a process for selecting interior finish materials for RCs that have relatively low impacts with respect to their emissions of toxic and odorous VOCs. This task was part of a larger project to demonstrate the potential for simultaneous improvements in IEQ and energy efficiency in four new RCs equipped both with a continuously ventilating advanced heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system (HVAC) and a standard HVAC system. These HVACs were operated on alternate weeks. One RC per pair was constructed with standard interior finish materials, and the other included alternate interior materials identified in our prior laboratory study to have low VOC emissions. The RCs were sited in side-by-side pairs at two elementary schools in distinct northern California climate zones. Classroom VOC emission rates (mg hr{sup -1}) and concentrations were predicted based on VOC emission factors ({micro}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) measured for individual materials in the laboratory, the quantities of installed materials and design ventilation rates. Predicted emission rates were compared to values derived from classroom measurements of VOC concentrations and ventilation rates made at pre-occupancy, eight weeks, and 27 weeks. Predicted concentrations were compared to measured integrated VOC indoor minus outdoor concentrations during school hours in the fall cooling season with the advanced HVAC operated. These measured concentrations also were compared between standard and material-modified RCs. Our combined laboratory and field process proved effective by correctly predicting that IEQ impacts of material VOC emissions would be minor when RCs were ventilated at or above code-minimum requirements. Assuming code-minimum ventilation rates are maintained, the benefits attributable to the use of alternate interior finish materials in RC's constructed by the manufacturer associated with this study are small, implying that it is not imperative to use such alternative finishing materials. However, it is essential to avoid materials that can degrade IEQ, and the results of this study demonstrate that laboratory-based material testing combined with modeling and field validation can help to achieve that aim.

  9. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrophobic organic compound sorption in natural sorbents and quantification of black carbon by electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Dave Ta Fu, 1978-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediments were investigated using pyrene. Native pyrene desorbed slowly, taking from weeks to months to equilibrate. The end-point data suggested that, at ...

  11. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

  12. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems These findings will help focus future research and development efforts on technology improvements

  13. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

  14. Supercritical CO2 extraction of organic compounds from soil-water slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brian Dean

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the characteristics of SCFs may This thesis is presented in the style and fromat of the A1ChE Journal. be altered to fit a specific need. Solvent regeneration can be achieved in one of two ways. One method is to flow the saturated SCF over an adsorbent bed... the contaminants were physically adsorbed onto soil or if there was a possibility that chemical adsorption was prominent. Isotherms for organic compounds on soil are often linear. In which case, the partition coefficients are simply the slope of the isotherms...

  15. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  16. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  18. Determination of iodine in organic compounds using low-temperature ammoniacal plasma of high-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volodina, M.A.; Kutseva, N.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method for the determination of iodine in organic compounds, based on the use of a low-temperature ammonial plasma of an electrodeless high frequency discharge. The method was tested on a large number of compounds, and is distinguished by simplicity of operation, rapidity, accuracy and applicability for simultaneous determination of iodine and palladium. The results of the simultaneous determination of iodine and palladium in organic compounds are shown. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 0.011. The duration of each determination is 15-20 min.

  19. Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

  20. Enhancing the emission directionality of organic light-emitting diodes by using photonic microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuyu; Turnbull, Graham A., E-mail: gat@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: idws@st-andrews.ac.uk; Samuel, Ifor D. W., E-mail: gat@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: idws@st-andrews.ac.uk [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)] [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report microstructured organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with directional emission based on efficient solution-processable europium-OLEDs patterned by solvent assisted microcontact molding. The angle dependence of the light emission is characterized for OLEDs with square-array photonic crystals with periods between 275?nm and 335?nm. The microstructured devices have emission patterns strongly modified from the Lambertian emission of planar OLEDs and can approximately double the emitted power in a desired angle range in both s- and p-polarizations. The modified emission is attributed to light diffracted out of the waveguide modes of the OLEDs.

  1. Geobacter strains that use alternate organic compounds, methods of making, and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek R; Summers, Zarath Morgan; Haveman, Shelley Annette; Izallalen, Mounir

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides new isolated strains of Geobacter species that are capable of using a carbon source that is selected from C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds selected from pyruvate or metabolic precursors of pyruvate as an electron donor in metabolism and in subsequent energy production. In other aspects, other preferred embodiments of the present invention include methods of making such strains and methods of using such strains. In general, the wild type strain of the microorganisms has been shown to be unable to use these C.sub.3 to C.sub.12 organic compounds as electron donors in metabolic steps such as the reduction of metallic ions. The inventive strains of microorganisms are useful improving bioremediation applications, including in situ bioremediation (including uranium bioremediation and halogenated solvent bioremediation), microbial fuel cells, power generation from small and large-scale waste facilities (e.g., biomass waste from dairy, agriculture, food processing, brewery, or vintner industries, etc.) using microbial fuel cells, and other applications of microbial fuel cells, including, but not limited to, improved electrical power supplies for environmental sensors, electronic sensors, and electric vehicles.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis separation of neutral organic compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, proteins and peptides, enantiomers, and anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, W.L.

    1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz[a]anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone. The effect of adding this new surfactant to the acidic electrolyte was also investigated. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the electrolyte is shown to dynamically coat the capillary and reverse electroosmotic flow. Chiral recognition mechanism is studied using novel synthetic surfactants as chiral selectors, which are made from amino acids reacting with alkyl chloroformates. A satisfactory separation of both inorganic and organic anions is obtained using electrolyte solutions as high as 5 M sodium chloride using direct photometric detection. The effect of various salts on electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility is further discussed. Several examples are given under high-salt conditions.

  3. Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 5, Nos. 3/4, 2000 Synthesis of Organic Compounds from Mixtures of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Plasmas and Polymers, Vol. 5, Nos. 3/4, 2000 Synthesis of Organic Compounds from Mixtures operation, due to surface modification processes (polymer film deposition, its oxidation or reduction gases; polymer films; dielectric-barrier discharge; organic synthesis. 1. INTRODUCTION The first

  4. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  5. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  6. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  7. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merk, Hans F. [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: hans.merk@post.rwth-aachen.de; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Department of Chemistry, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  8. Levels of nonpolar organic compounds in the Columbia Generating Station cooling pond. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andren, A.W.; Erickson, R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1970, plans to build a coal-fired generating station near Portage, Wisconsin and an interest by involved utilities in carrying out a preconstruction analysis of potential environmental changes created a unique opportunity for broadly based research on the impacts of coal-fired steam plants. Of particular concern to aquatic scientists are the potential problems associated with the 192-ha manmade cooling pond. The research presented in this report describes a survey of the types and levels of nonpolar xenobiotic organic compounds in sediments and fish from the cooling pond. Sediment and fish samples were analyzed for PCBs, Sigma DDT, and hexachlorobenzene using techniques developed at the Water Chemistry Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. It was hypothesized that polyaromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons would accumulate; however, results indicate that the microcontaminants do not concentrate in the cooling pond. Reasons for why there is no microcontaminant problem are presented.

  9. Spectrally Narrowed Edge Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Evidence for Amplified Spontaneous Emission and Mirrorless Lasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Tian; Zhengqing Gan; Zhaoqun Zhou; Ji-hun Kang; Q-Han Park; David W. Lynch; Joseph Shinar

    2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    p-Conjugated materials, including small molecules and polymers, are attracting substantial attention as novel gain media in semiconductor lasers; they offer many potential advantages not achievable with conventional inorganic semiconductors: simple processing, low cost, easy tuneability of the spectrum, and large-area integration on flexible substrates. Optically pumped lasing action in various small molecular and polymeric p-conjugated materials has been demonstrated using several resonator configurations. However, electrically pumped organic semiconductor lasers, i.e., organic injection or diode lasers, remain elusive, presumably due to various loss mechanisms, e.g., charge (polaron)-induced absorption and metal electrode absorption. Here we report on evidence for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), also known as mirrorless lasing (i.e., wherein some of the spontaneously emitted photons are amplified by stimulated emission during their propagation) in DC-driven small molecular organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs). The evidence includes a dramatic spectral line narrowing, with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of only 5 - 10 nm, and optical gain, of the edge-emission from SMOLEDs at room temperature. However, there is no clear indication of threshold behavior associated with this spectral narrowing. Nevertheless, this discovery should pave the way towards the realization of an organic diode laser.

  10. Field evaluation of ground water sampling devices for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muska, C F; Colven, W P; Jones, V D; Scogin, J T; Looney, B B; Price, V Jr

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies conducted under laboratory conditions demonstrated that the type of device used to sample ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds can significantly influence and analytical results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, both commercial and developmental ground water sampling devices as part of an ongoing ground water contamination investigation and remediation program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Ground water samples were collected using six types of sampling devices in monitoring wells of different depths and concentrations of volatile organic contaminants (primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). The study matrix was designed to statistically compare the reuslts of each sampling device under the test conditions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria were used to determine the relative performance of each device. Two categories of sampling devices were evaluated in this field study, positive displacement pumps and grab samplers. The positive displacement pumps consisted of a centrifugal (mechanical) pump and a bladder pump. The grab samples tested were a syringe sampler, a dual-check valve bailer, a surface bomb sampler, and a pressurized bailer. Preliminary studies were conducted to establish the analytical and sampling variability associated with each device. All six devices were then used to collect ground water samples in water table (unconfined), semi-confined aquifer, and confined aquifer monitoring wells. Results were evaluated against a set of criteria that included intrasampling device variability (precision), volatile organic concentration (accuracy), sampling and analytical logistics, and cost. The study showed that, by using careful and reproducible procedures, overall sampling variability is low regardless of sampling device.

  11. Mass yields of secondary organic aerosols from the oxidation of alpha-pinene and real plant emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a significant source of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, quantifying their aerosol forming potential remains a challenge. This study presents smog chamber ...

  12. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

  13. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  14. Organic light-emitting device with a phosphor-sensitized fluorescent emission layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Ann Arbor, MI); Kanno, Hiroshi (Osaka, JP)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters. The emissive region of the devices of the present invention comprise at least one phosphor-sensitized layer which has a combined emission from a phosphorescent emitter and a fluorescent emitter. In preferred embodiments, the invention relates to white-emitting OLEDS (WOLEDs).

  15. SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organoarsenic compounds in oi.l shale process waters using aPresented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.

  16. SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

  17. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  18. Petroporphyrins The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic complexes of vanadium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Petroporphyrins ­The most abundant and problematic metal compounds in crude oil exist as organic of porphyrins is critical for developing petroleum upgrading processes, as well as linking crude oil to source routine analytical techniques due to the increased complexity associated with heavy crudes. Atmospheric

  19. An Exploratory Investigation of Polar Organic Compounds in Waters from a LeadZinc Mine and Mill Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in southern Missouri. Lead­zinc mining and mineral extraction in the New Lead Belt generate large possible organic compounds coming from the milling process. Water samples contained rela- tively high, implying a lack of naturally occurring aquatic humic or fulvic acids. Samples were extracted by three

  20. MEMBRANE INTRODUCTION MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in urban waters across the United States, including gasoline was partially supported by the NSF-Chemistry CARREER award # CHE-0.34131. #12;v VITA November 4, 1974.S. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National School of Biological Sciences (Mexico). 2002 ­ 2005

  1. Response threshold levels of selected organic compounds for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, K.L.E.; McKinnon, M.B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Stendahl, D.H.; Pett, W.B. [Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The responses of 27 organic compounds, mainly chloromethanes, -ethanes, -ethenes, and -phenols, were investigated by exposing rainbow trout fingerlings to low microgram-per-liter concentrations in a darkened flow-through system for up to 1 h. Responses by the fish were followed continuously by observing ventilation rates (frequency and amplitude), swimming patterns, and general activity using the low-voltage electric fields generated by the fishes` activity. The lowest level of response was found for trichloroethylene at 5 {micro}g/L. Dichloromethane, 1,1- and 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropene, and allyl acetate were responded to at concentrations of 10 {micro}g/L, carbon tetrachloride at 15 {micro}g/L, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol at levels of 30 {micro}g/L. Unsubstituted phenol was not responded to at levels of up to 50 {micro}g/L.

  2. Technical Highlights April 2013 Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) Staff Organize and Participate in Multiple Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Highlights April 2013 Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) Staff Organize and Participate in Multiple Events during Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress in the SAE Vehicle Engineering Magazine. FEERC staff participated as organizers of multiple technical

  3. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin: Weekday-weekend effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    in ozone, caused by lower NOx emissions due to reduced diesel truck traffic in the weekends, has been previously observed in Los Angeles and other cities. Measurements in the Caldecott tunnel show that emission nonattainment area. [3] In the LA basin the main emission sources for the ozone precursors VOCs and NOx (NO + NO

  4. Numerical Modelling of Light Emission and Propagation in (Organic) LEDs with the Green's Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    light emitting diodes, light emission, light extraction, dipole radiation, stratified media, layered surpasses incandescent sources by a factor of 2 and with further improvements light emitting diodes could on light extraction techniques from inorganic light emitting diodes we recommend chapter 5 in 1 . Organic

  5. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic organic compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aromatic compounds. 500 265 500 265 500 265 WAVELENGTH (nm) ARABIAN CRUDE LUBRICATING OIL... . 271 12;Although the spectra only give a qualitative analysis of the major types...

  7. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark); Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard [Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark)], E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  8. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)] [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  9. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  10. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  11. The effect of mean cell residence time on the adsorbability of dissolved organic compounds found in petrochemical wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy Loring

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , each with a different mean cell residence time, biologically treated the waste- water. Follow1ng biolog1cal treatment, the wastewater was subjected to activated carbon adsorption treatment. The Freundlich isotherm, non-adsorbable organic compound... residence time on adsorbability is the same for petrochemical wastewater as it is for municipal wastewater. The purpose of this thesis is to determine if the mean cell residence time in a biological treatment process can af'feet the ad- sorbability...

  12. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Civil Engineering and Construction Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Pro2Serve Professional Project Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or exceed industrial groundwater hazard and risk levels at the vicinity of OSY. VOC contaminants in soil and groundwater will decay below industrial groundwater risk and hazard levels within approximately 20 years. Excavation of surface soil layers at the site will considerably reduce the concentration of VOCs in groundwater and the possibility of migration of VOCs to surface waters. (authors)

  13. An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

  14. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  15. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source forgrassland fires in Kazakhstan (Warneke et al. , 2009) duringfires from East Asia/Kazakhstan. Likewise there was no sta-

  16. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acrylate Ethy lbenzene 3-Methyl- 1-butanol Pyridine Pyrroleethyl acrylate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, N-nitrosodiethylamineEthylbenzene Formaldehyde 3-Methyl-1-butanol Phenol Styrene

  17. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. Haszpra, L. and Szilagyi, I. : Non-methane hydrocarbonet al. , 1990; Haszpra and Szilagyi, 1994; Gertler et al. ,

  18. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  19. Isotopic constraints on the sources and associations of organic compounds in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide a new perspective on the fate of both natural organic matter and hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in marine sediments, we have investigated the relationship between radiocarbon (14C) age and the different ...

  20. Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,

  1. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that some alkanes are underestimated in the emissions inventory, while some olefins and aromatics are overestimated.

  2. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  3. "The disintegration of organic compounds by microorganisms is accompanied by the liberation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    comple- ment of enzymes necessary to completely oxidize organic fuels to carbon dioxide is not yet they are `carbon-neutral'; the oxidation of the organic matter only releases recently fixed carbon back and sediments. The ubiquitous and innocuous properties of fuels for microbial fuel cells alleviates the need

  4. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Kehua

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide...

  5. Installation and Operation of Sorbathene Solvent Vapor Recovery Units to Recover and Recycle Volatile Organic Compounds at Operating Sites within the Dow Chemical Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, T. L.; Larrinaga, L.

    the SORBATHENE vacuum swing adsorption as an economical alternative for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from storage, loading, and process vents streams. This paper discusses the application of the technology on nineteen units to collect...

  6. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  7. Turn-on fluorescence in tetraphenylethylene-based metal-organic frameworks: An alternative to aggregation-induced emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shustova, Natalia B.

    Coordinative immobilization of functionalized tetraphenylethylene within rigid porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) turns on fluorescence in the typically non-emissive tetraphenylethylene core. The matrix coordination-induced ...

  8. Measurements and receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds in Southeastern Mexico City, 2000 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    to account for non-vehicular emissions entering the tunnel from outside. The time for each sample was 2 hours Traffic count Total: 673 vehicles per hour Gasoline vehicle (car, pickup): 91% Diesel vehicle (truck / bus (truck / bus): 11% motor bike: 3% Figure 2. Fotos from inside the Subterránea (left and middle panel

  9. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  10. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canagaratna, M. R.

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is ...

  11. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    11. INTRODUCTION Air quality studies overwhelmingly focus on the concentration of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria air pollutants using monitoring and numerical modeling. While the latter uses surface fluxes from emission... chemistry and public health. Urban air pollution sources are related to a multitude of land-uses and human-made structures, which, together with natural and introduced vegetation, make up the urban fabric. To measure pollutant flux over urban terrain, a...

  12. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels

  13. Atmospheric Aerosols Aging Involving Organic Compounds and Impacts on Particle Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Chong

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through sandstorm.2 Examples of anthropogenic sources are vehicle exhaust, plant emission, and construction sites. Some aerosols may have both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. For example, soot aerosols, also known as black carbon, can be produced... with an initial size of 150 nm increases slightly faster than those of soot with the initial size of 80 or 100 nm. Table 1. Properties of Fresh Soot Particles. Dp, nm mp, 10 ?16 g Dve, nm Npp a 82.4 1.47 54.1 20 101 2.34 63.2 32 155 7.77 94.3 105 a...

  14. The removal kinetics of industrial organic compounds in natural and synthetic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrasek, Albert Charles

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the value of the 1ndependent variable, and those data in which the dependent variable 1s a function of the 1ndependent variable. This program has wide appl1cation whenever data analysis is necessary, and the volume dictates more rapid', processing.... Lineprinter 'listing of dissolved oxygen unit rate curve parameters. 131 xii LI. ST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Table Ul-10. Computer listing of NLSS values computed from the approximation function. UI-ll. List of computed total organic carbon concentrations...

  15. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  16. Effects of solar radiation on manganese oxide reactions with selected organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, D.J.; Zepp, R.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of sunlight on aqueous redox reactions between manganese oxides (MnO{sub x}) and selected organic substances are reported. No sunlight-induced rate enhancement was observed for the MnO{sub x} oxidation of substituted phenols, anisole, o-dichlorobenzene, or p-chloroaniline. On the other hand, solar radiation did accelerate the reduction of manganese oxides by dissolved organic matter (DOM) from aquatic environments. The photoreduction of MnO{sub x} by DOM was little affected by molecular oxygen in air-saturated water (250 {mu}M), but was inhibited by 2,6-dichloroindophenol (0.5-6 {mu}M), and excellent electron acceptor. MnO{sub x} reduction also was photosensitized by anthraquinone-2-sulfonate. These results indicate that the photoreduction probably involves electron transfer from excited states of sorbed DOM to the oxide surface. Wavelength studies indicated that ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) plays an important role in this photoreduction.

  17. Polyphenoloxidases immobilized in organic gels: Properties and applications in the detoxification of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecchio, C.; Ruggiero, P.; Pizzigallo, M.D.R. [Univ. di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Agraria

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelatine gels originate from water in oil microemulsions in which the ternary system consists of isooctane/sulfosuccinic acid bis [2-ethyl hexyl] ester/water; the solubilization of gelatin in the water pool of these microemulsions transforms them into viscous gels in which it is possible to cosolubilize various reactive molecules. These gels were used to immobilize two phenoloxidases, a laccase from Trametes versicolor and a tyrosinase from mushroom. The best balance between gel retention and catalytic activity was reached at a gelatine concentration of 2.5% (w/v) in the case of tyrosinase, while laccase immobilization was independent of gelatine concentration. Both enzymes kept the same optimum pH as the corresponding soluble controls, while a partial loss of activity was observed when they were immobilized. Immobilized enzymes showed an increased stability when incubated for several days at 4 C with a very low release from the gels in the incubation solutions. The immobilization of tyrosinase and of laccase enhanced stability to thermal inactivation. Furthermore, gel-entrapped tyrosinase was almost completely preserved from proteolysis: more than 80% of the activity was maintained, while only 25% of the soluble control activity was detected after the same proteolytic treatments. A column packed with gel-immobilized tyrosinase was used to demonstrate that enzymes immobilized with this technique may be reused several times in the same reaction without loosing their efficiency. Finally, gel-entrapped tyrosinase and laccase were capable of removing naturally occurring and xenobiotic aromatic compounds from aqueous suspensions with different degrees of efficiency.

  18. Identification of organic compounds contained in the bitumen of Chattanooga oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mc Gowan, C.W.; Greenwell, B.E.; Markuszewski, R.; Richard, J.J.; Sepaniak, M.J.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bitumen of Chattanooga Oil Shale has been extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into acid base and neutral fractions with ion exchange chromatography. This separation scheme has been used extensively to separate the organic material in Green River Oil Shale. The acid fraction was esterified with BF/sub 3//MeOH. A large portion of the acid fraction was not esterified and this material was considered to be phenolic. The bases were separated into two fractions using alumina. The esters, the two base fractions and the total neutral fraction were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Two series constituting the methyl esters of normal and isoprenoid acids were identified. Several homologous series were indicated in the base fraction. The major components in the neutral fractions were two series constituting normal and isoprenoid alkanes. The analysis scheme apparently does a good job of separating and identifying aliphatic materials.

  19. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Simonetti, Dante A. (Middleton, WI); Kunkes, Edward L. (Madison, WI)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  20. Study of building material emissions and indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xudong, 1966-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building materials and furnishings emit a wide variety of indoor pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, no accurate models are available to characterize material emissions and sorption under ...

  1. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  2. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Meeting Ultra Fine Particles in the Atmosphere 15 March 2000 Engine Exhaust Particle Emissions: Some, low S fuel 1988 engine low S fuel 1979 Roadway study The new engine increased number emissions 10 of highly agglomerated solid carbonaceous material and ash and volatile organic and sulfur compounds

  3. The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process energy or photon units. Irradiance is the amount of energy that falls on a flat sensor of known area per and energy units for sunlight can be intercon- verted relatively easily, provided that the wavelength

  4. Intramolecular excimer emission as a blue light source in fluorescent organic light emitting diodes: a promising molecular design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intramolecular excimer emission as a blue light source in fluorescent organic light emitting diodes Light Emitting Diode (OLED), intermolecular p­p interactions should be usually suppressed to avoid any Emitting Diodes (SMOLEDs) is almost absent from the literature. In this work, three aryl-substituted Di

  5. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  6. Excitation-Emission Spectra and Fluorescence Quantum Yields for Fresh and Aged Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured = 320 ± 25 nm and emission = 425 ± 38 nm for the -pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the EEM

  7. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in soil vapor in the vicinity of a defense fuel supply point, Hanahan, South Carolina. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.F.; Aelion, C.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the results of a reconnaissance study to identify areas of potential contamination of the water table aquifer by volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) beneath a Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties near Hanahan, S.C. Six areas in and around the DFSP facility were investigated with soil-vapor techniques. The northern boundary area has been studied extensively and was, therefore, not included in the investigation.

  8. Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space. [1] We present a methodology for deriving emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using space to local VOC emissions, with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. Isoprene

  9. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  10. French permanent survey on indoor air quality--microenvironmental concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 90 French dwellings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conducted in France on indoor pollution. The survey's design (sampling, analytical methods, questionnaire, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics, occupants' description and time (30 compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, BTEX) were measured by passive samplers, during 7

  11. Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saturated and efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with Lambertian angular a microcavity to optimize the color of a phosphorescent organic light emitting device OLED based on the-sky blue.1063/1.2742577 The development of a stable, efficient, and saturated blue remains an important goal for phosphorescent organic

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Organic Amendment Applications on Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Salt-Affected Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulla Reddy Gari, Namratha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous110 Effect of Soil Properties on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrousproperties have been well studied, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (

  13. Composition, sources, and formation of secondary organic aerosols from urban emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shang; Liu, Shang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles200 5.1v aerosol Chapter 3 Meteorological conditions during theSecondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources

  14. Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters. [5,5 dimethyl hydantoin, dihydroxy benzenes, acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, D.H. Jr.; King, C.J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K/sub C/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater-treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, and the liquid-liquid phase equilibria were measured with several solvents. A high-performance liquid - chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to analyze four condensate-water samples from a slagging fixed-bed gasifier. A novel sample-preparation technique, consisting of an azeotropic distillation with isopropanol, allowed identification of compounds in the HPLC eluant by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin and related compounds were identified in condensate waters for the first time, and they account for 1 to 6% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Dimethyl hydatoin has a K/sub D/ of 2.6 into tributyl phosphate (TBP) and much lower K/sub D/ values into six other solvents. It is also resistant to biological oxidation. Phenols (59 to 76% of the COD), dihydroxy benzenes (0.02 to 9.5% of the COD), and methanol, acetonitrile, and acetone (15% of the COD in one sample) were also detected. Extraction with MIBK removed about 90% of the COD. MIBK has much higher K/sub D/ values than DIPE for dihydroxy benzenes. Chemical reactions occurred during storage of condensate-water samples. The reaction products had low K/sub D/ values into MIBK. About 10% of the COD had a K/sub D/ of nearly zero into MIBK. These compounds were not extracted by MIBK over a wide range of pH. 73 references, 6 figures, 35 tables.

  15. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Quarterly report 3, January--March, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress during this quarter is described on four tasks. The first task involves the recovery of organic matter from bleach effluents and black liquors, separation of carbohydrates and lignin degradation products, analysis of functional groups, and characterization of carbohydrate polymers. Progress in the second task was made in the selection of model compounds. Several subtasks are complete in Task 3, but the paper summarizes progress made in the determination of the residual hemicellulose content in the pulp samples. Finally, results are given for the measurement of metal adsorption isotherms on wood pulp. Goals for the next quarter are listed.

  16. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Martin C

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and xylenes (BTEX) from winter 2009 compared to spring 2013. Median concentrations over the four-year period fell between 20 to 34 percent, comparable to long-term VOC reduction trends observed in other major metropolitan areas. Emissions of these species fell...

  17. Electron transport in naphthylamine-based organic compounds S. C. Tse, K. C. Kwok, and S. K. Soa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So, Shu K.

    are organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs , thin-film transistors, solar cells, and photodetectors.1­4 Among them, OLED is now a leading contender in ultrathin, flexible, flat panel display technology. A simple

  18. CCN Activity of Organic Aerosols Observed Downwind of Urban Emissions during CARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Fan; Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; Wang, J. X.

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), activation fraction of size-resolved aerosol particles and aerosol chemical composition were characterized at the T1 site (~60 km downwind of Sacramento, California) from 10 June to 28 June 2010. The hygroscopicity of CCN-active particles (kCCN) with diameter from 100 to 170 nm, derived from the size-resolved activated fraction, varied from 0.10 to 0.21, with an average of 0.15, which was substantially lower than that proposed for continental sites in earlier studies. The low kCCN value was due to the high organic volume fraction, averaged over 80% at the T1 site. The derived kCCN exhibited little diurnal variation, consistent with the relatively constant organic volume fraction observed. At any time, over 90% of the size selected particles with diameter between 100 and 171nm were CCN active, suggesting most particles within this size range were aged background particles. Due to the large organic volume fraction, organic hygroscopicity (korg) strongly impacted particle hygroscopicity and therefore calculated CCN concentration. For vast majority of the cases, an increase of korg from 0.03 to 0.18, which are within the typical range, doubled the calculated CCN concentration. Organic hygroscopicity was derived from kCCN and aerosol chemical composition, and its variations with the fraction of total organic mass spectral signal at m/z 44 (f44) and O:C were compared to results from previous studies. Overall, the relationships between korg and f44 are quite consistent for organic aerosol (OA) observed during field studies and those formed in smog chamber. Compared to the relationship between korg and f44, the relationship between korg and O:C exhibits more significant differences among different studies, suggesting korg may be better parameterized using f44. A least squares fit yielded korg = 2.10 (±0.07) × f44 ?0.11 (±0.01) with the Pearson R2 value of 0.71. One possible explanation for the stronger correlation between korg and f44 is that the m/z 44 signal (mostly contributed by the CO+2 ion) is more closely related to organic acids, which may dominate the overall korg due to their relatively high water solubility and hygroscopicity.

  19. Contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient carbonaceous particulate matter: A review and synthesis of the available data in the South Coast Air Basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cass, G.R.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table of Contents: Executive Summary; Introduction; Ambient Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in the South Coast Air Basin; Measurements of Emissions from In-Use Motor Vehicles in the South Coast Air Basin; Integration of Emissions Measurements into Comprehensive Emissions Inventories; Relating Emissions fom Motor Vehicles to Particulate Air Quality; Synthesis: The Combined Effect of All Vehicle-Related Source Contributions Acting Together; Trends in More Recent Years; Opportunities for Further Research; References; Appendix A: Detailed Mass Emissions Rates for Organic Compounds from Motor Vehicle Exhaust; and Appendix B: Organic Compounds Emitted from Tire Dust, Paved Road Dust, and Brake Lining Wear Dust.

  20. Environmental effects of dredging. The k{sub oc} of nonpolar organic compounds in sediment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.; McFarland, V.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note describes testing conducted to determine the partitioning of contaminants between sediment organic carbon and sediment interstitial water, assess the effects of sediment organic carbon upon K(oc) of selected PCBs and fluoranthene, and investigate the effect of time of contact between contaminants and sediment upon the value of K(oc). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is authorized to develop and implement sediment quality criteria (SQC) under section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act. SQC, when promulgated, will profoundly affect U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) dredging and disposal operations. Aquatic disposal of dredged material and selection of aquatic disposal sites will be based on SQC. Most SQC approaches currently under development involve a determination of the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediment and biological effects on organisms exposed to the contaminated sediment. The USACE is presently investigating the link between contaminant levels in sediment and sediment geochemistry, as well as contaminant levels and effects in aquatic organisms.

  1. Abstract ID: P2-66 Hydrogen production during the irradiation of gaseous organic compounds: advantage of an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of propane, the radiolytic yield value of hydrogen G(H2) is equal to 3.7 for total doses in the range of 0, hydrogen production, propane radiolysis. Corresponding author: C. Pichon Institut de Physique Nucléaire de be explained by the instability of some organics materials under vacuum. In order to analyse samples in air

  2. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  3. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  4. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  5. Organic light-emitting diodes using open-shell molecule as emitter: the emission from doublet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Qiming; Chen, Youchun; He, Chuanyou; Obolda, Ablikim; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricate OLEDs using a stable neutral {\\pi} radical, BDPA, as the emitter. There is only one electron in the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) of this open-shell molecule. This feature makes the excited state of open-shell molecules be neither singlet nor triplet, but doublet. The key issue of how to harvest the triplet energy in an OLED is thus bypassed, due to the radiative decay of doublet is totally spin allowed. In the BDPA-based OLED, the emission was confirmed to be from the electronic transition from LUMO to SOMO, via the frontier molecular orbital analysis combined with the spectroscopy measurements. The maximum luminance of the OLEDs is 4879 cd/m2 which is comparable to the first reported Fluorescence-, Phosphorecence- and TADF-based OLEDs.

  6. Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, E.W.; Stromatt, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Steele, M.J.; Jones, J.E.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.

  7. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  8. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  9. Linker-Induced Anomalous Emission of Organic-Molecule Conjugated Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Babu, Suresh; Le, Duy; Kumar, Amit; Haldar, Manas K.; Wagh, Anil V.; Hu, Zhongjian; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Law, Benedict; Mallik, Sanku; Rahman, Talat S.; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated with organic- and dye-molecules to yield high efficiency visible photoluminescence (PL) hold great potential for many future technological applications. We show that folic acid (FA)-conjugated to nanosize TiO2 and CeO2 particles demonstrates a dramatic increase of photoemission intensity at wavelengths between 500 and 700 nm when derivatized using aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as spacer-linker molecules between the metal oxide and FA. Using density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations we demonstrate that the strong increase of the PL can be explained by electronic transitions between the titania surface oxygen vacancy (OV) states and the low-energy excited states of the FA/APTMS molecule anchored onto the surface oxygen bridge sites in close proximity to the OVs. We suggest this scenario to be a universal feature for a wide class of metal oxide nanoparticles, including nanoceria, possessing a similar band gap (3 eV) and with a large surface-vacancy-related density of electronic states. We demonstrate that the molecule-nanoparticle linker can play a crucial role in tuning the electronic and optical properties of nanosystems by bringing optically active parts of the molecule and of the surface close to each other.

  10. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y. [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  12. Using an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer to realize high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge, E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhao, Yongbiao [Luminous Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhang, Hongmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    By adopting an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer sandwiched between two blue emission layers, high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with reduced efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The optimized devices show a balanced white emission with Internationale de L'Eclairage of (0.41, 0.44) at the luminance of 1000?cd/m{sup 2}, and the maximum power efficiency, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency reach 63.2?lm/W, 59.3?cd/A, and 23.1%, which slightly shift to 53.4?lm/W, 57.1?cd/A, and 22.2% at 1000?cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, showing low efficiency roll-off. Detailed investigations on the recombination zone and the transient electroluminescence (EL) clearly reveal the EL processes of the ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer in WOLEDs.

  13. Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klei, Steven R.; Bergman, Robert C.

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

  14. Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Robert C.; Klei, Steven R.

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

  15. Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Robert C.; Klei, Steven R.

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Volatile organic compounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARM

  17. Full phosphorescent white-light organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and efficiency by fine tuning primary emission contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hua, Wang, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Su, Wenming, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongyu [Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China)] [Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China); Lin, Wenjing [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a novel type of white-light organic light emitting diode (OLED) with high color stability was reported, in which the yellow-light emission layer of (4,4{sup ?}-N,N{sup ?}-dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP) : tris(2-phenylquinoline-C2,N{sup ?})iridium(III) (Ir(2-phq){sub 3}) was sandwiched by double blue-light emission layers of 1,1-bis-[(di-4-tolylamino)pheny1]cyclohexane (TAPC) : bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2{sup ?}]picolinate (FIrpic) and tris[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB):FIrpic. And, it exhibited the maximum current efficiency of 33.1 cd/A, the turn-on voltage at about 3 V and the maximum luminance in excess of 20000 cd/m{sup 2}. More important, it realized very stable white-light emission, and its CIE(x, y) coordinates only shift from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.37) as applied voltage increased from 5 V to 12 V. It is believed that the new scheme in emission layer of white-light OLED can fine tune the contribution of primary emission with applied voltage changed, resulting in high quality white-light OLED.

  18. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, A. R.

    Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions ...

  19. Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the ...

  20. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  1. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were made selected indoor and outdoor locations.

  2. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, C. L.; Henze, D. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Guenther, A.; Hess, P. G.; Vitt, F.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Fung, I.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of chemical and physical environ- ments represented by these studies suggests that the mech- anisms and precursors contributing to SOA formation are diverse. In light of these discrepancies, previous estimates of the global source of SOA (12–40 Tg C a#2... and results are averaged to estimate the effect of interannual climate variability. 2.2. Anthropogenic Emissions [17] Emissions of both gas and aerosol phase species for the years 2000 and 2100 are taken from Horowitz [2006]. Present-day (2000) fossil fuel...

  3. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  4. Distinguishing triplet energy transfer and trap-assisted recombination in multi-color organic light-emitting diode with an ultrathin phosphorescent emissive layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Qin, E-mail: xueqin19851202@163.com; Liu, Shouyin [Department of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Xie, Guohua; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Shiyong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin layer of deep-red phosphorescent emitter tris(1-phenylisoquinoline) iridium (III) (Ir(piq){sub 3}) is inserted within different positions of the electron blocking layer fac-tris (1-phenylpyrazolato-N,C{sup 2?})-iridium(III) (Ir(ppz){sub 3}) to distinguish the contribution of the emission from the triplet exciton energy transfer/diffusion from the adjacent blue phosphorescent emitter and the trap-assisted recombination from the narrow band-gap emitter itself. The charge trapping effect of the narrow band-gap deep-red emitter which forms a quantum-well-like structure also plays a role in shaping the electroluminescent characteristics of multi-color organic light-emitting diodes. By accurately controlling the position of the ultrathin sensing layer, it is considerably easy to balance the white emission which is quite challenging for full-color devices with multiple emission zones. There is nearly no energy transfer detectable if 7 nm thick Ir(ppz){sub 3} is inserted between the blue phosphorescent emitter and the ultrathin red emitter.

  5. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

  6. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    versus CO for OVOCs and acetonitrile calculated by linearThis analy- OVOCs and acetonitrile. Because OVOCs have knownwas used to measure acetonitrile, aromatics and oxy- genated

  7. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  8. Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

  9. The influences of various factors on the adsorption-desorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments of Lake Charles, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Chen; Kan, A.T.; Tomson, M.B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the adsorption and the desorption processes play important roles in the transport and fate of organic contaminants in water-sediments and groundwater systems. The adsorption-desorption processes are shown to be influenced by a number of factors, including sediments organic carbon content, contaminant aqueous solubility, aqueous-phase concentration as well as some natural environmental factors such as pH, pE, ionic strength and temperature. External mechanical forces, such as sediment perturbation, and repeated dredging will also have finite effect on the microscopic interparticle forces that control bonds between large and small grain particles. The objective of this research is to study the influences of various environmental effects on the equilibrium or non-equilibrium desorption behavior of nonpolar organic pollutants in historically contaminated natural sediments of Lake Charles, LA. Differences of desorption behavior between freshly and historically contaminated sediments will be compared in order to evaluated the desorption mechanism. The influences of particle size, mineral composition, organic matter concentration, and aqueous phase matrix composition on desorption behaviour will also be evaluated.

  10. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  11. Enhanced light emission from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by optimizing surface plasmon polariton losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Cornelius; Wieczorek, Martin; Gather, Malte C; Hofmann, Simone; Reineke, Sebastian; Leo, Karl; Scholz, Reinhard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate enhanced light extraction for monochrome top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The enhancement by a factor of 1.2 compared to a reference sample is caused by the use of a hole transport layer (HTL) material possessing a low refractive index (1.52). The low refractive index reduces the in-plane wave vector of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excited at the interface between the bottom opaque metallic electrode (anode) and the HTL. The shift of the SPP dispersion relation decreases the power dissipated into lost evanescent excitations and thus increases the outcoupling efficiency, although the SPP remains constant in intensity. The proposed method is suitable for emitter materials owning isotropic orientation of the transition dipole moments as well as anisotropic, preferentially horizontal orientation, resulting in comparable enhancement factors. Furthermore, for sufficiently low refractive indices of the HTL material, the SPP can be modeled as a propagating plane wave within ot...

  12. A Novel New Approach to VOC and HAP Emission Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    - adsorbent scrubber solution. Water wash paint booth scrubbers can effectively capture PM-IO and PM-2.S particulates as well as VOHAPs. Water wash scrubbers by their very nature represent a reduced fire hazard compared to dry filter booth systems. NFPA...A Novel New Approach to VOC and HAP Emission Control Mike McGinness VP-R&D EcoShield Environmental Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) thermal emission control devices (ECD...

  13. The conformational evolution of elongated polymer solutions tailors the polarization of light-emission from organic nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Camposeo; Israel Greenfeld; Francesco Tantussi; Maria Moffa; Francesco Fuso; Maria Allegrini; Eyal Zussman; Dario Pisignano

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer fibers are currently exploited in tremendously important technologies. Their innovative properties are mainly determined by the behavior of the polymer macromolecules under the elongation induced by external mechanical or electrostatic forces, characterizing the fiber drawing process. Although enhanced physical properties were observed in polymer fibers produced under strong stretching conditions, studies of the process-induced nanoscale organization of the polymer molecules are not available, and most of fiber properties are still obtained on an empirical basis. Here we reveal the orientational properties of semiflexible polymers in electrospun nanofibers, which allow the polarization properties of active fibers to be finely controlled. Modeling and simulations of the conformational evolution of the polymer chains during electrostatic elongation of semidilute solutions demonstrate that the molecules stretch almost fully within less than 1 mm from jet start, increasing polymer axial orientation at the jet center. The nanoscale mapping of the local dichroism of individual fibers by polarized near-field optical microscopy unveils for the first time the presence of an internal spatial variation of the molecular order, namely the presence of a core with axially aligned molecules and a sheath with almost radially oriented molecules. These results allow important and specific fiber properties to be manipulated and tailored, as here demonstrated for the polarization of emitted light.

  14. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Bechir, M., E-mail: mohamedbenbechir@hotmail.fr; Karoui, K.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, BP1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Tabellout, M. [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, F-72085, Le Mans Cedex 09 (France)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and impedance spectroscopy. The [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} hybrid compound is crystallized at room temperature (T ? 300?K) in the orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. Five phase transitions (T{sub 1}?=?255?K, T{sub 2}?=?282?K, T{sub 3}?=?302?K, T{sub 4}?=?320?K, and T{sub 5}?=?346?K) have been proved by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10{sup ?1}-10{sup 7}?Hz frequency range and 233–363?K temperature interval. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law. The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} is analyzed by different processes, which can be attributed to several models: the correlated barrier hopping model in phase I, the overlapping large polaron tunneling model in phase II, the quantum mechanical tunneling model in phase IV, and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phases III, V, and VI. The conduction mechanism is studied with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are determined.

  15. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Bechir, M., E-mail: mohamedbenbechir@hotmail.fr; Karoui, K.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, BP1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Tabellout, M. [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, F-72085 Le Mans Cedex 09 (France)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} single crystal has been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrical impedance spectroscopy. [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/{sub C} space group. Three phase transitions at T{sub 1}?=?226?K, T{sub 2}?=?264?K, and T{sub 3}?=?297?K have been evidenced by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10{sup ?1}–10{sup 7}?Hz frequency range and 203–313?K temperature intervals. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law (developed). The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}H]{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} compound is studied by two processes which can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the correlated barrier hopping model in phases I, II, and III, the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phase IV. The conduction mechanism is interpreted with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are found.

  16. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  17. Modeling air emissions from contaminated sediment dredged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emission from a CDF. Four emission locales are identified and modeled: the sediment relocation (dredging) locale, the exposed sediment locale, the ponded sediment locale, and the vegetation-covered sediment locale. Rate expressions are derived to estimate the volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission from each locale. Emission rates (in mass of total VOCs per unit time) are primarily dependent on the chemical concentration at the source, the surface area of the source, and the degree to which the dredged material is in direct contact with air. The relative magnitude of these three parameters provides a basis upon which a tentative ranking of emission rates from the different locales can be given. Exposed sediment results in the greatest estimated emissions of volatiles followed by water with high levels of suspended sediments, such as might occur during dredging or during placement in a CDF. Expected to be lower in volatile emissions are dredged materials covered by a quiescent water column or vegetation.

  18. Low emission turbo compound engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk; Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.

  19. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  20. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  1. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

  2. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  3. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  4. Water-soluble organometallic compounds. 3. Kinetic investigations of dissociative phosphine substitution processes involving water-soluble group 6 metal derivatives in miscible aqueous/organic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Bischoff, C.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanistic aspects of ligand substitution reactions of group 6 metal carbonyl derivatives containing the trisulfonated phosphine P(m-C[sub 6]H[sub 4]SO[sub 3]Na)[sub 3] (hereafter referred to as TPPTS) in pure water and water/THF media have been investigated by examination of the reactions of these derivatives with carbon monoxide as an incoming ligand. The reactions, which were carried out under 500 psi of CO in the temperature range 110-160[degrees]C, were monitored in situ by infrared spectroscopy employing a cylindrical internal reflectance reactor. Kinetic measurements show the reactions are first-order in metal complex concentration and independent of CO pressure at high CO pressures, and the rates are retarded by added TPPTS. The activation parameters for TPPTS dissociation from M(CO)[sub 5]TPPTS derivatives (M = Mo, W), e.g., in 1:1 THF/H[sub 2]O, [Delta]H[double dagger] = 28.8 [plus minus] 1.4 kcal/mol and [Delta]S[double dagger] = [minus]4.2 [plus minus] 3.5 eu and [Delta]H[double dagger] = 31.8 [plus minus] 1.5 kcal/mol and [Delta]S[double dagger] = [minus]0.73 [plus minus] 3.6 eu, respectively were shown to be quite similar to those determined for the analogous processes involving the nonsulfonated PPh[sub 3] ligand in the same solvent systems. In addition only small solvent effects were noted in going from aqueous to organic solvents for these dissociative processes. For the cis-Mo(CO)[sub 4][TPPTS][sub 2] derivative, in which the sodium ions are encapsulated by a cryptand, kryptofix-221, a steric acceleration of TPPTS dissociation is noted relative to its PPh[sub 3] analog. 27 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margorie Stockton

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

  6. Volatile Organic Emissions from Carpets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, A.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irritation by airborne allyl acetate, allyl alcohol, andcompounds. For example, allyl acetate (2-propenyl acetate),acetate, was found to be highly irritating as were other allyl

  7. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption. Abstract: We show that molecular organic compounds with large accessible...

  8. Installation and certification of continuous VOC emissions monitoring systems for a steel mill sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.L.; Macak, J.J. III; Cioffi, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The counties of Lake, Porter, and LaPorte in Northwest Indiana are classified as severe non-attainment for the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). In response to the non-attainment problem, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) promulgated a number of regulations over the last several years. One of these rules requires steel mills with sinter plants to control and continuously monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the facilities. One of the accepted compliance methods is to install and certify Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) to monitor VOC emissions and volumetric flow rate in order to generate a VOC emission number in units of pounds per hour. Compliance with the regulation also requires that the sinter plants accurately monitor sinter production in order to determine compliance during the winter months, when the limits are based on pounds of VOC emissions per ton of sinter produced.

  9. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ocean uptake of acetonitrile (CH3CN) in the atmosphere,Automo- bile emissions of acetonitrile: Assessment of itsusing the measurements of acetonitrile. Previous es- timates

  10. Ex 7.6(a) The vapor pressure of benzene is 400 Torr at 60.6C, but it fell to 386 Torr when 19.0 g of an involatile organic compound was dissolved in 500 g of benzene. Calculate the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Gary L.

    Ex 7.6(a) The vapor pressure of benzene is 400 Torr at 60.6°C, but it fell to 386 Torr when 19.0 g of an involatile organic compound was dissolved in 500 g of benzene. Calculate the molar mass of the involatile

  11. Oxygenated fraction and mass of organic aerosol from direct emission and atmospheric processing measured on the R/V Ronald Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­35% to factors with mild or strong correlations (r > 0.5) to elemental signatures of oil combustion and 9 that controlled the metal emissions, namely the oil and wood combustion activities. The implication air masses (GAM and SAM, respectively) were largely oil combustion emissions from ships as well

  12. Oxygenated fraction and mass of organic aerosol from direct emission1 and atmospheric processing measured on the R/V Ronald Brown during2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    signatures of32 oil combustion and 9-23% to wood smoke, indicating that part of the carboxylic acid fraction acid group fractions in the Gulf and South air masses were38 largely oil combustion emissions from concentrations). Alcohol groups accounted for40 17% of OM (mostly associated with oil combustion emissions

  13. Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    conductivity of these copolymers increased or decreased depending upon the polymer composition and the specific,3-6 conductive poly- mers (CPs),7-12 and carbon black-polymer composites.13,14 Metal oxide materials Carbon black-polymer composites have also attracted a lot of research interest as a promising sensing

  14. Multivariate analysis of exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoegren, M.; Ulf, R.; Li, H.; Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate and gaseous exhaust emission phases from running 10 diesel fuels on two makes of heavy-duty diesel engines were analyzed with respect to 63 chemical descriptors. Measurements for one of the fuels were also made in the presence of an exhaust aftertreatment device. The variables included 28 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, particles), and 19 other organic and inorganic exhaust emission components. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied for the statistical exploration of the obtained data. In addition, relationships between chemical (12 variables) and physical (12 variables) parameters of the fuels to the exhaust emissions were derived using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Both PCA and PLS models were derived for the engine makes separately. The PCA showed that the most descriptive exhaust emission factors from these diesel fuels included fluoranthene as a representative of PAC, the regulated pollutants, sulfates, methylated pyrenes, and monoaromatics. Exhaust emissions were significantly decreased in the presence of an exhaust aftertreatment device. Both engine makes exhibited similar patterns of exhaust emissions. Discrepancies were observed for the exhaust emissions of CO{sub 2} and oil-derived soluble organic fractions, owing to differences in engine design. The PLS analysis showed a good correlation of exhaust emission of the regulated pollutants and PAC with the contents of PAC in the fuels and the fuel aromaticity. 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

  16. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  17. Emissions Inventory Report Summary Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Quality Group, ESH-17

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds. For 1998, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72 Construction Permits.

  18. Process for reducing aromatic compounds in ethylenediamine with calcium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by containing an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with ethylenediamine and calcium metal, the calcium metal being used in large excess or alternatively in conjunction with an inert abrasive particulate substance. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, largely mono-olefins.

  19. Process for reducing aromatic compounds in ethylenediamine with calcium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefins are produced by containing an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with ethylenediamine and calcium metal, the calcium metal being used in large excess or alternatively in conjunction with an inert abrasive particulate substance. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, largely mono-olefins.

  20. 3D Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic carbon in Tempe Town Lake Hilairy E.Hartnett1,2, Jesse Coe1, Zachary Smith1, Margaret Bowman2, Marissa Raleigh3, Andrew Chesley2, Gordana Pavlovic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    water management (dam releases). Fluorescence spectroscopy using excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) provides information about the chemical character of the organic carbon compounds lake water. EEM techniques (e.g., SUVA254). We present EEM's from Tempe Town Lake samples collected from June 2011 to Dec

  1. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  2. Oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from forest emissions measured at mid-mountain and high- elevation mountain sites in Whistler, BC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for organicPTR-MS SOA SP2 STXM-NEXAFS VOC XRF Aerosol Mass SpectrometerPTR-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), single particle soot

  3. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 Second Prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James H. Wilson, Jr.; Maureen A. Mullen; Andrew D. Bollman (and others) [E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission reductions attributable to the CAAA are 5, 12, and 17 million t in 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission benefits during the study period are dominated by electricity-generating unit (EGU) SO{sub 2} emission reductions. These EGU emission benefits go from 7.5 million t reduced in 2000 to 15 million t reduced in 2020. 16 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Terry

    #12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12 #12;First shell Second shell Third shell Hydrogen 1H Lithium 3Li Sodium 11Na Beryllium 4Be Magnesium energy Higher energy (a) A ball bouncing down a flight of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels

  5. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  6. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  7. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  8. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  9. Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Turbo Compounding Technology Update Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk Electric Turbo Compounding Highlights Electric...

  10. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach AgencyCompany Organization: GTZ...

  11. Stable blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark; Giebink, Noel

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel combination of materials and device architectures for organic light emitting devices is provided. An organic light emitting device, is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer includes a host and a phosphorescent emissive dopant having a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm, and a radiative phosphorescent lifetime less than 1 microsecond. Preferably, the phosphorescent emissive dopant includes a ligand having a carbazole group.

  12. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  13. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  14. Partially fluorinated ionic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

  15. Persistent Organic By Steven Jackson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Persistent Organic Pollutants By Steven Jackson #12;What are POP's? · POP's are organic compounds, rivers and surface ocean water. · Bio accumulation- POPs work their way through the food chain by accumulating in the body fat of living organisms and becoming more concentrated as they move from one creature

  16. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  17. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  18. 5, 90979126, 2005 VOC emissions from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation pyrolysis J. P. Greenberg et al. Title Page Discussions Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P. Greenberg, H is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 9097 #12;ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation

  19. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  20. Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

  1. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

  2. Heart testing compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  3. Heart testing compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  4. Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  6. Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

  7. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willem, Henry; Singer, Brett

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is prepared in the context of a larger program whose mission is to advance understanding of ventilation and indoor air quality in U.S. homes. A specific objective of this program is to develop the scientific basis ? through controlled experiments, monitoring and analysis ? for health risk-based ventilation standards. Appropriate and adequate ventilation is a basic element of a healthy home. Ventilation provides outdoor air and in the process removes indoor odors and contaminants including potentially unhealthful chemicals emitted by indoor materials, products and activities. Ventilation traditionally was assured to occur via infiltration of outdoor air through cracks and other leakage pathways in the residential building envelope. As building air tightness is improved for energy efficiency, infiltration can be reduced to inadequate levels. This has lead to the development of standards requiring mechanical ventilation. Though nominally intended to ensure acceptable indoor air quality, the standards are not explicitly tied to health risk or pollutant exposure targets. LBNL is currently designing analyses to assess the impact of varying ventilation standards on pollutant concentrations, health risks and energy use. These analyses require information on sources of chemical pollutant emissions, ideally including emission rates and the impact of ventilation on emissions. Some information can be obtained from recent studies that report measurements of various air contaminants and their concentrations in U.S. residences. Another way to obtain this information is the bottom-up approach of collecting and evaluating emissions data from construction and interior materials and common household products. This review contributes to the latter approach by summarizing available information on chemical emissions from new residential products and materials. We review information from the scientific literature and public sources to identify and discuss the databases that provide information on new or low-emission materials and products. The review focuses on the primary chemical or volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from interior surface materials, furnishings, and some regularly used household products; all of these emissions are amenable to ventilation. Though it is an important and related topic, this review does not consider secondary pollutants that result from reactions of ozone and unsaturated organics bound to or emitted from material surfaces. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) have been largely excluded from this review because ventilation generally is not an effective way to control SVOC exposures. Nevertheless, health concerns about exposures to SVOCs emitted from selected materials warrant some discussion.

  8. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73, (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For 1997, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of regulated air emissions from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of VOCs. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72, Construction Permits.

  9. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian (Westampton, NJ); Esler, James (Levittown, PA)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  10. Microoptical compound lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  11. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  12. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  13. New organically templated photoluminescence iodocuprates(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Qin [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Zhao Jinjing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhao Tianqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Jin Juan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu Jiehui, E-mail: jiehuiyu@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu Jiqing, E-mail: xjq@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two types of organic cyclic aliphatic diamine molecules piperazine (pip) and 1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane (bpp) were used, respectively, to react with an inorganic mixture of CuI and KI in the acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions under the solvothermal conditions, generating finally three new organically templated iodocuprates as 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 (tmpip=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpiperazinium) and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Note that the templating agent tmpip{sup 2+} in compound 2 originated from the in situ N-alkylation reaction between the pip molecule and the methanol solvent. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the title compounds emit the different lights: yellow for 1, blue for 2 and yellow-green for 3, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal self-assemblies of CuI, KI and pip/bpp in acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions created three iodocuprates 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Highlights: > A new layered iodocuprate(I) with 20-membered rings was hydrothermally prepared. > A simple approach to prepare the new organic templating agent was reported. > Photoluminescence analysis indicates the emission for iodocuprate(I) is associated with the Cu...Cu interactions.

  14. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Milestones and progress, Quarter 9 (July 1--September 30, 1998)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, W.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The two approach changes that were discussed and recommended in the Quarter 8 (April 1--June 30, 1998) progress report have been implemented in the current project plan. The OLI software has been used to develop a preliminary process model for predicting the distribution of NPE`s in a two stage brownstock washer, and the OLI database has been upgraded to include improved chemical equilibrium data for metal-organic interactions. This exercise served as a tool to evaluate the data and methods developed in this study, and to demonstrate its utility to industry. The Weyerhaeuser-NAELS software has also been applied to predicting inorganic solubility behavior. Task C-1.2, Estimation of unavailable thermodynamic parameters (scheduled completion date: 12/97), has been combined with Task D-2.1, Evaluation of the estimation procedure (scheduled completion date: 3/99) with a new scheduled completion date of 8/99. A model for the adsorption of metal ions on wood pulp fibers will include transport effects as well as adsorption equilibrium, and will be combined with a brownstock washer model to evaluate its predictive capability in comparison with mill data, and to demonstrate the applicability of the results obtained in this project. Three tasks are behind schedule: Task A-2.3, Measurement of stability constants for wood organics with metal ions (scheduled completion date: 6/98), Task B-2.1, Measure metal adsorption isotherms on wood pulp (scheduled completion date: 9/97), and Task B-2.3, Measure metal ion adsorption kinetics for strongly adsorbing metal species (scheduled completion date: 3/98). The reasons and expected completion dates are discussed in the Performance Variances and Open Items section. All other tasks are either completed, on, or ahead of schedule.

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  16. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0% by weight, dry basis) for combustion, as well as for the heat input of any fuel burning equipment (250,000 Btu/hour)....

  17. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC) for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Stockton

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2003, the Technical Area 3 steam plant and the air curtain destructors were the primary sources of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while the air curtain destructors and chemical use associated with research and development activities were the primary sources of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions were reported from chemical use as well as from all combustion sources. In addition, estimates of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and ammonia were provided as requested by the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau.

  18. South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:www.ecofys.com...

  19. CLEAN-Capacity Building and Training for Low Emissions Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: CLEAN-Capacity Building and Training for Low Emissions Development Planning AgencyCompany Organization:...

  20. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

  1. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Milestones and progress, Quarter 8 (April 1--June 30, 1998)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, W.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overall, this project is on schedule and proceeding as planned. Two approach changes are recommended. One is to rely on commercially developed software, in particular that developed by OLI Systems, Inc., and now being expanded in a collaborative effort between OLI Systems, Inc. and IPST to provide a simulation package for the pulp and paper industry and to integrate it with existing process simulation tools used by that industry. The second is the development of a detailed brownstock/bleached fiber washer model as a tool to evaluate the data and methods developed in this study, and to demonstrate its utility to industry. Both of these are discussed in more detail in the Approach Changes section of this report. Two tasks are behind schedule. They are Task A-2.3, Measurement of stability constants for wood organics with metal ions (scheduled completion date: 6/98), and Task C-1.2, Estimation of unavailable thermodynamic parameters (scheduled completion date: 12/97). The reasons and expected completion dates for these tasks are discussed in the Performance Variances and Open Items section of this report. All other tasks are either completed, or on or ahead of schedule.

  2. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regard to emissions, electricity sector contributes aboutthe exception of the electricity sector. With respect tofor Electricity, Pipelines and Organic chemicals sectors but

  3. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  4. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  5. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  6. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  7. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  8. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust deer08strzelec.pdf More Documents...

  9. Please cite this article in press as: Graff Zivin, J.S., et al., Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of marginal emissions: Implications for electric cars and other electricity-shifting policies. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. (2014),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of marginal emissions: Implications for electric cars and other electricity-shifting policies. J. Econ. Behav.elsevier.com/locate/jebo Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of marginal emissions: Implications for electric cars and other electricity-shifting policies Joshua S. Graff Zivina,d, , Matthew J. Kotchenb,d , Erin T. Mansurc

  10. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  11. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  12. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  13. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  14. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe AFM Compound Microscope Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope The atomic force microscope (AFM) compound microscope is designed primarily for fluorescence imaging in the...

  15. Characterization and fate of vapor-phase organic constituents from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustors (AFBC): East Stroudsburg University AFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Newton, G.J.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Very little research has been devoted to the characterization of vapor-phase organic compounds in gaseous streams. Because of the concerns that gaseous organic compounds from FBCs may include potentially toxic and/or mutagenic materials. We will measure vapor-phase hydrocarbon concentrations in the process streams of operating FBCs. This report describes our field sampling results on the atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at the East Stroudsburg University during its normal operation for supplying heat and hot water to the campus. This AFBC has a bed size of 36 ft/sup 2/ and was burning anthracite culm. The culm consumption rates during the week of our sampling period were 1600 to 3000 lb/hr. Emphasis was placed on characterization of process stream effluents, including particles and vapor-phase organic constituents. Results indicated that the mass concentration (or loading) of particulate matter within the effluent stream was similar to other FBCs that have been studied. The particulate mass concentration measured after the baghouse location was 0.0048 g/m/sup 3/ (0.0047 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu). This was equivalent to a total of 35 g/hr of particulate emissions. The fraction of particulate material presented as organics (extractable fraction) was, on the average, less than 2% of total mass of particulate emissions. The vapor-phase organic contents indicated that the quantities of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were low, being less than 2.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for any individual sample. Most of the PAHs detected were low boiling compounds such as naphthalene or phenanthrene, with trace amounts of pyrene. 22 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  17. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  18. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  19. Source Apportionment of Stack Emissions from Research and Development Facilities Using Positive Matrix Factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities are difficult to characterize due to the wide variety of processes used, changing nature of research, and large number of chemicals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations measured in the main exhaust stacks of four different R&D buildings to identify the number and composition of major contributing sources. PMF identified from 9-11 source-related factors contributing to the stack emissions depending on the building. The factors that were similar between buildings were major contributors to trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, and ethanol emissions. Several other factors had similar profiles for two or more buildings but not for all four. One factor for each building was a combination of p/m-xylene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. At least one factor for each building was identified that contained a broad mix of many species and constraints were used in PMF to modify the factors to resemble more closely the off-shift concentration profiles. PMF accepted the constraints with little decrease in model fit. Although the PMF model predicted the profiles of the off-shift samples, the percent of total emissions was under-predicted by the model versus the measured data.

  20. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: compound semiconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compound semiconductor Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  2. Industrial process data and estimating potential to emit (PTE): The effects of process chemistry on PTE and the emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, R.C.; Podsiadlo, K. [URS Greiner, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Title V) requires facilities to perform an inventory of their air pollutant emissions to determine if a Title V air permit is required. Facilities emitting air pollutants below applicable Title V thresholds (i.e., particulates, oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)) still must show proof to the regulatory agencies that the Title V permitting requirements do not apply. Recently, the authors have performed several emissions inventories for some large industrial facilities in New York State with up to 250 air emissions sources. As a result, they have identified several reoccurring process/chemistry data issues that have impacted the estimation of PTE, the current New York State (NYS) point source permit compliance, and the potential Title V application status. Although there are many training courses that focus on how environmental managers should perform a comprehensive facility air emissions inventory and should prepare Title V applications, these courses generally assume that all emission source data are readily available. However, to the authors` knowledge, no one has communicated key process/chemistry issues and obstacles encountered in completing emissions inventories at large facilities or recommended potential solutions. The authors will highlight their experience with reoccurring facility emission data and data management shortfalls found during the performance of several large facility inventories. This includes their findings of apparently systemic loose practices, procedures, data management, and utilization of process data and chemistry for estimation of potential emissions needed for Title V compliance.

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  4. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  5. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Volatile Organic Compound Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, where carbon tetrachloride is present in a low permeability zone about 30 m above the...

  6. Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid found in natural products such as coal tar into the environment from burning oil, gas, and coal, and from discharges of ethylbenzene from factories. Ethylbenzene-made activities and natural processes. Benzene is widely used in the United States and ranks in the top 20

  7. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular...

  8. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was not clear if the referenced document is applicable to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) activities. c) Clarify what is meant by the term "original VOC Monitoring...

  9. Class 2 Permit Modification Request Revise Volatile Organic Compound...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is provided in Figure N-1" Attachment N, Section N-4a(3) Replaced "Treated stainless steel" with "The" Deleted "is" Replaced "from the desired sample point to the sample...

  10. Control of spider mites on cotton by organic sulphur compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Charles Edward

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity tests ............. .................. . 23 Ovicidal t e sts...................................... 25 Residual toxicity tests............................... 26 Calculation of dosage-mortality curves ......... ? ? ? ? ? 28 Results... and Discussions . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . 38 Toxicity tests 1950-1951.............. ...............38 Toxicity tests 1951-1952 .............. ............... 51 Ovicidal tests ............ ......................... 52 Residual t e...

  11. Control of spider mites on cotton by organic sulphur compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Charles Edward

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxicity tests ............. .................. . 23 Ovicidal t e sts...................................... 25 Residual toxicity tests............................... 26 Calculation of dosage-mortality curves ......... ? ? ? ? ? 28 Results... and Discussions . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . 38 Toxicity tests 1950-1951.............. ...............38 Toxicity tests 1951-1952 .............. ............... 51 Ovicidal tests ............ ......................... 52 Residual t e...

  12. Nanoparticle Formation of Organic Compounds With Retained Biological Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    solvents and/ or higher temperatures.4 Owing to the high compres- sibility of SCFs, the physical properties to be formed as well as control of the size distribution.7 Moreover, SC-CO2 antisolvent precipitation is highly.58C and 75.8 bar). Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is also nonflammable and inexpensive.6

  13. Energy Saving System to Remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210EnergyEnergy SaverSavingP

  14. Hydrogen-Evolving Organic Compounds - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogen and Fuel CellFew-LayerGasStorageNRELEnergy

  15. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  16. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  17. The design of new ligands and transition metal compounds for the oxidation of organic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grill, Joseph Michael

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................................................................... 108 APPENDIX B............................................................................................ 215 APPENDIX C............................................................................................ 225 VITA..., oxidation of manganese (III) to manganese (V) occurs, followed by addition of an olefin to form a C-O bond and a carbon radical. Collapse of the radical species t 12 then gives the epoxide (Scheme 1.8). 38 This mechanism allows for the possibility...

  18. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  19. Organic light emitting device structure for obtaining chromaticity stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tung, Yeh-Jiun (Princeton, NJ); Ngo, Tan (Levittown, PA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices of the present invention are efficient white or multicolored phosphorescent OLEDs which have a high color stability over a wide range of luminances. The devices of the present invention comprise an emissive region having at least two emissive layers, with each emissive layer comprising a different host and emissive dopant, wherein at least one of the emissive dopants emits by phosphorescence.

  20. Oxidation of propylene in the presence of catalysts containing copper compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, John Frank

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : lo Homogeneity of catalyst mass. 2. Reproducibility of catalytic properties. 3. Negligible catalytic activity toward the formation of organic compounds other than carbonyl compounds. o h Minimum formation of compounds other than acrolein, carbon... hydrocarbons are available in the theses and dissertations of Sanderson (3F ) , Looney (26), Burns (6)P Dunlop (9)? Woodham (45), Perkins (30)j and Billingsley (4)0 In order to avoid repetition of the material covered in the exhaustive surveys presented...

  1. Syntheses of Functionalized Benzylic Compounds: Development of Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Benzylation Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torregrosa, Robert Ryan P.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-carbon bond formation between the benzyl carbon and a functional group is important in organic synthesis because majority of the compounds in the chemical literature contain aromatic cores appended with different ...

  2. Possible explosive compounds in the Savannah River Site waste tank farm facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will be revised upon completion of current testing investigating the radiolytic stability of additional energetic materials and the analysis of tank farm samples for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds.

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  6. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”actions to clean up port truck emissions in Oakland serve asTurnover on Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland,”

  7. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  8. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  9. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  10. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  11. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, A. B.

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

  12. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  13. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  14. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  15. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chin, Arthur Achhing; Jain, Puja; Linehan, Suzanne; Lipiecki, Francis Joseph; Maroldo, Stephen Gerard; November, Samuel J; Yamamoto, John Hiroshi

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of a borohydride compound. The process comprises combining a compound comprising boron and oxygen with an adduct of alane.

  16. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.; Chen, Q. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Building Technology Program; Bluyssen, P.M. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with carpets that are not new, (2) calculate the time-dependent VOC distributions in a test chamber or room, and (3) consider the temperature effect on VOC emissions. Based on small-scale chamber data, both models were used to examine the VOC emissions under different temperatures from polypropene styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) bitumen-backed carpet. The short-term predictions show that the VOC emissions under different temperatures can be modeled solely by changing the carpet diffusion coefficients. A formulation of the Arrhenius relation was used to correlate the dependence of carpet diffusion coefficient with temperature. The long-term predictions show that it would take several years to bake out the VOCs, and temperature would have a major impact on the bake-out time.

  17. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  18. A two-fold interpenetrating 3D metal-organic framework material constructed from helical chains linked via 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Yiming [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, the Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China); Zhao Zhenguo; Wu Xiaoyuan; Zhang Qisheng; Chen Lijuan; Wang Fei; Chen Shanci [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Lu Canzhong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China)], E-mail: czlu@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound {l_brace}[Ag(L){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n} (1) has been synthesized by self-assembly of 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz (L=4,4'-H{sub 2}bpz=3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole) and Ag{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} under hydrothermal conditions. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4{sub 1}/acd with a=21.406(4) A, b=21.406(4) A, c=36.298(8) A, Z=32. X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that 1 has a three-dimensional framework with an unprecedented alternate left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net. Photoluminescent investigation reveals that the title compound displays interesting emissions in a wide region, which shows that the title compound may be a good potential candidate as a photoelectric material. - Graphical abstract: A 3-connected dia-f-type metal-organic framework compound [Ag(4,4'-bpz){sub 3/2}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}] shows unprecedented alternating left- and right-handed helices structure, featuring a non-uniform two-fold interpenetrated (4.14{sup 2}) net.

  19. Polybenzimidazole compounds, polymeric media, and methods of post-polymerization modifications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about 15.

  20. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. Paper No. 27-1.diesel) engines. The gas turbine engine which is usedhave been measured in gas turbine exhausts. The effect of

  1. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  2. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts of impurities such as formic and diglycolic acid that were then carried over in the SME products. Oxalic acid present in the simulated tank farm waste was also detected. Finally, numerous other compounds, at low concentrations, were observed present in etheric extracts of aqueous supernate solutions of the SME samples and are thought to be breakdown products of antifoam 747. The data collectively suggest that although addition of glycolic acid and antifoam 747 will introduce a number of impurities and breakdown products into the melter feed, the concentrations of these organics is expected to remain low and may not significantly impact REDOX or off-gas flammability predictions. In the SME products examined presently, which contained variant amounts of glycolic acid and antifoam 747, no unexpected organic degradation product was found at concentrations above 500 mg/kg, a reasonable threshold concentration for an organic compound to be taken into account in the REDOX modeling. This statement does not include oxalic or formic acid that were sometimes observed above 500 mg/kg and acetic acid that has an analytical detection limit of 1250 mg/kg due to high glycolate concentration in the SME products tested. Once a finalized REDOX equation has been developed and implemented, REDOX properties of known organic species will be determined and their impact assessed. Although no immediate concerns arose during the study in terms of a negative impact of organics present in SME products of the glycolic flowsheet, evidence of antifoam degradation suggest that an alternative antifoam to antifoam 747 is worth considering. The determination and implementation of an antifoam that is more hydrolysis resistant would have benefits such as increasing its effectiveness over time and reducing the generation of degradation products.

  3. Design and synthesis of organic chromophores for imaging, lithography and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption and emission maxima, photostabilities and photoreactivities of small-molecule organic chromophores can be tailored by (a) the choice of an appropriate parent structure and (b) the deliberate introduction of ...

  4. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  5. Leadership, Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Leadership, Policy & Organizations #12;2 At Peabody students have the opportunity to develop new College, in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations (LPO). The faculty believes Patricia and Rodes Hart Chair, and Professor of Education Policy and Leadership, Ellen Goldring also serves

  6. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

  7. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  8. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  9. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  11. The temporal dynamics of terrestrial organic matter transfer to the oceans : initial assessment and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drenzek, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis employs compound-specific stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analysis of organic biomarkers to (a) resolve petrogenic from pre-aged vascular plant organic carbon (OC) in continental margin sediments, (b) ...

  12. Prediction of crystal densities of organic explosives by group additivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, J R

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molar volume of crystalline organic compound is assumed to be a linear combination of its constituent volumes. Compounds consisting only of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are considered. The constituent volumes are taken to be the volumes of atoms in particular bonding environments and are evaluated from a large set of crystallographic data. The predicted density has an expected error of about 3%. These results are applied to a large number of explosives compounds.

  13. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  14. Excess Emissions (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

  15. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

  16. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Robert P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weller, Thomas E. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Howard, Christopher A. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  17. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Robert P.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes aremore »most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  18. An examination of utility emissions contributions to elevated ozone concentrations in the Chicago area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernau, M.E.; Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the pollutant load to the atmosphere and subsequent damaging effects, Titles I and IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAAs) require reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Title IV is aimed at reducing acidic deposition and requires utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions to specified levels. As a consequence of this, many utilities will have to install SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies. Title I is concerned with bringing regions into compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants, among which is ozone (O{sub 3}). The NAAQS for O{sub 3} is 120 ppb (parts per billion by volume) hourly average concentration, not to be exceeded four times in three years. O{sub 3} is a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when NO{sub x} and VOCs react together in the presence of sunlight. Utilities are a significant source of NO{sub x} and an unimportant source of VOCs. In the past, O{sub 3} control strategy has focused on reducing VOC emissions because of the possibility that reducing NO{sub x} actually might make O{sub 3} concentrations higher. However, this approach has not worked, perhaps because of underestimation of natural and manmade VOC emissions and transport of O{sub 3} from other regions. Computer modeling has shown that for many highly polluted areas massive NO{sub x} reductions may be necessary in addition to or in place of VOC controls. Utilities are a potential source of these NO{sub x} reductions.

  19. An examination of utility emissions contributions to elevated ozone concentrations in the Chicago area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernau, M.E.; Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the pollutant load to the atmosphere and subsequent damaging effects, Titles I and IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAAs) require reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]), nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Title IV is aimed at reducing acidic deposition and requires utilities to reduce SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions to specified levels. As a consequence of this, many utilities will have to install SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] control technologies. Title I is concerned with bringing regions into compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants, among which is ozone (O[sub 3]). The NAAQS for O[sub 3] is 120 ppb (parts per billion by volume) hourly average concentration, not to be exceeded four times in three years. O[sub 3] is a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when NO[sub x] and VOCs react together in the presence of sunlight. Utilities are a significant source of NO[sub x] and an unimportant source of VOCs. In the past, O[sub 3] control strategy has focused on reducing VOC emissions because of the possibility that reducing NO[sub x] actually might make O[sub 3] concentrations higher. However, this approach has not worked, perhaps because of underestimation of natural and manmade VOC emissions and transport of O[sub 3] from other regions. Computer modeling has shown that for many highly polluted areas massive NO[sub x] reductions may be necessary in addition to or in place of VOC controls. Utilities are a potential source of these NO[sub x] reductions.

  20. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  1. Muon-spin spectroscopy of the organometallic spin-1/2 kagome-lattice compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcipar, Lital

    Using muon-spin resonance, we examine the organometallic hybrid compound Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) [Cu(1,3-bdc)], which has structurally perfect spin-1/2 copper kagome planes separated by pure organic linkers. This ...

  2. Method for removing sulfur compounds from C/sub 6/ and lower alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for recovering a low sulfur content hydrocarbon fraction having a boiling point of n-hexane or less from a hydrocarbon stream containing hydrocarbons boiling at or below the boiling point of hexane and organic sulfur compounds comprising monosulfides boiling at or below the boiling point of n-hexane. It consists of contacting the hydrocarbon stream with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite for a time sufficient to convert a selected amount of monosulfide compounds present to compounds having boiling points above the boiling point of n-hexane, separating an aqueous phase and a hydrocarbon phase and fractionally distilling the hydrocarbon phase to recover a hydrocarbon fraction having a boiling point of n-hexane or less, and having a reduced amount of the organic sulfur compounds.

  3. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  4. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - 2-3% * Improved SCR, other - 1-3% Other * GPS integration into engine calibration * Turbo-compounding * Downsizing and downspeeding 20 Environmental Technologies Progress is...

  5. Feedback Capacity of the Compound Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    In this work, we find the capacity of a compound finite-state channel (FSC) with time-invariant deterministic feedback. We consider the use of fixed length block codes over the compound channel. Our achievability result ...

  6. Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

  7. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  8. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  9. Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  10. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  11. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  12. Modeling Traffic Flow Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappiello, Alessandra

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The main topic of this thesis is the development of light-duty vehicle dynamic emission models and their integration with dynamic traffic models. Combined, these models

  13. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  14. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    mass, membrane effects, fundamentals on permeability * DOC Pd:Pt ratios allow optimization * Gasoline emission control is amazing - Zone coating - Lower PGM with better...

  15. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  16. Self-healing organic-dye-based random lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary difficulties in the implementation of organic-dye-based random lasers is the tendency of organic dyes to irreversibly photodecay. In this letter we report the observation of "reversible" photodegradation in a Rhodamine 6G and ZrO$_2$ nanoparticle doped polyurethane random laser. We find that during degradation the emission broadens, redshifts, and decreases in intensity. After degradation the system is observed to self-heal leading to the emission returning to its pristine intensity, giving a recovery efficiency of 100%. While the peak intensity fully recovers, the process is not strictly "reversible" as the emission after recovery is still found to be broadened and redshifted. The combination of the peak emission fully recovering and the broadening of the emission leads to a remarkable result: the random laser cycled through degradation and recovery has a greater integrated emission intensity than the pristine system.

  17. Photosynthesis-inspired device architectures for organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidel, Timothy David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductor photovoltaics offer a promising route to low-cost, scalable, emissions-free electricity generation. However, achieving higher power conversion efficiencies is critical before these devices can play a ...

  18. A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

  19. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the total 2-methyltetrol mass, the secondary mass represented 31 % whereas the primary 69 %. These results could have been expected for PM10 aerosols and might be different for fine particles at the same site. In addition, correlations with isoprene emission estimates for this site only showed an anti-correlation with 2-methylthreitol suggesting their direct emission from biological activity. The present study reinforces the importance of the analysis of chiral organic compounds to correctly assess the contribution of primary biogenic emissions and isoprene oxidation products to biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

  1. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  2. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  3. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, P.G.; Xiang, X.; Goldwasser, I.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties. 58 figs.

  4. Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Menlo Park, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  5. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon AboutOrganizing Committee

  6. Graphene field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S., E-mail: shishirk@gmail.com; Raghavan, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Duesberg, G. S. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN) and School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, D2 (Ireland); Pratap, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (India)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ?10?nA ?m{sup ?1} at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under similar conditions. We demonstrate a power law dependence of emission current on pressure which can be utilized for sensing. The excellent characteristics and relative ease of making the devices promise their great potential for sensing and electronic applications.

  7. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  8. Reduce emissions and operating costs with appropriate glycol selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covington, K.; Lyddon, L. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc., TX (United States); Ebeling, H. [Latoka Engineering L.L.C., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration units have become a major concern and some form of control is necessary in many cases. One method of reducing BTEX emissions that is often overlooked is in the selection of the proper dehydrating agent. BTEX compounds are less soluble in diethylene glycol (DEG) than triethylene glycol (TEG) and considerably less soluble in ethylene glycol (EG). If the use of DEG or EG achieves the required gas dew point in cases where BTEX emissions are a concern, a significant savings in both operating costs and the cost of treating still vent gases may be achieved. This paper compares plant operations using TEG, DEG and EG from the viewpoint of BTEX emissions, circulating rates, utilities and dehydration capabilities.

  9. Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, D.A.; Gundel, L.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.

  10. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Base VOC Volatile Organic Compound XRF X-ray Fluorescence ?mFluorescence spectrometry (XRF) (Na through Pb), inorganicby X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The USFS samples were analyzed

  11. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  12. EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION NOISE PROPAGATION IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullberg, G.T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Resolution Computed Tomography of Positron Emitters,"of Dynamic Emission Computed Tomography," J. Nucl. Med. ~:IN POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY RECEIVED lAWRENCE

  13. Method of making organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Janora, Kevin Henry (Schenectady, NY); Parthasarathy, Gautam (Saratoga Springs, NY); Cella, James Anthony (Clifton Park, NY); Chichak, Kelly Scott (Clifton Park, NY)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for the preparation of organic light-emitting devices comprising a bilayer structure made by forming a first film layer comprising an electroactive material and an INP precursor material, and exposing the first film layer to a radiation source under an inert atmosphere to generate an interpenetrating network polymer composition comprising the electroactive material. At least one additional layer is disposed on the reacted first film layer to complete the bilayer structure. The bilayer structure is comprised within an organic light-emitting device comprising standard features such as electrodes and optionally one or more additional layers serving as a bipolar emission layer, a hole injection layer, an electron injection layer, an electron transport layer, a hole transport layer, exciton-hole transporting layer, exciton-electron transporting layer, a hole transporting emission layer, or an electron transporting emission layer.

  14. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  15. From association to organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.M. (1978). Organization theory and memory for prose: Aand summarize organization theory and relevant empiricalexplained in terms of organization theory. The hierarchical

  16. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  17. The Periodic Table as a Part of the Periodic Table of Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The numbers of natural chemical elements, minerals, inorganic and organic chemical compounds are determined by 1, 2, 3 and 4-combinations of a set 95 and are respectively equal to 95, 4,465, 138,415 and 3,183,545. To explain these relations it is suggested the concept of information coefficient of proportionality as mathematical generalization of the proportionality coefficient for any set of positive numbers. It is suggested a hypothesis that the unimodal distributions of the sets of information coefficients of proportionality for atomic weights of chemical elements of minerals and chemical compounds correspond to unimodal distributions of the above sets for combination of 2, 3 and 4 atomic weights of 95 natural chemical elements. The expected values of symmetrized distributions of information coefficients of proportionality sets for atomic weights of minerals and chemical compounds are proposed to be used to define chemical compounds, like atomic weights define chemical elements. Variational series of the e...

  18. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  19. The Control of NOx Emissions from Combustion and Incinerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heap, M. P.; Chen, S. L.; Seeker, W. R.; Pershing, D. W.

    control technologies such as staged combustion and flue gas recirculation may not be applicable to waste incinerators since these control methods tend to increase emissions of potentially toxic organics. This paper summarizes the results of a study...THE CONTROL OF NO x EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTORS AND INCINERATORS M. P. HEAP, S. L. CHEN, W. R. SEEKER, AND D. W. PERSHING Energy and Environmental Research Corporation 18 Mason, Irvine, California 92718 ABSTRACT The effectiveness...

  20. Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

  1. Effects of asphaltene precipitation and reprecipitation on the metal-containing compounds in heavy residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boscan vacuum residuum (VR) has been separated into isooctane insoluble asphaltenes and isooctane soluble maltenes. The asphaltenes were dissolved in a minimum of toluene and were further separated by two additional reprecipitations using isooctane as the precipitating solvent. The authors examined the fractions, including the recovered isooctane soluble material, by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy to determine the effects, if any, the reprecipitations have on the size distribution of the metal-containing compounds.

  2. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  4. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  5. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  6. Case study: The development of a rule action to implement the federal emission guidelines for existing municipal solid waste landfills by the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moralez, D.A. [Ventura Country Air Pollution Control District, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will highlight the key revisions to existing District Rule 74.17, Solid Waste Disposal Sites and the key requirements of new District Rule 74.17.1, Municipal Solid Waste Landfills to meet new federal requirements. The rule action is necessary to incorporate and implement the requirements of a New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) in Title 40 CFR, Part 60, Subpart Cc -- Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (District) is one of only three other districts in California that had previously adopted a landfill gas control rule before the federal EG requirements were adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March of 1996. Also, because existing District Rule 74.17 requirements were adopted into the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by the EPA in 1994, several key requirements are carried forward into new District Rule 74.17.1 to prevent a relaxation of the requirements that existing MSW landfills already fulfill. The goal of the rule action was to develop revisions to existing District Rule 74.17 and develop requirements for new District Rule 74.17.1 that at a minimum would incorporate and implement the requirements specified by the EG without causing a relaxation of the existing rule requirements. Because existing District Rule 74.17 and the EG have different non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission limits, staff gave considerable evaluation to this difference and concluded that, in general, the emission limits are equivalent. Also, based on all of the information reviewed, it is District staff`s opinion that the amount of NMOC emissions controlled from the requirements in new District Rule 74.17.1 are, in general, equivalent to the amount of NMOC emissions control from the requirements in existing Rule 74.17.

  7. Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic is known about the mechanisms of PAH and other hydrophobic organic compound sequestration and aging microspectroscopy at the NSLS beamline U10B and ALS beamline 1.4 were used to identify organic carbon location

  8. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  9. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  10. Liquid-vapor phase transition in nuclei or compound nucleus decay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak

    2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  11. Organic materials for fusion-reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, G.F.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic materials requirements for fusion-reactor magnets are described with reference to the temperature, radiation, and electrical and mechanical stress environment expected in these magnets. A review is presented of the response to gamma-ray and neutron irradiation at low temperatures of candidate organic materials; i.e. laminates, thin films, and potting compounds. Lifetime-limiting features of this response as well as needed testing under magnet operating conditions not yet adequately investigated are identified and recomendations for future work are made.

  12. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  13. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Corporan, E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to 90%) from (typically lower than) those based on the extractive techniques. However, the ORS techniques were useful in providing non-intrusive real-time measurements of gaseous species in the exhaust plume, which warrants further development. The results obtained in this program validate sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile PM aircraft emissions as described in the SAE AIR-6037.

  14. Digital Construction Platform: A Compound Arm Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spielberg, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel large-scale Digital Construction Platform (DCP) for on-site sensing, analysis, and fabrication. The DCP is an in-progress research project consisting of a compound robotic arm system comprised of a ...

  15. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Hofer, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  16. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  17. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  18. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  19. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

  20. Green exciplex emission from a bilayer light-emitting diode containing a rare earth ternary complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    Green exciplex emission from a bilayer light-emitting diode containing a rare earth ternary complex form 18 October 2001 Abstract A bilayer organic light-emitting diode using a blue-fluorescent yttrium

  1. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Volume I - Summary Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Clardige, D.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Gilman, D.; Degelman, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ninth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I - Summary Report - provides...

  2. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Volume I 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman; Gilman, Don; Fitzpatrick, Tom; Muns, Shirley; Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Degelman, Larry; Claridge, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fifth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I – Summary Report – provides an executive...

  3. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Volume I - Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Clardige, D.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.; Gilman, D.; Degelman, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ninth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I - Summary Report - provides...

  4. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Columbus, OH)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  5. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  7. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM anda mar- ket-based emissions trading program called theimpacts cre- ated by emissions trading programs that affect

  8. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  9. Targeting Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides in Cancer to Improve Diagnostics and Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Amanda Lynne

    2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs) are multispecific transport proteins that mediate the uptake of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds into cells. Recently, OATPs have been shown to have altered ...

  10. Characterising an Extractive Electrospray Ionisation (EESI) source for the online mass spectrometry analysis of organic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallimore, Peter J.; Kalberer, Markus

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic compounds comprise a major fraction of tropospheric aerosol and understanding their chemical complexity is a key factor for determining their climate and health effects. We present and characterise here a new online technique...

  11. Variations in organic aerosol optical and hygroscopic properties upon heterogeneous OH oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappa, Christopher D.

    Measurements of the evolution of organic aerosol extinction cross sections (?[subscript ext]) and subsaturated hygroscopicity upon heterogeneous OH oxidation are reported for two model compounds, squalane (a C30 saturated ...

  12. Microsoft Word - NRAP_TRS_III_Mobilization_and_Transport_of_Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs 21 May 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NRAP-TRS-III-002-2015 Disclaimer This report was...

  13. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differ- ences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations

  14. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater : structure, cycling, and the role of biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quan, Tracy M. (Tracy Michelle), 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate three different areas relating to the characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): further determination of the chemical compounds present in high molecular weight DOM ...

  15. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  16. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Clear Lake Area (Thompson, Et Al., 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and...

  18. Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Newberry Caldera Area (Goles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Compound and Elemental Analysis At Newberry Caldera Area (Goles & Lambert, 1990) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and...

  20. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  1. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.

  2. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  3. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  4. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  5. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  7. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  8. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  9. Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of vanadium oxides andrelated compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, Thorsten

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one ''spintronic'' device that exploits both charge and ''spin'' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; and (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 {micro}m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (< 4 at.%) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2{sup +} state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2{sup +} state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS. revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  10. Erbium-ytterbium-yttrium compounds for light emission at 1.54[mu]m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon microphotonics has emerged as the leading technology to overcome the interconnect bottleneck that limits a further increase of computation power following Moore's law. Optical interconnects between different ...

  11. 6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

  12. Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair

    2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.

  13. 4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

  14. Gas Turbine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

  15. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Danielewicz

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  16. ALGORITHMS FOR JOINT ESTIMATION OF ATTENUATION AND EMISSION IMAGES IN PET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogan, Hakan

    radiolabeled compounds yields two high energy photons emitted in opposing directions. However, often reconstruct the at- tenuation map image with a local smoothing penalty and reproject them to obtain ACFs [2 sequential estimation strategy. 2. THE MODEL Let = [1, . . . , p] denote the vector of unknown emission

  17. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  18. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon M Lawrence

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected for rare-earth-like Hund's rule behavior, essentially because the orbital moment is suppressed for itinerant 5f electrons. We also found that the standard local-moment-based theory of the temperature dependence of the specific heat, susceptibility and neutron scattering fails badly for URu{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and UCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}, even though the theory is phenomenally successful for the closely related rare earth compound YbFe{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. Both these results highlight the distinction between the itineracy of the 5f's and the localization of the 4f's. It is our hope that these results are sufficiently significant as to stimulate deeper investigation of these compounds.

  20. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  1. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  2. Experimental investigation of single carbon compounds under hydrothermal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    reactant during the abiotic synthesis of reduced carbon compounds via Fischer­Tropsch-type processes

  3. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  4. Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

  5. Microsoft Word - DOE EA 1606 FONSI_Dec2011.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    aircraft, portable generators, and portable pumps. Emissions will include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and...

  6. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  7. Departmental Organization and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  8. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  9. Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

  10. HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    HYDROGEN LOCAL VIBRATIONAL MODES IN COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS M.D. MCCLUSKEY* University) spectroscopy of hydrogen and deuterium in GaP, AlSb, ZnSe, and GaN has provided important information about the structures of dopant- hydrogen complexes and their interaction with the host lattice. In GaN:Mg, for example

  11. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    /AQP2/AQP4, whereas the water permeability of AQP3 and AQP5, which lack a corresponding TyrQuaternary Ammonium Compounds as Water Channel Blockers SPECIFICITY, POTENCY, AND SITE OF ACTION, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ Scotland, United Kingdom Excessive water uptake through Aquaporins (AQP) can

  12. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  13. Superconductivity in iron compounds G. R. Stewart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    of the superconductivity in this new class of compounds. These iron pnictide and chalcogenide (FePn/Ch) superconductors-phonon coupled ``conventional'' superconductors. Clearly, superconductivity and magnetism or magnetic of magnetism and superconductivity in FePn/Ch superconductors 1606 D. Tc and TS=TSDW versus pressure 1607 1

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REALISTIC EMISSIONS OF SOURCE AEROSOLS (TERESA): APPLICATION TO POWER PLANT-DERIVED PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annette C. Rohr; Petros Koutrakis; John Godleski

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the health impacts of different sources and components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important scientific goal, because PM is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic constituents that likely differ in their potential to cause adverse health outcomes. The TERESA (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols) study focused on two PM sources - coal-fired power plants and mobile sources - and sought to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to realistic emissions from these sources. The DOE-EPRI Cooperative Agreement covered the performance and analysis of field experiments at three power plants. The mobile source component consisted of experiments conducted at a traffic tunnel in Boston; these activities were funded through the Harvard-EPA Particulate Matter Research Center and will be reported separately in the peer-reviewed literature. TERESA attempted to delineate health effects of primary particles, secondary (aged) particles, and mixtures of these with common atmospheric constituents. The study involved withdrawal of emissions directly from power plant stacks, followed by aging and atmospheric transformation of emissions in a mobile laboratory in a manner that simulated downwind power plant plume processing. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from the biogenic volatile organic compound {alpha}-pinene was added in some experiments, and in others ammonia was added to neutralize strong acidity. Specifically, four scenarios were studied at each plant: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS). Extensive exposure characterization was carried out, including gas-phase and particulate species. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed for 6 hours to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Toxicological endpoints included (1) breathing pattern; (2) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytology and biochemistry; (3) blood cytology; (4) in vivo oxidative stress in heart and lung tissue; and (5) heart and lung histopathology. In addition, at one plant, cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Statistical analyses included analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences between exposed and control animals in response to different scenario/plant combinations; univariate analyses to link individual scenario components to responses; and multivariate analyses (Random Forest analyses) to evaluate component effects in a multipollutant setting. Results from the power plant studies indicated some biological responses to some plant/scenario combinations. A number of significant breathing pattern changes were observed; however, significant clinical changes such as specific irritant effects were not readily apparent, and effects tended to be isolated changes in certain respiratory parameters. Some individual exposure scenario components appeared to be more strongly and consistently related to respiratory parameter changes; however, the specific scenario investigated remained a better predictor of response than individual components of that scenario. Bronchoalveolar lavage indicated some changes in cellularity of BAL fluid in response to the POS and PONS scenarios; these responses were considered toxicologically mild in magnitude. No changes in blood cytology were observed at any plant or scenario. Lung oxidative stress was increased with the POS scenario at one plant, and cardiac oxidative stress was increased with the PONS scenario also at one plant, suggesting limited oxidative stress in response to power plant emissions with added atmospheric constituents. There were some mild histological findings in lung tissue in response to the P and PONS scenarios. Finally, the MI model experiments indicated that premature ventricular beat frequency was increased at the plant studied, while no changes in heart rate, HRV, or electrocardiographic intervals were observed. Overall, the

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  16. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  17. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  18. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

  19. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  20. Characterization of vanadium compounds in selected crudes. I. Porphyrin and non-porphyrin separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Brown, R.J.; Reynolds, J.G.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have applied size-exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) and reversed-phase chromatography (RP-HPLC), with element specific detection, (inductively coupled and direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP and DCP)), to selected crude oils - Boscan, Beta, Morichal, Arabian Heavy, and Maya - and their separated fractions. By these procedures, they have further characterized both the V porphyrin and the V non-porphyrin compounds. From the SEC-HPLC-ICP profiles of the heavy crude oils they found the V compounds generally have a bimodal distribution, with maxima at approx. 800 and 9000 polystyrene equivalent (PS) molecular weight (MW). Arabian Heavy, though, had relatively few of the small V compounds. The crude oils were separated into porphyrin and non-porphyrin fractions by methanol extraction. From the SEC-HPLC-ICP profiles of the porphyrin fraction, they identified and quantitated the maximum at approx. MW 800 (PS) as being V porphyrins. The remaining V compounds are non-porphyrin. 39 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.