Sample records for organic carbon toc

  1. Total organic carbon as an indicator of wood delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genco, J.M.; Hassler, J.C.; Busayasakul, N.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kraft pulping experiments were performed in a 12-liter electrically heated laboratory digester to determine pulp yields and residual lignin content (kappa number) as a function of time. Samples of the pulp and the black liquor were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content by oxidizing the samples in a combustion furnace and measuring the released CO/sub 2/ gravimetrically. The experimental data on TOC were correlated with kappa number and yield. Results can be explained satisfactorily using a mathematical model based upon the principle of conservation of mass. The TOC content of black liquor appears to be a useful parameter for batch digester control. 17 references.

  2. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  3. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  4. Effect of low po? on growth of bacteria and on loss of soluble carbon from maize roots under hydroponic conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coker, Dennis Lee

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ~ -. 16 Analysis of soluble sugars and total organic carbon (TOC) in root extracts and in the nutrient solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 vii Page RESULTS. 19 Effect of p02 on soluble total organic carbon (TOC) in roots and solution (2 kpa... on root and shoot dry matter (2 kPa vs. 20. 9 kPa 02). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . . . . . . . . . 49 Effect of p02 on soluble total organic carbon (TOC) in roots snd solution (0 kPa vs. 20. 9 kPa 02...

  5. Low level TOC measurement method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

  6. 5, 11391174, 2008 Organic carbon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 5, 1139­1174, 2008 Organic carbon and nutrient export from disturbed peatlands S. Waldron et al of Biogeosciences The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject Union. 1139 #12;BGD 5, 1139­1174, 2008 Organic carbon and nutrient export from disturbed peatlands S

  7. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiance ARMgovMeasurementsOrganic Carbon

  8. Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Brandon

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    rely on to assess the economic potential of these formations are: total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity, hydrocarbon saturation, porosity, mineralogy and brittleness. In this thesis, I investigate rock physics models and methods for the possible...

  9. Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs Studies on Accumulation of Starch, Sugars and Oil Cover: Starch granules in cells of fresh potato tuber visualised by iodine staining. #12;Carbon By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve

  10. Environmental effects of dredging. Lower limits of organic carbon normalization: Results of fish/sediment/water equilibrium partitioning studies. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.E.; Feldhaus, J.; Ace, L.N.; Brannon, J.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note reports the initial results of studies measuring biota/ sediment/water equilibrium partitioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener. The focus of this technical note is on the validity of normalizing concentrations of neutral organic chemicals on sediment total organic carbon (TOC) when sediment TOC concentrations are low. Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has aggressively pursued development of single-chemical sediment quality criteria (SQC). Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the interstitial water of the sediments provides the theoretical basis for the most popular approach to development of SQC. The solution phase of the chemical in equilibrium with the sediment is considered to represent the bioavailable fraction and to enable the conversion of existing water quality criteria (WQC) into SQC or sediment quality standards.

  11. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  12. A study of the remineralization of organic carbon in nearshore sediments using carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNichol, Ann P., 1956-

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the remineralization of organic carbon was conducted in the organic-rich sediments of Buzzards Bay, MA. Major processes affecting the carbon chemistry in sediments are reflected by changes in the stable carbon ...

  13. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  14. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries....

  15. The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540

  16. Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPF’s melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNL’s support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRR’s Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPF’s strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy.

  17. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation

  18. Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic October 2008. [1] Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key

  19. Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,

  20. The distribution of organic carbon in the Brazos River basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, James Mark

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN A Thesis by James Nark Brooks Submitted to the Graduate College of. Texas ASYi Hniversity in partial fulfillment. of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August..., 1970 Najor Subject: Oceanography THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE BRAZOS RIVER BASIN A Thesis by James Mark Brooks Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commrttee) (Head o Depa tme ) (Member) kJ. ( &. ) i & (Member...

  1. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  2. Management effects on labile organic carbon pools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodziej, Scott Michael

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well documented that increases in soil organic matter (SOM) improve soil physical properties and increase the overall fertility and sustainability of the soil. Research in SOM storage has recently amplified following ...

  3. Management effects on labile organic carbon pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodziej, Scott Michael

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well documented that increases in soil organic matter (SOM) improve soil physical properties and increase the overall fertility and sustainability of the soil. Research in SOM storage has recently amplified following the proposal...

  4. Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, W.; Probst, J.C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France)] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France); Kempe, S. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)] [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical models were developed to describe relationships between the climatic, biologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of major world rivers and the observed dissolved and particulate carbon fluxes. The main purpose of the study was to determine the best regression models to describe river carbon flux at a global scale. Model parameters were grouped in all possible combinations and in a way to minimize the effects of multicollinearity. All parameter combinations were then tested individually. A model was developed with parameters which corresponded well to field results and global carbon fluxes which were close to previous estimates. The model was also used to relate the variability of annual carbon fluxes to the environmental variability of river basins. The statistical approach allows only a general view, but is capable of identifying the principal factors controlling global organic carbon flux. 111 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of bacterial fatty acids in a seagrass dominated system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Walter Brian

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a proxy of organic carbon sources to the sediment. T. testudinum above ground tissues averaged -11.8±0.3[0/00] and benthic microalgae, as represented by the fatty acid 20:5[]3, averaged -20.5±0.6[0/00]. The TO¹³C from all habitats and depths were...

  6. Fates of Eroded Soil Organic Carbon: Mississippi Basin Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S. V.; Sleezer, R. O.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, Robert W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a mass balance analysis of organic carbon (OC) across the five major river subsystems of the Mississippi (MS) Basin (an area of 3.2 3 106 km2). This largely agricultural landscape undergoes a bulk soil erosion rate of ;480 t·km22...

  7. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal outwelling of organic carbon from mangrove wetlands contributes to near-shore productivity and influences biogeochemical cycling of elements. I used a flume to measure fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between ...

  8. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices Gwang photovoltaic device are fabricated using homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a polymer. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials promise the production

  9. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2 Yao Huang,1), Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, doi:10 carbon (SOC) in cropland is of great importance to the global carbon (C) balance and to agricultural

  10. Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

  11. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.222.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekker, Andrey

    is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger deposition, a carbon isotope fractionation as large as ~37 appears to characterize the production of bulk was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests

  12. Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy of an Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). The purpose of this effort Frontier Research Center proposal: "Integrated Science of Geological Carbon Sequestration" to BES office

  13. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. · Climate interacting with land

  14. Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic is known about the mechanisms of PAH and other hydrophobic organic compound sequestration and aging microspectroscopy at the NSLS beamline U10B and ALS beamline 1.4 were used to identify organic carbon location

  15. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  16. Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents requires drastic modifications to the current energy infrastructure. Thus, carbon capture and sequestration for use as carbon capture adsorbents. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) estimates of CO2 selectivity

  17. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms for COF-5, 65 mg g-1 for COF-6, 87 mg g-1 for COF-8, and 80 mg g-1 for COF-10; carbon dioxide at 298 K

  18. Are environmental conditions recorded by the organic matrices associated with precipitated calcium carbonate in cyanobacterial microbialites?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calcium carbonate in cyanobacterial microbialites? P. GAUTRET 1 , R. DE WIT 2 , G. CAMOIN 3 AND S. GOLUBIC acid composition of organic matrices associated with calcium carbonate precipitates in microbialites Caledonia (Nouméa lagoon) and French Polynesia (Tikehau atoll). Calcium carbonate precipitation

  19. Quantification of soil organic carbon using mid- and near- DRIFT spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Misun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    (X) and soil property data (Y) into a new smaller set of latent variables and their scores that best describe all the variance in the data. Oxidizable organic carbon content was measured by a modified Walkley-Black method, and total organic carbon...

  20. Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma* ABSTRACT to the factEstablishing a simple yet reliable compost stability test is essential that NaOH-extractable organic carbon (OC) containsfor a better compost quality control and utilization efficiency. The objective

  1. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  2. acyclic organic carbonate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract Soil is a major carbon pool ruling the global C cycle and in climate change because soil carbon is a source and a sink of atmospheric CO2....

  3. Relationship between bitumen maturity and organic facies in Devonian shales from the Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, A.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variation in several bitumen maturity parameters was studied in a core of Devonian shale from the central Appalachian basin. Kerogens in the shales are at maturity levels equivalent to the early stages of oil generation and range in composition from Type III-IV to Type II-III. Maturity parameters based on steranes, terpanes, and n-alkanes exhibit fluctuations that are unrelated to thermal maturity changes in the core. The parameters correlate with one another to a high degree and appear to be directly or indirectly related to the organic facies of the shales. The maturity level indicated by each parameter increases with total organic carbon (TOC) content and hydrogen index value. The greatest variation occurs in rocks with TOC values below 2% and hydrogen index values below 250. The data provide a good opportunity to examine the dependency of bitumen maturity on organic facies, and they highlight a caveat to be considered during interpretation.

  4. Organic Carbon Cycling in East China Sea Shelf Sediments: Linkages with Hypoxia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Changjiang River provides the main source of sediment and terrestrial derived organic carbon (OC) to the Changjiang large delta-front estuary (LDE) in the East China Sea (ECS). This study analyzed bulk OC, biomarkers including lignin and plant...

  5. Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

  6. Effects of Data Uncertainties on Estimated Soil Organic Carbon in the Sudan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardö, Jonas

    Effects of Data Uncertainties on Estimated Soil Organic Carbon in the Sudan JEAN-NICOLAS POUSSART was situated in central Sudan and dominated by subsistence agroecosystems. Uncertainties in the modeling

  7. Thermoelectric Behavior of Flexible Organic Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyung Who

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been significant researches about thermoelectric behaviors by applying carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites. Due to its thermally disconnected but electrically connected junctions between CNTs, the thermoelectric properties were...

  8. Metal-Containing Organic and Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satcher, Jr., J H; Baumann, T F; Herberg, J L

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This document and the accompanying manuscript summarize the technical accomplishments of our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Hydrogen storage and hydrogen fuel cells are important components of the 2003 Hydrogen Fuel Initiative focused on the reduction of America's dependence on oil. To compete with oil as an energy source, however, one must be able to transport and utilize hydrogen at or above the target set by DOE (6 wt.% H{sub 2}) for the transportation sector. Other than liquid hydrogen, current technology falls well short of this DOE target. As a result, a variety of materials have recently been investigated to address this issue. Carbon nanostructures have received significant attention as hydrogen storage materials due to their low molecular weight, tunable microporosity and high specific surface areas. For example, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) achieved 5 to 10 wt.% H{sub 2} storage using metal-doped carbon nanotubes. That study showed that the intimate mix of metal nanoparticles with graphitic carbon resulted in the unanticipated hydrogen adsorption at near ambient conditions. The focus of our LDRD effort was the investigation of metal-doped carbon aerogels (MDCAs) as hydrogen storage materials. In addition to their low mass densities, continuous porosities and high surface areas, these materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because MDCAs contain a nanometric mix of metal nanoparticles and graphitic nanostructures. For FY04, our goals were to: (1) prepare a variety of metal-doped CAs (where the metal is cobalt, nickel or iron) at different densities and carbonization temperatures, (2) characterize the microstructure of these materials and (3) initiate hydrogen adsorption/desorption studies to determine H2 storage properties of these materials. Since the start of this effort, we have successfully prepared and characterized Ni- and Co-doped carbon aerogels at different densities and carbonization temperatures. The bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled 'Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel- Doped Carbon Aerogels'. This one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the DOE Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence at NREL, with funding from DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Program starting in FY05.

  9. Mineralization pathways in lake sediments with different oxygen and organic carbon supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Mineralization pathways in lake sediments with different oxygen and organic carbon supply Martin Abstract The intensity and pathways of mineralization of sedimentary organic matter were investigated equipped with both oxygen and ion-selective electrodes. Anaerobic sedimentary mineralization ranged from 13

  10. Differential Supply of Autochthonous Organic Carbon and Nitrogen to the Microbial Loop in the Delaware Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as terrestrial organic C supply, inorganic N speciation and concentrations, and extracellular release% of organic carbon (C) produced through primary production is used to fuel bacterial production (Ducklow 2000 is fueled by a combination of autochthonous and allochthonous DOM. Differen- tiating between the two sources

  11. Size fractionation of black and organic particulate carbon from fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dod, R.L.; Mowrer, F.; Gundel, L.A.; Williamson, R.B.; Novakov, T.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission factors to total smoke particulates as well as organic and black carbon have been measured as a function of size for a set of building materials typical of those used in urban construction. Black carbon emissions (mass per fuel mass) were similar among the wood fuels studied, although the dominant form of combustion varied from flaming to smoldering. Black carbon was found predominantly in the finest size ranges (less than or equal to 0.20 ..mu..m). Polyurethane foam produced a greater emission of black carbon, and the particle size distribution of that carbon extended to much larger aerodynamic diameters than did those of the wood samples. For the fuels tested, total smoke particle emissions ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 percent of fuel mass; black carbon emissions were 0.03 to 0.3 percent of fuel mass.

  12. Environmental effects of dredging. Interim results: The relationship between sediment organic carbon and biological uptake of contaminants. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, J.M.; Price, C.B.; Reilly, F.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note describes testing conducted to determine the partitioning of contaminants between sediment organic carbon and sediment interstitial water, assess the effects of sediment organic carbon upon bioaccumulation of a selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) by two organisms, and investigate the accuracy of the apparent preference factor as a predictive tool by comparing predicted uptake with actual uptake.

  13. Substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: a framework for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL] [ORNL; Schimel, Joshua [University of California, Santa Barbara] [University of California, Santa Barbara; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Song, Xia [ORNL] [ORNL; Yuan, Fengming [ORNL] [ORNL; Goswami, Santonu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is one of the fundamental processes of global carbon cycling and it determines the magnitude of microbial biomass in soils. Mechanistic understanding of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls is important for to improve Earth system models ability to simulate carbon-climate feedbacks. Although microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is broadly considered to be an important parameter, it really comprises two separate physiological processes: one-time assimilation efficiency and time-dependent microbial maintenance energy. Representing of these two mechanisms is crucial to more accurately simulate carbon cycling in soils. In this study, a simple modeling framework was developed to evaluate the substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon using a new term: microbial annual active period (the length of microbes remaining active in one year). Substrate quality has a positive effect on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: higher substrate quality (lower C:N ratio) leads to higher ratio of microbial carbon to soil organic carbon and vice versa. Increases in microbial annual active period from zero stimulate microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon; however, when microbial annual active period is longer than an optimal threshold, increasing this period decreases microbial biomass. The simulated ratios of soil microbial biomass to soil organic carbon are reasonably consistent with a recently compiled global dataset at the biome-level. The modeling framework of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls developed in this study offers an applicable ways to incorporate microbial contributions to the carbon cycling into Earth system models for simulating carbon-climate feedbacks and to explain global patterns of microbial biomass.

  14. 1 Protection of Organic Carbon in Soil Microaggregates Occurs via Restructuring of Aggregate Porosity and Filling of Pores with Accumulating Organic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, John F.

    , and insights relevant to strategies for enhancing 44 carbon-sequestration in soil through changes 53 sequestration as a strategy to help mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions (Post et al., 20041 Protection of Organic Carbon in Soil Microaggregates Occurs via Restructuring of Aggregate

  15. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  16. Quantification of the Effects of Organic and Carbonate Buffers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    on a Goethite-Based Granular Porous Adsorbent M A S A K A Z U K A N E M A T S U , * , T H O M A S M . Y O U N G well characterized goethite-based adsorbent (Bayoxide E33 (E33)). All adsorption isotherms obtained calibrated using independent published carbonate adsorption data for pure goethite taking into consideration

  17. A method for the determination of dissolved organic carbon in sea water by gas chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredericks, Alan D

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF PLATES Plate Page I Front Oblique View of Ampoule Flushing and Sealing Apparatus . 15 2 Side View of Ampoule Flushing and Sealing Apparatus . 17 3 Ampoule Crushing Apparatus 4 Two Position Gas Valve 5 Carbon Dioxide Analysis Apparatus 29 37 45... is passed through an infrared analyzer using nitrogen as a carrier gas. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a shipboard method for determining the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in sea water samples. Sea water was sealed in glass...

  18. The distribution of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the southeastern Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abd El-Reheim, Hussein Anwar

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . rbe rloSxee of NASTI. R OP SCIENCE Decerabex 1976 Na)or Subject: OueanoStaPby THE DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIAN OCEAN A Thesis by HUSSEIN ANWAR ABD EL-REHEIM (Co-Chairman of ommittee) (Co...-C irman of Commit e) (Head of Department) (Member) r (Member) December 1976 ABSTtlACT The Distribution of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon In the Southeastern Indian Ocean. (December 1976) Hussein Anwan Abd El-Reheim B. Sc. , Alexandria...

  19. Thermoelectric Behavior of Flexible Organic Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyung Who

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    with ~100 S/m of electrical conductivity, resulting ~10,000 µW/m-K2 of power factor. The result of this study shows that organic thermoelectric materials would be a promising approach for thermoelectric applications with light-weight and non-toxic nature....

  20. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for removing organic contaminants from soil and from water. Most studies on SCF's concentrated on phase behavior in supercritical mixtures. Investigations of the adsorption phenomena and studies on hydrodynamics and transport rate parameters are relatively...LIMITING DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF HEAVY MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MAURICIO OREJUELA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

  2. Layered Organic Structure at the Carbon Tetrachloride-Water Interface Dennis K. Hore, Dave S. Walker, and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Layered Organic Structure at the Carbon Tetrachloride-Water Interface Dennis K. Hore, Dave S remediation. The carbon tetrachloride-water interface in particular has been the subject of numerous the density profile across the interface. No detailed studies of the carbon tetrachloride structure

  3. Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores U R S F E D E R E R , * , , P, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, and British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom Received May 6, 2008. Revised manuscript

  4. Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean M. C. Honda,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Quick transport of primary produced organic carbon to the ocean interior M. C. Honda,1 H. Kawakami±10%,whichissignificantly higher than that in other oceans. Citation: Honda, M. C., H. Kawakami, K. Sasaoka, S. Watanabe at 150 m that is ca. 50 m below the late winter mixed layer at station K2 (M. C. Honda, unpublished data

  5. The Effect of Metal Salts on Quantification of Elemental and Organic Carbon in Diesel Exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    The Effect of Metal Salts on Quantification of Elemental and Organic Carbon in Diesel Exhaust-loaded diesel samples. Estimated TC was calculated from the BC concentration measured by optical transmissometer and linear relationship between TC and BC, TC (µg)= 1.78 ×BC(µg) - 21.97, derived from diesel reference

  6. Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach C'Orléans, CNRS/INSU, Université d'Orléans, 1A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans, France Abstract A Rock cycling in this specific environment using a method that allows monitoring the depth evolution of sources

  7. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  8. Li+ solvation in pure, binary and ternary mixtures of organic carbonate electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Vetere, Valentina; Mossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been employed in the present study to investigate the solvation of lithium cations in pure organic carbonate solvents (ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)) and their binary (EC-DMC, 1:1 molar composition) and ternary (EC-DMC-PC, 1:1:3 molar composition) mixtures. The results obtained by both methods indicate that the formation of complexes with four solvent molecules around Li+, exhibiting a strong local tetrahedral order, is the most favorable. However, the molecular dynamics simulations have revealed the existence of significant structural heterogeneities, extending up to a length scale which is more than five times the size of the first coordination shell radius. Due to these significant structural fluctuations in the bulk liquid phases, the use of larger size clusters in DFT calculations has been suggested. Contrary to the findings of the DFT calcu...

  9. The effects of water on the passive behavior of 1018 carbon steel in organic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shifler, D.A.; Kruger, J. (John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Moran, P.J. (Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The passivation and breakdown behavior of 1018 carbon steel in propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethoxyethane (DME) mixtures with water and containing 0.5M LiAsF[sub 6] were studied. The behavior of the steel in the organic solvent/water mixtures was highly dependent on the organic solvent. The anodic polarization of carbon steel displayed active-passive behavior in 10--90 mole percent (m/o) PC/H[sub 2]O mixtures and a tenuous degree of stability within the passive range. The anodic polarization of carbon steel displayed no active-passive behavior in 50--90 m/o DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures and displayed active-passive behavior in 10--30 m/o DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures. The steel was stable within the passive range of these DME/H[sub 2]O solutions. The breakdown potential of the steel in DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures is more electropositive than the oxidation potential of the DME solvent at all molar ratios.

  10. Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, 501 Deacon Blvd., Winston Salem, North Carolina 27105 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4??VK{sup ?1}, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50?K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

  11. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  12. Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic t aerosols change color from white to brown in pres- ence of ammonia. occurs for a wide range of biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols.

  13. An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact on the application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Laurent

    An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact February 2006 Abstract Thorium-234 is increasingly used as a tracer of ocean particle flux, primarily

  14. Determining Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nutrients in an Urban Basin Using Novel and Traditional Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govil, Krittika

    2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Water quality in urban ecosystems is sensitive to localized disturbances potentially affecting those mechanisms which influence nutrient cycles. The Carters Creek Basin has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon...

  15. Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote1 Southeast Pacific: oceanic and combustion sources2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    1 Organic carbon and non-refractory aerosol over the remote1 Southeast Pacific: oceanic ratios between 0.25 and 0.40, and in some cases as high as 3.5. CO and12 black carbon (BC) measurements-salt particles30 from wave breaking and bubble bursting, as well as gas to particle conversion of vapors31

  16. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  17. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Motor vehicles are major sources of gas-phase organic the two methods except for products of incomplete combustion, which are not present in uncombusted fuels

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-OrganicCarbon

  19. Sequestration of terrigenous organic carbon on the northern California shelf : role of hyperpycnal flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeremans, Raphaële E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed for total mass, calcium carbonate, biogenic silica,matter and fluxes of calcium carbonate varied similarly toand biological production. Calcium carbonate and combustible

  20. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  1. Effects of organic carbon supply rates on mobility of previously bioreduced uranium in a contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Kim, Y.; Brodie, E.; Daly, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioreduction-based strategies for remediating uranium (U)-contaminated sediments face the challenge of maintaining the reduced status of U for long times. Because groundwater influxes continuously bring in oxidizing terminal electron acceptors (O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}), it is necessary to continue supplying organic carbon (OC) to maintain the reducing environment after U bioreduction is achieved. We tested the influence of OC supply rates on mobility of previously microbial reduced uranium U(IV) in contaminated sediments. We found that high degrees of U mobilization occurred when OC supply rates were high, and when the sediment still contained abundant Fe(III). Although 900 days with low levels of OC supply minimized U mobilization, the sediment redox potential increased with time as did extractable U(VI) fractions. Molecular analyses of total microbial activity demonstrated a positive correlation with OC supply and analyses of Geobacteraceae activity (RT-qPCR of 16S rRNA) indicated continued activity even when the effluent Fe(II) became undetectable. These data support our earlier hypothesis on the mechanism responsible for re-oxidation of microbial reduced U(IV) under reducing conditions; that microbial respiration caused increased (bi)carbonate concentrations and formation of stable uranyl carbonate complexes, thereby shifted U(IV)/U(VI) equilibrium to more reducing potentials. The data also suggested that low OC concentrations could not sustain the reducing condition of the sediment for much longer time.

  2. The cycling and oxidation pathways of organic carbon in a shallow estuary along the Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warnken, Kent W.; Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Gill, Gary A.

    2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The cycling and oxidation pathways of organic carbon were investigated at a single shallow water estuarine site in Trinity Bay, Texas, the uppermost lobe of Galveston Bay, during November 2000. Radio-isotopes were used to estimate sediment mixing and accumulation rates, and benthic chamber and pore water measurements were used to determine sediment-water exchange fluxes of oxygen, nutrients and metals, and infer carbon oxidation rates.

  3. Study of dissolved organic matter in peatlands: molecular characterisation of a dynamic carbon reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, Luke McDonald

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Northern peatlands represent a significant carbon reservoir, containing approximately a third of the terrestrial carbon pool. The stability of these carbon stores is poorly understood, and processes of accumulation and ...

  4. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  5. Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

    2013-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

  6. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  7. Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements attention on the importance of understanding the rates and mechanisms of CaCO3 formation so that changes can be monitored and feedbacks predicted. We present a method for determining the rate of CaCO3 production using

  8. The Relationships of Particulate Matter and Particulate Organic Carbon with Hypoxic Conditions Along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuck, Nicole A

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    an onboard surface-water flow-through system, CTD casts, and by an undulating towed vehicle. Total particulate matter and particulate organic carbon samples were obtained from Niskin bottles on CTD casts. Samples were also taken to measure dissolved oxygen...

  9. Speciation of ambient fine organic carbon particles and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Indian cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Speciation of ambient fine organic carbon particles and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Indian, and Chandigarh is speciated to quantify sources contributing to fine particle pollution. Gas chromatography patterns of the impact of these five sources are observed. On average, primary emissions from fossil fuel

  10. A new estimate of the CaCO3 to organic carbon export ratio J. L. Sarmiento, J. Dunne, A. Gnanadesikan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    A new estimate of the CaCO3 to organic carbon export ratio J. L. Sarmiento, J. Dunne, A of the water column to estimate the CaCO3 to organic carbon export ratio from observations of the vertical based their parameterization of CaCO3 production. Contrary to the pattern of coccolithophore blooms

  11. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  12. Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Déborah Xanat, 1978-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

  13. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  14. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  15. Size-resolved parameterization of primary organic carbon in fresh marine aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Michael S [ORNL; Keene, William C [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine aerosols produced by the bursting of artificially generated bubbles in natural seawater are highly enriched (2 to 3 orders of magnitude based on bulk composition) in marine-derived organic carbon (OC). Production of size-resolved particulate OC was parameterized based on a Langmuir kinetics-type association of OC to bubble plumes in seawater and resulting aerosol as constrained by measurements of aerosol produced from highly productive and oligotrophic seawater. This novel approach is the first to account for the influence of adsorption on the size-resolved association between marine aerosols and OC. Production fluxes were simulated globally with an eight aerosol-size-bin version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.5.07). Simulated number and inorganic sea-salt mass production fell within the range of published estimates based on observationally constrained parameterizations. Because the parameterization does not consider contributions from spume drops, the simulated global mass flux (1.5 x 10{sup 3} Tg y{sup -1}) is near the lower limit of published estimates. The simulated production of aerosol number (2.1 x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and OC (49 Tg C y{sup -1}) fall near the upper limits of published estimates and suggest that primary marine aerosols may have greater influences on the physiochemical evolution of the troposphere, radiative transfer and climate, and associated feedbacks on the surface ocean than suggested by previous model studies.

  16. Mesoscale Biotransformation of Uranium: Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rates and Sediment Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetsu Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly; Eoin Brodie; Mary Firestone; Terry Hazen; Steve Sutton; Matt Newville; Tony Lanzirotti; Bill Rao

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation and long-term stewardship of uranium-contaminated sediments and groundwaters are critical problems at a number of DOE facilities and mining sites. Some remediation strategies based on in-situ bioreduction of U are potentially effective in significantly decreasing U concentrations in groundwaters. However, a number of basic processes require understanding in order to identify conditions more conducive to success of reduction-based U stabilization. Our current research targets several of these issues including: (1) effects of organic carbon (OC) forms and supply rates on stability of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe(III)- and Mn(III,IV)-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) microbial community changes in relation to U redox changes. These issues were identified in our previous study on U bioreduction and reoxidation (Wan et al., 2005). Most of our studies are being conducted on historically U-contaminated sediments from Area 2 of the Field Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in flow-through columns simulating in-situ field remediation.

  17. The Effects of Moisture and Organic Matter Lability on Carbon Dioxide and Methane Production in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    amounts of carbon in the form of peat and other undecomposed plant matter. Global climate change al. 2003). The carbon stored in wetlands is in the form of undecayed plant matter, or peat. Peat carbon are very useful for agricultural purposes. Their peat and preserved timber has been mined

  18. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  19. A New Organic Acid to Stimulate Deep Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Douri, Ahmad F

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    high corrosion rate. As a result, alternatives to HCl have been investigated including organic acids. In this work, the reaction of a new organic acid with calcite was investigated using the rotating disk apparatus and coreflood setup. The organic acid...

  20. SciTech Connect: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation....

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Signatures and Nitrogen Profile To Identify Adulteration in Organic Fertilizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, genetically modified organisms

  2. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  3. The significance of organic carbon and sediment surface area to the benthic biogeochemistry of the slope and deep water environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beazley, Melanie J.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of sediment wt % <63 µm to surface area?????.... 19 4 5 Grain size tertiary diagram????????????????... Map of Gulf of Mexico wt % organic carbon???..?????? 19 22 6 Map of Gulf of Mexico organic carbon-to-surface area (OC/SA)?... 23 7 Map of Gulf... abundance.?????????... 35 14 Linear regression analysis of OC/SA and water depth for the GOM sample set????????????????.??????? 37 15 Linear regression analysis of OC/SA with an east/west gradient...

  4. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  5. Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    , and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well Logs Haryanto Adiguna, SPE, Anadarko Petroleum, water saturation, and kerogen content determine the amount of hydrocarbon-in-place while mineral petrophysical interpretation techniques commonly used to quantify mineral composition from conventional well

  6. Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown et

  7. A New Organic Acid to Stimulate Deep Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Douri, Ahmad F

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate acidizing has been carried out using HCl-based stimulation fluids for decades. However, at high temperatures, HCl does not produce acceptable results because of its fast reaction, acid penetration, and hence surface dissolution, and its...

  8. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  9. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  10. TRACE ELEMENTS LEACHING FROM ORGANIC SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON FLY ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    and Se for organic soil-HCFA mixtures. Keywords: organic soil, fly ash, coal combustion products, CCPs INTRODUCTION Fly ash is a silt-size particulate collected by air pollution control systems at coal fly ashes (HCFAs) generally are disposed in landfills (Hodges and Keating 1999). However, many HCFAs

  11. Redistribution ofmulti-phase particulate organic carbon in a marine shelf and canyon system during an exceptional river flood: Effects of Typhoon Morakot on the Gaoping River–Canyon system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Lin, In-Tian; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Liu, James T.; Xu, Xiaomei; Yang, Rick

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    coring less than 2 months after the event. We use the different origins of organic carbon, distinguished by their carbon and nitrogen concentrations and ?13C and ?15N isotopic composition, to compare and contrast standard and extreme sedimentological...

  12. Quantification of soil organic carbon using mid- and near- DRIFT spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Misun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    New, rapid techniques to quantify the different pools of soil organic matter (SOM) are needed to improve our understanding of the dynamics and spatio-temporal variability of SOM in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, ...

  13. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. ...

  14. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {<=}1000 {angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  15. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes .ltoreq.1000 .ANG., and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050.degree. C. to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors.

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  17. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  18. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  19. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  20. TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence J. Pekot; Ron Himes

    2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Core specimens and several material samples were collected from two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

  1. Effect of an organic molecular coating on control over the conductance of carbon nanotube channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrinetskiy, I. I.; Emelianov, A. V.; Nevolin, V. K., E-mail: vkn@miee.ru; Romashkin, A. V. [National Research University “Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology” (MIET) (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the coating of carbon nanotubes with molecules with a constant dipole moment changes the conductance of the tubes due to a variation in the structure of energy levels that participate in charge transport. The I–V characteristics of the investigated structures exhibit significant dependence of the channel conductance on the gate potential. The observed memory effect of conductance level can be explained by the rearrangement of polar groups and molecules as a whole in an electric field. The higher the dipole moment per unit length and the weaker the intermolecular interaction, the faster the rearrangement process is.

  2. Bioavailable organic carbon in wetland soils across a broad climogeographic area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew Dwight

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 11 Microbial biomass determined using the CFI method. . . . . . 12 Microbial biomass determined by the CFE method for soils from each state . . 44 13 Microbial biomass determined by the CFI method without subtraction of a control . . . . . 47... and subsurface horizons from di fferent states. . . . 43 The percentage of SOC constituted by biomass (measured by CFE) in organic, mineral surface and subsurface horizons over thc whole data set and from different states. . . 46 The percentage of SOC...

  3. Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon

  4. {sup 210}Pb dating of sediments from the central and northern Adriatic Sea: deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T. F., LLNL

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-210 ({sup 21O}Pb) and organic C depth distribution profiles in sediments from the northern and central Adriatic Sea were measured as part of the EEC funded project on Eutrophic Limits of the Northern Adriatic (ELNA). {sup 210}Pb derived mass-accumulation rates decrease southward from between 0.15 and 0.2 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} close to the Po River outflow (> 24 m, water depth) to less than 0.04 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} in the Jabuka Pit (246 m, water depth) in the central Adriatic Sea. The mass- accumulation rates obtained in the Jabuka Pit correspond to mean sedimentation rates of about 0.03 cm y{sup -1} (ref. porosity = 0.5) and fall between 5 to 20 times lower than rates found for north Adriatic shelf cores. Estimated sedimentation rates are considered as upper limits because of the possible effects of bioturbation and physical disturbance on the {sup 21O}Pb sedimentary record but are consistent with data from previous work. Rates of sediment accumulation and carbon burial appear to be strongly influenced by the transport of fluvial materials from land and transport of fine-grained particles. First-order estimates of organic C burial rates into surface sediment ranged from 1 to 0.028 mMol cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} between the Po delta and the Jabuka Pit regions, respectively. We estimate that a maximum of 50% of organic C preserved in surface sediment may be derived from biological production in the overlying water column.

  5. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C ({le} 3.3 g kg{sup -1}) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the absorbents yielded apparent K, values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of Kd values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 {+-} 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  8. Organic Geochemistry of the CenomanianTuronian Bahloul Formation Petroleum Source Rock, Central and Northern Tunisia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Organic Geochemistry of the Cenomanian­Turonian Bahloul Formation Petroleum Source Rock, Central and around diapirs of the Triassic salt. Key words: Organic matter, Petroleum Source Rock, Cenomanian (TOC) determination, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter content (EOM) fractionation

  9. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section B_Conformed thru_Mod 304.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are routinely practiced (e.g., Voluntary Protection Program, ISO International Organization for Standardization 14000, Environmental Management System Standards). (vi) Event...

  10. Adsorption of UCG organics by coal, char, activated char and ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.; Morgan, J.R.; Nolan, B.T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous adsorption of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) organics generated during gas production was tested in the laboratory to determine the organic's affinity for surroundings in the region of the burn cavity. Coal from the Rosebud coal mine in Hanna, Wyoming along with char, activated char, and ash were studied during this work. Contaminated ground water was simulated by preparing a solution of Hanna IVB condensate in Hanna ground water. Adsorption isotherm studies and leaching tests were performed at 5 and 22/sup 0/C. Leaching tests using tap water showed that only the char could release organic material to water. The adsorption tests showed that all four types of media could adsorb organics from solution. Measures of organic materials in water included Total Organic Carbon (TOC), phenol, o-cresol, and p+m cresol. The experiments indicated that activated char was the most effective adsorbent, while the others were about equal in effectiveness. Adsorption behavior could be modeled in many instances by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich. However, not all data taken followed these models.

  11. TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence J. Pekot

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two gas storage fields were studied for this project. Overisel field, operated by Consumer's Energy, is located near the town of Holland, Michigan. Huntsman Storage Unit, operated by Kinder Morgan, is located in Cheyenne County, Nebraska near the town of Sidney. Wells in both fields experienced declining performance over several years of their annual injection/production cycle. In both fields, the presence of hydrocarbons, organic materials or production chemicals was suspected as the cause of progressive formation damage leading to the performance decline. Core specimens and several material samples were collected from these two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

  12. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

  13. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tank supernate solutions -- FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Hanford Site organic compounds were measured in tank supernate simulant solutions during FY 1995. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, and caproate salts; iron and aluminum and butylphosphate salts; and aluminum oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25 {degree}C, 30 {degree}C, 40 {degree}C, and 50 {degree}C. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate, succinate, caproate, and butylphosphate in HLW tank supernate solutions were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. High solubilities will prevent solid sodium salts of these organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions. The total organic carbon concentrations (YOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is so even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank and supernate is due to only one of these eight soluble compounds (an unlikely situation). Metal ion complexes of and butylphosphate and oxalate in supernate solutions were not stable in the presence of the hydroxide concentrations expected in most tanks. Iron and aluminum dibutylphosphate compounds reacted with hydroxide to form soluble sodium dibutylphosphate and precipitated iron and aluminum hydroxides. Aluminum oxalate complexes were also not stable in the basic simulated supernate solutions. Solubilities of all the organic salts decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Increasing temperatures raised the solubilities of the organic salts, especially the succinate and caproate salts.

  14. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  15. Computational modeling of metal-organic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Jeffrey Chuen-Fai; Sung, Jeffrey Chuen-Fai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11 1.3.1. Carbon Capture andOrganic Frameworks 1.3.1. Carbon Capture and Separation Theuseful materials for carbon capture and separation. In a

  16. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  17. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Changes in Crested Wheatgrass Root Exudation Caused by Flood, Drought, and Nutrient Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doucette, William J.

    rather than stimulation of exudate production per gram of plant. Plant water status can alter exudation carbon (TOC) and organic acid content to compare treatment effects. Plants in the low K1 treatment exuded cumulative TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 71% (p 5 0.05). The flooded treatment increased TOC exuded per

  19. Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAUFFER, L.A.

    1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrophobic organic compound sorption in natural sorbents and quantification of black carbon by electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Dave Ta Fu, 1978-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediments were investigated using pyrene. Native pyrene desorbed slowly, taking from weeks to months to equilibrate. The end-point data suggested that, at ...

  1. Diffusional Motion of Redox Centers in Carbonate Electrolytes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR...

  2. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects onMineralizatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactive Effects onMineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects onMineralization of Pyrogenic...

  3. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

  4. TOC.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNLMay 20102 | NationalThis1QA: N/A

  5. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  6. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  7. Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

  8. 3D Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic carbon in Tempe Town Lake Hilairy E.Hartnett1,2, Jesse Coe1, Zachary Smith1, Margaret Bowman2, Marissa Raleigh3, Andrew Chesley2, Gordana Pavlovic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    water management (dam releases). Fluorescence spectroscopy using excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) provides information about the chemical character of the organic carbon compounds lake water. EEM techniques (e.g., SUVA254). We present EEM's from Tempe Town Lake samples collected from June 2011 to Dec

  9. Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops K R I S T I N A J . A N D E R S O N -T E I X E I R A *, S A R A H C . D AV I S w , M I C H A E L D . M A S T E R S * and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops K R I S T I N A J . A N D E R S O N - T E I X E of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of carbon (C) in soil. Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents an important C sink in the lifecycle C balances of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality

  10. 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon overconsumption and extracellular POC formation M. Schartau et carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon M. Schartau1 , A Correspondence to: M. Schartau (markus.schartau@gkss.de) 13 #12;BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon

  11. 4, 719745, 2007 Fluvial organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    changes and targets for carbon sequestration set by the Kyoto Protocol. In the UK the largest componentHESSD 4, 719­745, 2007 Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland R. R. Pawson et al System Sciences Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK R

  12. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  13. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  14. The significance of organic carbon and sediment surface area to the benthic biogeochemistry of the slope and deep water environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beazley, Melanie J.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioavailability of metabolizable organic matter within marine sediments is one of the more important driving mechanisms controlling benthic pelagic communities. Interactions between organic material and mineral surfaces ...

  15. Effect of low pO2 and host plant on colonization of roots by Pseudomonas putida PH6 (L1019)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavaria, Freni Kekhasharu

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and inoculating with L1019. Root and solution (from hydroponics only) samples were collected at selected time intervals, for enumeration of bacteria and determinations of total organic carbon (TOC) and hexose carbon analysis. In the hydroponic experiments, roots...

  16. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  17. Correlation of Soil and Sediment Organic Matter Polarity to Aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution of the measured partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC to their organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (Koc) for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and 1

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  19. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp....

  20. alkyl carbonate solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. 13 Solution-processed single walled carbon nanotube electrodes for organic thin-film transistors Physics Websites Summary: t Airbrushed single walled carbon nanotube...

  1. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  2. 3, 409447, 2006 Modeling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 3, 409­447, 2006 Modeling carbon dynamics in farmland of China F. Zhang et al. Title Page impacts of management alternatives on soil carbon storage of farmland in Northwest China F. Zhang1,3 , C-term losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) have been observed in many agricul- ture lands in Northwest China

  3. Minimum TI4085D interlock setpoint at 1.0 GPM sludge-only feed rate and 14,000 ppm TOC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF-Engineering requested that SRTC determine the minimum indicated melter vapor space temperature that must be maintained in order to minimize the potential for off-gas flammability during a steady sludge-only feeding operation at 1.0 GPM containing 14,000 ppm total organic carbon. The detailed scope of this request is described in the technical task request, HLW-DWPF-TTR-960092 (DWPT Activity No. DWPT-96-0065). In response to this request, a dynamic simulation study was conducted in which the concentration of flammable gases was tracked throughout the course of a simulated 3X off-gas surge using the melter off-gas (MOG) dynamics model. The results of simulation showed that as long as the melter vapor space temperature as indicated on TI4085D is kept at 570 degrees C or higher, the peak concentration of combustible gases in the melter off-gas system is not likely to exceed 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The minimum TI4085D of 570 degrees C is valid only when the air purges to FIC3221A and FIC3221B are maintained at or above 850 and 250 lb/hr, respectively. All the key bases and assumptions along with the input data used in the simulation are described in the attached E-7 calculation note.

  4. The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries H . S C O T T M A T T H E W S , C H R I and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints

  5. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon AboutOrganizing Committee

  6. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  7. spread_comp_02 TOC

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclearand Characterization ofC u r r e n t I s s u e s C u

  8. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourth Five-Year38Report Second18295-1 Joby

  9. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix A

  10. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix AB

  11. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABC

  12. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCD

  13. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCD

  14. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCDF

  15. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCDFG

  16. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCDFG

  17. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix ABCDFGI

  18. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendix

  19. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendixK MMTS

  20. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc. No.GS05: WomanAppendixK MMTS

  1. Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

  2. [Frontiers in Bioscience, 5, a10-17, May 1, 2000] UV-OZONE ASHING OF CELLS AND TISSUES FOR SPATIALLY RESOLVED TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Materials and methods 3.1. UV/ozone oven 3.2. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis 3.3. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) 3

  3. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC

  4. Carbon dynamics in arctic vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Lorna Elizabeth

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid climate change in Arctic regions is of concern due to important feedbacks between the Arctic land surface and the global climate system. A large amount of organic carbon (C) is currently stored in Arctic soils; if ...

  5. Adsorption -capacity data for 283 organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is a widely used method for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gases and other exhaust streams. This article presents a compilation of adsorption-capacity data as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The results are useful in engineering and environmental studies, and in the design of carbon-based adsorption systems to remove unwanted organic pollutants from gases. For vapor control, carbon-based systems typically combine a carbon-adsorption unit with a secondary control method to reclaim or destroy the vapors desorbed during carbon-bed regeneration. To remove organics dissolved in wastewater, air stripping is typically used to transfer the organics to a vapor stream. Carbon adsorption is then used to separate the organics from the stripper exhaust. Collected vapors can be recovered for reuse or destroyed, depending on their value.

  6. Rapid prototyping of carbon-based chemiresistive gas sensors on paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirica, Katherine

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for sensing of gases and volatile organic compounds. However, the poor solubility of carbon nanotubes hinders their chemical functionalization and ...

  7. Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies includes a range of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, aerogels, nanofibers (including metal-doped hybrids), as well as metal-organic frameworks,...

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

  9. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  10. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  11. Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Daniel G.

    value for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions, the organic carbon storage in human settlements has of energy (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999) and to an increase in the anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide release of carbon dioxide and 76% of wood used for industrial purposes. By 2050 the proportion

  12. Effects of Additives and Templates on Calcium Carbonate Mineralization in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Accepted M anuscript Effects of Additives and Templates on Calcium Carbonate Mineralization controlling the calcium carbonate crystals formation and the complexity of the crystal morphologies in vitro organic matrices mediate calcium carbonate mineralization. Keywords: additive; template; in vitro

  13. Introduction to carbon physics Carbon is in many ways a unique element. Most importantly, it is crucial for life on earth as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    5 Chapter 2 Introduction to carbon physics Carbon is in many ways a unique element. Most out of carbon. Scientifically, the whole huge field of organic chemistry deals entirely with carbon-based compounds; and in the field of physics carbon is one of the most intensively studied materials. There even

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Carbon quantity defines productivity while its quality defines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Carbon quantity defines productivity while its quality defines community that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality differently influence bacterioplankton. The ponds were production, abundance, biomass were highest in mid-summer and correlated positively with the concentration

  15. APPLICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES AND PHENOLS AS BIOMARKERS TO STUDY DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER RESERVOIRS IN ARCTIC RIVERS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Rachel

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic rivers are the dominant pathways for the transport of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon to the Arctic Ocean, but knowledge of sources, transformations and transfer of organic carbon and nitrogen in Arctic river watersheds is extremely...

  16. The temporal dynamics of terrestrial organic matter transfer to the oceans : initial assessment and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drenzek, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis employs compound-specific stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analysis of organic biomarkers to (a) resolve petrogenic from pre-aged vascular plant organic carbon (OC) in continental margin sediments, (b) ...

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torn, M.S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412 , 785. Fried,Plant Litter. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological2007). Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage:

  20. Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

  1. Identification of Location and Nature of Organic Matter and Contaminants on Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    importance of these different forms of organic carbon in the sequestration of PAHs in sediments. Our to identify organic carbon location in sediment particles. Scanning electron microscopy with wavelength silica particles. It has been suggested previously that PAHs partition into organic carbon on soils

  2. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage R &...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents such as hybrid carbon nanotubes, aerogels, and nanofibers, as well as metal-organic frameworks and conducting polymers. A...

  3. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents such as hybrid carbon nanotubes, aerogels, and nanofibers, as well as metal-organic frameworks and conducting polymers. A...

  4. actinidevi carbonate speciation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Organic Carbon under Varying Landscape Topographic Positions at the Molecular Scale Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Distribution, Speciation, and...

  5. Soil type: Metabasic soils have 50 to 80 percent more mineralizable C than granitic soils. The same soils appear to more efficiently retain TN and some TOC at greater depths. Very low DOC in both soils indicate efficient C utilization and incorporation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norton, Jay B.

    Soil type: Metabasic soils have 50 to 80 percent more mineralizable C than granitic soils. The same indicate efficient C utilization and incorporation in microbial or SOM pools. Greater mineral N in granite percent. There is not evidence of the impact of increased available C on TOC in granitic soils. Soil

  6. Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445‰ in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

  7. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  8. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  9. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated CaCO3...

  10. ccsd00003923, Combination of carbon nanotubes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of composite optical limiters, in which two complementary nonlinear optical materials are mixed togetherccsd­00003923, version 1 ­ 18 Jan 2005 Combination of carbon nanotubes and two-photon absorbers-linear scattering from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multiphoton absorption (MPA) from organic

  11. Gas adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willis, Richard R. (Cary, IL); Low, John J. (Schaumburg, IL), Faheem, Syed A. (Huntley, IL); Benin, Annabelle I. (Oak Forest, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Yazaydin, Ahmet Ozgur (Evanston, IL)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention involves the use of certain metal organic frameworks that have been treated with water or another metal titrant in the storage of carbon dioxide. The capacity of these frameworks is significantly increased through this treatment.

  12. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  13. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  14. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  15. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  16. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  17. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  18. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  19. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    RESEARCH PAPER Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau during the 20th tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its, the carbon dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau have not been well quantified under changes of climate and per

  20. Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of carbon sequestration. The quality and quantity of soil organic carbon is probably influenced. It is suggested that, in conservation projects based on higher carbon sequestration, the plant species with more sequestration, Plant species, Soil organic carbon, Vegetation type, Prangus uloptera stands. hal-00875310

  1. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  2. Protection of Mesopore-Adsorbed Organic Matter from Enzymatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    ). Direct correlations between organic carbon and specific surface area in many soils and sediments (3, 4 are not well understood. Cycling of organic carbon in sediments and soils has been characterized by complex in the sequestration and preservation of sedimentary OM (19, 21). This may occur by physical occlusion of OM within

  3. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-OrganicCarbon Bearing

  4. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  5. Capturing carbon | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon Released: October 02, 2011 New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

  6. A water quality characterization of a tidally influenced flood control canal of Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polasek, Jeffrey Steven

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H), specific conductance, sulfide, total organic carbon (TOC), and turbidity samples were collected at seven stations in HBDC and from the effluent of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) discharging into HBDC in order to detect significant... to MWTP outfall. Specific conductance patterns mirrored salinity trends. TOC levels showed a steady bayward decrease. Turbidity levels were consistently highest in bottom waters. No trends were apparent for COD, pH, and sulfide. HBDC water quality...

  7. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  8. "The disintegration of organic compounds by microorganisms is accompanied by the liberation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    comple- ment of enzymes necessary to completely oxidize organic fuels to carbon dioxide is not yet they are `carbon-neutral'; the oxidation of the organic matter only releases recently fixed carbon back and sediments. The ubiquitous and innocuous properties of fuels for microbial fuel cells alleviates the need

  9. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  10. Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo Stephen Warren, University wavelengths: ice is nearly transparent. Absorptive impurities: Black carbon (soot) Brown carbon (organics broadband albedo: 83% 71% (2) by addition of black carbon (BC) (20 ppb): 0.5% for r = 100 µm 1.6% for r

  11. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

  12. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  13. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle plants, possibly with carbon capture and storage (CCS)natural gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology

  14. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology werewith carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, to replace

  15. Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

  16. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  17. Understanding and engineering interfacial charge transfer of carbon nanotubes and graphene for energy and sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulus, Geraldine L. C. (Geraldine Laura Caroline)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is a one-atom thick planar monolayer of sp2 -bonded carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal crystal lattice. A single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be thought of as a graphene sheet rolled up into a seamless ...

  18. Quantity and Spatial Variability of Soil Carbon in the Conterminous United States Yinyan Guo, Ronald Amundson,* Peng Gong, and Qian Yu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    , Ronald Amundson,* Peng Gong, and Qian Yu ABSTRACT We estimated the soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil

  19. Leadership, Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Leadership, Policy & Organizations #12;2 At Peabody students have the opportunity to develop new College, in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations (LPO). The faculty believes Patricia and Rodes Hart Chair, and Professor of Education Policy and Leadership, Ellen Goldring also serves

  20. Biomass combustion as a source of terrigenous organic matter to the coastal ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Kayce

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural and anthropogenic combustion processes are major sources of organic carbon into the environment. Biomarkers of biomass combustion can be used to monitor the impact of combustion on carbon cycling at multiple scales, particularly in natural...

  1. Volume 1 Front Matter and TOC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment(GATE)Action Plan for Energy EffiV ieto U.S.

  2. Microsoft Word - tb47_TOC.html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bouchenoire, M. J. Cooper, D. Mannnix, G. H. Lander, N. Bernhoeft, A. Stunault, W. G. Stirling, J. Pollmann, D. Haskel, G. Srajer, "The Use of Resonant X-ray Magnetic Scattering to...

  3. Microsoft Word - TOC - ALL.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNL 2001a,Summary v TABLE OF CONTENTS C C

  4. Microsoft Word - TOC - ALL.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNL 2001a,Summary v TABLE OF CONTENTS C C

  5. corp-toc | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013constantconvert

  6. Microsoft Word - TOC&Units.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourth Five-Year3 WellShiprock, NewProjectTable

  7. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  8. Author's personal copy A biogeochemical study of sediments from the eutrophic Lake Lugano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Author's personal copy A biogeochemical study of sediments from the eutrophic Lake Lugano) and carbonate from sediment cores from the oligotrophic Lake Brienz and the eutrophic Lake Lugano (both. Eutrophic conditions at Lake Lugano are reflected in elevated total organic carbon (TOC) content

  9. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  10. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  11. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  12. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  13. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  14. Costa Rica-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rica-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model AgencyCompany Organization World Watch Institute Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Background...

  15. El Salvador-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regional Model Jump to: navigation, search Name El Salvador-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model AgencyCompany Organization World Watch Institute...

  16. China-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Government of Republic of Korea...

  17. Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

  18. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  19. Annual Monitoring Results A REPORT OF THE REGIONAL MONITORING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainsize 33 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Nitrogen (TN)33 Trace Metals34 Trace Organics34 Quality Assurance / Quality Control (QA/QC) 37 QA/QC of Percent Solids37 QA/QC of Grain Size 37 QA/QC of TotalAnnual Monitoring Results 2012 A REPORT OF THE REGIONAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR WATER QUALITY

  20. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

  1. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  2. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  3. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  4. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

  5. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  6. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  7. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  8. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Organization Chart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon About » Leadership, Governance »

  10. Carbon aerogels: An update on structure, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Kong, F.M.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are unique porous materials whose composition, structure, and properties can be controlled at the nanometer scale. This paper examines the synthesis of organic aerogels and their carbonized derivatives. Carbon aerogels have low electrical resistivity, high surface area, and a tunable pore size. These materials are finding applications as electrodes in double layer capacitors.

  11. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maricle, Donald L. (226 Forest La., Glastonbury, CT 06033); Putnam, Gary C. (47 Walker St., Manchester, CT 06040); Stewart, Jr., Robert C. (1230 Copper Hill Rd., West Suffield, CT 06093)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  12. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  13. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  14. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  15. Preparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu(III) within mesopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    e Mesoporous polymer-carbon composite (CMPEI/CMK-3) materials were successfully preparedPreparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu processes. 1. Introduction A number of organic-inorganic or organic-organic composite materials have been

  16. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  17. Research Summary Carbon Additionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of muchResearch Summary Carbon Additionality Additionality is widely considered to be a core aspect controversy in national carbon accounting, international regulatory frameworks and carbon markets. A review

  18. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  19. The Woodland Carbon Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

  20. A CATALOG OF GALACTIC INFRARED CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, X. H., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: yangxh@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We collected almost all of the Galactic infrared carbon stars (IRCSs) from literature published up to the present to organize a catalog of 974 Galactic IRCSs in this paper. Some of their photometric properties in the near-, mid-, and far-infrared are discussed.

  1. Deformable Transparent All-Carbon-Nanotube Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    and organic materials16,17 are candidates for next-generation flexible and transparent electronic devices-carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT- FETs), making use of the flexible yet robust nature of single than those used in other flexible CNT-FETs allowed our devices to be highly deformable without

  2. Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?1 W.-T. Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Ambient27 measurements indicate that freshly emitted BC, Pasadena, CA, USA11 *To whom correspondence should be addressed12 13 If mitigation of black carbon (BC17 of primary black carbon/organic carbon (BC/OC) mass and number emissions from fossil18 fuel

  3. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  4. 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Chapter 19 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the oceans are gaining sequestration programs emphasize storing carbon in soil organic matter in agri- cultural fields,in woody sequestration and management include the feasibil- ity and permanence of the carbon sequestered, the scale

  5. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  6. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  7. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  8. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  9. FTIR spectroscopy can predict organic matter quality in2 regenerating cutover peatlands3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    emissions51 Soil Biology and Biochemistry #12;3 show a return to net carbon sequestration (Tuittila et al sequestration potential. Increased losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)55 have been observed from many area. Peat46 extraction for fuel and horticultural use has steadily diminished this carbon stock,47

  10. Tailoring the properties of organic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently succeeded in producing a new class of organic (or carbon) aerogels whose electrical, mechanical, and other properties are superior to those of the metal alkoxides. By tailoring properties to specific applications, we hope to achieve aerogels with even better performance. We have already tested carbon aerogels for use in inertial-confinement fusion targets and are currently studying applications to other technologies, such as battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. In several of these applications, the permeability of the carbon aerogels-that is, their resistance to fluid flow-is crucial to their performance. Here, we describe briefly the synthesis of organic aerogels and present the results of our permeability studies.

  11. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon...

  12. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  13. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian terrestrial carbon budget Open Access 3 , G. P.The Australian terrestrial carbon budget Luo, C. , Mahowald,terrestrial carbon budget Richards, G. P. , Borough, C. ,

  14. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  15. Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxidized to nitrates. The direct study of the changes in organic matter or carbon in the soil is more satisfactory than any assumption. A considerable amount of work upon the oxidation of organic matter in the soil has been clone hy Wollny... cflpo8city, so the re1ati~-e power of the soil to support oxidizing organisms ma!r he termed its oxidafion cnpaciiy. The nitrif-ing capac- it" the oxidatioa capacity 'and the capacit~ of the soil to convert am- monia into nitrates and ammonia are to a...

  16. From association to organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.M. (1978). Organization theory and memory for prose: Aand summarize organization theory and relevant empiricalexplained in terms of organization theory. The hierarchical

  17. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  18. Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter Andrew R. Zimmermana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    as sequestration of pollutants in soils and sediments (Luthy et al., 1997), turnover of natural soil organic carbon that organic matter (OM) may be protected from enzymatic degradation by sequestration within mineral mesopores observations. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration and preservation

  19. Organization | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon About »Organization NETL:

  20. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  1. Melody Meyer: Organic Foods Distributor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are into green building, reducing carbon footprint, trackingour carbon footprint. There aren’t many companies that areuse, offsetting our carbon footprint. The Rockland facility

  2. SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Project Objectives ­ Build and demonstrate a pilot facility#12;SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES Quarterly Report to the Department of Energy, May 19 #12;DOE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Phase I ­ Technology Development

  3. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh: Homework (1 for each week @10%): 40% Personal carbon account (report): 30% Final exam: 30% Course schedule Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major

  4. Organic matter of anoxic and oxygenated marine waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershey, Robert Michael

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the water column of the Trench indicated that no enrich- ment of organic matter has occurred with respect to the oxygenated water. The organic carbon content of the first 10 cm of a gravity core taken in the Trench was 3. 4%, as compared to a value of 1... Distributions of Sulfide Sulfur and Dis- solved Oxygen as a Function of Depth for Station 4 (10'38' N; 65'24' W) October, 1972 34 6 Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as a Function of Depth for Sta- tion 4 (10'38'N; 65'24'W) and Station 6 (11...

  5. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  6. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  7. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  8. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  9. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  10. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  11. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  12. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  13. GEOC R Lee Penn Sunday, March 25, 2012 12 -Biogeochemical transformation of Fe-and Mn-along a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration within the Christina River Basin Critical Zone States Organic carbon (C)-mineral complexation mechanism is crucial in C sequestration. It is a function

  14. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  15. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

  16. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  17. Marine Biology Research, 2013; 9: 27-34 Preprint 1 Carbonate apatite formulation in cuticle structure adds resistance to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    insulate more soluble calcium carbonate from attack by acid secreting micro-organisms. A trabecular bone or deeper rapidly dissolving amorphous calcium carbonate, generating a concerted general immune response Edwards, 1837, is reportedly dominated by calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate (Lowenstam 1981; Raabe

  18. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  19. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  20. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Abstract: Carbonation of formation...

  1. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  2. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

  3. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  4. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  5. Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** D. Bruce Burckel Polsky* The special nature of the CÀC bond can lead to various polymorphic forms of carbon such as graphite, glassy-carbon, fullerenes (such as buckyballs), carbon nanotubes, and diamond. Electrodes made

  6. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  7. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  8. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  9. Electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels derived from different precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Nielson, J.K.; Tran, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reynolds, G.M.; Dresshaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to tailor the structure and properties of porous carbons has led to their increased use as electrodes in energy storage devices. Our research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels for use in electrochemical double layer capacitors. Carbon aerogels are formed from the sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde or (2) phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical drying from carbon dioxide, and subsequent pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. These materials can be produced as monoliths, composites, thin films, powders, or microspheres. In all cases, the areogels have an open-cell structure with an ultrafine pore size (<100 nm), high surface area (400-1 100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10 nm. This paper examines the effects of the carbon precursor and processing conditions on electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes.

  10. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  11. Carbon Fiber SMC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ACC932 Materials and Processes Technology Development Carbon Fiber SMC 5-20-09 Charles Knakal USCAR C. S. Wang General Motors...

  12. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  13. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  14. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conventional and alternative precursors to carbon fiber Advance high-volume composite design and manufacturing capabilities Transition technology to industry partners...

  15. EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

  16. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. In the fourth quarter, three deliverables have been completed, some in draft form to be revised and updated to include Wyoming. This is due primarily to some delays in funding to LANL and INEEL and the approval of a supplemental proposal to include Wyoming in much of the GIS data sets, analysis, and related materials. The de

  18. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

  19. The Carbon balance of sorghum from anthesis to black layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stahl, Randal Scott

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of low light level. Y was calculated as g the slope of the line between the daily carbon balance parameters dS and dW measured on days 2 and 4, plotted as dW vs dS. iv Each plant was then harvested by organ and oven dried at 80 C for 36 h. The total... Ass imi lati on Chamber Chamber Constr ucti on Air Injection System CO Injection System Ch(mber C02 Concentration Chamber Lighting System Data Acquisition System Calculation of Hourly Carbon Exchange Rates Calculation of Integrated Carbon...

  20. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  1. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pearce, D. 2003. The Social Cost Of Carbon And Its PolicyR.S.J. 2008. The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and

  2. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  3. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  4. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  5. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Photochemical reactivity of ancient marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaupré, Steven R; Druffel, Ellen R. M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14 C DOC o þ mt þ b Non-linear regression demonstrated goodC value determined by non-linear regression (D 14 C DOC,o =curve is the non-linear least-squares regression of both

  8. Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations and Compositions, and Trihalomethane Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Waters from Agricultural Peat Soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Implications for Drinking SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 98­4147 Prepared in cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources 6217-37 Sacramento, California 1998 #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BRUCE

  9. Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid found in natural products such as coal tar into the environment from burning oil, gas, and coal, and from discharges of ethylbenzene from factories. Ethylbenzene-made activities and natural processes. Benzene is widely used in the United States and ranks in the top 20

  10. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems These findings will help focus future research and development efforts on technology improvements

  11. River delta sediments account for ~44% of organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    . 2006 C) "Photodissolution" of POC from deltaic sediments during simulated solar irradiation OR CO2 CO2 of enzymes to THAA, suggesting that the initial drop was due to protein "encapsulation" by protective

  12. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide Capture in the Presence of Water | Center for

  13. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide Capture in the Presence of Water | Center

  14. assimilable organic carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A COUPLED ATMOSPHERE- Engineering Websites Summary: to best estimate CO2 fluxes on the Earths surface by assimilating observations of atmospheric CO2 to transport atmospheric...

  15. Metal Organic Clathrates for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod EggertMercuryAdvanced MaterialsPortal

  16. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  17. Biological control of vertical carbon flux in the California current and Equatorial Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stukel, Michael Raymond

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon to depth (e.g. Bruland and Silver 1981; Landry et al.flux of organic matter to the deep sea (Bruland and Silver1981; Silver and Bruland 1981; Pfannkuche and Lochte 1993).

  18. World Bank-Low-carbon Energy Projects for Development in Sub...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development in Sub-Saharan Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name Low-carbon Energy Projects for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  19. Radiation Detection: Resistivity Responses in Functional Poly(Olefin Sulfone)/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    Detection of gamma rays is shown using a non-scintillating organic-based sensor composed of poly(olefin sulfone)/carbon nanotube blends. Functionalization of the polymers can be performed after polymerization to tailor ...

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  1. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach effort

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

  3. Benthic microbial mats: a possible major component of organic matter accumulation in the Lower Aptian oceanic anoxic event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    -rich sample is a sample with more than 1% TOC, which is considered as a potential source rock in petroleum were analysed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis (Espitalie´ et al., 1985a,b, 1986) in order to obtain TOC, hydrogen index (HI) and ther- mal maturity (Tmax) data. A thin section and palynological slide of each

  4. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

  5. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  6. Departmental Organization and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  7. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  8. Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

  9. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  10. Carbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, George

    after degradation of detritus to release dissolved organic carbon. Keywords: detritus, food web, lakeCarbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan NATHALIE NIQUIL,* GRETTA planktonic food web in the surface mixed-layer of the North Basin in Lake Biwa, Japan. This model synthesised

  11. advanced carbon-carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: CARBON-CARBON...

  12. Microsoft Word - NRAP_TRS_III_Mobilization_and_Transport_of_Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs 21 May 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NRAP-TRS-III-002-2015 Disclaimer This report was...

  13. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs.

  14. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  15. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

  16. International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

  18. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  19. Supplementary information for: Insights into the secondary fraction of the organic aerosol in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Contemporary Carbon PCF : Primary Fossil Carbon PM : Particulate Matter POA : Primary Organic Aerosol POC 293 306 163 147 129 73 relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147129 73 0 100 200 300 400 m/z relativeintensity[%] 219 277 321 117 147 129 73 m/z 0 100 200 300 400 relativeintensity[%] selected fragment: m

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel soil organic C model using climate, soil type and management data-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract This report evidences factors controlling soil or- ganic carbon at the national scale by modelling data of 2,158 soil samples from France. The global soil carbon amount, of about 1

  1. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  2. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  3. Organic removal from domestic wastewater by activated alumina adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Pe-Der

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the major groups of pollutants in wastewaters. Adsorption by granular activated carbon, a non-polar adsorbent, is now the primary treatment process for removal of residual organics from biologically treated wastewater. The ability of activated alumina... to human health if they exist in the water supply at relatively high concentrations. A wide variety of treatment processes are available to remove organic matter from wastewater. Biological treatment is the most cost effective method for removing oxygen...

  4. Aerogels derived from multifunctional organic monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional inorganic aerogels are mad via the hydrolysis and condensation of metal alkoxides. Recently, we reported the synthesis of organic aerogels based upon the aqueous polycondensation of (1) resorcinol with formaldehyde and (2) melamine with formaldehyde. The former materials can also be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form vitreous carbon aerogels. In both the inorganic and organic systems, the structure and properties of the dried aerogel are dictated by polymerization conditions. Factors such as pH, reactant ratio, and temperature influence the crosslinking chemistry and growth processes taking place prior to gelation. The ability to tailor the structure and properties of aerogels at the nanometer scale opens up exciting possibilities for these novel materials. This paper addresses the chemistry-structure-property relationships of organic aerogels. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  6. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Batavia IL (USA) Prof. Dr. F. Krausz BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. B. Naroska Universität Hamburg Prof. Dr. F. Pauss European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. N. Roe Lawrence Berkeley Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. A. Wrulich Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (CH) 14 #12

  7. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. W. Sandner Max-Born-Institut, Berlin Dr. M

  8. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassel Prof. Dr. S. Großmann Fachbereich Physik, Universität Marburg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY Gmb Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. V. Metag Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung GSI, Darmstadt Dr. D. Möhl European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. J. Stachel

  9. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke II. Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. K. Königsmann Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Dr. J. May European Organization for Particle Physics CERN

  10. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon has a high carbon sequestration potential due to itsin soil can lead to sustainable carbon sequestration.process takes carbon sequestration from afforestation a step

  11. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  12. GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO MARKET BREAKING THE DEADLOCK Report of a Science: Carbon Capture and Storage © OECD/IEA 2009, fig. 1, p. 6 Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from `UK Carbon storage and capture, where is it?' by Stuart Haszeldine, Professor of Carbon Capture

  13. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FCResearch Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry

  14. Project EARTH-12-BH1: Interglacial carbon cycle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    and the distribution of CaCO3 & organic matter (Corg) as well as the carbonate saturation in the deep sea environment and create complementary records of down core weight % CaCO3 and Corg. Sediment samples will be obtained from to constrain CaCO3 and Corg burial fluxes. #12;References: 1) Ridgwell and Hargreaves, Global Biogeochemical

  15. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  16. Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

  17. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  18. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  19. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  20. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO) [ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO; Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager) [ATK, Program Manager

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  2. Super-slime! The impact of changing environment on aquatic biofilm carbon cycling Susan Waldron & Vernon Phoenix (Geographical and Earth Sciences, GES, University of Glasgow)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    Super-slime! The impact of changing environment on aquatic biofilm carbon cycling Susan Waldron is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. To a large extent the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be controlled by reprocessing within

  3. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  4. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  5. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  6. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  7. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  8. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  9. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  10. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  11. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  12. Rock Classification in Organic Shale Based on Petrophysical and Elastic Rock Properties Calculated from Well Logs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aranibar Fernandez, Alvaro A

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    classification method was then applied to the field examples from the Haynesville shale and Woodford shales for rock classification. The estimates of porosity, TOC, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and volumetric concentrations of minerals were obtained...

  13. Organizing and Personalizing Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Ah-Hwee

    Vista). More sophis- ticated ones, such as Northern Light, BullsEye and Copernic go a step further organize

  14. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will load heavily onto activated carbon and should be removed from groundwater upstream of the activated carbon pre-treatment system. Unless removed upstream, the adsorbed loadings of these organic constituents could exceed the land disposal criteria for carbon.

  15. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  16. CCPPolicyBriefing Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    . METHODOLOGY · The author incorporates the economic theory of organizations into the framework of public law to establish the theory of cartel organization, and calls for further studies to disclose the sophisticatedCCPPolicyBriefing September 2008 Cartel Organization and Antitrust Enforcement W: www

  17. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  18. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  19. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  20. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  1. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  2. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  3. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  4. activated carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  5. ammonium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  6. a537 carbon steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  7. americium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  8. affecting carbon tetrachloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  9. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  10. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  11. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  12. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , 2005, IPCC: Carbon Capture and Storage: Technical05CH11231. INTRODUCTION Carbon capture and storage (CCS)Development Mechanism CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage C02e:

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture & Storage High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies On February 21, 2013, in Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture &...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  American household carbon footprint. ” Ecological and  limitations) of carbon footprint estimates toward of the art in carbon footprint analyses for California, 

  15. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

  16. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  17. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  18. Predicting carbonate mineral precipitation/dissolution events during progressive diagenesis of clastic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surdam, R.C.; MacGowan, D.B.; Dunn, T.L. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States)); Moraes, M. (Petrobras (Brazil))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an observable, regular progression of early and late carbonate cements that is separated by carbonate mineral dissolution in many sandstones during progressive burial and diagenesis. The distribution of early cements is a function of incipient hydration of framework grains, sulfate reduction, and bacterial methanogenesis. These early cements typically precipitate from the sediment water interace to burial depths corresponding to about 80C. The distribution of late carbonate cements is a function of the relationship of organic acid anions, aluminosilicate reactions and CO{sub 2} in formation waters. Elevated PCO{sub 2} in a fluid where the pH is buffered by organic acid anions or aluminosilicates results in precipitation of a late carbonate cement (typically ferroan); these late carbonate cements generally form over the temperature interval of 100-130C. The late and early carbonate cement events are separated in time by a period of carbonate mineral dissolution or nonprecipitation. This dissolution is related to the increase in concentration of carboxylic acid anions resulting from the thermocatalytic cracking of oxygen-bearing functional groups from kerogen and/or redox reactions involving kerogen. Examples of the importance of early carbonate cementation/decementation to hydrocarbon reservoirs include the Campos basin of Brazil and the U.S. Gulf Coast. An example of late carbonate cementation/decementation includes the Norphlet Formation. This observed sequence of cementation and decementation can be modeled, and the modeling results can be used to predict enhanced porosity in the subsurface.

  19. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  20. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  1. From Population to Organization Thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, David; Maxfield, Robert; Read, Dwight W; van der Leeuw, Sander E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herbert Simon developed a theory of organization for complexin need of a theory of organization. As we have alreadya deeper theory of organization: complex networks,

  2. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    organic matter is further hydrolyzed and fermented to LMW-DOC, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (2 (9­12). The organic carbon consumed by sulfate- reducing bacteria is often VFAs, such as acetic acid is recycled or buried. A diverse consor- tium of microorganisms that hydrolyze, ferment, and terminally

  3. Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Origins and accumulation of organic matter in expanded Albian to Santonian black shale sequences laminated, Cenoma- nian­Santonian black shale sequences contain between 2% and 15% organic carbon about the depositional conditions leading to the black shale accumulations. The low d13 Corg values

  4. A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon supercapacitors via experiments. On the basis of the insight obtained from the new model, we also discuss the effects of the kinetic solvation/desolvation process, multimodal (versus unimodal) pore size distribution, and exohedral (versus endohedral) capacitors on the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors.

  5. ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

  6. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  7. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsuk Kang; Young-Gui Yoon; D. Thirumalai; Changbong Hyeon

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast ($N\\approx 1.2\\times 10^7$, $\\phi<\\phi_c^{\\infty}$) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  8. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  9. Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Kathleen; organization theory; organizational learning; social networks; expert systems Citation: Kathleen Carley, 1994, "Sociology: Computational Organization Theory." Social Science Computer Review, 12(4): 611-624. #12;Sociology

  10. Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors Nicholas J. Harmon semiconductors, disordered semiconductors, organic magnetoresistance, percolation theory, spin transport organic semiconductors. The theory proposed here maps the complex phenomena of spin-dependent hopping onto

  11. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  12. Organization-About-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon About »Organization NETL:About

  13. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion ...

  14. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  15. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to...

  16. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis and functionalization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions were then used as the basis of several comparative CVD experiments showing that the quality of nanotubes and the yield of carbon depended on the availability of carbon to react. The availability could be controlled by the varying concentration...

  17. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts...

  18. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

  19. Feasibility of Organizations -A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    Feasibility of Organizations - A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory with Application to P a theorem providing a criteria for an unfeasible organization. This is a refinement of organization theory organization. Key words: reaction networks, constructive dynamical systems, chem- ical organization theory

  20. Equation calculates activated carbon's capacity for adsorbing pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is an effective method for removing volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants from gases. A new, simple equation has been developed for calculating activated carbon's adsorption capacity as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The correlation shows good agreement with experimental results. Results from the equation are applicable for conditions commonly encountered in air pollution control techniques (25 C, 1 atm). The only input parameters needed are VOC concentrations and a table of correlation coefficients for 292 C[sub 8]-C[sub 14] compounds. The table is suitable for rapid engineering usage with a personal computer or hand calculator.

  1. Food Exemption Request Organization Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Exemption Request Organization Information Organization Received ______ Organizations are permitted one food exemption per semester. Requests must be submitted): ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Only homemade food may be provided by your organization. Initial ______ No prepared food may

  2. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  3. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  4. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  5. Carbon Cycling and Biosequestration Integrating Biology and Climate Through Systems Science Report from the March 2008 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graber, J.; Amthor, J.; Dahlman, R.; Drell, D.; Weatherwax, S.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most daunting challenges facing science in the 21st Century is to predict how Earth's ecosystems will respond to global climate change. The global carbon cycle plays a central role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and thus Earth's climate, but our basic understanding of the myriad of tightly interlinked biological processes that drive the global carbon cycle remains limited at best. Whether terrestrial and ocean ecosystems will capture, store, or release carbon is highly dependent on how changing climate conditions affect processes performed by the organisms that form Earth's biosphere. Advancing our knowledge of biological components of the global carbon cycle is thus crucial to predicting potential climate change impacts, assessing the viability of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and informing relevant policy decisions. Global carbon cycling is dominated by the paired biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic plants and microbes of Earth's land-masses and oceans use solar energy to transform atmospheric CO{sub 2} into organic carbon. The majority of this organic carbon is rapidly consumed by plants or microbial decomposers for respiration and returned to the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Coupling between the two processes results in a near equilibrium between photosynthesis and respiration at the global scale, but some fraction of organic carbon also remains in stabilized forms such as biomass, soil, and deep ocean sediments. This process, known as carbon biosequestration, temporarily removes carbon from active cycling and has thus far absorbed a substantial fraction of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  6. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  7. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  8. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  9. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  10. CARBON -14 PHYSICAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    CARBON - 14 [14C] PHYSICAL DATA · Beta Energy: 156 keV (maximum) 49 keV (average) (100% abundance on wipes. #12;RADIATION MONITORING DOSIMETERS · Not needed (beta energy too low). · 14C Beta Dose Rate: 6) · Effective Half-Life: 40 days (unbound) · Specific Activity: 4460 mCi/gram · Maximum Beta Range in Air: 24

  11. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  12. 4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , suggested much larger estimates for tropical forest carbon sequestration in the Ama- zon BasinBGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance

  13. 7, 405428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with an increasing energy demand and inherent fuel consump- tion such as China. Carbon monoxide (CO) contributesACPD 7, 405­428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide M. Buchwitz et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results

  14. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  15. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  16. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

  17. 1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title Page Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences The carbon budget.janssens@ua.ac.be) 167 #12;BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title

  18. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  19. Structural Characteristics of Synthetic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, F. Marc; MacDonald, Jason; Feng, Jian; Phillips, Brian L.; Ehm, Lars; Tarabrella, Cathy; Parise, John B.; Reeder, Richard J. (SBU)

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is an important phase involved in calcification by a wide variety of invertebrate organisms and is of technological interest in the development of functional materials. Despite widespread scientific interest in this phase a full characterization of structure is lacking. This is mainly due to its metastability and difficulties in evaluating structure using conventional structure determination methods. Here we present new findings from the application of two techniques, pair distribution function analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provide new insight to structural aspects of synthetic ACC. Several important results have emerged from this study of ACC formed in vitro using two common preparation methods: (1) ACC exhibits no structural coherence over distances > 15 {angstrom} and is truly amorphous; (2) most of the hydrogen in ACC is present as structural H{sub 2}O, about half of which undergoes restricted motion on the millisecond time scale near room temperature; (3) the short- and intermediate-range structure of ACC shows no distinct match to any known structure in the calcium carbonate system; and (4) most of the carbonate in ACC is monodentate making it distinctly different from monohydrocalcite. Although the structure of synthetic ACC is still not fully understood, the results presented provide an important baseline for future experiments evaluating biogenic ACC and samples containing certain additives that may play a role in stabilization of ACC, crystallization kinetics, and final polymorph selection.

  20. Microsoft Word - Cover page,TOC, Definitions .doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 3-5 3.4 WASTE MINIMIZATION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM ... 3-6 3.5 ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING...

  1. Microsoft Word - Cover page,TOC, Definitions.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    released to the Scioto River, 0.84 mrem from direct radiation from the PORTS depleted uranium cylinder storage yards, and 0.13 mrem based on exposure to radionuclides...

  2. Microsoft Word - Cover pageTOC Definitions 080707.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (UDS), began construction associated with the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility in 2004 and assumed responsibility for...

  3. Microsoft Word - Cover pageTOC Definitions.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The changing mission of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant . . . Construction of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Removal of wastes from the X-7725...

  4. Microsoft Word - Cover pageTOC Definitions.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    network support for DOE operations. UDS was responsible for construction of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at PORTS, the surveillance and...

  5. Microsoft Word - Cover pageTOC Definitions.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    managed DOE PORTS programs throughout 2007. UDS is responsible for construction of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at PORTS, the surveillance and...

  6. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1 BPA andFigureI

  7. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J-15_Mod 113.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1

  8. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.11_Model.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1J.10 Contract

  9. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.12_Model.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1J.10 Contract

  10. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.5_Model.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1J.10 Contract5-1

  11. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.6_Model.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1J.10

  12. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.7_Model.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimization of Heat 1J.107-1 ATTACHMENT

  13. TOC FY15 PEMP FINAL Mod 288.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGE Creating a Geologic Play Book forst and(NOTE: Per

  14. TOC_Section J.14_Conformed thru Mod 274.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGE Creating a Geologic Play Book forst and(NOTE:

  15. Microsoft Word - Vol 1 Chapters TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysis andB - H, Page i PART I2MAY newsF,3 iii COVER

  16. Microsoft Word - Vol 1 Chapters TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysis andB - H, Page i PART I2MAY newsF,3 iii

  17. Microsoft Word - Vol 2 Appendices TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysis andB - H, Page i PART I2MAY newsF,3 iii2

  18. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  19. www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America Soils contain a huge and dynamic pool of carbon (C),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    . Belowground studies pose special challenges because underground structures, organisms, and processes are invis. In the sections below, we review some major advances in the field of belowground processes, describe some for carbon, so minor changes in the balance between belowground carbon storage and release could have major

  20. Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    42 Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling Sparks, D.L. & C. Chen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware@udel.edu) Abstract Organic matter (OM)-mineral complexation plays a critical role in soil carbon (C) stabilization